GAAL

Jud 9:26-41, son of Ebed, perhaps a descendant of Hamor, the father of Shechem, Ge 34:2-6. He joined the Shechemites when revolting against Aimelech, son of Gideon, inflamed their passions, and led them to battle, but was defeated, and excluded from the city.

GAASH

A hill of Ephraim, north of which stood Timnath-seres, celebrated for Joshuaís tomb, Jos 24.30. The brooks, or valleys of Gaash, 2Sa 23:30 1Ch 11:32, were probably at the foot of the hill.

GABBATHA

An elevated place, the name of a place in front of Pilateís palace, whence he pronounced sentence against our Savior, Joh 19:13. In Greek it was called the pavement. It was not the usual judgment hall, which the Jews could not then enter, but some palace in the vicinity of the crowd without, Joh 18:28; 19:4,9,13. It appears to have been a checkered marble pavement, or mosaic floor, on which his seat of judgment was erected. Such ornamented pavements had become common at that day among the wealthy Romans.

GABRIEL

A principal angel. He was sent to the prophet Daniel to explain his vision; also to Zacharias, to announce to him the future birth of John the Baptist, Da 8:16 9:21 Lu 1:11,19. Six months afterwards, he was sent to Nazareth, to the Virgin Mary, Lu 1:26-38.

GAD

Prosperity, fortune,

1. Son of Jacob and Zilpah, Leahís servant, Ge 30:11. Leah called him Gad, and said, "A troop cometh." Compare Ge 49:19; but many Hebrew scholars prefer the rendering, good fortune or prosperity cometh. The tribe of Gad came out of Egypt in number forty-five thousand six hundred and fifty, Ge 46:16 Nu 1:24. After the defeat of the kings Og and Sihon, Gad and Reuben desired to have their allotment east of Jordan, alleging their great number of cattle. Moses granted their request, on condition that they should accompany their brethren, and assist in conquering the land west of Jordan, Nu 32:1-42. The inheritance of the tribe of Gad lay between Manesseh on the north, Reuben on the south, the Jordan on the west, and the Ammonites on the east. The northwest point stretched to the Sea of Galilee. It was a fine pastoral region, though its exposure to the incursion of eastern Arabians compelled the Gadites to be well armed and on the alert, Ge 49:19 De 33:20 1Ch 5:18-22,25,26 12:8. The principal cities of Gad are called cities of Gilead, Jos 13:25.

2. Davidís friend, who followed him when persecuted by Saul, and was often sent with a divine message to David, 1Sa 22:5 2Sa 24:11-19 1Ch 21:9-19 2Ch 29:25. Scriptures styles him a prophet, and Davidís seer. He appears to have written a history of Davidís life;

which is cited in 1Ch 29:29.

3. Rendered "troops" in Isa 65:11, but generally supposed to be the name of a heathen god of fortune; and perhaps of the planet Jupiter, the star of good fortune. Compare Jos 11:17 15:37. MENI in the same verse, translated "number," is supposed by some to mean destiny; by others, the planet Benus, and the goddess of good fortune.

GADARA

Now Um-keis, a fortified chief city of Decapolis, of considerable importance in the time of Christ, and having many Greek inhabitants. It lay south of the river Hieromax, seven miles level summit of a steep limestone hill. A few ruins are found on the top of the hill; many excavated tombs on its sides, still partly occupied as residences; and warm springs at its base. The country of the Gadarenes extended to the Jordan and the Sea of Galilee; and in the part of its bordering on the lake occurred the miracle recorded in Mt 8:28 9:1 Mr 5:1-20 Lu 8:26-39. A legion of demons were cast out of two men, and entered a herd of swine, causing their destruction. See GERGESENES.

GAIUS or CAIUS

1. A Macedonian, who accompanied Paul in his travels, and whose life was in danger at Ephesus, Ac 19:29.

2. A Corinthian convert of Paul, who hospitable entertained the apostle while laboring at Corinth, Ro 16:23 1Co 1:14.

3. Of Derbe; an attendant of Paul from Corinth, in his last journey to Jerusalem, Ac 20:4.

The third epistle of John is addressed "to the well-beloved Gaius;" whose character for hospitality comports well with that of 2. above. The name was a common one wherever the Romans lived; and yet it is not certain that more than one or two different individuals of this name are spoken of in Scripture.

GALATIA

A province of Asia Minor, lying south and southeast of Bithynia and Paphlagonia, west of Pontus, north and northwest of Cappadocia, and north and northwest of Cappadocia, and north and northeast of Lycaonia and Phrygia. Its name was derived from the Gauls; of whom two tribes, (Trocmi and Tolistoboii,) migrated thither after the sacking of Rome by Brennus; and mingling with the former inhabitants, the whole were called Gallogracci, B. C. 280. The Celtic language continued to be spoken by their descendants at least until the time of Jerome, six hundred years after the migration; and these Gauls of Asia also retained much of the mercurial and impulsive disposition of the Gallic race. Compare Ga 1:6 4:15 5:7. Under Augustus, about B. C. 26, this country was reduced to the form of a Roman province, and was governed by a proprietor. Galatia was distinguished for the fertility of its soil and the flourishing state of its trade. It was also the seat of colonies from various nations, among whom were many Jews; and from all of these Paul appears to have made many converts to Christianity, 1Co 16:1. His first visit, Ac 16:6, probably took place about A. D. 51-2; and the second, Ac 18:28, after which his epistle to the Galatians appears to have been written, was several years later. At his first visit he was sick; yet they received him "as an angel of God," and most heartily embraced the gospel. Four or five years afterwards Jewish teachers, professing Christianity, came among them; they denied Paulís apostolic authority, exalted the works of the law, and perverted the true gospel by intermixing with it the rites of Judaism. Paul, learning their state, probably at Corinth, A. D. 57-8, wrote his epistle to the Galatians. He indignantly rebukes his children in Christ for their sudden alienation from him and from the truth; vindicates his authority and his teachings as an apostle, by showing that he received them from Christ himself; and forcibly presents the great doctrine of Christianity, justification by faith, with its relations to the law on the one hand, and to holy living on the other. The general subject of the epistle is the same as of the epistle to the Romans, and it appears to have been written at about the same time with that. The churches of Galatia are mentioned in ecclesiastical history for about nine hundred years.

GALBANUM

An ingredient in the incense burned at the golden altar, in the Holy Place, Ex 30:34. It is the gum of a plant growing in Abyssinia, Arabia, and Syria, called by Pliny stagonitis, but supposed to be the same as the Bubon Galbanum of Linnaeus. The gum is unctuous and adhesive, of a strong and somewhat astringent smell.

GALILEE

In the time of Christ, included all the northern part of Palestine lying west of the Jordan and north of Samaria. Before the exile the name seems to have been applied only to a small tract bordering on the northern limits, 1Ki 9:11. Galilee, in the time of Christ, was divided into Upper and Lower, the former lying north of the territory of the tribe of Zebulun, and abounding in mountains; the latter being more level and fertile, and very populous; the whole comprehending the four tribes of Issachar, Zebulun, Naphtali, and Asher. Lower Galilee is aid to have contained four hundred and four towns and villages, of which Josephus mentions Tiberias, Sepphoris, and Gabara, as the principal; though Capernaum and Nazareth are the most frequently mentioned in the New Testament, Mr 1:9 Lu 2:39 Joh 7:52, etc. "Galilee of the Gentiles" is supposed to be Upper Galilee, either because it bordered on Tyre and Zidon, or because Phenicians, Syrians, Arabs, and other heathen were numerous among it inhabitants. The Galileans were accounted brave and industrious; though other Jews affected to consider them as not only stupid and unpolished, but also seditious, and therefore proper objects of contempt, Lu 13:1 23:6 Joh 1:47 7:52. They appear to have used a peculiar dialect, by which they were easily distinguished from the Jews of Jerusalem, Mr 14:70. Many of the apostles and first converts to Christianity were men of Galilee, Ac 1:11 2:7, as well as Christ himself; and the name Galilean was often given as an insult, both to him and his followers. The apostate emperor Julian constantly used it, and in his dying agony and rage cried out, "O Galilean, thou hast conquered!" Our Savior resided here from infancy till he was thirty years of age, and during much of his public ministry; and the cities of his public ministry; and the cities of Nazareth, Nain, Cana, Capernaum, with the whole region of the sea of Galilee, are sacredly endeared to all his people by the words he there spoke, and the wonders he wrought. For the Sea of Galilee, see SEA 3.

GALL

A general name for anything very bitter. In Job 16:13 20:14,25, it means the animal secretion usually called the bile. In many other places, where a different word is used in the original, it refers to some better and noxious plant, according to some, the poppy. See De 29:18 Jer 9:15 23:15. In Ho 10:4 Am 6:12, the Hebrew word is translated "hemlock". In Mt 27:34, it is said they gave Jesus to drink, vinegar mixed with gall, which in Mr 15:23, is called wine mingled with myrrh. It was probably the sour wine which the Roman soldiers used to drink, mingled with myrrh and other bitter substances, very much like the "bitters" of modern times, Ps 69:21. The word gall is often used figuratively for great troubles, wickedness, depravity, etc., Jer 8:14 Am 6:12 Ac 8:23.

GALLEY

Isa 33:21. See SHIP.

GALLIO

A proconsul of Archaia, under the emperor Claudius, in the time of Paul, Ac 18:12-17. He was the elder brother of the philosopher Seneca, who describes him as uncommonly amiable and upright. His residence was at Corinth; and when the Jews of the city made an insurrection against Paul, and dragged him before the judgment seat, Gallio refused to entertain their clamorous and unjust demands. The Greeks who were present, pleased with the rebuff the persecuting Jews had received, fell upon Sosthenes their leader, and beat him upon the spot, a mode of retribution that Gallio ought not to have allowed. Like his brother Seneca, he suffered death by order of the tyrant Nero.

GAMALIEL

A celebrated Pharisee in the generation after Christ, a doctor of the law, and member of the Sanhedrin. He possessed great influence among the Jews, and is said by some to have presided over the Sanhedrin during the reigns of Tiberius, Cains, and Claudius. The Talmundists say that he was the son of Rabbi Simeon, and grandson of Hillel, the celebrated teacher of the law, and that upon his death the glory of the law departed. His noble intervention before the Sanhedrin saved the apostles from an ignominious death, and shows that he was gifted with great wisdom and tolerance, if not strongly inclined towards the gospel, Ac 5:33-40. The apostle Paul thought it a high honor to have been one of his pupils, Ac 22:3, and no doubt received from him not only a zealous enthusiasm for the Jewish law, but many lessons of candor, impartiality, and liberality. His high renown, however, among the Jewish rabbins of later ages, seems inconsistent with the tradition that he embraced Christianity.

GAMMADIM

Is used in the English Bible, Eze 27:11, as the name of a people; but it rather means simply the brave, the warlike.

GARDENS

Are often mentioned in Scripture, though in a sense somewhat peculiar; for in the language of the Hebrews, every place where plants and trees were cultivated with greater care than in the open field, was called a garden. Fruit and shade trees, with aromatic shrubs, sometimes constituted the garden; though roses, lilies, and various gardens were used only for table vegetables, Ge 2:8-10 15:1-21 1Ki 21:2 Ec 2:5,6. They were located if possible beside a river or fountain, Ge 13:10 Nu 24:6. In other places reservoirs were provided, from which the water was distributed in various ways, as occasion required, Pr 21:1 So 4:12-16 Isa 58:11. Gardens were inclosed by walls, or by hedges of rose bushes, wild pomegranate trees, or to her shrubs, many of which in Palestine have long and sharp thorns, 2Sa 23:6,7 Job 1:10 Pr 15:19 Ho 2:6. Often, however, they were left unenclosed, and were watched when their fruits began to ripen, Isa 1:8 Jer 4:16,17. It is still customary in Egypt, Arabia, and Hindostan, to plant a large level tract with melons, cucumbers, etc., and place a small hut or booth on a mound in the center. In this a solitary keeper is stationed, who remains day and night until the fruits are gathered, Job 27:18 Isa 1:8. Gardens and groves were often furnished with pavilions, seats, etc., and were resorted to for banqueting and mirth, Isa 51:3; for retirement and meditation, Joh 18:1; for devotional purposes, Mt 26:30 Joh 1:48 18:1,2; and for idolatrous abominations, 1Ki 14:23 Isa 1:29 65:3 66:17 Jer 2:20 3:6. A family tomb was often prepared in a garden, Joh 19:41.

GARLIC

A bulbous vegetable, of pungent smell and taste, and highly prized in the East. The Jews acquired a liking for it in Egypt, Nu 11:5. One variety, called the eschalot, or shallot, was introduced into Europe from Ascalon.

GARMENTS

The chief garments of the Hebrews were the tunic or inner garment, and the mantle or outer garment. These seem to have constituted a "change of Rainment," Jud 14:13 19:1-30 Ac 9:39. The tunic was of linen, and was worn next to the skin, fitting close to the body; it had armholes, and sometimes wide and open sleeves, and reached below the knees; that worn by females reached to the ankles. The tunic was sometimes woven without seam, like that of Jesus, Joh 19:23. The upper garment or mantle was a piece of cloth nearly square, and two or three yards in length and breadth, which was wrapped round the body, or tied over the shoulders. A man without this robe on was sometimes said to be "naked," Isa 20:2-4 Joh 21:7. This could be so arranged as to form a large bosom for carrying things; and the mantle also served the poor as a bed by night, Ex 22:26,27 Job 22:6. See BOSOM and BED.

Between these two garments, the Hebrews sometimes wore a third, called me-il, a long and wide robe or tunic of cotton or linen, without sleeves.

The head was usually bare, or covered from too fierce a sunshine, or from rain, by a fold of the outer mantle, 2Sa 15:30 1Ki 19:13 Es 6:12. The priests, however, wore a mitre, bonnet, or sacred turban; and after the captivity, the Jews adopted to some extent the turban, now so universal in the East. Women wore a variety of plain and ornamented headdresses. Veils were also an article of female dress, Isa 3:19. They were of various kinds, and were used alike by married and unmarried women; generally as a token of modesty, or of subjection to the authority of the husband, Ge 24:65 1Co 11:3-10; but sometimes for the purpose of concealment, Ge 38:14.

As the Hebrews did not change the fashion of their clothes, as we do, it was common to lay up stores of rainment beforehand, in proportion to their wealth, Isa 3:6. To this Christ alludes when he speaks of treasures, which the moth devours, Mt 6:19 Jas 5:1,2. But though there was a general uniformity in dress from age to age, no doubt various changes took place in the long course of Bible history; and at all times numerous and increasing varieties existed among the different classes, especially in materials and ornaments. In early ages, and where society was wild and rude, the skins of animals were made into clothing, Ge 3:21 Heb 11:37. Spinning, weaving, and needlework soon began to be practiced, Ex 35:25 Jud 5:30. A coarse cloth was made of goatsí or camelsí hair, and finer cloths of woolen, linen, and probably cotton. Their manufacture was a branch of domestic industry, Pr 31:13-24.

The great and wealthy delighted in white rainment; and hence this is also a mark of opulence and prosperity, Ec 9:8. Angels are described as clothed in pure and cheerful white; and such was the appearance of our Saviorís rainment during his transfiguration, Mt 17:2. The saints, in like manner, are described as clothed in white robes, Re 7:9,13,14; the righteousness of Christ in which they are clothed is more glorious than that of the angels.

The garments of mourning among the Hebrews were sackcloth and haircloth, and their color dark brown or black, Isa 50:3 Re 6:12. As the prophets were penitents by profession, their common clothing was mourning. Widows also dressed themselves much the same. The Hebrews, in common with their neighbors, sometimes used a variety of colors for their gayer and more costly dresses, Jud 5:30. So also according to our version, Ge 37:3,23 2Sa 13:18; though in these passages some understand a tunic with long sleeves. Blue, scarlet, and purple are most frequently referred to, the first being a sacred color. Embroidery and fine needlework were highly valued among them, Jud 5:30 Ps 45:14.

The dress of females differed from that of males less than is customary among us. Yet there was a distinction; and Moses expressly forbade any exchange of apparel between the sexes, De 22:5, a custom associated with immodesty, and with the worship of certain idols. It is not clear for what reason clothing in which linen and woolen were woven together was prohibited, De 22:11; but probably it had reference to some superstitious usage of heathenism. In Isa 3:16-23, mention is made of the decorations common among the Hebrew women of that day; among which seem to be included tunics, embroidered vests, wide flowing mantles, girdles, veils, caps of network, and metallic ornaments for the ears and nose, for the neck, arms, fingers, and ankles; also smelling-bottles and metallic mirrors. In Ac 19:12, mention is made of handkerchiefs and aprons. Drawers were used, Ex 28:42, but perhaps not generally. See GIRDLES, RINGS, and SANDALS.

Presents of dresses are alluded to very frequently in the historical books of Scripture, and in the earliest times. Joseph gave to each of his brethren a change of rainment, and to Benjamin five changes, Ge 45:22. Naaman gave to Gehazi two changes of rainment; and even Solomon received rainment as presents, 2Ch 9:24. This custom is still maintained in the East, and is mentioned by most travelers. In Turkey, the appointment to any important office is accompanied with the gift of a suitable official rove. In the parable of the wedding garment, the king expected to have found all his guests clad in roes of honor of his own providing, Mt 22:11.

GATE

The gates of eastern walled towns were usually of wood, Jud 16:3, often covered with thick plates of iron or copper, Ps 107:16 Isa 45:2 Ac 12:10, secured by bolts and bars, De 3:5 1Ki 4:13, and flanked by towers, 2Sa 18:24,33. A city was usually regarded as taken when its gates were won, De 28:52 Jud 5:8. Hence "gate" sometimes signifies power, dominion; almost in the same sense as the Turkish sultanís palace is called the Porte, or Gate. God promises Abraham that his posterity shall possess the gates of their enemies- their towns, their fortresses, Ge 22:17. So too, "the gates of hell," that is, the power of hell, or hell itself.

In oriental cities there was always an open space or place adjacent to each gate, and these were at the same time the market places, and the place of justice, Ge 23:10-18 Ru 4:1-12 De 16:18 21:19 25:6,7 Pr 22:22 Am 5:10,12,15. There, too, people assembled to spend their leisure hours, Ge 19:1. Hence "they that sit in the gate" is put for idlers, loungers, who are coupled with drunkards, Ps 69:12. The woes of a city were disclosed in the mourning or loneliness of these places of resort, Isa 14:31 Jer 14:2. Here too the public proclamations were made, and the messages of prophets delivered, Pr 1:21 8:3 Isa 29:21 Jer 17:19 26:10. Near the gate of a city, but without it, executions took place, 1Ki 21:13 Ac 7:58 Heb 13:12. To exalt the gate of a house through pride, increased oneís exposure to robbery, Pr 17:19. To open it wide and high was significant of joy and welcome, as when the Savior ascended to heaven, Ps 24:7,9; and the open gates of the new Jerusalem in contrast with those of earthly cities carefully closed and guarded at nightfall, indicate the happy security of that world of light, Re 21:25.

GATH

A city of the Philistines, and one of their five principalities, 1Sa 5:8 6:17. It was a notable city, in the border of the Philistines nearest to Jerusalem; but its site has long been lost. It was the home of Goliath, 1Sa 17:4. Compare Jos 11:22 2Sa 21:19-22. Here David sought a refuge form Saul, 1Sa 21:10 27:2-7. It came under his power in the beginning of his reign over all Israel, 1Ch 18:1, and continued subject to his successors till the declension of the kingdom of Judah. Rehoboam rebuilt or fortified it, 2Ch 11:8. It was afterwards recovered by the Philistines, but Uzziah reconquered it, 2Ch 26:6. Its inhabitants were called Gittites, Jos 13:3; and David had tow of them in his service, who faithfully adhered to him during the rebellion of Absalom, 2Sa 15:18-22.

GATH-HEPHER

In Zebulun, was the birthplace of Jonah, 1Ki 4:10; 2Ki 14:25. It lay near Sepphoris, on a road leading to Tiberias.

GAULAN or GOLAN

A Levitical town of Bashan, in Manasseh beyond Jordan. From it was named the small province of Gaulonitis, De 4:43 Jos 20:8 21:27 1Ch 6:71.

GAZA or AZZAH

Now Ghuzzeh, an ancient city in the southwest corner of Canaan, Ge 10:19, belonging to the Avim, De 2:23, and afterwards to the Philistines. Joshua assigned it to the tribe of Judah, but did not conquer it, Jos 10:41 11:21,22 13:3 15:47. Judah seems to have held possession of it for a while; but in the time of the judges it was independent, and one of the five chief cities of the Philistines, Jud 1:18 3:3 13:1 16:1-31. Samson carried away its gates, and afterwards perished under the ruins of its vast temple. The ark of God was there in the days of Eli, 1Sa 6:1-21. It yielded allegiance to David and Solomon, recovered its liberty in the reigns of Jotham and Ahaz, but was reconquered by Hezekiah, 2Ki 18:8. At subsequent periods it was occupied by Chaldeans, Persians, and Egyptians, Jer 47:1. About 96 B. C. the Jewish king Alexander Jannaeus captured and destroyed it. The Roman general Gabinius rebuilt it; and not long after the ascension of the Savior, a Christian church was planted there to struggle with the prevailing idolatry. In A. D. 634 it came under the Mohammedan yoke; and in the era of the Crusades had fallen into ruins. It was partially rebuilt and fortified, and is now a city of some 15,000 inhabitants. The few remains of the old city cover a large but low hill, two or three miles from the sea, once so strongly fortified as to withstand Alexander the Great for five months. The modern city lies more in the plain, which is exceedingly fertile, and abounds in gardens, date-trees, and olive-trees. There was a landing-place and "port" for ancient Gaza, but no harbor worthy of the name. It was often referred to by the prophets, Jer 25:20 47:5 Am 1:6,7 Zep 2:4 Zec 9:5. The southern route form Jerusalem to Gaza, memorable in the history of the Ethiopian eunuch, is called "desert" in Ac 8:26, as passing through a region then destitute of villages.

GAZELLE

See ROE.

GEBA

A Levitical town of Benjamin, Jos 18:24 21:17 1Ch 8:6, near Ramah, Ne 7:30 Isa 10:29, and not far from the northern border of the kingdom of Judah, 2Ki 23:8 Zec 14:10. Near Geba David defeated the Philistines, 2Sa 5:25. Asa renewed it from the ruins of Ramah, 1Ki 15:22. It was six or seven miles from Jerusalem, and was separated from Michmash on the north by a deep valley. See GIBEAH.

GEBAL

1. The Gebalene of the Romans, was a district of Idumea, called also at the present day Djebal, signifying mountains. It is the northern part of the range of mountains skirting the eastern side of the great valley El-Arabah, which runs from the Dead Sea to the Elanitic gulf of the Red Sea, Ps 83:7.

2. A seaport and district of Phoenicia north of Beyroot, called Byblos by the Greeks, now Jebail; population, 2,000. The inhabitants were called Giblites, and are denoted in the Hebrew word rendered "stone-squarer" in 1Ki 5:18. Their land and all Lebanon were assigned to the Israelites, but never fully possessed, Jos 13:5. It was an important place, Eze 27:9, and the seat of the worship of Thammuz.

GEDALIAH

Son of Ahikam, appointed by Nebuchadnezzar to govern Judea after the destruction of Jerusalem. Like his father, he honored and befriended Jeremiah, Jer 40:5. He began the administration of his government at Mizpeh with wisdom, but in two months was treacherously murdered by one Ishmael, 2Ki 25:22-26 Jer 39:14 40:5-41:18.

GEDER

The word signifies a wall, inclosure, fortified place; as do also the two names following, which are derived from it. Geder itself was an ancient Canaanitish place, in the plain of Judah, Jos 12:13, and was probably the same with the following Gederah.

GEDERAH

A city in the plain of Judah, Jos 15:36, probably the same with the preceding Geder, and with Beth-Gader, 1Ch 2:51. It would thence seem to have pertained to the family of Caleb.

GEDOR

A city in the mountains of Judah, surrounded by fat pastures, and formerly occupied by the Amalekites, 1Ch 4:39; 12:7; Jos 15:58. It is now called Jedur, and lies about eight miles southwest of Bethlehem. Gedor is also the name of a man, 1Ch 8:31; 9:37.

GEHAZI

A confidential attendant of Elisha. He appears in the story of the Shunammite woman, 2Ki 4:14-37, and in that of Naaman the Syrian, form whom he fraudulently obtained a portion of the present his master had refused. His covetousness and falsehoods were punished by a perpetual leprosy, 2Ki 5:20-27, B. C. 894. We afterwards find him recounting to king Jehoram the wonderful deeds of Elisha, at the moment when the providence of god brought the woman of Shunem before the king, to claim the restoration of her lands, 2Ki 8:1-6.

GEHENNA

See HINNOM.

GEMARIAH

1. The son Shaphan, a scribe of the temple in the time of Jehoiakim. In his apartment Baruch read aloud the prophecies of Jeremiah; and he, with others, secured a second and more public reading, and brought the roll to be read to the king, who cause it to be burned, Jer 36:1-32.

2. The son of Hilkiah, sent to Babylon by King Hezekiah with tribute money for Nebuchadnezzar. He was also the bearer of a letter in which Jeremiah warned the captive Jews against false prophets who promised them a speedy return, Jer 29:3,4.

GENEALOGY

A record of oneís ancestors, either the line of natural descent from father to son, or the line in which, by the laws, the inheritance descended, or that preserved in the public records. Never was a nation more careful to preserve their genealogies than the Hebrews, for on them rested the distinction of tribes, the ownership of lands, and the right to the highest offices and privileges, 1Ch 5:1,17 9:1 2Ch 12:15 Ezr 2:62. Hence their public tables of genealogies were kept secure amid all vicissitudes. We find in the Bible a record carried on for more than 3,500 years, 1Ch 1:1-54 3:1-24 6:1-81; and thus were guarded the proofs that Christ was born according to prophecy of the seed of Abraham, and heir to the throne of his father David, Lu 1:32 2Ti 2:8 Heb 7:14. In the evangelists we have the genealogy of Christ for 4,000 years. The two accounts in Mt 1.1-25 and Lu 3:1-38, differ from each other; one giving probably the genealogy of Christís reputed father Joseph, and the other that of his mother Mary. The two lines descend from Solomon and Nathan, Davidís sons; they unite in Salathiel, and again in Christ. Joseph was the legal father of Christ, and of the same family connections with Mary; so that the Messiah was a descendant of David both by law and "according to the flesh." The discrepancies between the various genealogies may be reconciled in accordance with peculiar Jewish laws. The public records, which Josephus says were scrupulously kept down to his day, perished with the ruin of the Jews as a nation. It is now, therefore, impossible for any pretended Messiah to prove his descent from David.

Melchizedek was "without descent," Heb 7:3, as regards the Jewish race. No sacred records proved his right to be numbered among that people of God. His priesthood was of a different kind from that of Aaron and his sons. Compare Ezr 2:62.

GENERATION

Besides the common acceptation of this word, as signifying race, descent, lineage, it is used for the history and genealogy of a person, as in Ge 5:1, "the book of the generations of Adam," that is, the history of Adamís creation and of his posterity. So in Ge 2:4, "The generations of the heavens and of the earth," that is, their genealogy, so to speak, the history of the creation of heaven and earth; also in Mt 1:1, "The book of the generation of Jesus Christ," that is, the genealogy of Jesus Christ," that is, the genealogy of Jesus Christ, the history of his descent and life. "The present generation" comprises all those who are now alive; "This generation shall not pass till all be fulfilled," some now living shall witness the even foretold, Mt 24:34. "Save yourselves from this untoward generation," form the punishment which awaits these perverse men, Ac 2:40.

The Hebrews, like other ancient nations, sometimes computed loosely by the fourth generation thy descendants shall come hither again." The duration of a generation is of course very uncertain; indeed, it is impossible to establish any precise limits. It is, however, generally admitted that a generation in the earliest periods is to be reckoned longer than one in later times. The Greeks regarded a generation as one-third of a century. It is now currently reckoned as thirty years.

GENESIS

The first of the sacred books in the Old Testament; so called from the title given to it in the Septuagint, signifying "the book of a generation," or production of all things. Moses is generally admitted to have been the writer of this book; and it is supposed that he penned it after the promulgation of the law. Its authenticity is attested by the most indisputable evidence, and it is cited as an inspired record thirty-three times in the course of the Scriptures. The history related in it comprises a period of about 2,369 years, according to the lowest computation, but according to Dr. Hales, a much larger period. It contains an account of the creation; the primeval state and fall of man; the history of Adam and his descendants, with the progress of religion and the origin of the arts; the genealogies age, and death of the patriarchs until Noah; the general defection and corruption of mankind, the general deluge, and the preservation of Noah and his family in the ark; the history of Noah and his family subsequent to the time of the deluge; the repeopling and division of the earth among the sons of Noah; the building of Babel, the confusion of tongues, and the dispersion of mankind; the lives of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph. The book of Genesis was written, like the rest of Scripture, "by inspiration of God." Yet many of the facts it records must have been of the facts it records must have been well known among the Jews; the account given by Adam himself may have been verbally transmitted through seven of the patriarchs to Moses, and he may also have had ancient historical writings to consult. The book of Genesis lays the foundation for all the subsequent books of the Bible; and its value in the history of the earth, of man, and of religion, is inestimable.

GENNESARET

Supposed to be a corruption of Chinnereth, which see. "The land of Gennesaret," Mt 14:34 Mr 6:53, was a tract of land some three of four; miles long on the western border of the Sea of Galilee. It was a lovely and exceedingly fertile region; in it probably lay Capernaum and Bethsaida of Galilee, places often visited by our Lord. See SEA 4.

GENTILES

A name given by the Hebrews to all those that had not received the Law of Moses. Foreigners who embraced Judaism, they called proselytes. Since the promulgation of the gospel, the true religion has been extended to all nations; God, who had promised by his prophets to call the Gentiles to the faith, with a superabundance of grace, having fulfilled his promise; so that the Christian church is composed principally of Gentile converts, the Jews being too proud of their privileges to acknowledge Jesus Christ as their Messiah and Redeemer. In the writings of Paul, the Gentiles are generally called Greeks, Ro 1:14,16 1Co 1:22,24 Ga 3:28. So also in those of Luke, in the Ac 6:1 11:20 18:4. Paul is commonly called the apostle of the Gentiles, Ga 2:8 1Ti 2:7, because he preached Christ principally to them; whereas Peter, etc., preached generally to the Jews, and are called apostles of the circumcision, Ga 2:8.

GENTILES, Court of the

Josephus says there was in the court of the temple a wall or balustrade, breast high, having pillars at regular distances, with inscriptions on them in Greek and Latin, importing that strangers were forbidden to approach nearer to the altar, Eph 2:14. See TEMPLE.

GENTILES, Isle of the

Ge 10:5, Asia Minor and the whole of Europe, peopled by the descendants of Japheth.

GERAH

The smallest weight or coin among the Jews, the twentieth part of a shekel, and worth about two and a half cents, Ex 30:13.

GERAR

An ancient town or place of the Philistines in the times of Abraham and Isaac, Ge 10:19 20:1 26:1,6,17. It lay not far from Gaza, in the south of Judah, but its exact site is now unknown. See 2Ch 14:13,14.

GERGESENES

Mt 8:28, in the parallel passages in Mark and Luke, Gadarenes. See GADARA. Some manuscripts have Gadarenes in Mt 8:28, and others Gerasenes; but Gerasa lay forty miles southeast of the scene of the miracle. Some have thought that the remnant of the ancient Gergashites gave their name to this district. A recent explorer finds ruins called Cherza or Gersa, midway on the eastern side of the Sea of Galilee; and this may be the ancient Gergesa.

GERIZIM

A mountain in Ephraim, between which and Ebal lay the city of Shechem, Jud 9:7. The world has beheld few scenes more awful and suggestive than when, having conquered Canaan, all the Israelites were summoned to this place, and six tribes were stationed on mount Gerizim to pronounce blessings on those who should obey Godís law, and the other six on Mount Ebal to denounce curses on those who should break it; while all the people solemnly said, AMEN, De 11:29 27:12-26 28:1-68. See VIEW IN SHECHEM.

After the captivity, Manasseh, a seceding priest, by permission of Alexander the Great, built a temple on Gerizim, and the Samaritans joined the worship of the true God to that of their idols; "They feared the Lord, and served their own gods, after the manner of the nations whom they carried away form thence," 2Ki 17:33. See SAMARITANS and SANBALLAT.

This temple was destroyed by John Hyrcanus; yet its site has always retained its ancient sacredness. In our Saviorís time the true God was worshipped by the Samaritans, though ignorantly, Joh 4:1- 54. Herod the Great having rebuilt Samaria, and called it Sebaste, in honor of Augustus, would have compelled the Samaritans to worship in the temple which he had erected; but they constantly refused and have continued to this day to guard their sacred Scriptures, to keep the law, to pray towards their holy place on the summit of Gerizim, and to worship God there four times in the year.

GERSHOM

A stranger there, one of the two sons of Moses and Zipporah, in the land of Midian, Ex 2:22; 18:3. Moses appears to have given them no rank or emoluments but those of simple Levites, 1Ch 23:15.

GERSHON

The eldest son of Levi, and head of one of the three branches of the Levitical tribe, Ge 46:11; Ex 6:16. The Gershonites encamped west of the tabernacle in the wilderness, and carried its curtains and other parts form station to station, Nu 3:17,25; 4:24-28,38- 41; 10:17. Thirteen cities were assigned to them in northern Canaan, Jos 21:6; 1Ch 6:62,71.

GESHEM or GASHMU

An Arabian, who opposed the work of the Lord in the time of Nehemiah, by ridicule and plots, Ne 2:19; 6:1-9; about 445 B. C.

GESHUR, GESHURI, GESHURITES

The name of a district and people in Syria. Geshur lay upon the eastern side of the Jordan between Bashan, Maachah, and Mount Hermon, and within the limits of the Hebrew territory; but the Israelites did not expel its inhabitants, Jos 12:5; 13:13. They appear to have been brought under tribute, 1Ch 2:23, but to have retained their own kings. One of Davidís wives, Maachah the mother of Absalom, was daughter of Talmai king of Geshur; and it was here that Absalom found refuge after the murder of Amnon, and remained three years with his grandfather, 2Sa 3:3; 13:37; 15:8. The word Geshur signifies bridge; and in the border of the region, where, according to the above data, we must place Geshur, between mount Hermon and the lake of Tiberias, there still exists an ancient stone bridge of four arches over the Jordan, called Jisr-Beni-Jakub, that is, the bridge of the children of Jacob. There seems to have been here an important pass on the route to Damascus and the East.

There was also a people of the same name in the south of Palestine, near the Philistines, Jos 13:2; 1Sa 27:8.

GETHSEMANE

Oil-press, a garden or grove in the valley at the foot of the Mount of Olives, over against Jerusalem, to which our Savior sometimes retired, and in which he endured his agony, and was betrayed by Judas, Mt 26:36-57. Early tradition locates Gethsemane near the base of Mount Olivet, beyond the brook Kidron. The place now enclosed by a low stone wall may be but a part of the original "garden." It is about fifty-two yards square, and contains eight aged olive-trees, whose roots in many places project above the ground and are protected by heaps of stones. Here, or at most not far off, the Savior endured that unspeakable "agony and bloody sweat" so nearly connected with his expiatory death; and here in deep submission he mingled and closed his prayers for relief with their cry, "Nevertheless, not my will, but thine, be done." From this garden he could readily see the crowd of men "with lanterns and torches" emerging from the city gate, and hastening, under the guidance of Judas, to seize him. It is the spot which the Christian visitor at Jerusalem first seeks out, and where he lingers longest and last ere he turns homeward. A recent traveler, Professor Hackett, passing by Gethsemane one day, saw a shepherd in the act of shearing a sheep. The animal lay on the ground, with its feet tied, the manís knee pressed rudely against its side, while it seemed as if every movement of the shears would lacerate its flesh; yet during the whole, it struggled not and opened not its mouthóa touching memento, upon that sacred spot, of the Lamb of God, Isa 53:7.

GEZER

A royal city of the Canaanites, Jos 10:33 12:12; between Bethhoron and the Mediterranean, Jos 16:3; afterwards on the western border of Ephraim, and assigned to the Levites, Jos 16:3 21:21. The Canaanites long retained a foothold in it, Jos 16:10 Jud 1:29; but were dispossessed by a king of Egypt, and the place given to his daughter, the wife of Solomon, 1Ki 9:16, who fortified it.

GHOST

The spirit, or principle of life in man. To "give up the ghost," is to die, to yield the soul to God who gave it, Ge 25:8 Lu 23:46. See SPIRIT.

GIANTS

Earth-born. It is supposed by many that the first men were of a size and strength superior to those of mankind at present, since a long life is usually associated with a well-developed and vigorous frame. We know also that there were giants and families of giants, even after the average length of human life was greatly abridged. These, however, appear to have been exceptions; and if we judge from the mummies of Egypt, and from the armor and implements of the earliest antiquity, found in ancient tombs, in bogs, and in buried cities, we should conclude that mankind never exceeded, in the average, their present stature. There were, however, giants before the flood, Ge 6:4; fruits of the union of different families, and extraordinary in stature, power, and crime. After the flood, mention is made of a race called Rephaim, Ge 14:5 Jos 17:15; kindred with whom were the Emim, early occupants of the land of Moab, and the Zamzummim in Ammon, De 2:10,20. Og was one of the last of this race, De 3:11,13. West of the Dead Sea, around Hebron and Philistia, lived the Anakim, whose aspect so terrified the Hebrew spies, Nu 13:33 Jos 11:21,22. Of this race were Goliath and his kindred, 1Sa 17:4 1Ch 20:4-8. See ANAKIM, GOLIATH, and REPHAIM.

GIANTS, VALLEY OF THE

See REPHAIM.

GIBBETHON

A city of the Philistines, within the bounds of the tribe of Dan, and assigned to the Levites, Jos 19:44; 21:23. The Philistines, however, were not excluded; and in the time of Nadab they were its masters, and he was slain by Baasha while besieging it, 1Ki 15:27; 16:15. Its after-history, and its site are unknown.

GIBEAH

A hill,

1. A city of Benjamin, 1Sa 13:15, and the birthplace and residence of Saul king of Israel; whence it is frequently called "Gibeah of Saul," 1Sa 11:4; 15:34; 23:19; 26:1; 2Sa 21:6; Isa 10:29. Gibeah was also famous for its sins; particularly for its sins; particularly for that committed by forcing the young Leviteís wife, who went to lodge there; and for the war which succeeded it, to the almost entire extermination of the tribe of Benjamin, Jud 19:1- 30. Scripture remarks, that this occurred at a time when there was no king in Israel, and when every one did what was right in his own eyes. Dr. Robinson found traces of Gebeah in the small and ruinous village of Jeba, near Ramah, separated from Michmash on the north by a deep valley, and about six miles north by east from Jerusalem.

2. A town of Judah, Jos 15:57, which lay about ten miles southwest of Jerusalem. The prophet Habakkuk is said to have been buried here.

3. In mount Ephraim, called Gibeah of Phinehas, where Eleazar the son of Aaron was buried, Jos 24:33. It is found in the narrow valley El-Jib, midway between Jerusalem and Shechem.

GIBEON

A considerable city of the Hivites, afterwards a Levitical city in the tribe of Benjamin, Jos 18:25 21:17. It lay near Geba and Gibeah, and is sometimes wrongly taken for Geba. Its Canaanite inhabitants secured a treaty with Joshua and the elders of Israel by strategem, and were made hewers of wood for the sanctuary. Five neighboring kings unitedly fell upon them; but were defeated by the Jews in a great battle, during which "the sun stood still upon Gibeon," Jos 9:10. Here the tabernacle was set up for many years, 1Ch 16:39 21:29 2Ch 1:3,4; and here god communed by night with young king Solomon, 1Ki 3:4-15. It is also memorable for two scenes in the life of Joab, 2Sa 2:12-32 20:8-12 Jer 41:12. It stood on an eminence, six miles north of Jerusalem.

GIBLITES

Jos 13:5. See GEBAL.

GIDEON or JERUBBAAL

Of the tribe of Manasseh, a valiant and prudent judge of Israel, particularly the eastern and northern tribes, B. C. 1249 to 1209. He resided in Ophrah, east of the Jordan, a region often ravaged in harvest-time by the wandering tribes on its eastern border. Being called of God to deliver his people, and encouraged by signs from heaven, he defeated the Midiantites, and caused Israel to dwell in safety for many years. In punishing the refractory cities Succoth and Penuel, and the fratricides Zeba and Zalmunna- in soothing the jealousy of the Ephraimites, and in declining the crown offered him by the Jews, he evinced those qualities which made him a successful judge. In the matter of the golden ephod, however, he fell into a sin and a snare; for this memorial of the wonders God had wrought became ere long an object of idolatrous veneration, Jud 8:35 1Sa 12:11 Heb 11:32.

GIER-EAGLE

Probably an Egyptian vulture, horrid and filthy, but very useful as a carrion-bird, Le 11:18. See VULTURE.

GIFTS

Have been common from the earliest times as tokens of affection, honor, or respect. The dues to a king were often rendered in this form, 1Sa 10:27 Isa 36:16; and men of high position were approached with presents, Ge 43:11 Jud 6:18 1Sa 9:7 1Ki 14:3. Kings made gifts of garments to those they wished to honor, Ge 45:22,23 1Sa 18:4; and of treasures to other princes, out of esteem or of fear, 2Ki 16:8 18:14 2Ch 9:9,12. Conquerors scattered gifts from their triumphal cars, and special privileges in token of generous joy, Ps 68:18 Ac 1:2,4. Prophets received gifts, or declined them, as duty required, 2Ki 5:15 8:9 Da 2:48 5:17. The word gifts often denotes bribes, Ex 23:8 Ps 15:5 Isa 5:23. The same word is also applied to the offerings required by the law, De 16:17 Mt 5:23,24; to the blessings of the gospel and eternal life, which are preeminently gifts, Ac 8:20; to the Christian grace, for the same reason, Eph 4:8,11; and to the miraculous endowments of the apostles, 1Co 12:1-14:40. See TONGUES.

GIHON

1. One of the four rivers of Paradise; as some suppose, the Araxes, Ge 2:13. See EDEN, and EUPHRATES.

2. A fountain near Jerusalem on the west, besides which Solomon was anointed king, 1Ki 1:33,38. Hezekiah covered it over, and brought its waters by a subterranean channel into the city, 2Ch 32:3,30 33:14. A pool still exists in the spot referred to, three hundred feet long, two hundred wide, and twenty deep, with steps at two corners; and recently, in digging to lay the foundations of the Anglican church, an immense conduit was discovered running east and west, thirty feet under ground built of stone and coated with cement, and partly cut out of solid rock. Probably this was connected with the fountain of Gibon.

GILBOA

A mountainous ridge southeast of the Plain of Esdraelon, having on each side a valley connecting the great plain with the Jordan valley. The valley northeast of Gilboa is the proper Jezreel; that on the southwest side separates Gilboa from the hills of Samaria. On the eastern part of Gilboa was the town from which it was named, now Jelbon. In this vicinity Saul, and Jonathan were defeated by the Philistines, and died, 1Sa 28:4,25. It is now a dry and barren mountain, 2Sa 1:6,21. Endor lay north from Gilboa, and Beth- shean northeast.

GILEAD or GALEED

Ge 31:45-48, the mound of witness, lay east of the Jordan, in the mountainous tract which runs from mount Hermon southward, between the Jordan and Arabia Deserta. The scenery among these mountains is described as very fine. The plains are covered with a fertile soil, the hills are clothed with forests, and at every new turn beautiful landscapes are presented. The Scripture references to the stately oaks and herds of cattle in this region are well known, Ge 37:25 Nu 32:1.

The name Gilead is sometimes put for the whole country east of the Jordan. Thus, in De 34:1, God is said to have showed Moses, from mount Nebo, "all the land of Gilead unto Dan." Compare Nu 32:26,29 De 3:12. The proper region of Gilead, however, lay south of Bashan, but probably without any very definite line of separation. Bashan and Gilead are often mentioned together, Jos 12:5 13:11 17:1,5 2Ki 10:33. A part of Gilead was the district now called Belka, one of the most fertile in Palestine. See BALM, or more properly, BALSAM and BASHAN.

Mount Gilead, in the strictest sense, was doubtless the mountain now called Jebel, Jelad or Jelud, mentioned by Burckhardt, the foot of which lies about two hoursí distance, or six miles, south of the Wady Zerka, or Jabbok. The mountain itself runs from east to west and is about two hours and a half (eight or ten miles) in length. Upon it are the ruined towns of Jelad and Jelud; probably the site of the ancient city Gilead of Ho 6:8, else where called Ramoth Gilead. Southward of this mountain stands the modern city of Szalt. It was probably in this mountain that Jacob and Laban set up their monument, Ge 31:45-48. See also Jud 7:3.

GILGAL

A rolling,

1. A celebrated place between the Jordan and Jericho, where the Israelites first encamped, after the passage of that river; where also they were circumcised, and kept their first Passover in Canaan, Jos 4:19 5:9,10. It continued to be the headquarters of the Israelites for several years, while Joshua was occupied in subduing the land, Jos 9:6 10:6,15,43. A considerable city was afterwards built there, Jos 15:7, which became famous for many events. Here the tabernacle rested, until its removal to Shiloh; here also, according to the prevalent opinion, Samuel offered sacrifices, and held his court as a judge of Israel; and here Saul was crowned, 1Sa 7:16 10:8 11:15 1Sa 13:7-9 15:33. A school of the prophets was established, 2Ki 4:38; and yet it afterwards appears to have become a seat of idolatry, Ho 4:15 9:15 12:11 Am 4:4 5:5. At this day, no traces of it are found. According to Josephus, it lay within two miles of Jericho.

2. Another Gilgol lay near Antipatris, Jos 12:23 Ne 12:29. And perhaps a third in the mountains of Ephraim, north of Bethel, De 11:30 2Ki 2:1-6. There are not wanting those who would make the Gilgal near Antipatris the seat of Samuelís judgeship, and of one of the schools of the prophets.

GILOH

A city of Judah, Jos 15:50; where Ahithophel, Davidís counselor dwelt; and where, after his treason against David, and the rejection of his counsel by Absalom, he hung himself, 2Sa 15:12; 17:23.

GIRD, GIRDLE

The Orientals commonly dress in loose robes, flowing down around the feet; so that when they wish to run, or fight, or apply themselves to any business, they are obliged to bind their garments close around them with a sash or girdle. Hence, "to have the loins girded," is to be prepared for action or service, 2Ki 4:29 Ac 12:8; to be waiting for the call or coming of oneís master or Lord, Lu 12:35. A tightened girdle was also thought to increase the power of endurance, and the simile is used in exhortations to Christian courage and fortitude, Job 38:3 Jer 1:17 Eph 6:14 1Pe 1:13. To have the girdle loosed, is to be unnerved and unprepared for action, Isa 5:27. Girdles of leather were worn by the common people; and also by prophets, 2Ki 1:8 Mt 3:4. They were likewise made of cotton or linen, Jer 13:1; also of silk, sometimes embroidered. They were often wide and long; and were folded lengthwise, and passed several times around the body. The girdle, moreover, answered the purpose of a purse or pouch, to carry money and other things; see Mt 10:9 Mr 6:8, where the word purse in the English is put for girdle according to the original Greek. The Arabs and other Orientals wear girdles in the same manner at the present day; they also carry a knife or dagger stuck in them; as was also the custom of the Hebrews, 1Sa 25:13 2Sa 20:8. Clerks carried their inkhorns, carpenters their rules, etc., in the same way, Eze 9:2. See cuts in GARMENTS.

GIRGASHITES

See CANAANITES.

GITTITES

See GATH.

GITTITH

The word Gittish signifies belonging to Gath. It probably denotes either a musical instrument or a kind of music derived from Gath, where David sojourned for a time during the persecution of Saul, 1Sa 27:1-7. The word Gath also signifies in Hebrew a winepress. Hence not a few have supposed that it denotes either an instrument or a melody used in the vintage. It is prefixed to Ps 8:1-9; 81:1- 16; 84:1-12, all of which requires an animated strain of music.

GLASS

Was well known to the ancients, and no doubt to the Jews; its invention is traced to an incident on the coast to Phoenica, and the arts of blowing, coloring, and cutting it were familiar to the ancient Egyptians. The "looking glasses" of the Jews, however, were of highly polished metal, usually small and round, Ex 38:8 Job 37:18 Jas 1:23. Glass does not appear to have been used at that time for mirrors, nor for windows; but for cups, bottles, vases, ornaments, sacred emblems, etc. It is alluded to in 1Co 13:12 Re 4:6 15:2 21:18,21; probably also in Job 28:17, where our English version has the word crystal.

GLEDE

A kind of hawk or kite, De 14:13. The same Hebrew word is translated vulture in Le 11:14.

GLORY, GLORIFY

Words of great and manifold significance in the Bible, used with reference to God and his works, the Savior and his gospel, the heavenly state, etc. "The glory of God" was often visibly revealed in the old dispensationósome dazzling appearance indicative of his special presence, Ex 16:7-10 24:9,10,16,17 33:18-23 1Ki 8:11 Ps 80:1 Zec 2:5. Godís glory is shown in is works, Ps 19:1 Ro 1:19,20. But it is most fully and illustriously displayed in the work of redemption, "in the face of Jesus Christ." "Here the whole Deity is known," Joh 1:14 2Co 4:6 Heb 1:3. The chief end of the Christian is to live "to the glory of god," so that God may be seen to be most glorious, 1Co 6:20 1Pe 2:9. The adjuration, "give God the glory," means, confess the truth in view of his omniscience, Jos 7:19 Joh 9:24. The expression, "my glory," Ps 16.9; 30.12; 57.8; 108.1, is equivalent to my soul, or myself, as the parallelism shows.

GNAT

A small winged stinging insect, a mosquito, spoken of in the proverbial expression, Mt 23:24, "Ye strain at a gnat, and swallow in a camel," which should read, as it did in the first English translations, "Ye strain out a gnat," etc. The expression alludes to the Jewish custom of filtering wine, for fear of swallowing any insect forbidden by the law as unclean, Le 11:23; and is applied to those who are superstitiously anxious in avoiding small faults, yet do not scruple to commit great sins.

GOAT

A well-known animal, resembling the sheep, but covered with hair instead of wool. Large flocks of them were kept by the Jews, Ge 27:9 1Sa 25:2 2Ch 17:11. They were regarded as clean for sacrifice, Ex 12:5 Le 3:12 Nu 15:27; and their milk and the young kids were much used for food, De 14:4 Jud 6:19 Pr 27:27 Lu 15:29. The common leather bottles were made of their skins. Several kinds of goats were kept in Palestine: one kind having long hair, like the Angora, and another, long and broad ears. This kind is probably referred to in Am 3:12, and is still the common goat of Palestine.

Herodotus says, that at Mendes, in Lower Egypt, both the male and female goat were worshipped. The heathen god Pan was represented with the face and thighs of a goat. The heathen paid divine honors also to real goats, as appears in the table of Isis. The abominations committed during the feast of these infamous deities cannot be told.

WILD GOATS are mentioned in 1Sa 24:2 Job 39:1 Ps 104:18. This is doubtless the Ibex, or mountain goat, a large and vigorous animal still found in the mountains in the peninsula of Sinai, and east and south of the Dead Sea.

These goats are very similar to the bouquetin or chamois of the Alps. They feed in flocks of a score or two, wit one of their number acting as a sentinel. At the slightest alarm, they are gone in an instant, darting fearlessly over the rocks, and falling on their horns from a great height without injury. Their horns are two or three feet long, and are sold by the Arabs for knife-handles, etc. For SCAPEGOAT, see EXPIATION.

GOATSí HAIR

Was used by Moses in making the curtains of the tabernacle, Ex 25:4; 26:7; 35:6. The hair of the goats of Asia, Phrygia, and Cilicia, is very bright and fine, and hangs to the ground; in beauty it almost equals silk, and is never sheared, but combed off. The shepherds carefully and frequently wash these goats in rivers. The women of the country spin the hair, which is carried to Angora, where it is worked and dyed, and a considerable trade in the article carried on. The natives attribute the quality of the hair to the soil of the country. The ordinary goats-hair cloth of the Arabs, used for the coverings of tents, etc., is coarse and black; and this is the kind of which the garments of the Hebrew prophets and of the poor were made.

GOD

This name, the derivation of which is uncertain, we give to that eternal, infinite, perfect, and incomprehensible Being, the Creator of all things, who preserves and governs all by his almighty power and wisdom, and is the only proper object of worship. The proper Hebrew name for God is JEHOVAH, which signifies He is. But the Jews, from a feeling of reverence, avoid pronouncing this name, substituting for it, wherever it occurs in the sacred test, the word ADONAI, Lord; except in the expression, ADONAI JEHOVAH, Lord Jehovah, for which they put, ADONAI ELOHIM, Lord God. This usage, which is not without an element of superstition, is very ancient, dating its origin some centuries before Christ; but there is no good ground for assuming its existence in the days of the inspired Old Testament writers. The proper word for God is ELOHIM, which is plural in its form, being thus used to signify the manifold perfections of God, or, as some think, the Trinity in the godhead. In Ex 3:14, God replies to Moses, when he asks Him His name, I AM THAT I AM; which means either, I am he who I am, or, I am what I am. In either case the expression implies the eternal self-existence of Jehovah, and his incomprehensible nature. The name I AM means the same as JEHOVAH, the first person being used instead of he third.

The Bible assumes and asserts the existence of God, "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth;" and is itself the most illustrious proof of his existence, as well as our chief instructor as to his nature and will. It puts a voice into the mute lips of creation; and not only reveals God in his works, but illustrates his ways in providence, displays the glories of his character, his law, and his grace, and brings man into true and saving communion with him. It reveals him to us as a Spirit, the only being from everlasting and to everlasting by nature, underived, infinite, perfect, and unchangeable in power, wisdom, omniscience, omnipresence, justice, holiness, truth, goodness, and mercy. He is but one God, and yet exists in three persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit; and this distinction of the Thee in One is, like his other attributes, from everlasting. He is the source, owner, and ruler of all beings, foreknows and predetermines all events, and is the eternal judge and arbiter of the destiny of all. True religion has its foundation in the right knowledge of God, and consists in supremely loving and faithfully obeying him. See JESUS CHRIST, and HOLY, HOLINESS SPIRIT.

GODS

The words god and gods, Hebrew ELOHIM, are several times used in Scripture to express the power, office, or excellence of some created beings, as angels, magistrates, Ex 22:20,28 Ps 86:8 97:12; often also for the false gods of the heathen. These were exceedingly numerous, and are denoted by various terms, signifying vanity, falsehood, etc. Among the first objects to be deified were the sun, the moon, and the chief powers of nature. Innumerable animals, deceased men, all ages, passions, and conditions of man, and every thing which fear, lust, malice, pride, or caprice could suggest, were made objects of worship. The gods of modern India are numbered by millions.

GODLY

That which proceeds from God, and is pleasing to him. It also signifies conformity to his will, and an assimilation to his character, Ps 12:1 Mal 2:15 2Co 1:2 Tit 2:12. Godliness is the substance of revealed religion, 1Ti 3:16 4:8 2Pe 1:6.

GOG and MAGOG

Are usually spoken of together in Scripture. In Ge 10:2, Magog, which seems to denote a country with its people, is reckoned among the descendants of Japheth. In Eze 38:1-23; 39:1-29, Magog apparently signifies a country with its people, and Gog the king of that people; but critics are much divided as to the people and country intended under these names. The Scythians, the Goths, the Persians, and several other nations, have been specified by interpreters as the Magog of the Scriptures; but most probably it is a name given generally to the northern nations of Europe and Asia, or the districts north of the Caucasus. The names reappear in the later predictions of John as enemies of the people of God, who are to be signally overthrown in Armageddon, Re 16:14-16; 20:7-9.

GOLAN

A Levitical city of refuge, in the northwest portion of Bashan. It lay east or northeast of the Sea of Galilee, but its site is now lost. See GAULAN.

GOLD

A well-known valuable metal, found in many parts of the world, and obtained anciently in Ophir, Job 28:16; Parvaim, 2Ch 3:6; Sheba, and Raamah, Eze 27:22. Job alludes to gold in various forms, Job 22:24 28:15-19. Abraham was rich in it, and female ornaments were early made of it, Ge 13:2 24:22,35. It is spoken of throughout Scripture; and the use of it among and ancient Hebrews, in its native and mixed state, and for the same purposes as at present, was very common. The Ark of the Covenant was overlaid with pure gold; the mercy seat, the vessels and utensils belonging to the tabernacle, and those also of the house of the Lord, as well as the drinking-vessels of Solomon, were of gold.

GOLGOTHA

The Hebrew name for CALVARY, which see.

GOLIATH

A celebrated giant of Gath, who challenged the armies of Israel, and was encountered and slain by David. The history is contained in 1Sa 17:1-58. His height was nine feet and a half; or, if we reckon the cubit at twenty-one inches, over eleven feet. See GIANTS.

GOMER

1. Ge 10:2,3; 1Ch 1:5; Eze 38:6, a son of Japheth, and father of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. He is believed to have settled the northern shores of the Black Sea, and given name to the ancient Cimmerians and to the Crimea. About 700 B. C. a part of his posterity diffused themselves in Asia Minor. Traces of his name and parentage are also found in the Cymbri, Umbri, and Cambri of historians, in Kumero and Kumeraeg, the names of the Welsh people and language, and among various nations of Europe.

2. A harlot whom the prophet Hosea appears to have married in prophetic vision, as directed by God, that the Jews might be led to reflect on the guilt of their spiritual uncleanness or idolatry, Ho 1:1-11.

GOMORRAH

One of the cities in the fruitful vale of Siddim, near the southern part of the ancient Dead Sea, miraculously blasted by God. See SODOM.

GOPHER

The name of the wood of which the ark was built. Many suppose it to be the cypress; others, the pine. Gopher may probably be a general name for such trees as abound with resinous inflammable juices, as the cedar, cypress, fir-tree, pine, etc., Ge 6:14.

GOSHEN

1. The name of the tract of country in Egypt which was inhabited by the Israelites from the time of Jacob to that of Moses. It was probably the tract lying east of the Pelusian arm of the Nile, towards Arabia. See EGYPT. It appears to have reached to the Nile, Ex 1:22 2:3, since the Jews ate fish in abundance, Nu 11:5, and "practiced artificial irrigation", De 11:10. It was near Heliopolis and Rameses, and not far from the capital of Egypt, Ge 45:10 47:11 Ex 8:1-12:51. It was a part of "the best of the land," at least for the pastoral Hebrews, Ge 46:34, and was evidently better watered and more fertile than at present. Here they greatly multiplied and prospered, Ge 47:27, and here they were sorely afflicted, and yet not forgotten of God, Ex 8:22 9:26. Many Egyptians dwelt among and around them.

2. A city and the adjacent territory in the mountains of Judah, Jos 10:41 11:16 15:51.

GOSPEL

Signifies good news, and is that revelation and dispensation which God has made known to guilty man through Jesus Christ our Savior and Redeemer. Scripture speaks of "the gospel of the kingdom," Mt 24:14, the gospel "of the grace of God," Ac 20:24, "of Christ," and "of peace," Ro 1:16 10:15. It is the "glorious" and the "everlasting" gospel, 1Ti 1:11 Re 14:6, and well merits the noblest epithets that can be given it. The declaration of this gospel was made through the life and teaching, the death, resurrection, and ascension of our Lord.

The writings which contain the recital of our Saviorís life, miracles, death, resurrection, and doctrine, are called GOSPELS, because they include the best news that could be published to mankind. We have four canonical gospelsóthose of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. These have not only been generally received, but they were received very early as the standards of evangelical history, as the depositories of the doctrines and actions of Jesus. They are appealed to under that character both by friends and enemies; and no writer impugning or defending Christianity acknowledges any other gospel as of equal or concurrent authority, although there were many others which purported to be authentic memoirs of the life and actions of Christ. Some of these apocryphal gospels are still extant. They contain many errors and legends, but have some indirect value.

There appears to be valid objection to the idea entertained by many, that the evangelists copied from each other or from an earlier and fuller gospel. Whether Mark wrote with the gospel by Matthew before him, and Luke with Matthew and Mark both, or not, we know that they "spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost," while recounting the works and sayings of Christ which they had seen or knew to be true, using no doubt the most authentic written and oral accounts of the same, current among the disciples. They have not at all confined themselves to the strict order of time and place.

GOSPEL OF MATTHEW. The time when this gospel was written is very uncertain. All ancient testimony, however, goes to show that it was published before the others. It is believed by many to have been written about A. D. 38. It has been much disputed whether this gospel was originally written in Hebrew or Greek. The unanimous testimony of ancient writers is in favor of a Hebrew original, that is, that it was written in the language of Palestine and for the use of the Hebrew Christians. But, on the other hand, the definiteness and accuracy of this testimony is drawn into question; there is no historical notice of a translation into Greek; and the present Greek gospel bears many marks of being an original; the circumstances of the age, too, and the prevalence of the Greek language in Palestine, seem to give weight to the opposite hypothesis. Critics of he greatest name are arranged on both sides of the question; and some who believe it to have been first written in Hebrew, think that the author himself afterwards made a Greek version. Matthew writes as "an Israelite indeed," a guileless converted Jew instructing his brethren. He often quotes from the Old Testament. He represents the Savior as the fulfillment of the hopes of Israel, the promised Messiah, King of the kingdom of God.

GOSPEL OF MARK. Ancient writers agree in the statement that Mark, not himself an apostle, wrote his gospel under the influence and direction of the apostle Peter. The same traditionary authority, though with less unanimity and evidence, makes it to have been written at Rome, and published after the death of Peter and Paul. Mark wrote primarily for the Gentiles, as appears from his frequent explanations of Jewish customs, etc. He exhibits Christ as the divine Prophet, mighty in deed and word. He is a true evangelical historian, relating facts more than discourses, in a concise, simple, rapid style, with occasional minute and graphic details.

GOSPEL OF LUKE. Luke is said to have written his gospel under the direction of Paul, whose companion he was on many journeys. His expanded views and catholic spirit resemble those of the great apostle to the Gentiles; and his gospel represents Christ as the compassionate Friend of sinners, the Savior of the world. It appears to have been written primarily for Theophilus, some noble Greek or Roman, and its date is generally supposed to be about A. D. 63.

GOSPEL OF JOHN. The ancient writers all make this gospel the latest. Some place its publication in the first year of the emperor Nerva, A. D. 96, sixty-seven years after our Saviorís death, and when John was now more than eighty years of age. The gospel of John reveals Christ as the divine and divinely appointed Redeemer, the Son of God manifested in flesh. It is a spiritual, rather than historical gospel, omitting many things chronicled by the other evangelists, and containing much more than they do as to the new life in the soul through Christ, union with him, regeneration, the resurrection, and the work of the Holy Spirit. The spirit of the "disciple whom Jesus loved" pervades this precious gospel. It had a special adaptation to refute the Gnostic heresies of that time, but is equally fitted to build up the church of Christ in all generations.

GOURD

It has been supposed that Jonahís gourd was the Ricinus Communis, or castor-oil plant. It grows in the East to the height of eight to twelve feet, and one species much higher. Its leaves are large, and have six or seven divisions, whence its name of Palma Christi. Since, however, it is now known that in the vicinity of the ancient Nineveh, a plant of the gourd kind is commonly trained to run over structures of mud and brush, to form booths in which the gardeners may protect themselves from the terrible beams of he Asiatic sun, this goes far to show that this vine, called in the Arabic kería, is the true gourd of Jonah. If the expression, "which came up in a night," Jon 4:10, is to be understood literally, it indicates that God "prepared" the gourd, Jon 4:6, by miraculously quickening its natural growth.

The WILD GOURD is a poisonous plant, conjectured to mean the colocynth, which has a cucumber-like vine, with several branches, and bears a fruit of the size and color of an orange, with a hard, woody shell, within which is the white meat or pulp, exceedingly bitter, and a drastic purgative, 2Ki 4:39. It was very inviting to the eye, and furnished a model for the carved "knops" of cedar in Solomonís temple, 1Ki 6:18 7:24.

GOZAN

Now the Ozan, a river of Media and the adjacent district, Isa 37:12, to which Tiglath-pileser and afterwards Shalmanezer sent the captive Israelites, 2Ki 17:6; 1Ch 5:26. The Kizzil-ozan, or Golden River, is in the northwest part of Persia, and flows northeast, with large curves, into the Caspian Sea.

GRACE

Favor, mercy. Divine grace is the free and undeserved love and favor of God towards man as a sinner, especially as exhibited in the plan of redemption through Jesus Christ, Joh 1:17 3:16 Ro 3:24-26. It is only by the free grace of god that we embrace the offers of mercy, and appropriate to ourselves the blessings graciously purchased by redeeming blood.

The "GRACE OF GOD," spontaneous, unmerited, self-directed, and almighty, is the source of the whole scheme of redemption, Ro 11:6 2Ti 1:9. With it are united "the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ," who gave himself for sinners; and that of "the Spirit of grace," by whom alone the grace offered by the Father and purchased by the Son is effectually applied. Thus GRACE in man, or all true holiness, 2Pe 3:18, is traced up to the grace of God as its only source; and the gospel of Christ and the work of the spirit-both pure graceóare its only channels of communication. Hence also all the fruits and blessings of the gospel are termed graces, 2Co 8:7 Php 1:7; not only regeneration, pardon, enlightenment, sanctification, etc., but miraculous, official, and prophetic gifts, the peculiar traits of Christian character, and everlasting salvation, 1Pe 1:13. In Ga 5:4, "grace" means Godís plan of salvation by his mercy, not by our works.

GRAIN

See CORN.

GRAPES

The fruit of the vine. The grapes of Palestine were very fine, of great size and high flavor, Nu 13:24. At present, and probably the same has always been true, the wine that is made requires but a small part of the annual yield of the vines. Dr. Robinson says, "No wine is made from the very extensive vineyards of Hebron, except a little by the Jews." While yet green, grapes are used for food in various ways; and are dried in the sun, or their juice preserved in bottles, to secure a pleasant vegetable tart all the year round, Nu 6:4. Ripe grapes may be had in Syria four or five months, Le 26:5; and when the season closes many are hung up in clusters, suitably protected, and remain without drying up all through the winter. Grapes are exceedingly cheap, and form no small part of the ordinary food. Ripe grapes are also dried into raisins; and after the hanging grapes are gone, the raisins are used until the return of new grapes. Besides the law which protected the first three yearsí growth of the vine, (see FRUITS,) there was another law requiring the Jews to leave the gleanings of their vineyards for the poor, Le 19:10,23. The law also allowed one who was passing a vineyard to pick a few grapes to eat on the spot, but not to carry any away, De 23:24. Everywhere we encounter proofs of the admirable humanity that characterized the Mosaic legislation. A vineyard nearly stripped of its clustered treasures was a frequent image of desolation, Isa 17:6 24:13 Ob 1:5. See VINE.

"Wild grapes" were the fruit of a wild vine, probably the Vitis Labrusca of Linnaeus, the wild claret-grape. The fruit of the wild vine is called oenanthes, of the flower of wine. They never ripen, and are good only for verjuice. In Isa 5:2,4, God complains of his people whom he had planted as a choice vine, an excellent plant, that he had a right to require of them good fruit, but they had brought forth only wild grapes-fruit of a bad smell, and a bad taste.

GRASS

Sometimes means any green herbage, Isa 15:6, and sometimes the usual food of cattle, Ps 104:14. The quick growth of grass, its tenderness, and its rapid combustion when dry, have furnished the sacred writers with some of their most appropriate illustrations, Ps 90:5,6 92:7 103:15,16 Isa 40:6-8 51:12 Jas 1:10 1Pe 1:24. All sorts of grass and small shrubs are still used in Syria for fuel, on account of the scarcity of wood, Mt 6:28-30. Travelers in that country often see grass growing on the housetops, the roofs being flat and coated with earth trodden hard. Such grass quickly withers when the rainy season is over, Ps 129:6,7 Isa 37:27.

GRASSHOPPER

A kind of locust, and so called in 2Ch 7:13. It was sometimes used for food, Le 11:22. Individually they are insignificant and timid creatures, Nu 13:33, and their worthlessness furnishes a striking comparison in Isa 40:22; while the feebleness of age is expressed by inability to endure them, Ec 12:5. Yet coming in great numbers, they are destructive to all herbage, Am 7:1. See LOCUST.

GREECE

In the Old Testament, is put for the Hebrew word Javan, which is equivalent to Ionia, and seems to include not only Greece but western Asia Minor, and the intervening isles, all settled by the Ionian race, Ge 10:2. Greece proper, however, is chiefly intended. It is not often mentioned in the Old Testament, Da 8:21 10:20 11:2 Joe 3:6 Zec 9:13. See JAVAN.

In the New Testament, Greece is called Hellas, a name supposed to have belonged first to a single city, but at length applied to the whole country south of Macedonia. About B. C. 146, the Romans conquered Greece, and afterwards organized two great provinces, namely, Macedonia, including Macedonia proper, Thessaly, Epirus, and Illyricum; and Achaia, including all the country, which lies south of the former province. (See ACHAIA.) In Ac 20:3, Greece is probably to be taken in its widest acceptation, as including the whole of Greece proper and the Peloponnesus. This country was bounded north by Macedonia and Illyricum, from which it was separated by mountains, south by the Mediterranean sea, east by the Aegean sea, and west by the Ionian sea. It was generally known under the three great divisions of Peloponnesus, Hellas, and Northern Greece.

Peloponnesus, more anciently called Pelasgia, and Argos, and now the Morea, was the southern peninsula; it included the famous cities, Sparta, Messene, Elis, Corinth, Argos, etc. The division of Hellas, which now constitutes a great part of Livadia, included Thessaly and Epirus, with the cities Larissa, Nicopolis, etc. The large islands of Crete and Euboea belonged to Greece, as well as most of those in the Archipelago and on the west.

The Jews and the Greeks appear to have had little intercourse with each other, until after Alexander the Great overran Egypt, Syria, and the East. They then began to come in contact everywhere, for both races were widely dispersed. The Jews extended the name of Greeks to include the people conquered and ruled by Greeks; and the word is thus nearly synonymous in the New Testament with Gentiles, Mr 7:26 Ac 20:21 Ro 1:16. The term "Grecian" or Hellenists, on the contrary, denotes a Jew by birth or religion, who spoke Greek. It is used chiefly of foreign Jews and proselytes, in contrast with the Hebrews, that is, those speaking the vernacular Hebrew, or Aramaean, Ac 6:1 9:29. The Greeks were a vivacious, acute, and polished, but superficial people, compared with the Jews. They excelled in all the arts of war and peace; but were worshippers of beauty, not of duty. Their pride of intellect, and their corruption of morals, were almost insurmountable obstacles to their reception of Christianity. Yet it was among the Greek cities and people that chiefly labored, and with great success. Many flourishing churches were, in early times, established among them; and there can be no doubt that they, for a long time, preserved the apostolic customs with much care. At length, however, opinions fluctuated considerably on points of doctrine; schisms and heresies divided the church; and rancor, violence, and even persecution followed in their train. To check these evils, councils were called and various creeds composed. The removal of the seat of government from Rome to Constantinople, gave a preponderance to the Grecian districts of the empire, and the ecclesiastical determinations of the Greek Church were extensively received. In the middle of the eighth century disputes arose, which terminated in a permanent schism between the Greek and Latin churches. The Greek Church has a general resemblance to the Roman-catholic, and embraces a population of not far from fifty millions of souls, in Russia, Greece, Turkey, Syria, etc.

GREEK LANGUAGE, THE

Is the original language of all the books of the New Testament, except perhaps the gospel by Matthew; but the sacred authors have followed that style of writing which was used by the Hellenists, or Grecizing Hebrews, adopting many idioms and turns of speech from the Syriac and Hebrew languages, very different from the classical style of the Greek writers. They were also obliged to make use of some new words, and new applications of old words, to express religious ideas before unknown to the Greeks, and for which they had no proper expression. After Alexander the great, Greek became the language best known throughout the East, and was generally used in commerce. As the sacred authors had in view the conversion not only of the Jews, then scattered throughout the East, but of the Gentiles also, it was natural for them to write to them in Greek, that being a language to which all were of necessity accustomed.

GRIND

See CORN.

GROVES

Were very early used for religious worship, Ge 21:33. "The groves were Godís first temples," and seem naturally fitted for such purposes. Groves were also resorted to by heathen idolaters. Some elevated spot was generally chosen for this purpose. "They sacrifice upon the tops of mountains, and burn incense upon the hills; under oaks and poplars and elms, because the shadow hereof is good," Ho 4:13. It should be noticed, however, that the Hebrew word Asherah, which occurs in many passages, and is rendered grove in the English version, rather signifies an image of Astarte, 1Ki 18:19 2Ki 13:6; etc. See ASHTORETH, plural ASHíTAROTH. The "high places" spoken of in Scripture were used first, for the worship of Jehovah, 1Ki 3:3,4; etc. This was, strictly speaking, and irregularity, since, according to the Law of Moses, every sacrifice was required to be brought to the altar of the sanctuary, Le 17:8,9 De 11:13,16. The "high places" were also used, secondly, for the worship of idols, 2Ki 23:15, etc.