One of the minor prophets. Of his life we know nothing, except that he appears to have been contemporary with Jeremiah, and to have prophesied about 610 B.C., shortly before Nebuchadnezzarís first invasion of Judea, 2Ki 24:1.

The BOOK OF HABAKKUK consists of three chapters, which all constitute on oracle. In Hab 1:1-17, he foretells the woes which the rapacious and terrible Chaldeans would soon inflict upon his guilty nation. In Hab 2:1-20, he predicts the future humiliation of the conquerors. Hab 3:1-19 is a sublime and beautiful ode, in which the prophet implores the succor of Jehovah in view of his mighty works of ancient days, and expresses the most assured trust in him. Nothing, even in Hebrew poetry, is more lofty and grand then this triumphal ode.


Ne 4:16; Job 41:26, a coat of mail; an ancient piece of defensive armor, in the form of a coat or tunic, descending from the neck to the middle of the body, and formed of tough hide, or many quilted linen folds, or of scales of brass overlapping each other like fishesí scales, or of small iron rings or meshes linked into each other, Ex 28:32; 39:23.


A city of Media, near which Tiglath-pileser, and afterwards Shalmanezer located portions of the captive Israelites. It is thought to have stood where the town of Abhar now exists on a branch of the river Gozan, 2Ki 17:6 18:11.


1. An Idumean prince, who defeated the Midianites in the plains of Moab, Ge 36:35 1Ch 1:16.

2. A second prince of Edom, mentioned in 1Ch 1:51.

3. Another Edomite of the royal family, who fled to Egypt while young, upon Davidís conquest of Edom, 2Sa 8:14; was well received, and married the queenís sister. After the death of David and Joab, he returned to Edom and made an ineffectual effort to throw off the yoke of Solomon, 1Ki 11:14-22 2Ch 8:17.


A powerful king of Syria, reigning in Zobah and the surrounding country, even to the Euphrates, 1Ki 11:23. He was thrice defeated and his power overthrown by David, 2Sa 8:3,4 10:6-14 16:1-19:43 1Ch 18:3 19:6.


A place in the valley of Megiddo, where the good king Josiah lost his life in a battle with the Ethiopians, 2Ki 23:29 2Ch 35:20-25. The lamentation over this event was very great, Zec 12:11.




Stranger, an Egyptian bondmaid in the household of Sarah, Ge 12:16, who, being barren, gave her to Abraham for a secondary wife, that by her, as a substitute, she might have children in accordance with the customs of the East in that age. The history of Hagar is given in Ge 16:1-16; 17:1-27; 21:1-34. In an allegory, Paul makes Hagar represent the Jewish church, which was in bondage to the ceremonial law; as Sarah represents the true church of Christ, which is free from this bondage, Ga 4:24. Her name is much honored among the Arabs claiming to be her descendants.


1Ch 5:10,20, descendant of Hagar and Ishmael. In Ps 83:6, the name seems to be given to a distinct portion of the Ishmaelites.


One of the minor prophets, probably accompanied Zerubbabel in the first return of the Jew from Babylon, B. C. 536. He began to prophesy in the second year of Darius Hystaspis, B. C. 520; and the object of his prophesying as to excite his countrymen to begin again the building of the temple, which had been so long interrupted. In this he was successful, Darius having granted a decree for this purpose, Ezr 6:1-22. The exceeding glory of the second temple was, as he foretold, that Christ "the Desire of all nations" came into it, and made the place of his feet glorious, Hag 2:7-9.


A salutation, importing a wish for the welfare of the person addressed. It is now seldom used among us; but was customary among our Saxon ancestors, and imported "joy to you," or "health to you," including in the term health all kind of prosperity.


Drops of rain formed into ice by the power of cold in the upper regions of the atmosphere. Hail was among the plagues of Egypt, Ex 9:24, and was the more terrible, because it rarely occurred in that country. Hail was also made use of by God for defeating an army of Canaanites, Jos 10:11; and is used figuratively to represent terrible judgments, Isa 28:2; Re 16:21.


The Jewish men, except Nazarites, Nu 6:5,9, and cases like that of Absalom, 2Sa 14:26, cut their hair moderately short, 1Co 11:14, and applied fragrant ointments to it, Ex 30:30-33 Ps 23:5 Ec 9:8. In mourning they wholly neglected it, or shaved it close, or plucked it out by handfuls, Jer 7:29. Women prized a fine head of hair, and plaited, perfumed, and decked it in many ways, Isa 3:18,24 1Co 11:15, so much as to call for apostolic interdictions, 1Ti 2:9 1Pe 3:9. "Hair like womenís" characterized the locusts of antichrist, Re 9:8. Lepers when cleansed, and Levites, on their consecration, shaved the whole body, Le 13:1-59 14:8,9.


2Ki 17:6. See HABOR.


In the New Testament, ALLELUIAH, Praise ye Jehovah. This word occurs at the beginning and at the end of many psalms. It was also sung on solemn days of rejoicing, as an expression of joy and praise, and as such it has been adopted in the Christian church, and is still used in devotional psalmody, Re 19:1,3,4,6.


To render sacred, set apart, consecrate. The English word is from the Saxon, and means to make holy: hence hallowed persons, things, places, rites, etc.; hence also the name, power, and dignity God are hallowed, that is, reverenced as holy.


1. Burnt, swarthy, black, A son of Noah, Ge 5:32 7:13 9:18 10:1. The impiety revealed in his conduct towards his father, drew upon him, or rather, according to the Bible statement, on his son Canaan, a prophetic malediction, Ge 9:20-27. Ham was the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan, that is, the ancestor of the Canaanites, Southern Arabians, Ethiopians, Egyptians, and the Africans in general, Ge 10:6-20.

2. A poetical name for Egypt, Ps 78:51 106:22.

3. An unknown place of the Zuzim, Ge 14:5.


A favorite of Ashasuerus, king of Persia. In order to revenge himself upon Mordecai the Jew, he plotted the extermination of all the Jews in the kingdom; but in the providence of God he as thwarted by Esther, fell into disgrace with the king, and wrought his own ruin and the upbuilding of the Jews. He is called an Agaite; and as Agag was a common name of the Amalekite kings, the Jews believe he was of that race. This would help to explain his malice against the Jews. See AMALEKITES. Similar wholesale slaughters are still plotted in Asia, and the whole narrative is confirmed and illustrated by the descriptions of eastern life furnished by modern travellers in the same region. The death of Haman took place about 485 B. C. His eventful history shows that pride goes before destruction; that the providence of God directs all things; that his people are safe in the midst of perils; and that his foes must perish.


A celebrated city of Syria. Hamath, like Jerusalem and Damascus, is one of the few places in Syria and Palestine which have retained a certain degree of importance from the very earliest ages to the present time. The name occurs in Ge 10:18, as the seat of a Canaanitish tribe; and it is often mentioned as the northern limits of Canaan in its widest extent, Nu 13:21; Jos 13:5; Jud 3:3. In Davidís time, Toi king of Hamath was his ally, 2Sa 8:9,10.

Burckhardt describes Hamath as "situated on both sides of the Orontes; a part of it is built on the declivity of a hill, and a part in the plain. The town is of considerable extent, and must contain at least 30,000 inhabitants. There are four bridges over the Orontes in the town. The river supplies the upper town with water by means of buckets fixed to high wheels, which empty themselves into stone canals, supported by lofty arches on a level with the upper part of the town. There are about a dozen of the wheels; the largest of them is at least seventy feet in diameter. The principal trade of Hamath is with the Arabs, who buy here their tent furniture and clothes. The government of Hamath comprises about one hundred and twenty inhabited villages, and seventy or eighty which have been abandoned. The western part of its territory is the granary of the northern Syria, though the harvest never yields more than ten for one, chiefly in consequence of the immense numbers of mice, which sometimes wholly destroy the crops." "The entering in of Hamath" is the northern part of the valley which leads up to it from Palestine, between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, Nu 13:21; 1Ki 1:53.


A kinsman of Jeremiah, from whom the prophet bought a piece of ground before the captivity, and had the legal record made, in token of his prophetic assurance that his people would return to their possessions, Jer 32:6-12.


1. A seer in the time of Asa, 955-914 B. C. imprisoned for his fidelity. He was also the father of the prophet Jehu, 1Ki 16:1-7 2Ch 16:7-10 19:2 20:34.

2. A brother of Nehemiah, who brought to Babylon an account of the wretched state of the Jews then at Jerusalem, and afterwards had charge of the gates of the city, Ne 1:1-3 7:2,3, B. C. 455.


1. A false prophet of Gibeon, who for his impious hardihood was overtaken with speedy death, according to the word of God, Jer 28:15-17.

2. The Hebrew name of Shadrach.

3. A pious and faithful officer under Nehemiah, Ne 7:2.


Often put of strength, power; so to be "in the hand" of any one, is to be in his power. Joining hands, or striking hands, is a very common method of pledging oneís self to a contract or bargain; just as persons among us often shake hands in token of an agreement. To "lift the hand," means to make oath. "At the right hand of God," is the place of honor, power, and happiness, Ps 16:11 45:9 110:1 Mt 26:64 Col 3:1. The right hand meant towards the south, the Jews being wont to speak as if facing the east. The "laying on of hands," signified consecration to office, and the bestowal of a blessing or of divine gifts, Ge 48:14 Nu 8:10 27:18 Mr 10:16 Ac 6:6 19:6 1Ti 4:14. The hands of the high priest laid upon the scapegoat, as if transferring the guilt of the people to his head, represented the work wrought by Christ in order that the sinner might not be "driven away in his wickedness." See WASHING.


A city of Egypt, Isa 30:4, thought to be the modern Ehnes, in middle Egypt on the Nile.


The pious wife of a Levite of Ramathaim-Zophim, named Elkanah, and mother of Samuel, B. C. 1171. She had earnestly besought the Lord for him, and freely devoted him to serve God according to her vow. She was afterwards blessed with three other sons and two daughters, 1Sa 1:1-2:21.


A king of the Ammonites, whose father Nahash had befriended David in his early troubles. Upon the death of Nahash, David sent an embassage to condole with his son. The shameful treatment received by these ambassadors led to a destructive war upon the Ammonites, 2Sa 10:1- 19; 1Ch 19:1-19.


1Ch 5:26, probably a mountainous region in the northern part of Media.


1. The eldest son of Terah, brother of Abraham, and father of Lot, Milcah, and Iscah. He died before his father Terah, Ge 11:26- 31.

2. An ancient city called in the New Testament Charran, in the northwest part of Mesopotamia. Here, after leaving Ur, Abraham dwelt till is father Terah died; and to this old homestead Isaac sent for a wife, and Jacob fled from the wrath of Esau, Ge 11:31,32; 12:5; 24:1-67; 27:43; 28:10; 29:4. Haran was ravaged by the Assyrians in the time of Hezekiah, 2Ki 19:12; Isa 37:12. Here also Crassus the Roman general was defeated and killed by the Parthiuated on a branch of the Euphrates, in 36 degrees 52í north latitude, and 39 degrees 5í east longitude, in a flat and sandy plain, and is only peopled by a few wandering Arabs, who select it for the delicious water it furnishes.


Of the same genus as the rabbit, prohibited to the Jews for food, Le 11:6, because, though it "cheweth the cud," it "divideth not the hoof." No species of hare is known which strictly chews the cud. There were several varieties of the hare in Syria.


An abandoned woman, Pr 29:3; a type of idolatrous nations and cities, Isa 1:21 Eze 16:1-63 Na 3:4. Among the Jews, prostitutes were often foreigners; hence their name of "strange women." They were often devoted to heathen idols, and their abominations were a part of the worship, Nu 25:1-5 Ho 4:14; a custom from the defilement of which the house of God was expressly defended, De 23:18.


A suit of defensive armor, 1Ki 20:11 2Ch 18:33. The Hebrews went out from Egypt "harnessed," that is, properly equipped or arranged.


A spring near Jezreel and mount Gilboa, Jud 7:1; 2Sa 23:25.


A city in the north of Canaan, the residence of Sisera, Jud 4:2; Jud 13:1-25; 16:1-31. The missionary Thompson finds its ruins at a place still called Harothieh, the Arabic equivalent for Harosheth, on a hill commanding the entrance to the narrow passage of the Kishon from the plain of Esdraelon to the plain of Acre.


Hebrew KINNOR, the most ancient and common stringed instrument of the Jews, more properly translated lyre. It was light and portable, and was used on joyful occasions, whether sacred or not. It was invented by Jubal, Ge 4:21 31:27 1Ch 16:5 25:1-5 Ps 81:2. David was a proficient in its use, 1Sa 16:16,23 18:10. The instrument most nearly resembling our harp was the Hebrew NEBEL, translated, psaltery in the Old Testament, Ps 57:8 81:2 92:3 108:2. It had a general triangular shape, and seven to twelve strings, Ps 33:2 144:9. It was played with the hand or with a short iron rod or plectrum according to its size. The Jews had other stringed instruments, like the guitar and lute, but little can be accurately determined respecting their form, etc. See MUSIC.


Or STAG, a species of deer, clean by the Levitical law, De 12:15, and celebrated for its elegance, agility, and grace, So 2:9 Isa 35:6. See HIND and ROE.


Often denotes in Scripture only a less degree of love, Ge 29:30,31 De 21:15 Pr 13:24 Mal 1:2,3 Lu 14:26 Ro 9:13. God has a just and perfect abhorrence of sin and sinners, Ps 5:5. But hatred in general is a malevolent passion, Ga 5:20, and no one who is not perfect in love, can hate without sin.


Eze 47:16, was originally a small district south of Damascus, and east of the sea of Tiberias, but was afterwards extended to the south and east, and under the Romans was called Auranitis. It now includes the ancient Trachonitis, the Haouran, Ituraea, and part of Batanaea, and is very minutely described by Burckhardt. Many ruins of cities, with Greek inscriptions, are scattered over its rugged surface.


The Scripture mention a Havilah descended from Ham, Ge 10:7, and another from Shem, Ge 11:29. We must assume a double Havilah, corresponding to each of these.

1. The location of one Havilah is connected with that of the Garden of Eden. According to one theory, it is to be sought on the southeastern extremity of the Black Sea; according to another, at the head of the Persian Gulf. See EDEN.

2. The other Havilah seems to have in Arabia. From the statement in 1Sa 15:7, that "Saul smote the Amalekites from Havilah unto Shurm that is over against Egypt," it would seen to have been somewhere in the north-western part of Arabia; since, from the circumstances of this campaign, we cannot well suppose that it extended over a great tract of country.


Huts of Jair, a district in Gilead, containing thirty hamlets belonging to the thirty sons of Jair, judges of Israel, Nu 32:41; Jud 10:3,4.


Or FALCON, a strong-winged and rapacious bird, of several in Syria; unclean for the Hebrews, Le 11:16, but sacred among the Greeks and Egyptians. In its migrations, it illustrates the wise providence of the Creator, Job 39:26.


In Pr 27:25; Isa 15:6, denotes the first shoots of grass. The Jews did not prepare and store up hay for winter use, as is customary in cold climates.


An officer of Benhadad king of Syria, whose future accession to the throne was revealed to the prophet Elijah, then at Damascus, as to his recovery from sickness, and on the next day smothered the king with a wet cloth, 2Ki 8:7-15, B. C. 885. His discomposure under the eye of the prophet was an indication that he had already meditated this crime. Having usurped the throne, he reigned forty years; and by his successful and cruel wars against Judah and Israel justified the forebodings of Elisha, 2Ki 8:28 10:32 12:17 13:3,7 2Ch 22:5.


An ancient abode of the Avim, apparently in the northwestern part of Arabia Petraea, De 2:23.


A station of the Israelites, about five daysí journey from mount Sinai, Nu 11:35. Here they remained a week or more, Nu 12:1- 16; and their next station recorded was near Kades-barnea, on the borders of Canaan, Nu 12:16 13:26 De 1:19-21.




1. A chief city of northern Canaan, whose king Jabin, at the head of an allied host, was defeated by Joshua, Jos 11:1-13. Hazor revived, however, and for a time oppressed the Israelites; but was subdued by Barak, fortified by Solomon, and remained in the possession of Israel until the invasion of Tiglathpileser, Jos 19:36; Jud 4:2; 1Ki 9:15; 2Ki 15:29. It lay not far from Lake Merom.

2. A region in Arabia, laid waste by Nebuchadnezzar, Jer 49:28- 33. Its location is unknown.

3. Cities in Judah and Benjamin, Jos 15:23; Ne 11:33.


Supposed to be the Juniper, a low tree found in desert and rocky places, and thus contrasted with a tree growing by a water-course, Jer 17:5-8; 48:6.


In the Bible, means primarily the region of the air and clouds, and of the planets and stars, but chiefly the world of holy bliss above the visible heavens. It is called "the third heaven," "the highest heaven," and "the heaven of heavens," expressions nearly synonymous. There holy beings are to dwell, seeing all of God that it is possible for creatures to see. Thither Christ ascended, to intercede for his people and prepare for them a place where all shall at length be gathered, to go no more out forever, Eph 4:10 Heb 8:1 9:24-28.

In this life we can know but little of the location and appearance of heaven, or of the employments and blessedness of its inhabitants. The Scriptures inform us that all sin, and every other evil, are forever excluded; no fruits of sin will be found there-no curse nor sorrow nor sighing, no tear, no death: the former things are passed away.

They describe it figuratively, crowding together all the images which nature or art can supply to illustrate its happiness. It is a kingdom, an inheritance: there are rivers of pleasure, trees of life, glorious light, rapturous songs, robes, crowns, feasting, mirth, treasures, triumphs. They also give us positive representations: the righteous dwell in the presence of God; they appear with Christ in glory. Heaven is life, everlasting life: glory, an eternal weight of glory: salvation, repose, peace, fullness of joy, the joy of the Lord.

There are different degrees in that glory, and never-ceasing advancement. It will be a social state, and its happiness, in some measure, will arise from mutual communion and converse, and the expressions and exercises mutual benevolence. It will include the perfect purity of every saint; delightful fellowship with those we have here loved in the Lord, Mt 8:11 17:3,4 1Th 2:19 4:13-18; the presence of Christ, and the consciousness that all is perfect and everlasting.

We are taught that the body will share this bliss as well as the soul: the consummation of our bliss is subsequent to the resurrection of the body; for it is redeemed as well as the soul, and shall, at the resurrection of the just, be fashioned like unto Christís glorious body. By descending from heaven, and reascending thither, he proves to the doubting soul the reality of heaven; he opens it door for the guilty by his atoning sacrifice; and all who are admitted to it by his blood shall be made meet for it by his grace, and find their happiness for ever in his love. See KINGDOM OF HEAVEN.


1. An ancestor of the Hebrews, Lu 3:35. See HEBREWS

2. A Kenite descended from Hobab, Mosesí father-in-law. He resided in the northern part of Canaan, and seems to have been a man of note in his day. His wife Jael slew Sisera with her own hand, Jud 4:11,17 5:24.


That branch of the posterity of Abraham whose home was in the land of promise. The name Hebrew is first applied to Abraham in Ge 14:13, and is generally supposed to have been derived for Heber, the last of the long-lived patriarchs. However outlived six generations of his descendants, including Abraham himself, after whose death he was for some years the only surviving ancestor of Isaac and Jacob. Hebrews appears to have been the name by which the Jewish people were known to foreigners, in distinction from their common domestic name, "the children of Israel." The name of Jews, derived from Judah, was afterwards applied to them as inhabitants of Judea, 2Ki 16:6. Abraham, the founder of the Jewish nation, was a migratory shepherd, whose property consisted mainly in vast flocks and herds, but who had no fixed residence, and removed from place to place as the convenience of water and pasturage dictated. As such a nomad, he had lived in Ur of the Chaldees, and then in Haran, whence he removed and dwelt in the same manner among the Canaanites, in the country which God promised to give to his posterity. His son and grandson, Isaac and Jacob followed in his steps. By a miraculous arrangement of Providence, Joseph, one of the sons of Jacob, became grand-vizier of Egypt; and in a time of famine invited his family to settle in that land. Here Moses died, and was succeeded by Joshua, who conquered the desired country, and allotted it to the several tribes. From this time they were governed in the name of Jehovah, by chiefs, judges, or patriarchal rulers, until the time of Samuel; when the government was changed to a monarchy, and Saul anointed king. David, a shepherd youth, but the man after Godís own heart, was afterwards king, and founded a family which continued to reign in Jerusalem until the entire subjugation of the country by the Chaldeans. Under his grandson Rehoboam, however, ten tribes revolted and formed a separate kingdom, that of Israel, between which the kingdom of Judah there were hostile feelings and frequent wars. The termination of the whole was the carrying away of the greater part of both nations to Babylon, Media, etc. After seventy years of exile, a few small colonies of Hebrews returned, and built another temple at Jerusalem, and attempted to reestablished their nation; but they had to struggle first, under the Maccabees, against the kings of the Seleucian race, (see JERUSALEM,) and then against the Romans; by whom at length, under Titus, Jerusalem was taken and utterly destroyed, A. D. 70-71. Since that time, although Jerusalem has been rebuilt, the Hebrews have ceased to exist as an independent people; but they are scattered among all the nations of the earth, where they retain their characteristic traits, and live as strangers, and, in a great measure, as outcasts.

The government of the Hebrews is, by Josephus, called a theocracy-a form of government which assigns the whole power to God, with the management of all the national affairs-God, in fact, being the proper King of the state. This government, however, underwent several changes under the legislator Moses, his successor Joshua, the judges, the kings, and the high priests. But amid all these revolutions, God was considered as the monarch of Israel, though he did not exercise his jurisdiction always in the same manner. In the time of Moses, he dwelt among his people as a king in his palace, or in the midst of his camp; always ready to be consulted, promulgating all needful laws, and giving specific directions in all emergencies. This was, properly, the time of the theocracy, in the strictest sense of the term. Under Joshua and the judges, it continued nearly the same: the former being filled by the spirit which animated Moses, would undertake nothing without consulting Jehovah; and the latter were leaders, raised up by God himself, to deliver the Hebrews and govern in his name. The demand of the people for a king occasioned to Samuel, the prophet-judge, great disquietude; for he regarded it as a rejection of the theocratic government, 1Sa 8:6,7. God complied with the wishes of the people; but he still asserted his own sovereign authority, and claimed the obedience of all.

The religion of the Hebrews may be considered in different points of view, with respect to the different conditions of their nation. Under the patriarchs, they were instructed in the will of God by direct revelation, worshipped him by prayer and sacrifices, opposed idolatry and atheism, used circumcision as the appointed seal of the covenant made by God with Abraham, and followed the laws which the light of grace and faith discovers to those who honestly and seriously seek God, his righteousness, and truth. They lived in expectation of the Messiah, the Desire of all nations, to complete their hopes and wished, and fully to instruct and bless them. Such was the religion of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Judah, Joseph, etc., who maintained the worship of God and the tradition of the true religion. After the time of Moses, the religion of the Hebrews became more fixed, and ceremonies, days, feasts, priest, and sacrifices were determined with great exactness. This whole dispensation only prefigured that more perfect one which should come, and bring life and immortality to light in his gospel, and make a full atonement for the sins of the world. See TYPE.

The long abode of the Hebrews in Egypt had cherished in them a strong propensity to idolatry; and neither the miracles of Moses, nor his precautions to withdraw them from the worship of idols, nor the rigor of his laws, nor the splendid marks of Godís presence in the Israelitish camp, were able to conquer this unhappy perversity. We know with what facility they adopted the adoration of the golden calf, when they had recently been eyewitnesses of such divine wonders. Saul and David, with all their authority, were not able entirely to suppress such inveterate disorders. Superstitions, which the Israelites did not dare to exercise in public, were practiced in private. They sacrificed on the high places, and consulted diviners and magicians. Solomon, whom God had chosen to build his temple, was himself a stone of stumbling to Israel. He erected altars to the false gods of the Phoenicians, Moabites, and Ammonites, and not only permitted his wives to worship the gods of their own country, but he to some extent adored them, 1Ki 11:5-7. Most of his successors showed a similar weakness. Jeroboam introduced the worship of the golden calves into Israel, which took such deep root that it was never entirely extirpated. It was for this cause that God gave the Hebrews over into the hands of their enemies, to captivity and dispersion. See IDOLATRY. After the captivity, they appear to have been wholly free from the worship of idols; but they were still corrupt and far from God, and having filled the cup of their guilt by rejecting and crucifying the Lord of glory, they were extirpated as a nation and became strangers and sojourners over all the earth.

For the language of the Hebrews, see LANGUAGE.

The existence of the Hebrews as a people distinct from all others, to this day, is a miracle of the indisputable king, which may well justify a few remarks.

1. They are spread into all parts of the earth; being found not only in Europe and America, but to the utmost extremity of Asia, even in Thibet and China. They abound in Persia, Northern India, and Tartary, wherever travellers have penetrated. They are, as they assert, descendants of the tribe carried away captive by the Assyrian monarchs. They are also numerous in Arabia, in Egypt, and throughout Africa.

2. In most parts of the world their state is much the same-one of dislike, contempt, and oppression. In past ages innumerable exactions and wrongs have been heaped upon them. Within the last few years they have received more justice at the hands of some of the European states; but they have usually held their possessions by a very precarious tenure.

3. They everywhere maintain observances peculiar to themselves: such as circumcision, performed after the law of their fathers; the great day of expiation; also the observance of a Sabbath or day of rest on Saturday, and not on the Christian Sabbath. They have generally retained the observance of the Passover in some form.

4. They are divided into various sects. Some of them are extremely attached to the traditions of the rabbins, and to the multiplied observances enjoined in the Talmud. Others, as the Caraites, reject these with scorn, and adhere solely to Scripture. The majority of the Jews in Europe, and those with whose works we are mostly conversant, are ribbinists, and may be taken as representative of the ancient Pharisees.

5. They everywhere consider Judea as their proper country and Jerusalem as their metropolitan city. Wherever settled, and for however long, they still cherish a recollection of country, unparalleled among other nations. They have not lost it; they will not loose it; and they transmit it to their posterity. However comfortably they may be settled in any residence, they hope to see Zion and Jerusalem revive from their ashes.

6. The number of the Jewish nation was estimated a few years ago at 3,000,000. This number is probably very far short of the truth. Maltebrun estimates them as from four to five millions.

HEBREWS, EPISTLE TO THE. The object of this epistle, which ranks among the most important of the New Testament books, was to prove to the Jews, from their own Scriptures, the divinity, humanity, atonement, and intercession of Christ, particularly his preeminence over Moses and the angels of God; to demonstrate the superiority of the gospel to the law, and the real object and design of the Mosaic institution; to fortify the minds of the Hebrew converts against apostasy under persecution, and to engage them to a deportment becoming their Christian profession. In this view, the epistle furnishes a key to the Old Testament Scriptures, and is invaluable as a clear elucidation and an inspired, unanswerable demonstration of the doctrine of the great atoning Sacrifice as set forth in Old Testament institutions. The name of the writer of this epistle is nowhere mentioned. The majority of critics, however, refer it to the apostle Paul. It is also believed to have been written in Greek, at Rome and about A. D. 63. See PAUL.


One of the most ancient cities of Canaan, being built seven years before Tanis, the capital of Lower Egypt, Nu 13:22. It was anciently called Kirjath-arba, (see ARBA,) and Mamre, and was a favorite residence of the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Here too they were buried, Ge 14:13-24 23:2-19 35:27. Under Joshua and Caleb the Israelites conquered it from the Canaanites and Anakim, and it was afterwards made a Levitical city of refuge, Jos 14:13-15 15:13 21:11,13 Jud 1:10,20. It was Davidís seat of government during the seven years when he reigned over Judah only, 2Sa 2:3 5:5. Here Absalom raised the standard of revolt, 2Sa 15:9,10. It was fortified by Rehoboam, and is mentioned after the captivity, but not in the New Testament, Ne 11:25. At present Hebron is an unwalled city of about 8,000 inhabitants, of whom some 600 are Jews, and the remainder Turks and Arabs. It lies in a deep valley and on the adjacent hillside, in the ancient hill-country of Judea, about 2,600 feet above the sea. Its modern name, El-khulil, the friend, is the same which the Moslems give to Abraham, "the friend of God;" and they profess to hold in their keeping the burial-place of the patriarchs, the "cave of Machpelah." It is covered by a small mosque, surrounded by a stone structure 60 feet high, 150 feet wide, and 200 feet long. Within this no Christian is permitted to enter; but it is evidently of very high antiquity, and may well be regarded as inclosing the true site of the ancient tomb. Other relics of antiquity exist in two stone reservoirs, the larger 133 feet square, and 21 feet deep. They are still in daily use; and one of them was probably the "pool in Hebron," above which David hung up the assassins of Ish-bosheth, 2Sa 4:12. The city contains nine mosques and two synagogues. Its streets are narrow; the houses of stone, with flat roofs surmounted by small domes. Large quantities of glass lamps and colored rings are here manufactured; also leathern bottles, raisins, and dibs, or grape-syrup. The environs of the city are very fertile, furnishing the finest vineyards in Palestine, numerous plantations of olive and other fruit trees, and excellent pasturage. See ESHCOL, MAMRE.


Red heifers were to be offered in sacrifice for the national sins, in the impressive manner described in Nu 19:1-10, illustrating the true sacrifice for sin in the person of Christ, Heb 9:13,14. The well-fed heifer was a symbol of wanton wildness, Jer 46:20 50:11 Ho 4:16.


Formerly supposed to be Haleb, or as called in Europe, Aleppo, a city of Syria, about one hundred and eighty miles north of Damascus, and about eighty miles north from the Mediterranean Sea. In 1822, Aleppo was visited by a dreadful earthquake, by which it was almost entirely destroyed. Its present population is not half of the 200,000 it then possessed. But recently a valley has been found on the eastern slope of Anti-Lebanon, north of the Barada, called Helbon, from on of its principal villages. Its grapes and the wine made from them are still remarkable for their fine quality. This valley is probably the Helbon of Eze 27:18.


City of the sun,

1. A celebrated city of Egypt, called in Coptic, Hebrew, and the English version, ON, sun, light, Ge 41:45. The Seventy mention expressly, Ex 1:11, that On is Heliopolis. Jeremiah, Jer 43:13, calls this city Beth-shemesh, that is, house or temple of the sun. In Eze 30:17, the name is pronounced Aven, which is the same as On. The Arabs called it Ani-Shems, fountain of the sun. All these names come from the circumstance that the city was the ancient seat of the Egyptian worship of the sun. It was in ruins in the time of Strabo, who mentions that two obelisks had already been carried away to Rome. At present its site, six miles north northeast from Cairo, is marked only by extensive ranges of low mounds full of ruinous fragments, and a solitary obelisk formed of a single block of red granite, rising about sixty feet above the sand, and covered on its four sides with hieroglyphics.

2. Another Helioplis is alluded to in Scripture under the name of the "plain of Aven," or field of the sun, Am 1:5. This was the Heliopolis of Coele-Syria, now Baalbec. Its stupendous ruins have been the wonder of past centuries, and will continue to be the wonder of future generations, till barbarism and earthquakes shall have done their last work. The most notable remains are those of three temples, the largest of which, with its court and portico, extended 1,000 feet from east to west. A magnificent portico, 180 feet long, with twelve lofty and highly wrought columns, led to a large hexagonal court, and this to a vast quadrangle, 440 feet by 370. Fronting on this rose ten columns of the peristyle, which surrounded the inner temple. There were nineteen columns on each side, or fifty-four in all, only six of which are now standing, and they were seven feet in diameter, and sixty-two feet high, besides the entablature of nearly fourteen feet. This temple rested on an immense vaulted substructure, rising nearly fifty feet above the ground outside, and in this are three stones sixty-three long and thirteen feet high, lying twenty feet above the ground. The temples are of Roman origin; and in vastness of plan, combined with elaborateness and delicacy of execution, they seem to surpass all others in the world. "They are like those of Athens for lightness, but far surpass them in vastness; they are vast and massive, like those of Thebes, but far excel them in airiness and grace." (Robinson.)


Field of heroes, a place near Gibeon, so named from a fatal duel- like combat, preceding a battle between the armies of David and Ish- bosheth, 2Sa 2:16.


The Hebrews SHEOL, and the Greek HADES, usually translated hell, often signify the place of departed spirits, Ps 16:10 Isa 14:9 Eze 31:16. Here was the rich man, after being buried, Lu 16:23. The above and many other passages in the Old Testament show the futility of that opinion which attributes to the Hebrews an ignorance of a future state.

The term hell is most commonly applied to the place of punishment in the unseen world, and is usually represented in the Greek New Testament by the word Gehenna, valley of Hinnom. See HINNOM. In 2Pe 2:4, the rebellious angels are said, in the original Greek, to have been cast down into "Tartarus," this being the Grecian name of the lowest abyss of Hades. Other expressions are also used, indicating the dreadfulness of the anguish there to be endured. It is called "outer darkness," "flame," "furnace of fire," "unquenchable fire," "fire and brimstone," etc., Mt 8:12 13:42 22:13 25:20,41 Mr 9:43-48 Jud 1:13 Re 20:14. The misery of hell will consist in the privation of the vision and love of God, exclusion from every source of happiness, perpetual sin, remorse of conscience in view of the past, malevolent passions, the sense of the just anger of God, and all other sufferings of body and soul which in the nature of things are the natural results of sin, or which the law of God requires as penal inflictions. The degrees of anguish will be proportioned to the degrees of guilt, Mt 10:15 23:14 Lu 12:47,48. And these punishments will be eternal, like the happiness of heaven. The wrath of God will never cease to abide upon the lost soul, and it will always be "the wrath to come."


1. A celebrated sage, of the tribe of Judah. The period of his life is unknown, 1Ki 4:31.

2. A Kohathite Levite, to whom as a chief musicians of the temple of the eighty-eighty Psalm is inscribed, 1Ch 6:33; 16:41,42.


Ho 10:4 Am 6:12, in Hebrew, ROSH, usually translated gall or bitterness, De 32:32, and mentioned in connection with wormwood, De 29:18 Jer 9:15 23:15 La 3:19. It indicates some wild, bitter, and noxious plant, which it is difficult to determine. According to some it is the poisonous hemlock, while others consider it to be the poppy.


The care of a hen to protect her brood from hawks, etc., illustrates the Saviorís tender care of his people when exposed to the swoop of the Roman eagle, as in all similar perils, Mt 23:37; 24:22. The common barn-door fowl is not often mentioned in Scripture, Mr 13:35; 14:30; Lu 22:34; but at the present day they and their eggs are more used in Syria than any other food not vegetable.


Supposed to have been a city of Mesopotamia afterwards called Ana, at a ford of the Euphrates, 2Ki 18:34; 19:13; Isa 37:13.


My delight, the mother of Manasseh, 2Ki 21:1, and a name given to the church, Isa 62:4.


Choice, chosen way of life or faith, sect, school, party. The Greek word properly designates any sect or party, without implying praise or censure. So in Ac 5:17 15:5 26:4,5. In the epistles it denotes a sect or party in a bad sense, implying a refractory spirit, as well as error in faith and practice, 1Co 11:19 Ga 5:20 2Pe 2:1. After the primitive age, the word came to signify simply error in doctrine.


A Christian at Rome, Ro 16:14; supposed by some to have been the writer of the ancient work called "The Shepherd of Hermas"óa singular mixture of truth and piety with folly and superstition.


Fellow-laborers with Paul in Asia Minor, who deserted him during his second imprisonment at Rome, 2Ti 1:15.


A lofty mountain on the northeast border of Palestine, called also Sirion Shenir, and Sion, (not Zion,) De 3:8; 4:39. It is a part of the great Anti-Lebanon Range; at the point where an eastern and lower arm branches off, a little south of the latitude of Damascus, and runs in a southerly direction terminating east of the head of the sea of Galilee. This low range is called Jebel Heish. Mount Hermon is believed to be what is now known as Jebel esh-Sheikh, whose highest summit, surpassing every other in Syria, rises into the region of perpetual snow or ice, ten thousand feet above the sea.

For a view of Hermon, see MEROM. Professor Hackett thus describes its appearance as seen from a hill north of Nazareth: "The mountain was concealed one moment, and the next, on ascending a few steps higher, stood arrayed before me with an imposing effect which I cannot easily describe. It rose immensely above every surrounding object. The purity of the atmosphere caused it to appear near, though it was in reality many miles distant. The snow on its head and sides sparkled under the rays of the sun, as if it had been robed in a vesture of silver. In my mindís eye at that moment it had none of the appearance of an inert mass of earth and rock, but glowed with life and animation. It stood there athwart my path, like a mighty giant rearing his head towards heaven and swelling with the proud consciousness of strength and majesty. I felt how natural was the Psalmistís personification: "the north and the south thou hast created them; Tabor and Hermon shall rejoice in thy name,í" Ps 89:12.

The "little Hermon" of modern travellers, not mentioned in Scripture, is a shapeless mass of hills north of the smaller valley of Jezreel. "Hermonites," or Hermons, in Ps 42:6, denotes the peaks of the Hermons range.


The name of four princes, Idumaeans by descent, who governed either the whole or a part of Judea, under the Romans, and are mentioned in the New Testament.

1. HEROD THE GREAT, Mt 2:1-23 Lu 1:5. He was the son of Antipater, an Idumaean, who was in high favor with Julius Caesar. At the age of fifteen years, Herod was constituted by his father procurator of Galilee under Hyrcanus II, who was then at the head of the Jewish nation; while his brother Phasael was intrusted with the same authority over Judea. In these stations they were afterwards confirmed by Antony, with the title of tetrarch, about the year 41 B. C. The power of Hyrcanus had always been opposed by his brother Aristobulus; and now Antigonus, the son of the latter, continued in hostility to Herod, and was assisted by the Jews. At first he was unsuccessful, and was driven by Herod out of the country; but having obtained the aid of the Parthians, he at length succeeded in defeating Herod, and acquired possession of the whole of Judea, about the year 40 B. C. Herod meanwhile fled to Rome; and being there declared king of Judea through the exertions of Antony, he collected an army, vanquished Antigonus, recovered Jerusalem, and extirpated all the family of the Maccabees, B. C. 37. After the battle of Actium, in which his patron Antony was defeated, Herod joined the party of Octavius, and was confirmed by him in all his possessions. He endeavored to conciliate the affections of the Jews, by rebuilding and decorating the temple, (see TEMPLE,) and by founding or enlarging many cities and towns; but the prejudices of the nation against a foreign yoke were only heightened when he introduced quinquennial games in honor of Caesar, and erected theatres and gymnasia at Jerusalem. The cruelty of his disposition also was such as ever to render him odious. He put to death his own wife Mariamne, with her two sons Alexander and Aristobulus; and when he himself was at the point of death, he caused a number of the most illustrious of his subjects to be thrown into prison at Jericho, and exacted from his sister a promise that they should be murdered the moment he expired, in order, as he said, that tears should be shed at the death of Herod. This promise, however, was not fulfilled. His son Antipater was executed for conspiring to poison his father; and five days after, Herod died, A. D. 2, aged sixty-eight, having reigned as king about thirty-seven years. It was during his reign that Jesus was born at Bethlehem; and Herod, in consequence of his suspicious temper, and in order to destroy Jesus, gave orders for the destruction of all the children of two years old and under in the place, Mt 2:1-23. This is also mentioned by Macrobius. After the death of Herod, half of his kingdom, including Judea, Ideumaea, and Samaria, was given to his son Archelaus, with the title of Ethnarch; while the remaining half was divided between two of his other sons, Herod Antipas and Philip, with the title of Tetrarchs; the former having the regions of Galilee and Perea, and the latter Batanea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis.


3. HEROD ANTIPAS, Lu 3:1, was the son of Herod the Great by Malthace his Samaritan wife, and own brother to Archelaus, along with whom he was educated at Rome. After the death of his father, he was appointed by Augustus to be tetrarch of Galilee and Perea, that is, the southern part of the country east of the Jordan, Lu 3:1, whence also the general appellation of king is sometimes given to him, Mr 6:14. The Savior, as a Galilean, was under his jurisdiction, Lu 23:6-12. He first married a daughter of Aretas, and Arabian king; but afterwards becoming enamoured of Herodias, the wife of his brother Herod Philip, and his own niece, he dismissed his former wife, and induced Herodias to leave her husband and connect herself with him. At her instigation he afterwards went to Rome to ask for the dignity and title of the king; but being there accused before Caligula, at the instance of Herod Agrippa, his nephew and the brother of Herodias, he was banished to Lugdunum (now Lyons) in Gaul, about A. D. 41, and the provinces which he governed were given to Herod Agrippa. It was Herod Antipas who caused John the Baptist to be beheaded, Mt 14:1-12 Mr 6:14-29. He also appears to have been a follower, or at least a favorer, of the sect of the Sadducees, Mr 8:15. Compare Mt 16:6. See HERODIANS.

4. HEROD AGRIPPA MAJOR or I, Acts 12.1-25; 23.35, was the grandson of Herod the Great and Mariamne, the son of the Aristobulus who was put to death with his mother, by the orders of his father. (See above, HEROD I.) On the accession of Caligula to the imperial throne, Agrippa was taken from prison, where he had been confined by Tiberius, and received from the emperor, A. D. 38, the title of king, together with the provinces which had belonged to his uncle Philip the tetrarch Lysanias. (See ABILENE.) He was afterwards confirmed in the possession of these by Claudius, who also annexed to is kingdom all those parts of Judea and Samaria which had formerly belonged to his grandfather Herod, A. D. 43. In order to ingratiate himself with the Jews, he commenced a persecution against the Christians; but seems to have proceeded no further than to put to death James, and to imprison Peter, since he soon after died suddenly and miserably at Cesarea, A. D. 44, Ac 12:1-25. He is mentioned by Josephus only under the name of Agrippa.

5. HEROD AGRIPPA MINOR or II, Ac 25:1-26:32, was the son of Herod Agrippa I, and was educated at Rome, under the care of the emperor Claudius. On the death of his father, when he was seventeen years old, instead of causing him to succeed to his fatherís kingdom of Chalcis, which had belonged to his Uncle Herod. He was afterwards transferred (A. D. 53) from Chalcis, with the title of king, to the government of those provinces which his father at first possessed, namely, Batanea, Trachonitis, Auranitis, and Abilene, to which several other cities were afterwards added. He is mentioned in the New Testament and by Josephus only by the name of Agrippa. It was before him that St. Paul was brought by Festus, Ac 25:13 26:32. He died on the third year of Trajanís reign, at the age of seventy years.


Partisans of Herod Antipas, Mt 22:16; Mr 3:6. Herod was dependent on the Roman power, and his adherents on the Roman power, and his adherents therefore maintained the propriety of paying tribute to Caesar, which the Pharisees denied. This explains Mt 22:16.


A granddaughter of Herod the Great and Mariamne, daughter of Aristobulus, and sister of Herod Agrippa I. She was first married to her Uncle Herod Philip, but afterwards abandoned him and connected herself with his brother Herod Antipas. It was by her artifice that Herod was persuaded to cause John the Baptist to be put to death, she being enraged at John on account of his bold denunciation of the incestuous connection which subsisted between her and Herod. When Herod was banished to Lyons, she accompanied him, Mt 14:3,6 Mr 6:17 Lu 3:19. See HEROD III.


This name is put in Le 11:19 De 14:18, for a Hebrew word of very uncertain meaning. See BIRDS.


A celebrated city of the Amorites, twenty miles east of the mouth of the Jordan, Jos 3:10; 13:17. It was given to Reuben; but was afterwards transferred to Gad, and then to the Levites. It had been conquered from the Moabites by Sihon, and because his capital; and was taken by the Israelites a little before the death of Moses, Nu 21:25; Jos 21:39. After the ten tribes were transplanted into the country beyond the Euphrates, the Moabites recovered it, Isa 15:4; Jer 48:2,34,45. Its ruins are still called Hesban, and cover the sides of a hill seven miles north of Medeba.


A pious king of Judah, succeeded his father Ahaz about 726 B. C., and died about 698 B. C. His history is contained in 2Ki 18:12-21 2Ch 29:1-32:33. Compare Isa 36:1-38:22. His reign is memorable for his faithful efforts to restore the worship of Jehovah; for his pride and presumption towards the Assyrians; for the distractions of their invading host in answer to his prayer; for his sickness and humiliation, and the prolonging of his life fifteen years of peace. He was succeeded by the unworthy Manasseh.


One of the rivers of Paradise. Its modern name is Tigris. See EDEN, and EUPHRATES.


God liveth, a Bethelite, who rebuilt Jericho in despite of the woe denounced five hundred years before, Jos 6:26. The fulfillment of the curse by the death of his children, proves the truth which his name signified, 1Ki 16:34.


A city of Phrygia, situated on its western border, near the junction of the rivers Lycus and Meander, and not far from Colosses and Laodicea. It was celebrated for its warm springs and baths. A Christian church was early established here, and enjoyed the ministrations of the faithful Epaphras, Col 4:12,13. The city is now desolate, but its ruins still exhibit many traces of its ancient splendor. Among them are the remains of three churches, a theatre, a gymnasium, and many sepulchral monuments. The white front of the cliffs, above which the city lay, has given it its present name of Pamluke-kaleh, the Cotton Castle.


In Ps 9:16, is supposed to indicate a pause in the singing of the Psalm, for meditation, probably with an instrumental interlude.


The ancient Canaanites, and other nations, worshipped the heavenly bodies and their idols upon hills, mountains, and artificial elevations. The Israelites were commanded to destroy these places of idol worship, De 12:2, but instead of this, they imitated the heathen, and at first worshipped Jehovah in high places, 1Sa 9:12 1Ki 3:4, and afterwards idols, 1Ki 11:7 2Ki 17:10,11. Here also they built chapels or temples, "houses of the high places," 1Ki 13:32 2Ki 17:29, and had regular priests, 1Ki 12:32 2Ki 17:32. Different groves were sacred to different gods; and the high places were inseparably linked to idolatry. Hence one reason why Jehovah required the festivals and sacrifices of the Jews to be centered at his temple in Jerusalem; that the people of the living and only true God might be delivered from the temptations of the groves, and witness as one man against idolatry. The prophets reproach the Israelites for worshipping on the high places; the destroying of which was a duty, but the honor of performing it is given to few princes in Scripture, though several of them were zealous for the law. Before the temple was built, the high places were not absolutely contrary to the law, provided God only was adored there. Under the judges, they seem to have been tolerated in some exceptional cases; and Samuel offered sacrifice in several places where the ark was not present. Even in Davidís time, the people sacrificed to the Lord at Shiloh, Jerusalem, and Gibeon. The high places were much frequented in the kingdom of Israel; and on these hills they often adored idols, and committed a thousand abominations. See BAMOTH and GROVES.


A faithful high priest in the reign of Josiah, 2Ki 22:20.

This was also the name of the fathers of Jeremiah and Eliakim, 2Ki 18:18; Jer 1:1.


A Hebrew liquid measure; as of oil, Ex 30:24; Eze 45:24, or of wine, Ex 29:40; Le 23:13. It was the sixth part of an ephah or bath, and contained ten or eleven pints.


The female of the hart or stag, a species of deer, distinguished for the lightness and elegance of its form. The hind is destitute of horns, like all the females of this class, except the reindeer. In Ge 49:21, Naphtali is compared to a hind roaming at liberty, or quickly growing up into elegance; while the "goodly words" of Naphtali refer to the future orators, prophets, and poets of the tribe. A faithful and affectionate wife is compared to the hind, Pr 5:19, as also are swift and sure-footed heroes, 2Sa 22:34 Hab 3:19.


That is, the valley of Hinnom, or of the son of Hinnom, a narrow valley just south of Jerusalem, running up westward from the valley of the Cedron, and passing into the valley of the Cedron, and passing into the valley of Gihon, which follows the base of mount Zion north, up to the Joppa gate. It was well watered, and in ancient times most verdant and delightfully shaded with trees. The boundary line Judah and Benjamin passed through it, Jos 15:8 18:6 Ne 11:30. In its lowest part, towards the southeast, and near the kingís gardens and Siloam, the idolatrous Israelties made their children pass through the fire to Moloch, 1Ki 11:7 2Ki 16:3 Jer 32:35. See MOLOCH.

The place of these abominable sacrifices is also called Tophet, Isa 30:33 Jer 7:31. According to some, this name is derived from the Hebrew toph, drum, because drums are supposed to have been used to drown the cries of the victims. But this opinion rests only on conjecture. King Josiah defiled the place, 2Ki 23:10, probably by making it a depository of filth. It has been a common opinion that the later Jews, in imitation of Josiah, threw into this place all manner of filth, as well as the carcasses of animals and the dead bodies of malefactors; and that with reference to either the baleful idolatrous fires in the worship of Moloch, or to the fires afterwards maintained there to consume the mass of impurities that might otherwise have occasioned a pestilence, came the figurative use of the fires of Gehenna, that is, valley of Hinnom, to denote the eternal fire in which wicked men and fallen spirits shall be punished. This supposition, however, rests upon uncertain grounds.

It seems clear that the later Jews borrowed their usage of the fire of the valley of Hinnom (Gehenna) to represent the punishment of the wicked in the future world directly from two passages of Isaiah: "For Tophet is ordained of old; yea, for the king it is prepared; he hath made it deep and large: the pile thereof is fire and much wood; the breath of the Lord, like a stream of brimstone, doth kindle it," Isa 66:24. These they correctly interpreted figuratively, as representing the vengeance, which God would take on his enemies and the oppressors of his people. That the prophet, in this terrible imagery, alluded to any fire kept perpetually burning in the valley of Hinnom, has not been clearly proved. But however this may be, it is certain that the Jews transferred the name Gehenna, that is the valley of Hinnom, to the place in which devils and wicked men are to be punished in eternal fire, and which in the New Testament is always translated hell, Mt 5:22,29,30 10:28 Mr 9:43,45,47 Lu 12:5 Jas 3:6. See HELL.

The rocks on the south side of Hinnom are full of gaping apertures, the mouths of tombs once filled with the dead, but now vacant.


1. A king of Tyre, who sent to congratulate David on his accession to the throne, and aided him in building his palace, 2Sa 5:11 1Ch 14:1. He seems to have been the Abibal of secular history.

2. A king of Tyre, probably a son of the former, 2Ch 2:13, and like him a friend of David. He congratulated Solomon at the commencement of his reign, and furnished essential aid in building the temple. He provided timber and stones, together with gold to an immense amount, and received in return large supplies of corn, wine, and oil, with twenty cities in Galilee, 1Ki 5:1-18 2Ch 2:1-18. Josephus relates that he and Solomon were wont to exchange enigmas with each other; that he greatly improved his city and realm, and died after a prosperous reign of thirty-four years, at the age of fifty-two.

3. A skillful artificer of Tyre, whose mother was a Jewess. The interior decorations and utensils of Solomonís temple were made under his direction, 1Ki 7:13,14 2Ch 2:13,14.


As a mode of calling an attendant to his masterís side, is a custom very prevalent in Palestine. Says Osborne, "Whenever a servant was wanted, the usual Ďshee!í which is so common throughout the land, started two or three in an instant." The same custom is evidently alluded to in Isa 5:26; 7:18; "The Lord shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt," etc.


Descendants of Heth, Ge 10:15, a Canaanite tribe dwelling near Hebron in the time of Abraham, Ge 15:20,21, and subdued in the Israelitish invasion, Ex 3:8 Jos 3:10. They were not, however, exterminated: Uriah was a Hittite, 2Sa 11:3; Solomon used their services, 1Ki 10:29 2Ki 7:6; and they were not lost as a people until after the Jewsí return from captivity, Ezr 9:1. See CANAANITES.




The son of Raguel or Reuel, Nu 10:29. According to one supposition he was the same as Jethro, Mosesí father-in-law, Zipporah being called the daughter of Reuel as one of his descendants. According to another view, he was the brother of Jethro. Those who hold this opinion maintain that the Hebrew word rendered father-in- law, Jud 4:11 may denote simply a relation by marriage. When the Hebrews were about leaving mount Sinai, Moses requested him to cast in his lot with the people of God, both for his own sake and because his knowledge of the desert its inhabitants might often be of service to the Jews. It would appear that he acceded to this request, Jud 1:16; 4:11.


A place north of Damascus, visited by Abraham, Ge 14:15; now unknown.


These terms sometimes denotes outward purity or cleanliness; sometimes internal purity and sanctification. True holiness characterizes outward acts, but still more the motive and intent of the heart. It is an inward principle; not mere rectitude or benevolence, or any one moral excellence, but the harmonious and perfect blending of all, as all the colors of the prism duly blend from pure light. God is holy in a transcendent and infinitely perfect manner, Isa 1:4; 6:3. The Messiah is called "the Holy One," Ps 16:10; Lu 4:34; Ac 3:14; and Holy is the common epithet given to the third person of the Trinity, the Holy Spirit. God is the fountain of holiness, innocence, and the sanctification. Mankind lost all holiness in the fall; but God makes his people gradually "partakers of his holiness" here, and in heaven they will be found perfectly and for ever sanctified; as an earnest of which, he look upon them as already in Christ, holy and beloved. The Bible applies the epithet holy in a secondary sense to whatever pertains especially to God-to heaven, to his temple, its parts, utensils, and services; to his day, his ministers, priests, prophets, and apostles. The Jews were called a holy people, because they were separated unto God, to be a religious and consecrated people; and Christians, as a body, are also called holy, because they are in like manner separated unto Christ. But a "holy man," in the ordinary Christian sense, is one who exhibits in his conduct the inward purity, benevolence, and holy devotedness to the Savior, with which his heart overflows.


The third person in the blessed Trinity. He is said to proceed from the Father, and to be sent by the Father and the Son upon disciples, Joh 14:26 15:26; to be the Spirit of the Father, Mt 10:20 1Co 2:11; and the Spirit of Christ, Ga 4:6 Php 1:19.

That he is a real PERSON, and not merely an attribute or emanation of God, is clear from the numerous passages in the Bible which describes him as exercising the acts, thoughts, emotions, and volition of a distinct intelligent person. None other could be pleased, vexed, and grieved, could speak, console, and intercede, or divide his gifts severally to every one, as he will. So also, in Greek as in English, the personal masculine pronouns would be necessary.

That he is a DIVINE PERSON, equally with the Father, and the Son, is proved from his association with tem in a great variety of acts purely divine; as in the work of creation, Ge 1:2 Ps 33:6 104:30. He is honored as they are in the baptismal formula, Mt 28:19, and in the apostolic benediction, 2Co 13:14. He receives the name, 2Co 3:17, and exercises the attributes of God, Ro 8:14 1Co 2:10 6:19 Heb 9:14. He is prayed to as God, Re 1:4,5; sin against him is sin against God, Ac 5:3,4 Eph 4:30; and blasphemy against him is unpardonable, Mt 12:31.

The WORK of the Holy Spirit is divine. Of old, he inspired the sacred writers and teachers, and imparted miraculous gifts. Under the Christian dispensation, he applies the salvation of Christ to menís hearts, convincing them of sin, Joh 16:8,9; showing them "the things of Christ," illuminating and regenerating them, Joh 3:5 Eph 2:1. He is the Comforter of the church, aids believers in prayer, witnesses with and intercedes for them, directs them in duty, and sanctifies them for heaven.


The largest dry measure of the Hebrews, equal to ten baths or ephahs, and containing about eight of our bushels, Eze 45:14.


Was formerly very plentiful in Palestine, and hence the frequent expressions of Scripture which import that that country was a land flowing with milk and honey, Le 20:24. Wild bee honey was often found in hollow trees and clefts in the rocks, De 32:13 Ps 81:16; and on this John the Baptist fed, Mt 3:4. Honey was highly prized, Ps 19:10 Pr 5:3 27:7. Modern travellers observe that it is still very common there, and that the inhabitants mix it in all their sauces. Forskal says the caravans of Mecca bring honey from Arabia to Cairo, and that he has often seen honey flowing in the woods in Arabia. It would seem that this flowing honey is bee honey, and this fact illustrates the story of Jonathan, 1Sa 14:25,27. But there is also a vegetable honey that is very plentiful in the East. Burckhardt, speaking of the productions of the Ghor, or valley of the Jordan, says one of the most interesting productions of this place is the Beyrouk honey, as the Arabs call it. It was described to him as a juice dropping from the leaves and twigs of a tree called Gharrab, of the size of an olive tree, with leaves like those of the popular, but somewhat broader. The honey collects on the leaves like dew, and is gathered from them, or from the ground under the tree. Another vegetable product is referred to in the Bible as honey, 2Co 13:14. It is syrup, prepared by boiling down the juice of dates, etc. That made from grapes is called dibs, and is much used by the Arabs as a condiment with food. It resembles thin molasses, and is pleasant to the taste, Ge 43:11.


The guilty and wretched sons of Eli the high priest. They grossly and continuously abused the influence of their position and sacred office; and their cupidity, violence, and impious profligacy, overbearing the feeble remonstrances of their father, brought disgrace and ruin on their family. The ark, which they had carried to the camp in spire of divine prohibitions, was taken, and they were slain in battle, 1Sa 2:1-4:22. See ELI. The ark of God protects only those who love and obey him. Men in all ages are prone to rely on a form of religion, while the heart and life are not right with God; and all who thus sin, like the sons of Eli, must perish likewise.


A mountain of a conical form in the range of mount Seir, on the east side of the Arabah, or great valley running from the Dead sea to the Elanitic gulf. It is an irregularly truncated cone, with three rugged peaks, overlooking a wilderness of heights, cliffs, ravines, and alone with his brother and son, Nu 20:22-29; 33:38. It is still called Jebel Neby Haroon, mount of the prophet Aaron; and on its summit stands a Mohammedan tomb of Aaron, on the site of a still more ancient structure, and marking perhaps the place of his burial.




A race of early dwellers in mount Seir, whence they were expelled by the Edomites, Ge 14:6 De 2:12,22. They are supposed to have lived in caves, like the men referred to in Job 30:6, and to have been divided into several tribes, Ge 36:20-30.


Destruction, Nu 21:1-3; also called Zephath; a city in the extreme south of Canaan, near which the rebellious Hebrews were defeated, in the second year after leaving Egypt, Nu 14:45; it was afterwards laid waste, Jud 1:16,17. The Simeonites repeopled it, Jos 19:4, and David sent them some of his spoils taken from the Amalekites, 1Sa 30:30.


Of animals were used as drinking vessels, and to hold ointments, perfumes, etc., 1Sa 16:1 1Ki 1:39. The "horns of the altar" were its four corners and elevation on them, Ex 27:2 30:2. See ALTAR.

The principal defense and ornament of many beasts are in their horns; and hence the horn is often a symbol of strength, honor, and dominion. The Lord exalted the horn of David, and of his people; he breaketh the horn of salvation, and of defiling the horn in the dust, De 33:17 1Sa 2:1,10 Job 16:15 Ps 75:10 Da 7:20-24 Lu 1:69. There may be an allusion in these passages to a very common part of the female dress in some parts of the East. The married women among the Druses of mount Lebanon still wear on their heads silver horns, as in the accompanying cut; the other head is that of an Abyssinian chief.


A well-known insect, which has a powerful sting. The Lord drove out many of the Canaanites before Israel by means of this insect, Ex 23:28 De 7:20 Jos 24:12. The Israelites, being in the sandy wilderness, would escape it. Compare FLY.


Were anciently less used for labor, in Bible land, than oxen and asses. They were used by princes and warriors, both with and without chariots, Ex 14:9,23 Es 6:8 Ec 10:7. The finest description of the war-horse ever written is found in one of the most ancient books, Job 39:19-25. Horses were common in Egypt, Ge 47:17 50:9 So 1:9; but the Jews were at first forbidden to go there for them, De 17:16, or the keep any large number, Jos 11:6 2Sa 8:4. The object of this was to restrain them from growing proud, idolatrous, and fond of conquest, Isa 31:1-3. Solomon, however, procured a large cavalry and chariot force, 2Ch 1:14-17 9:25. Horses were sometimes consecrated to idols, 2Ki 23:11, and were often used as symbols of angelic and earthly powers, under the control of God, 2Ki 2:11 6:15-17 Zec 1:8 6:2-6 Re 2:18:13.


The bloodsucker, a well-known water-worm; an apt emblem of avarice and rapacity, Pr 30:15. Cicero speaks of the horseleeches of the public treasury at Rome.


A word of joyful acclamation in Hebrew, signifying save now. The people cried Hosanna as Jesus entered in triumph into Jerusalem; that is, they thus invoked the blessings of heaven on him as the Messiah, Mt 21:9. This was also a customary acclamation at the joyful feast of tabernacles, in which the Jews repeated Ps 118:25,26.


The first of the twelve Minor Prophets, as arranged in our Bibles. He prophesied for a long time, from Uzziah to Hezekiah, about 785-725 B. C.

The BOOK OF HOSEA contains properly two parts. Ho 1:1-3:5 contains a series of symbolical actions directed against the idolatries of Israel. It is disputed whether the marriage of the prophet was a real transaction, or an allegorical vision; in all probability the latter is the correct view; but in either case it illustrates the relations of the idolatrous Israel to her covenant God. Ho 4:1-14:9 is chiefly occupied with denunciations against Israel, and especially Samaria, for the worship of idols, which prevailed there. Hoseaís warnings are mingled with tender and pathetic expostulations. His style is obscure, and it is difficult to fix the periods or the divisions of his various predictions. He shows a joyful faith in the coming Redeemer, and is several times quoted in the New Testament, Mt 9:13 Ro 9:25,26 1Pe 2:10.


The last king of Israel, the successor of Pekah, whom he slew, 2Ki 15:30, B. C. 730. He reigned nine years, and was then carried away captive by Shalmaneser, 2Ki 17:1-6; 18:9-12, B.C. 721.


Is regarded by all oriental nations as one of the highest virtues. The following notices by modern travellers serve to illustrate very striking many passages of Scripture. Thus De la Roque says, "We did not arrive at the foot of the mountain till after sunset, and it was almost night when we entered the plain; but as it was full of villages, mostly inhabited by Maronites, we entered into the first we came to, to pass the night there. It was the priest of the place who wished to receive us; he gave us a supper under the trees before his little dwelling. As we were at the table, there came by a stranger, wearing a whit turban, who after have saluted the company, sat himself down to the table without ceremony, ate with us during some time, and then went away, repeating several times the name of God. They told us it was some traveller who no doubt stood in need of refreshment, and who had profited by the opportunity, according to the custom of the East, which is to exercise hospitality at all times and towards all persons." This reminds us of the guests of Abraham, Ge 18:1-33, of the conduct of Job, Job 31:17, and of the frankness with which the apostles of Christ were to enter into a manís house after a salutation, and there to continue "eating and drinking such things as were set before them," Lu 10:7. The universal prevalence of such customs, and of the spirit of hospitality, may help to explain the indignation of James and John against certain rude Samaritans, Lu 9:52-56, and also the stern retribution exacted for the crime of the men of Gibeah, Jud 19:1; 20:48.

Says Niebuhr, "the hospitality of the Arabs has always been the subject of praise; and I believe that those of the present day exercise this virtue no less than their ancestors did. When the Arabs are at table, they invite those who happen to come, to eat with them, whether they are Christians or Mohammedas, gentle or simple. In the caravans, I have often seen with pleasure a mule-driver press those who passed to partake of his repast; and though the majority politely excused themselves, he gave, with an air of satisfaction, to those who would accept of it, a portion of his little meal of bread and dates; and I was not a little surprised when I saw, in Turkey, rich Turks withdraw themselves into corners, to avoid inviting those who might otherwise have sat at table with them."

We ought to notice here also the obligations understood to be contracted by the intercourse of the table. Niebuhr says, "When a Bedaween sheik eats bread with strangers, they may trust his fidelity and depend on his protection. A traveller will always do well therefore to take an early opportunity of securing the friendship of his guide by a meal." This brings to recollection the complaint of the psalmist, Ps 41:9, penetrated with the deep ingratitude of one whom he describes as having been his own familiar friend, in whom he trusted, "who did eat of my bread, even he hath lifted up his heel against me."

Beautiful pictures of primitive hospitality may be found in Ge 18:1-19:38 Ex 2:20 Jud 13:15 19:1-9. The incidents of the first two narratives may have suggested the legends of the Greeks and Romans, which represent their gods as sometimes coming to them disguised as travellers, in order to test their hospitality, etc., Heb 13:2.

The primitive Christians considered one principal part of their duty to consist in showing hospitality to strangers, Ro 12:13 1Ti 5:10; remembering that our Savior had said, whoever received those belonging to him, received himself; and that whatever was given to such a one, though but a cup of cold water, should not lose it reward, Mt 10:40-42 25:34-45. They were, in fact, so ready in discharging this duty, that the very heathen admired them for it. They were hospitable to all strangers, but especially to those of the household of faith. Believers scarcely ever traveled without letters of communion, which testified the purity of their faith, and procured them a favorable reception wherever the name of Jesus Christ was known. Indeed, some supposed that the two minor epistles of John may be such letters of communion and recommendation.


(Pronounced hock,) to hamstring, or cut the cords of the hind legs. The horse taken by David from the Syrians were thus disabled, Jos 11:6,9; 2Sa 8:4.


The word hour, in Scripture, signifies one of the twelve equal parts into which each day, from sunrise to sunset, was divided, and which of course were of different lengths at different seasons of ht year, Mt 20:3-6 Joh 11:9. This mode of dividing the day prevailed among the Jews at least after the exile, and perhaps earlier, Da 3:6 4:19. The third, sixth, and ninth hours were the appointed seasons for prayer, Ac 2:15 3:1 10:9. Anciently, however, the usual division of the day was into four parts, namely, the morning-the heat of the day, commencing about the middle of the forenoon-midday, and evening. In a similar manner, the Greeks appear at first to have divided the night also into three parts or watches, namely, the first watch, La 2:19; the middle, or second watch, Jud 7:19; and the morning, or third watch, Ex 14:24. But after the Jews became subject to the Romans, they adopted the Roman manner of dividing the night into four watches, namely, the evening, or first quarter, after sunset; the midnight; cock-crowing, or third quarter, from midnight on; and the morning, or fourth quarter, including the dawn, Mt 14:25 Mr 6:48 13:35 Lu 12:48. A watch in the night seems but an instant to one who spends it in slumber, Ps 90:4; equally short does the life of man appear in view of eternity.


Is often put for dwelling, residence; and hence the temple, and even the tabernacle, are called the house of God.

The universal mode of building houses in the East, is in the form of a hollow square, with an open court or yard in the center; which is thus entirely shut in by the walls of the house around it. Into this court all the windows open, there being usually no windows towards the street. Some houses of large size require several courts, and these usually communicate with each other. These courts are commonly paved; and in many large houses parts of them are planted with shrubs and trees, Ps 84:3 128:3; they have also, when possible, a fountain in them, often with a jet dí eau, 2Sa 17:18. It is customary in many houses to extend an awning over the whole court in hot weather; and the people of the house then spend much of the day in the open air, and indeed often receive visits there. In Aleppo, at least, there is often on the south side of the court an alcove in the wall of the house, furnished with divans or sofas, for reclining and enjoying the fresh air in the hot seasons.

In the middle of the front of each house is usually an arched passage, leading into the court-not directly, lest the court should be exposed to view from the street, but by turning to one side. The outer door of this passage was, in large houses, guarded by a porter, Ac 12:13. The entrance into the house is either from this passage or from the court itself.

The following extracts from Dr. Shaw will interest the reader, and at the same time serve to illustrate many passages of Scripture. He remarks, "the general method of building, both in Barbary and the Levant, seems to have continued the same from the earliest ages, without the least alteration or improvement. Large doors, spacious chambers, marble pavements, cloistered courts, with fountains sometimes playing in the midst, are certainly conveniences very well adapted to the circumstances of these climates, where the summer heats are generally so intense. The jealously likewise of these people is less apt to be alarmed, while all the windows open into their respective courts, if we except a latticed window or balcony which sometimes looks into the streets", 2Ki 9:30.

"The streets of eastern cities, the better to shade them from the sun, are usually narrow, with sometimes a range of shops on each side. If from these we enter into one of the principal houses, we shall first pass through a porch or gateway with benches on each side, there the master of the family receives visits and dispatches business; few persons, not even the nearest relations, having a further admission, except upon extraordinary occasions. From hence we are received into the court, or quadrangle, which, lying open to the weather, is, according to the ability of the owner, paved with marble, or such materials as will immediately carry off the water into the common sewers. When many people are to be admitted, as upon the celebration of marriage, the circumcising of a child, or occasions of the like nature, the company is rarely or never received into one of the chambers. The court is the usual place of their reception, which is strewed accordingly with mats and carpets for their more commodious entertainment. Hence it is probable that the place where our Savior and the apostles were frequently accustomed to give their instructions, was in the area, or quadrangle, of one of this kind of houses. In the summer season, and upon all occasions when a large company is to be received, this court is commonly sheltered from the heat or inclemency of the weather by a veil or awning, which, being expanded upon ropes from one side of the parapet wall to the other, may be folded or unfolded at pleasure. The psalmist seems to allude either to the tents of the Bedaween, or to some covering of this kind, in that beautiful expression, of spreading out the heavens like a curtain, Ps 140:2. The court is for the most part surrounded with a cloister or colonnade; over which, when the house has two or three stories, there is a gallery erected, of the same dimensions with the cloister, having a balustrade, or else a piece of carved or latticed work going round about it to prevent people from falling from it into the court. From the cloister and galleries we are conducted into large spacious chambers, of the same length with the court, but seldom or never communicating with one another. One of them frequently serves a whole family; particularly when a father indulges his married children to live with him; or when several person join in the rent of the same house. From whence it is, that the cities of these countries, which in general are much inferior in bigness to those of Europe, yet are so exceedingly populous, that great numbers op people are always swept away by the plague, or any other contagious distemper."

The chambers of the rich were often hung with velvet or damask tapestry, Es 1:6; the upper part adorned with fretwork and stucco; and the ceilings with wainscot or mosaic work or fragrant wood, sometimes richly painted, Jer 22:14. The floors were of wood or of painted tiles, or marbles; and were usually spread with carpets. Around the walls were mattresses or low sofas, instead of chairs. The beds were often at one end of the chamber, on a gallery several feet above the floor, with steps and a low balustrade,

2Ki 1:4,16. The stairs were usually in a corner of the court, beside the gateway, Mt 24:17.

"The top of the house," says Dr. Shaw, "which is always flat, is covered with a strong plaster of terrace; from whence, in the Frank language, it has attained the name of the terrace. It is usually surrounded by two walls; the outermost whereof is partly built over the street, partly makes the partition with the contiguous houses, being frequently so low that one may easily climb over it. The other, which I call the parapet wall, hangs immediately over the court, being always breast high; we render it the Ďbattlements,í De 22:8. Instead of this parapet wall, some terraces are guarded in the same manner the galleries are, with balustrades only, or latticed work; in which fashion probably, as the name seems to import, was the net, or Ďlattice,í as we render it, that Ahaziah, 2Ki 1:2, might be carelessly leaning over, when he fell down from thence into the court. For upon these terraces several office of the family, are performed; such as the drying of linen and flax, Jos 2:6, the preparing of figs and raisins; here likewise they enjoy the cool, refreshing breezes of the evening; converse with one another, 1Sa 9:25 2Sa 11:2; and offer up their devotions, 2Ki 23:12 Jer 19:13 Ac 10:9. In the feast of Tabernacles booths were erected upon them, Ne 8:16. When one of these cities is built upon level ground, we can pass from one end of it to the other, along the tops of the houses, without coming down into the street."

"Such, in general, is the manner and contrivance of the eastern houses. And if it may be presumed that our Savior, at the healing of the paralytic, was preaching in a house of this fashion, we preaching in a house of this fashion, we may, by attending only to the structure of it, give no small light to one circumstance of that history, which has given great offence to some unbelievers. Among other pretended difficulties and absurdities relating to this fact, it has been urged that the uncovering or breaking up on the roof, Mr 2:4, or the letting a person down through it, Lu 5:19, suppose that the crowd being so great around Jesus in the court below, that those who brought the sick man could not come near him, they went upon the flat roof, and removing a part of the awning, let the sick man down in his mattress over the parapet, quite at the feet of Jesus."

Dr. Shaw proceeds to describe a sort of addition to many oriental houses, which corresponds probably to the upper chambers often mentioned time the Bible. He says, "To most of these houses there is a smaller one annexed, which sometimes rises one story higher than the house; at other times it consists of one or two rooms only and a terrace; while others that are built, as they frequently are, over the porch or gateway, have (if have not) all the conveniences that belong to the house, properly so called. There is a door of communication from them into the gallery of the house, kept open or shut at the discretion of the master of the family; besides another door, which opens immediately from a privy stairs down into the porch, without giving the least disturbance to the house. These smaller houses are known by the name alee, or oleah, and in them strangers are usually lodged and entertained; and thither likewise the men are wont to retire, from the hurry and noise of their families, to be more at leisure for meditation or devotion, Mt 6:6; besides the use they are at other times put to, in serving for wardrobes and magazines."

This then, or something like this, we may suppose to have been the aliíyah or upper chamber of the Hebrews. Such was the "little chamber upon the wall," which the Shunammite had built for Elisha, 2Ki 4:10; the "summer parlor" of Eglon, Jud 3:20; and the "chamber over the gate," where David retired to weep, 2Sa 18:33; and perhaps in the New Testament the "upper chamber" where Tabitha was laid out, Ac 9:37, and whence Eutychus fell from the window of the third loft into the court, Ac 20:9.

The flat roof of oriental houses often afford a place of retirement and meditation; here Samuel communed with Saul, 1Sa 9:25; and from /1Sa 9:26, they would seem also to have slept there, as is still common in the East, 2Sa 11:2 Da 4:30. Mr. Wood says, "It has ever been a custom with them," the Arabs in the East, "equally connected with health and pleasure, to pass the nights in summer upon the house-tops, which for this very purpose are made flat, and divided from each other by walls. We found this way of sleeping extremely agreeable; as we thereby enjoyed the cool air, above the reach of gnats and vapors, without any other covering than the canopy of heaven, which unavoidably presents itself in different pleasing forms, upon every interruption of rest, when silence and solitude strongly dispose the mid to contemplation, Ac 10:9. The roof of an ancient house was the best and often the only place, from which to get a view of the region around; hence the resort to it in times of peril, Isa 15:3 22:1. In many cases roofs were coated with hardened earth, through which, when cracked or soaked through by rain, the water dripped, Pr 27:15; and in which, when neglected, the grass grows in spring, but soon withers after the rains have ceased, Ps 129:6,7 Isa 37:27."

The common material for building the best oriental houses is stone. Brick is also used. But the houses of the people in the East in general are very bad constructions, consisting of mud walls, reeds, and rushes; whence they become apt illustrations of the fragility of human life, Job 4:19; and as mud, pebbles, and slime, or at best unburnt bricks are used informing the walls, the expression, "digging through houses," Job 24:16 Mt 6:19 24:14, is easily accounted for; as is the behavior of Ezekiel, Eze 12:5, who dug through such a wall in the sight of the people; whereby, as may be imagined, he did little injury to his house; notwithstanding which, the symbol was very expressive to the beholders. So also the striking illustration in Eze 13:10-16. On the sites of many ancient cities of Syria and Babylonia only the ruins of public edifices disappeared ages ago. Travellers near the Ganges and the Nile speak of multitudes of huts on the sandy banks of those rivers being swept away in a night by sudden freshets, leaving not a trace behind. This may illustrate our Saviorís parable, in Mt 7:24-27. See TENT.


The prophetess in the reign of Josiah, consulted respecting the denunciations in the newfound copy of the Book of the Law, 2Ki 22:14-20 2Ch 34:22-28, B. C. 623.


The opposite of pride, in its nature and in the degree of its prevalence. It is often extolled in the Bible, Pr 15:33 16:19; and the Savior especially exalts it, Mt 18:4, and ennobles and endears it by his own example, Joh 13:4-17 Php 2:5-8. Every created being, however holy, should possess it; but in the character of the sinful sons of men it should become a fundamental and allpervading trait, to continue forever.


A chief man among the Hebrews in the desert, associated with Aaron in upholding the hands of Moses at Rephidim, and in supplying his place while on the summit of Sinai, Ex 17:10; 24:14.


The Archite, Davidís friend. Being informed of Absalomís rebellion and that David was obliged to fly from Jerusalem, he met him on an eminence without the city, with his clothes rent and his head covered with earth. David suggested that if he went with him he would be a burden to him; but that he might do him important service if he should remain in Absalomís suite as an adviser. Hushai therefore returned to Jerusalem, and by defeating the counsel of Ahithophel. And gaining time for David, to whom he sent advices, was the cause of Ahithophelís suicide and of Absalomís miscarriage, 2Sa 15:32-37; 16:16-19; 17:1-29.


The prodigal son desired to feed on the husks, or pods, given to the hogs, Lu 15:16. The Greek word here used means the carob- beans, the fruit of a tree of the same name. This fruit is common in all the countries bordering on the Mediterranean: it is suffered to ripen and grow dry on the tree; the poor eat it, and cattle are fattened with it. The tree, the Ceratonia Siliqua, is an evergreen of a middle size, full of branches, and abounding with round dark green leaves, an inch or two in diameter. The blossoms are little red clusters, with yellowish stalks. The fruits are flat brownish pods, from six to eight inches long, and an inch or more broad: they resemble the pods of our locust-tree; and are composed of two husks, separated by membranes into several cells, and containing flat, shining seeds, and when ripe a sweetish, honey like kind of juice. In all probability, their crooked figure occasioned their being called, in Greek, keratia, which signifies little horns. The tree is called by the Germans, Johannisbrodaum, that is, "Johnís-bread-tree," because John the Baptist was supposed to have lived on it fruit.


A member of the church, probably at Ephesus, who fell into the heresy of denying the true doctrine of the resurrection, and saying it had already taken place. When first mentioned, 1Ti 1:20, he was excluded from the church; and when again mentioned, 2Ti 2:17,18, was still exerting a pernicious influence.


A religious canticle, song, or psalm, Eph 5:19 Col 3:16. Paul requires Christians to edify one another with "psalms and hymns and spiritual songs." Matthew says that Christ and his disciples, having supped, sung a hymn, and went out. They probably chanted a part of the psalms which the Jews used to sing after the Passover, which they called the Halal; that is, the Hallelujah psalms. These are Ps 113:1-118:29, of which the first two are supposed to have been chanted before the Passover was eaten, and the others afterwards.


One who, like a stage-player, feigns to be what he is not. The epithet is generally applied to those who assume the appearance of virtue or piety, without possessing the reality. Our Savior accused the Pharisees of hypocrisy, Lu 12:1.


Is often mentioned in Scripture, and is directed to be used in the sprinklings which made part of the Jewish ceremonial law, Ex 12:22 Le 14:4-6 Ps 51:9 Heb 9:19. It is some low shrub, which is contrasted with the lofty cedar, 1Ki 4:33. In Joh 19:29, the soldiers are said to have "filled a sponge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop," that is, upon a rod of hyssop, two feet or more in length, which was long enough to enable one to reach the mouth of a person on the cross. Many different plants have been taken for the hyssop of Scripture, and among others, the caper-plant.