LABAN

A rich herdsman of Mesopotamia, son of Bethuel, and grandson of Mahor, Abrahamís brother, Ge 24:28-31. His character is shown in the gladness with which he gave his sister Rebekah in marriage to the only son of his rich uncle, Abraham, Ge 24:30,50; and in his deceitful and exacting treatment of Jacob his nephew and son-inlaw, against which Jacob defended himself by cunning as well as fidelity. When the prosperity of the one family and the jealousy of the other rendered peace impossible, Jacob, at the command of God, secretly departed, to go to Canaan. Laban pursued him; but being warned by God to do him no harm, returned home after making a treaty of peace. He seems to have known and worshipped God, Ge 24:50 30:27 31:53; but the "gods" or teraphim which Rachel stole from her father, Ge 31:30,34, show that he was not without the taint of idolatry.

LACHISH

A city in the southwest part of Judah, Jos 10:3,5,31; fortified by Rehoboam, 2Ch 11:9, and strong enough to resist for a time the whole army of Sennacherib, 2Ki 18:17 19:8 2Ch 32:1,9,21 Mic 1:13. It was here that king Amaziah was slain, 2Ki 14:19. For a wonderful confirmation of the truth of Scripture, see SENNACHERIB.

LADDER

Ge 28:12-17. The comforting vision of the heavenly ladder shown to the fugitive Jacob, assured him of the omnipresent providence of God, and of his communication of all needed good to his people in the desert of this world, Heb 1:14. It was also an assurance that there was a way open from earth to heaven, as well as from heaven to earth; and we may see in it an illustration of the nature of Christ, in which heaven and earth meet; and of his work, which brings man home to God.

LAISH

See DAN.

LAKE

See MEROM and SEA. That most terrible description of hell, as a lake burning with fire and brimstone, Re 19:20 21:8, recalls the fire and sea in which Sodom was consumed and swallowed up.

LAMB

The young of the sheep, and also the kid of the goat, Ex 12:5, Christ is the Lamb of God, Joh 1:29, as being the accepted sacrifice for human sin. The sacrifices of the Old Testament were an ordained and perpetual foreshadowing not only of his spotless holiness and his unresisting meekness, Isa 53:4-9. He is described in Re 5:6 12:11, as wearing the form of a sacrificial lamb in heaven itself. See PASSOVER and SACRIFICES.

LAMECH

1. Ge 4:18-24, a descendant of Cain, in the fifth generation, and ancestor of numerous posterity distinguished for a skill in agriculture, music, and several mechanic arts. He is the first polygamist on record. His address to his two wives is the oldest specimen of poetry extant, and is a good illustration of Hebrew parallelism.

"Adah and Zillah,

Hear my voice;

Ye wives of Lamech,

Hearken unto my speech.

I have slain a man

To my wounding,

And [or even] a young man

To my hurt.

If Cain shall be avenged

Seven-fold,

Truly Lamech

Seventy and seven fold."

Many explanations of this abrupt fragment have been suggested. The

most satisfactory, perhaps, is that Lamech had accidentally or in

self-defense killed a man, and was exposed to the vengeance of "the

avenger of blood;" but quiets the fears of his wives by saying of

Cain under heavy penalties, Ge 4:15, much more would he guard

the life of Lamech who was comparatively innocent.

2. The son of Methuselah, and father of Noah; he lived seven hundred

and seventy-seven years, and died only five years before the flood,

Ge 5:25-31.

LAMENTATIONS OF JEREMIAH

An elegiac poem, composed by the prophet on occasion of the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar. The first two chapters principally describe the calamities of a the sieges of Jerusalem; the third deplores the persecution which Jeremiah himself had suffered; and fourth adverts to the ruin and desolation of the city and temple, and the misfortune of Zedekiah; and the fifth is a kind of form of prayer for the Jews in their captivity. At the close, the prophet speaks of the cruelty of the Edomites, who had insulted Jerusalem in her misery, and threatens them with the wrath of God, B. C. 586.

The first four chapters of the Lamentations are in the acrostic form; every verse beginning with a letter of the Hebrew alphabet, in regular order. The first, second, and fourth chapters contain twentytwo verses each, according to the letters of the alphabet; the third chapter has three successive verses beginning with the same letter, making sixty-six in all. Moreover, all the verses in each chapter are nearly of the same length. The fifth chapter is not acrostic. See LETTERS. The style of Jeremiahís Lamentations is lively, tender, pathetic, and affecting. It was the talent of this prophet to write melancholy and moving elegies, 2Ch 35:25; and never was a subject more worthy of tears, nor treated with more tender and affecting sentiments. One would think, as it has often been said, that every letter was written with a tear, and every word was the sob of a broken heart. Yet he does not forget that a covenant God still reigns.

LAMP

The lamps of the ancients, sometimes called "candles" in our Bible, were cups and vessels of many convenient and graceful shapes; and might be carried in the hand, or set upon a stand. See CANDLESTICK. The lamp was fed with vegetable oils, tallow, wax, etc., and was kept burning all night. The poorest families, in some parts of the East, still regard this as essential to health and comfort. A darkened house therefore forcibly told of the extinction of its former occupants, Job 18:5,6 Pr 13:9 20:20 Jer 25:10,11; while a constant light was significant of prosperity and perpetuity, 2Sa 21:17 1Ki 11:36 Ps 132:17. Lamps to be carried in the streets presented a large surface of wicking to the air, and needed to be frequently replenished from a vessel of oil borne in the other hand, Mt 25:3,4. Torches and lanterns, Joh 18:3, were very necessary in ancient cities, the streets of which were never lighted.

LANDMARK

Fences and walls seem to have been little used in Judea, Mr 2:23, though gardens were sometimes inclosed. The ancient and permanent limits, therefore, of individual property in the open field, Ru 2:3, were marked by trees or heaps of stones at the corners; and as it was easy, by removing these, to encroach on a neighborís ground, a peculiar form of dishonesty arose, requiring a severe punishment, De 19:14 Pr 22:28 Ho 5:10.

LANGUAGE

One of the distinguishing gifts of God to man, essential to all high enjoyment and improvement in social life, and to be prized and used in a manner worthy of its priceless value for the glory of God and the benefit of mankind. The original language was not the growth of a mere faculty of speech in man, but a creation of gift of God. Adam and Eve when created knew how to converse with each other and with the Creator. For some two thousand years, "the whole earth was of one language and of one speech," Ge 11:1. But about one hundred years after the flood, according to the common chronology, and later according to others, God miraculously "confounded the language" of the Cushite rebels at Babel; and peopling the earth by these scattered families of diverse tongues, He frustrated the designs and promoted his own. There are now several hundreds of languages and dialects spoken on the earth, and infidels have hence taken occasion to discredit the Bible doctrine of the unity of the human race. It is found, however, that these languages are distributed in several great classes, which have striking affinities with each other; and as comparative philology extends its researches, it finds increasing evidence of the substantial oneness of the human race and of the truth of Scripture.

The miracle performed at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost was the reverse of that at Babel, Ac 2:1-18, and beautifully illustrated the tendency of the gospel to introduce peace and harmony where sin has brought discord, and to reunite all the tribes of mankind in one great brotherhood.

To the student of the Bible, one of the most important subjects is the character and history of the original languages in which that holy book was written. In respect to the original Greek of the New Testament, some remarks have been made under the article GREECE. The Hebrew language, in which the Old Testament was written, is but one of the cluster of cognate languages, as belonging particularly to the descendants of Shem. A proper knowledge of the Hebrew, therefore, implies also an acquaintance with these of the kindred dialects.

The Shemitic languages may be divided into three principal dialects, namely, the Aramaean, the Hebrew, and the Arabic. 1. The Aramaean, spoken in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Babylonia, is subdivided into the Syriac and Chaldee dialects sometimes called also the West and East Aramaean. 2. The Hebrew or Canaanites dialect, Isa 19:18, was spoken in Palestine, and probably with little variation in Phoenicia and the Phoenician colonies, as for instance, at Carthage and other places. The remains of the Phoenician and Punic dialects are too few and too much disfigured to enable us to judge with certainty how extensively these languages were the same as the dialect of Palestine. 3. The Arabic, to which the Ethiopic bears a special resemblance, comprises, in modern times, a great variety of dialects as a spoken language, and is spread over a vast extent of country; but so far as we are acquainted with its former state, it appears more anciently to have been limited principally to Arabia and Ethiopia.

These languages are distinguished from European tongues by several marked peculiarities: they are all, except the Ethiopic, written from right to left, and their books begin at what we should call the end; the alphabet, with the exception of the Ethiopic which is syllabic, consists of consonants only, above or below which the vowel-points are written; they have several guttural consonants very difficult of pronunciation to Europeans; the roots of the language are, in general, verbs of three letters, and pronounced, according to the various dialects, with one or more vowels; the verbs have but two tenses, the past and the future; and the pronouns in the oblique cases are generally untied in the same word with the noun or verb to which they have a relation. These various dialects form substantially one language, of which the original home was Western Asia. That they have all diverged from one parent stock is manifest, but to determine which of them has undergone the fewest changes would be a difficult question. The language of Noah and his son Shem was substantially that of Adam and all the antediluvians. Shem and Heber were contemporary with Abraham, and transmitted, as we have good reason to believe, their common tongue to the race of Israel; for it is not to be assumed that at the confusion of Babel no branch of the human family retained the primitive language. It does not appear that the descendants of Shem were among the builders of Babel, Ge 10:8-10.

The oldest records that are known to exist are composed in the Hebrew language. It flourished in its purest form in Palestine, among the Phoenicians and Hebrews, until the period of the Babylonish exile; soon after which it declined, and finally was succeeded by a kind of Hebraeo-Aramaean dialect, such as was spoken in the time of our Savior among the Jews. The West Aramaean had flourished before this for a long time in the east and north of Palestine; but it now advanced farther west, and during the period that the Christian churches of Syria flourished, it was widely extended. It is at present almost a dead language, and has been so for several centuries. The Hebrew may be regarded as having been a dead language, except among a small circle of literati, for about the space of two thousand years. Our knowledge of Arabic literature extends back very little beyond the time of Mohammed. But the followers of this pretended prophet have spread the dialect of the Koran over vast portions of the world. Arabic is now the vernacular language of Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and in a great measure of Palestine and all the northern coast of Africa; while it is read and understood wherever the Koran has gone, in Turkey, Persia, India, and Tartary.

The remains of the ancient Hebrew tongue are contained in the Old Testament and in the few Phoenician and Punic words and inscriptions that have been here and there discovered. The remains of the Aramaean are extant in a variety of books. In Chaldee, we have a part of the books of Daniel and Ezra, Da 2:4-7:28 Ezr 4:8-6:18 7:12-26, which are the most ancient of any specimens of this dialect. The Targum of Onkelos, that is, the translation of the Pentateuch into Chaldee, affords the next and purest specimen of that language. The oldest specimen of this language that we have is contained in the Peshito, or Syriac version of the Old and New Testament, made perhaps within a century after the time of Christ. A multitude of writers in this dialect have flourished, many of whose writings are probably still extant, although but few have been printed in Europe. In Arabic, there exists a great variety of manuscripts and books, historical, scientific, and literary. A familiar knowledge of this and its kindred dialects throws much valuable light on the Old Testament Scriptures.

LAODICEA

A large and opulent city of Asia Minor, the metropolis of Phrygia Pacatiana. It was situated on the river Lycus, not far above its junction with the Meander, and in the vicinity of Colosse and Hierapolis. Its earlier name was Diopolis; but after being enlarged by Antiochus II, it was called Laodicea, from his wife Lodice. About A. D. 65 or 66, this city, together with Hieropolis and Colosse, was destroyed by an earthquake, but was quickly rebuilt by Marcus Aurelius. It is now in ruins, and the place is called Eskihissar, or the old castle. A Christian church was early gathered here. It was addressed by Paul in his letter to Colosse, and in another now lost, Col 2:1 4:13-16, though some think the "Epistle to the Ephesians" is the one alluded to. The church at Laodicea was probably visited by Paul, A. D. 63, and is one of the seven which received special messages from Christ after his ascension, Re 1:11 3:14-22. We know little of its after-history, except that an important council was held there near the middle of the fourth century, and that some form of Christianity lingered there until the time of the Turks.

LAPWING

Supposed to mean the hoopoe, a beautiful migratory bird of filthy habits and a loud, hoarse voice; pronounced unclean by Moses, Le 11:19. It is about the size of a thrush; its beak is long, black, thin and a little hooked; its legs gray and short. On its head is a tuft of feathers of different colors, which it raises or lowers as it pleases. Its neck and breast are somewhat reddish, and its wings and tail black, with white streaks.

LASEA

A city near Fair-Havens, on the south side of Crete. Paul passed it on his voyage to Rome, Ac 27:8.

LATTICE

See HOUSE.

LAUD

To extol, by words of praise or in song, Ro 15:11.

LAVER

A large circular vessel, cast from the polished brass mirrors contributed by the Hebrew women, and placed between the door of the tabernacle and the altar of burnt-offering, with water for the necessary sacred ablutions, Ex 30:18-21 28:8 40:7 30:1 32:35.

For the temple of Solomon, besides the vast brazen sea for the use of the priests, (see SEA,) ten lavers were made for cleansing the sacrifices, 2Ch 4:6. Each laver contained about three hundred gallons, and was supported above a highly elaborate and beautiful base, 1Ki 7:27-39. They were stationed within the court of the priests, in front of the temple, five on each side. See TEMPLE.

LAW

In the Bible, signifies sometimes the whole word of God, Ps 19:7-11 119:1-176 Isa 8:20; sometimes the Old Testament, Joh 10:34 15:25, and sometimes the five books of Moses, which formed the first of the three divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures, Lu 24:44 Ac 13:15. The Pentateuch was probably "the law," a copy of which every king was to transcribe for himself and study, and which was to be made known to young and old, in public and in private, De 6:7 17:18,19 31:9-19,26. In other places the Mosaic institutions as a whole are intend by "the law," in distinction from the gospel, Joh 1:17 Ac 25:8.

When the word refers to the Law of Moses, careful attention to the context is sometimes requisite to judge whether the civil, the ceremonial, or the moral law is meant. The ceremonial or ritual laws, concerning the forms of worship, sacrifices, priests, purifications, etc., were designed to distinguish the Jewish nation from the heathen, and to foreshadow the gospel dispensation. They were annulled after Christís ascension, Ge 3:24 Eph 2:15 Heb 9:1-28 10:1-22. The civil laws, Ac 23:2 24:6, were for the government of the Jews as a nation, and included the Ten Commandments. The whole code was adapted with consummated wisdom to the condition of the Jews, and has greatly influenced all wise legislation in later years. Its pious, humane, and just spirit should characterize every code of human laws. The moral law, De 5:22 Mt 5:17,18 Lu 10:26,27, is more important than the others, from its bearings on human salvation. It was written by the Creator on the conscience of man, and sin has never fully erased it, Ro 1:19 2:12-15. It was more fully taught to the Hebrews, especially at Mount Sinai, in the Ten Commandments, and is summed up by Christ in loving God supremely and our neighbor as ourselves, Mt 22:37-40. It was the offspring of love to man, Ro 7:10,12; required perfect obedience, Ga 3:10 Jas 2:10; and is of universal and perpetual obligation. Christ confirmed and enforced it, Mt 5:17-20, showing its demands of holiness in the heart, applying it to a variety of cases, and supplying new motives to obedience, by revealing heaven and hell more clearly, and the gracious guidance of the Holy Spirit. Some have argued from certain passages of Scripture that this law is no longer binding upon Christians; that they "are not under the law, but under grace," Ro 6:14,15 7:4,6 Ga 3:13,25 5:18; and the perversion of these passages leads men to sin and perish because grace abounds. Rightly understood, they harmonize with the declarations of the Savior, Mt 5:17. To the soul that is in Christ, the law is no longer the arbiter of doom; yet is still comes to him as the divinely appointed teacher of that will of God in which he now delights, Ps 119:97 Mt 5:48 11:30.

The word "law" sometimes means an inward guiding and controlling power. The "law in the mind" and the "law in the members," mean the holy impulses of a regenerated should and the perverse inclinations of the natural heart, Ro 7:21-23. Compare also Ro 8:2 9:31 Jas 1:25 2:12.

LAWYERS

Men who devoted themselves to the study and explanation of the Jewish law, particularly of the traditionary or oral law. They belonged mostly to the sect of the Pharisees, and fell under the reproof of our Savior for having taken from the people the key of knowledge. They were as the blind leading the blind, Mt 28:20 Lu 10:25 11:52. See SCRIBES.

LAZARUS

1. A friend and disciple of Christ, brother of Martha and Mary, with whom he resided at Bethany near Jerusalem. Our Savior had a high regard for the family, and often visited them; and when Lazarus was dangerously ill, word was sent to Christ, "Lord, behold, he whom thou lovest is sick." The Savior reached Bethany after he had lain four days in his grave, and restored him to life by a word, "Lazarus, come forth." This public and stupendous miracle drew so many to Christ, that his enemies sought to put both him and Lazarus to death, Joh 11:1-57 12:1-11. The narrative displays Christ as a tender and compassionate friend, weeping for and with those he loved, and at the same time as the Prince of life, beginning his triumph over death and the grave. Happy are they who, in view of their own death, or that of friends, can know that they are safe in Him who says, "I am the resurrection and the life;" and, "because I live, ye shall live also."

2. The helpless beggar who lay at the rich manís gate in one of Christís most solemn and instructive parables. The one, though poor and sorely afflicted, was a child of God. The other described as selfindulgent rather than vicious or criminal was living without God in the enjoyment of every earthly luxury. Their state in this life was greatly in contrast with their real character before God, which was revealed in the amazing changes of their condition at death, Lu 16:19-31. See ABRAHAMíS BOSOM. Our Savior plainly teaches us, in this parable, that both the friends and the foes of God know and begin to experience their doom immediately after death, and that it is in both cases unchangeable and eternal.

LEAD

There are early allusions to this well-known metal in Scripture. The Egyptians "sank as lead" in the Red Sea, Ex 15:10; Nu 31:22; Eze 27:12. Job refers to its use in preserving a permanent record of events, by being melted and poured into letters deeply cut in a rock, Job 19:24. Leaden tablets also were used by the ancients for similar records. This metal was employed, before the use of quicksilver was known, in purifying silver; and the process by which these metals are purged from their dross, illustrates Godís discipline of his people, Jer 6:29,30; Eze 22:17-22.

LEAH

The elder daughter of Laban, and the first wife of Jacob, though less beloved than her sister Rachel. She had, through life, the remembrance of the deceit by which her father had imposed her upon Jacob. She was the mother of seven children, among whom were Reuben- Jacobís firstborn-and Judah, the ancestor of the leading tribe among the Jews, of the royal line, and of our Lord, Ge 29:16-35; 30:1- 21. She is supposed to have died before the removal of the family into Egypt, Ge 49:31.

LEASING

Falsehood, Ps 4:2; 5:6.

LEAVEN

Sourdough which is kept over from one baking to another, in order to raise the new dough. Leaven was forbidden in the Hebrews during the seven days of the Passover, in memory of what their ancestors did when they went out of Egypt, they being then obliged to carry unleavened meal with them, and to make bread in haste, the Egyptians pressing them to be gone, Ex 12:15,19. They were very careful in cleansing their houses from it before this feast began, 1Co 5:6. God forbade either leaven or honey to be offered to him in his temple, Le 2:11. The pervading and transforming effect of leaven is used in illustration of the like influence on society, exerted by the purifying principles of the gospel, or by false doctrines and corrupt men, Mt 12:23 16:6-12 1Co 5:6-8.

LEBANON

White, a long chain of mountains on the north of Palestine, so named from the whitish limestone of which they are composed and in part perhaps from their snowy whiteness in winter. It consists of two main ridges running northeast and southwest, nearly parallel with each other and with the coast of the Mediterranean. See view in SIDON. The western ridge was called Libanus by the Greeks, and the eastern AntiLibanus. Between them lies a long valley called Coele-Syria, that is, Hollow Syria, and the "valley of Lebanon," Jos 11:17, at present Bukkah. It opens towards the north, but is exceedingly narrow towards the south, where the river Litany, anciently Orontes, issues form the valley and flows west to the sea, north of Tyre. The western ridge is generally higher than the eastern, and several of its peaks are thought to be towards, 10,000 feet high. One summit, however, in the eastern range, namely, Mount Hermon, now called Jebel-esh-Sheikh, is higher still, and rises nearly into the region of perpetual ice. See HERMON. An Arab poet says of the highest peak of Lebanon, "The Sannin bears winter on his head, spring upon his shoulders, and autumn in his bosom, while summer lies sleeping at his feet."

The Hebrew writers often allude to this sublime mountain range, Isa 10:34 35:2, rising like a vast barrier on their north, Isa 37:24. They speak of its sea of foliage agitated by the gales, Ps 72:16; of its noble cedars and other trees, Isa 60:13 Jer 22:23; of its innumerable herds, the whole of which, however, could not atone for one sin, Isa 40:16; its snow-cold streams, Jer 18:14, and its balsamic perfume, Ho 14:5. Moses longed to enter the Holy Land, that he might "see that goodly mountain and Lebanon," De 3:24,25; and Solomon says of the Beloved, the type of Christ, "his countenance is as Lebanon," So 5:15. "The tower of Lebanon which looketh towards Damascus," So 7:4, is brought to recollection by the accounts given by modern travelers of the ruins of ancient temples, built of stones of vast size. Many such ruinous temples have been discovered in different parts of Lebanon, several of them on conspicuous points, high up in the mountains, where the labor of erecting them must have been stupendous.

At present, Lebanon is inhabited by a hardy and turbulent race of mountaineers. Its vast wilderness of mountains forms almost a world by itself. Its western slopes particularly, rising by a succession of terraces from the plain of the coast, are covered with vines, olives, mulberries, and figs; and occupied, as well as the valleys among the mountains, by numberless villages. Anti-Lebanon are Drues and Maronites; the former Mohammedan mystics, and the latter bigoted Romanists. Among them are interspersed many Greeks and Armenians.

For "cedar of Lebanon," see CEDAR.

LEBBEUS

See JUDAS 2.

LEBONAH

Jud 21:19, a town of Ephraim, near Shiloh, between Bethel and Shechem. Its name and site are preserved in the present village of Lubban.

LEEK

A bulbous vegetable resembling the onion. The Hebrews complained in the wilderness, that manna grew insipid to them; they longed for the leeks and onions of Egypt, Nu 11:5. Hassel-quist says the karrat, or leek, is surely one of those after which the Israelites pined; for is has been cultivated in Egypt from time immemorial. The Hebrew word is usually translated "grass" in the English Bible. Its original meaning is supposed to be greens or grass.

LEES

Or dregs, the refuse and sediment of wine. Wines that have been allowed to stand a long time on the lees, thereby acquire a superior color and flavor. Hence such wines are used as a symbol of gospel blessings, Isa 25:6; also of a nation or community that, from long quiet and prosperity, has become rich and luxurious, and has settled down in carnal security, Jer 48:11 Zep 1:12. To drink the dregs of the cup of Godís wrath, Ps 75:8 Isa 51:17, is to drink it to exhaustion; that is, to suffer Godís wrath without mitigation or end.

LEGION

The number in a Roman legion varied at different periods, from three thousand to more than twice that number. In the time of Christ a legion contained six thousand, besides the cavalry. There were ten cohorts in each legion; which were divided each into three maniples or bands, and these into two centuries containing one hundred men each. In the Bible a legion means a number indefinitely large. The Savior cured a demoniac who called himself "Legion" as if possessed my myriads of demons, Mr 5:9. The expression, "twelve legions of angels," Mt 26:53, illustrate the immensity of the heavenly host, and their zealous devotion to Christ.

LEHABIM

See LIBYA.

LEHI

Jawbone, a place in Judah, where Samson was enabled to slay one thousand Philistines with the jawbone of an ass, and where, in answer to his petition, a fountain sprung up to relieve his thirst, Jud 15:9-19. Probably the Hebrew word Lehi in, should be left untranslated, "God clave a hollow place that was in Lehi, and there came water thereout." This spring he called En-hakkore, the fountain of him that prayed. It continued to flow, and may even to this day be testifying that God hears the cry of his people, and can turn a dry land into springs of water for their use, Ge 21:19; Nu 20:11.

LEMUEL

The author of Pr 31:1-31. Some suppose it to be an enigmatical name for Solomon.

LENTILE

A species of pulse or bean. We find Esau longing for a mess of pottage made of lentils, Ge 25:34. Augustine says, "Lentils are used as food in Egypt, for this plant grows abundantly in that country, which renders the lentils of Alexandria so valuable that they are brought from thence to us, as if none were grown among us." In Barbary, Dr. Shaw says "Lentils are dressed in the same manner as beans, dissolving easily into a mass, and marking a pottage of a chocolate color." See 2Sa 17:28; 23:11.

LEOPARD

A fierce wild beast of the feline genus, beautifully spotted with a diversity of colors; it has small eyes, wide jaws, sharp teeth, round ears, a large tail; five claws on the fore feet, and four on those behind. It is swift, craft, and cruel; dangerous to all domestic cattle, and even to man, Jer 5:6 13:23 Da 10:6 Ho 13:7 Hab 1:8. Its name, leopard, implies that it has something of the lion and of the panther in its nature. It seems from Scripture that the leopard could not be rare in Palestine. Its Hebrew name occurs significantly in several names of places; as Beth-nimrah, the haunt of leopards, Nu 32:36. So in Nimrah, Nimrim, and perhaps Nimrod the mighty hunter. Isaiah, describing the happy reign of the Messiah, says, Isa 11:6, "The leopard shall lie down with the kid, and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together." The spouse in the Canticles speaks of the mountains of the leopards, So 4:8; that is to say, such as Lebanon and Hermon, where wild beasts dwelt.

LEPER

A person afflicted with leprosy. As it now exists, leprosy is a scaly disease of the skin, occurring in several distinct forms and with many degrees of severity; beginning with slight reddish eruptions, followed by scales of a greyish white color, sometimes in circles an inch or two in diameter, and at other times much larger; in many cases attacking only the knees and elbows, in others the whole body; usually not affecting the general health, but considered impossible of cure. It is said not to be infectious; but is communicated from father to son for several generations, gradually becoming less noticeable. It corresponds in the main with the disease the symptoms and treatment of which are so fully described in Le 13:14. There is little doubt, however, that the ancient leprosy, in its more aggravated form, is to be regarded as a plague or judgment from God, De 24:8. It was peculiarly dreaded among the Jews as unclean and infectious; and also as being a special infliction from Jehovah, as we know it to have been in the cases of Miriam, Nu 12:10, Gehazi, 2Ki 5:27, and Uzziah, 2Ch 26:16-23. No remedies were effectual. The suffered was commended to the priest, not to the physician; and was separated from many of the privileges of society. We find that lepers associated chiefly with each other, 2Ki 7:8 Lu 17:12. The term, "the plague of leprosy," is applied not only to this disease in men, but to a similar infection sometimes sent into houses and garments, Le 14:1-57. The exact nature of this latter cannot be ascertained; but it bears the marks of a special aggravation, as a judgment from God, of some evil not unknown in that climate. It illustrates the awful result of moral corruption in society, uncounteracted by the grace of God. The disease in all its forms is a lively emblem of sin. This malady of the soul is also all pervading, unclean, contagious, and incurable; it separates its victim from God and heaven; it proves its existence by its increasing sway and its fatal termination. But the Savior has shown his power to heal the worst maladies of the soul by curing the leprosy with a word, Lu 17:12-19, and to admit the restored soul to all the privileges of the sons of God.

ELEPHANTIASIS, supposed by some to have been the disease of Job, and the "botch" or ulcer of Egypt, De 28:27,35, is a tuberculous malady somewhat akin to the leprosy, but more dreadful. Its name is derived from the dark, hard, and rough appearance of the skin; and from the form of the feet, swollen, and despoiled of the toes. This horrid malady infects the whole system; ulcers and dark scales cover the body; and the hair, beard, fingers, and all the extremities drop off. It is still met with in tropical countries, and was introduced into Europe by the crusaders; but after occasioning dreadful navoc, and the building of thousands of "hospitals for lepers," it disappeared or changed its form.

LESBOS

See MITYLENE.

LET

Sometimes used in the Bible in the old English sense, that is, to hinder, Isa 43:13; Ro 1:13.

LETTERS

Lu 23:38 The Hebrews have certain acrostic poems which begin with the letters of the alphabet, ranged in order. The most considerable of these is Ps 119:1-176, which contains twentytwo stanzas of eight verses each, all acrostic; that is, the first eight begin with Aleph, the next eight with Beth, and so on. Ps 25:1-22 34:1-22, have but twenty-two verses each, beginning with the twentytwo letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Others, as Ps 111:1-112:10, have one-half of the verse beginning with one letter, and the other half with the next. Thus, Blessed is the man who feareth the Lord,

Who delighteth greatly in his commandments.

The first half of the verse begins in the Hebrew with Aleph; the second with Beth. Ps 37:1-40 145:21 are acrostic. La 1:1-5:22 are also in acrostic verse, as well as Pr 31:8-31. In Joh 7:15, the word "letters" means learning; the Jews said of Christ, Whence this manís qualifications to teach us the Scriptures, since he has not learned of the doctors of the law?

Paul speaks of "the letter" in distinction from "the spirit," Ro 2:27,29 7:6 2Co 3:6; contrasting the mere word of the law and its outward observance, with its spiritual meaning, and cordial obedience to it through the Spirit of Christ.

Epistolary correspondence seems to have been little practiced among the ancient Hebrews. Some few letters are mentioned in the Old Testament, 2Sa 11:14 Ezr 4:8. They were conveyed to their destination by friends or travelers, Jer 29:3; or by royal couriers, 2Ch 30:6 Es 8:10. The letter was usually in the form of a roll, the last fold being pasted down. They were sealed, 1Ki 21:8, and sometimes wrapped in an envelope, or in a bag of costly materials and highly ornamented. To send an open letter was expressive of contempt, Ne 6:5. In the New Testament we have numerous examples of letters, from the pens of the apostles.

LEVI

1. The third son of Jacob and Leah, born in Mesopotamia; and father of three sons, and of Jochebed the mother of Moses, Ge 29:34 Ex 6:16-20. For his share in the treacherous massacre of the Shechemites, Ge 34:1-31, his father at death foreboded evil to his posterity, Ge 49:5-7; but as they afterwards stood forth on the Lordís side, Moses was charged to bless them, Ex 32:26-29 De 33:8-11. The tribe of Levi was, according to Jacobís prediction, scattered over all Israel, having no share in the cities in the portions of other tribes. All the tithes, first fruits, and offerings, presented at the temple, as well as several parts of all the victims that were offered belonged to the tribe of Levi. See LEVITES.

2. The apostle Matthew was also called Levi. See MATTHEW.

LEVIATHAN

Ps 74:14 104:26, an aquatic monster described in the book of Job, Job 41:1-34. Probably the animal denoted is the crocodile, the terror of the Nile; as BEHEMOTH, in Job 40:1-24, is the hippopotamus of the same river.

The crocodile is a native of the Nile, and other Asiatis and African rivers; in some instances even thirty feet in length; of enormous voracity and strength, as well as fleetness in swimming; attacks mankind and the largest animals, with most daring impetuosity; when taken by means of a powerful net, will often overturn the boats that surround it; has proportionally the largest mouth of all monsters whatever; moves both its jaws alike, the upper of which has not less than thirty-six, and the lower thirty sharp, but strong and massy teeth; and is furnished with a coat of mail so scaly and callous as to resist the force of a musket-ball in every part, except under the belly. The general character of the LEVIATHAN in fact seems so well to apply to this animal, in modern as well as in ancient times the terror of all the coasts and countries about the Nile, that it is unnecessary to seek further. In several passages in the Bible, the king of Egypt appears to be addressed as leviathan, Isa 27:1 Eze 29:3.

The following extract of a letter from an American gentleman in Manila gives a graphic view of the strength and size of the crocodile: "My last operation in the sporting line, was no less than killing a crocodile, which for a year or two before had infested a village on the borders of the lake, taking off horses and cows, and sometimes a man. Having understood that he had killed a horse a day or two before, and had taken him into a small river, I proceeded to the spot, accompanied by my host, closed the mouth of the river with strong nets, and attacked the huge brute with guns and spears. After something of a desperate battle, we succeeded in driving him against the nets, where, being considerably exhausted by the wounds he had received from balls and lances, he got entangled, was dragged on shore, and the coup de grace given to him. He measured twenty feet in length, and from eleven to thirteen feet in circumference, the smallest part being eleven and the largest thirteen. The head alone weighed two hundred and seventy-five pounds. He had nearly the whole of the horse in him, and the legs, with the hoofs, were taken out entire."

LEVITES

All the descendants of Levi may be comprised under this name, Ex 6:16,25 Jos 3:3, (see LEVI;) but chiefly those who were employed in the lower services in the temple, by which they were distinguished from the priests, who were of the race of Levi by Aaron, and were employed in higher offices, Nu 3:6-10 18:2-7. God chose the Levites for the service of his tabernacle and temple, instead of the firstborn of all Israel, to whom such duties naturally belonged, and who were already sacred to God in memory of the great deliverance in Egypt. Ex 13:1-22 Nu 3:12,13,39-51. In the wilderness, the Levites took charge of the tabernacle and its contents; and conveyed it from place to place, each of the three families having a separate portion, Nu 1:51 4:1-49 1Ch 15:2,27. After the building of the temple they took charge of the gates, of the sacred vessels, of the preparation of the showbread and other offerings, and of the singing and instrumental music, 1Ch 9:1-44 23:1-32 2Ch 29:1-36. They brought wood, water, etc., for the priests; aided them in preparing the sacrifices, and in collecting and disbursing the contributions of the people, 2Ch 30:16,17 35:1. They were also the temple guards, Ne 13:13,22; and the salutation and response in Ps 134:1-3 are thought by Bishop Lowth to have been their song in the night. But besides their services in the temple, they performed a very important part in teaching the people, 2Ch 30:22 Ne 8:7, among whom they were scattered, binding the tribes together, and promoting virtue and piety. They studied the law, and were the ordinary judges of the country, but subordinate to the priests, 2Ch 17:9 19:8-11. God provided for the subsistence of the Levites, by giving to them the tithe of corn, fruit, and cattle; but they paid to the priests the tenth of their tithes; and as the Levites possessed no estates in land, the tithes which the priests received from them were considered as the first fruits which they were to offer to the Lord, Nu 18:21-32. The payment of tithes to the Levites appears not to have been enforced, but depended on the goodwill of the people; hence the special charges laid on their brethren, not to forget them, De 2:12,18,19.

God assigned for the habitation of the Levites forty-eight cities, with fields, pastures, and gardens, Nu 35:1-34. Of these, thirteen were given to the priests, all in the tribes near Jerusalem. Six of the Levitical cities were appointed as cities of refuge, Jos 20:1-21:45. While the Levites were actually employed in the temple, they were supported out of the provisions kept in store there, and out of the daily offerings. The same privilege was granted to volunteers, drawn to Jerusalem by the fervor of their love to Godís service, De 12:18,19 18:6-8. The consecration of Levites was without much ceremony. See Nu 8:5-22 2Ch 29:34.

The Levites wore no peculiar dress to distinguish them from other Israelites, till the time of Agrippa. His innovation in this matter is mentioned by Josephus, who remarked that the ancient customs of the country were never forsaken with impunity.

The Levites were divided into different classes: the Gershomites, Kohathites, and Merarites, Nu 3:17-20. They were still further divided into courses, like the priests, 1Ch 23:1-26:32. At first, they entered in full on their public duties at thirty years of age, Nu 4:3 8:25; but David fixed the age for commencing at twenty years; and at fifty they were exempt, 1Ch 23:24-27. The different courses of porters, singers, guards, etc., were on duty in succession, one week at a time, 1Ch 23:1-26:32 2Ch 23:4,8 31:17 Ezr 3:8-12. After the revolt of the ten tribes, a large portion of the Levites abandoned their cities in Israel, and dwelt in Judah, 2Ch 11:12-14 13:9-11. After the captivity, numbers of them returned from beyond the Euphrates to Judea, Ne 11:15-19 12:24-31. In the New Testament they are not often mentioned, Lu 10:32 Joh 1:19 Ac 4:36. The "scribes" and "doctors," however, are supposed to have belonged chiefly to this class.

LEVITICUS

The third book in the Pentateuch; called Leviticus, because it contains principally the laws and regulations relating to the Levites, priests, and sacrifices. The Hebrews call it "the priestsí law." In the first section, the various bloody and unbloody sacrifices are minutely described: the burnt offering, the meat, sin, peace, ignorance, and trespass offerings; the sins for which and the mode in which they were to be offered. The fullness of these details not only signified the importance of Godís worship, but forbade all human additions and changes, that might lead to idolatry. The whole scheme was "a shadow of good things to come," typical of the Lamb "who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot unto God." Its best commentary is the epistle to the Hebrews.

A full account of the consecration of Aaron and his sons as priests, is followed by the instructive narrative of Nadab and Abihu. Then are given the laws respecting personal and ceremonial purifications, a perpetual memento of the defilement of sin, and of the holiness of God. Next follows a description of the great day of Expiation; after which the Jews are warned against the superstitions, idolatry, etc., of the Canaanites; and laws are given guarding their morals, health, and civil order. The observance of their distinguishing festivals is enjoined upon them; and laws are given respecting the Sabbath and the jubilee, vows and tithes. The warnings and promises in the latter part of the book point their attention to the future, and aim to unite the whole nation in serving their covenant God. The book is generally held to be the work of Moses, though he was probably assisted by Aaron. Its date is B. C. 1490. It contains the history of the first month of their second year after leaving Egypt.

LIBERTINES

Ac 6:9. This word is from the Latin libertinus, which signifies a freedman, that is, one who, having been a slave, either by birth or capture, has obtained his freedom; or one born of a parent who was a freedman. The "synagogue of the Libertines" stands connected with the Cyrenians and Alexandrians, both of whom were of African origin; it is therefore supposed by some, that the Libertines were of African origin also. It is, however, most probable that this word denotes Jews who had been taken captive by the Romans in war, and carried to Italy; and having there been manumitted, were accustomed to visit Jerusalem in such numbers as to erect a synagogue for their particular use; as was the case with Jews from other cities mentioned in the context. They originated the persecution against Stephen, which resulted in his martyrdom. See SYNAGOGUE

LIBNAH

A city in the western part of Judah, not far from Lachish, conquered by Joshua from the Canaanites, and assigned to the priests, Jos 10:29,30 15:42 21:13 1Ch 6:57. Its inhabitants revolted against the idolatrous and cruel Jehoram, 2Ch 21:10. It was a strongly fortified place, and under its walls the Assyrian army was miraculously cut off, 2Ki 19:8,9,35.

LIBYA

A country in the north of Africa, stretching along on the Mediterranean between Egypt and Carthage, and running back somewhat into the interior. The part adjoining Egypt was sometimes called Libya Marmarica; and that around Cyrene, Cyrenaica, from its chief city; or Pentapolitana, from its chief city; or Pentapolitana, from its five cities, Cyrene, Apollonia, Berenice, Arsinoe, and Ptolemais. In these cities great numbers of Jews dwelt in the time of Christ; and they, with their Libyan proselytes, resorted to Jerusalem to worship, Ac 2:10. Libya received its name from the Lehabim of Lubim, Ge 10:13; a warlike people, who assisted Shishak king of Egypt, and Zerah the Ethiopian, in their wars against Judea, 2Ch 12:3 14:9 16:8 Da 11:43. They were also allies of ancient Thebes, Na 3:9. Compare Jer 46:9 Eze 30:5. Libya fell at length under the power of Carthage; and subsequently, of the Greeks, Romans, Saracens, and Turks.

LICE

The third plague of Egypt, Ex 8:16; Ps 105:31; peculiarly offensive to the priests, who were obliged to shave and wash their entire body every third day, lest they should carry any vermin into the temples. According to many interpreters, lest they were the small stinging gnats which abound in Egypt.

LIFE

In the Bible, is either natural, Ge 3:17; spiritual, that of the renewed soul, Ro 8:6; or eternal, a holy and blissful immortality, Joh 3:36 Ro 6:23. Christ is the great Author of natural life, Col 1:16; and also of spiritual and eternal life; Joh 14:6 6:47. He has purchased these by laying down his own life; and gives them freely to his people, Joh 10:11,28. He is the spring of all their spiritual life on earth, Ga 2:20; will raise them up at the last day; and make them partakers for ever of his own life, Joh 11:25 14:19.

LIGHT

One of the most wonderful, cheering, and useful of all the works of God; called into being on the first of the six days of creation, by his voice: "Let there be light;" and there was light. No object better illustrates whatever is pure, glorious, spiritual, joyful, and beneficent. Hence the beauty and force of the expressions, "God is light," 1Jo 1:5, and "the Father of lights," Jas 1:17; Christ is the "Sun of righteousness," and "the light of the world," Joh 1:9 8:12. So also the word of God is "a light," Ps 119:105; truth and Christians are lights, Joh 3:19 12:36; prosperity is "light," Es 8:16; and heaven is full of light, Re 21:23-25. The opposite of all these is "darkness."

LIGN-ALOES

See ALOES.

LIGURE

Probably the same with the jacinth, a stone in the high priestís breastplate, Ex 28:19; 39:12, said to have been of a deep and brilliant red color, with a tinge of yellow, and transparent.

LILLY

Of this queenly plant, several varieties are found among the wild flowers of Palestine, the profusion, beauty, and fragrance of which are the delight of travelers. The lily is a spring flower, and appears early in all parts of the Holy Land. It was introduced in the ornamental work of the temple, 1Ki 7:19-26 2Ch 4:5. In canticles it is often employed as a symbol of loveliness. More commonly it is applied to the bride and her various perfections: So 2:1,2, where the bride speaks, So 2:1, the bridegroom answers, So 2:2, and the bride again responds, So 2:3. The bridegroomís lips are compared to lilies in So 5:13, and he is described as feeding among the lilies, So 2:16 6:3; which typically represents Christ as delighting himself with the graces of his people. From the lily our Savior had also drawn one of his most striking figures: "Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow;" "even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. If God so clothe the grass of the field, shall he not much more clothe you?" Mt 6:28. We must be careful not to confound the lily of the valleys, So 2:1, which means simply the lily growing in valleys, with our "lily of the valley," which belongs to another class of flowers.

LINEN

As is well known, is made of the fine fibers of flax, and was much used by the ancients. Four different words in Hebrew are translated in our Bible, "Linen," "fine linen," and "silk:" PISHTAH, Jud 15:14 Eze 44:17,18; BAD, worn by the priests, Ex 28:42 39:28, and by king David, etc., 2Sa 6:14; SHESH, worn by Joseph when governor of Egypt, Ge 41:42, and by the virtuous woman in Pr 31:22, (see SILK;) and BUTZ, of which the veil of the temple and Davidís outer mantle were made,

1Ch 15:27 2Ch 2:14 3:14 5:12. These words may indicate different qualities of linen, but are thought to mean in part cloth of different materials, particularly the last two. Some think BUTZ, in Latin byssus, denotes cotton cloth, and SHESH that made of hemp. See COTTON, and FLAX. Fine linen was sometimes made of snowy whiteness, and was a symbol of the purity of angels and of the redeemed church, Re 15:6 19:8.

LINES

The cords used in measuring and settling the bounds of landed property, Ps 16:6; Isa 34:17.

LINUS

A Christian at Rome, whose salutation Paul sent to Timothy, 2Ti 4:21.

LION

The well-known and noble king of beasts, frequently spoken of in Scripture. He often exceeds eight feet in length and four feet in height; and his majestic and dauntless aspect, his prodigious strength and agility, and his peculiar roar, make him the terror of the forests. Lions were common in Palestine, (See JORDAN,) and the Hebrews had seven different names for them, to distinguish the different ages, etc. Five of these occur together in Job 4:10,11. See also Na 2:11,12. The psalmist alludes to the stealthy creeping of the lion till he can spring upon his prey, when he says of the crafty wicked man, "He lieth in wait secretly as a lion in his den; .... he croucheth, and humbleth himself, that the poor may fall by his strong ones." The Bible reader will remember the exploits of Samson and of David, Jud 14:5,6 1Sa 17:34-36, the story of the disobedient prophet slain by a lion, 1Ki 13:28, and of the obedient Daniel, safe in the lionís den, Da 6:1-28; also the sublime image of Jehovahís care for his people, in Isa 31:4.

"The Lion of the tribe of Judah," Re 5:5, is Jesus Christ, who sprung from the tribe of Judah and the race of David, and overcame death, the world, and the devil. It is supposed that a lion was the device of the tribe of Judah; whence this allusion, Ge 49:9.

LITTER

A light, covered conveyance, resembling a sedan chair, or a palanquin; borne by men, but oftener at the present day in Syria between two mules or camels. Solomonís chariot, So 3:9, or bed, is supposed to have been an elegant mule-litter. The Hebrew word translated litters in Isa 66:20, is rendered wagons in Nu 7:3.

LIVER

Le 3:4. This organ in man was regarded by the ancients as the seat of the passions. Idolaters consulted the liver of the victim offered in sacrifice, for purposes of divination, Eze 21:21.

LIZARD

A cold-blooded animal, with much resemblance to the serpent, but having four feet. Large numbers are found in Syria, varying greatly in size, appearance, and place of abode; some dwelling partly in water, and others on the rocks of the desert, or among old ruins. Lizards were unclean by the Levitical law, Le 11:30.

LOANS

Jehovah, as the sole proprietor of the land occupied by the Jews, required them, as one condition of its use, to grant liberal loans to their poor brethren; and every seven years, the outstanding loans were to become gifts, and could not be reclaimed. If a pledge was taken on making a loan, it must be done with mercy and under certain benevolent restrictions, Ex 22:25,27 De 15:1-11 23:19,20 24:6,10-13,17. The great truth so prominent in this and similar features of the Mosaic laws, ought to be restored to its fundamental place in our theories of property; and no one who believes in God should act as the owner, but only as the steward of what he possesses, all of which he is to use as required by its great Owner. In the same spirit, our Savior enjoins the duty of loaning freely, even to enemies, and without hope of reward, Lu 6:34,35.

LOCUST

A voracious winged insect, belonging to the genus known among naturalists as the Grylli, closely resembling the grasshopper, and a great scourge in oriental countries in both ancient and modern times. There are ten different names in the Hebrew Bible for insects of this kind; but some of these probably designate different forms or stages in life of the same species. The Bible represents their countless swarms as directed in their flight and march by God, and used in the chastisement of guilty nations, De 28:38-42 1Ki 8:37 2Ch 6:28. A swarm of locusts was among the plagues of Egypt; they covered the whole land, so that the earth was darkened, and devoured every green herb of the earth, and the fruit of every tree which the hail had left, Ex 10:4-19. But the most particular description of this insect, and of its destructive career, in the sacred writings, is in Joe 2:3-10. This is one of the most striking and animated descriptions to be met with in the whole compass of prophecy; and the double destruction to be produced by locusts and the enemies of which they were the harbingers, is painted with the most expressive force and accuracy. We see the destroying army moving before us as we read, and see the desolation spreading. It should also be mentioned, that the four insects specified in Joe 1:4, the palmer-worm, the locust, the canker-worm, and the caterpillar, are strictly, according to the Hebrew, only different forms of locusts, some perhaps without wings, as mentioned below. The following extracts from Dr. Shaw and Mr. Morier, which are also corroborated by Niebuhr, Burckhardt, and other travelers, may serve as a commentary upon this and other passages of Scripture.

Dr. Shaw remarks, "Those which I saw, were much bigger than our common grasshoppers, and had brown spotted wings, with legs and bodies of a bright yellow. Their first appearance was towards the end of March, the wind having been some time from the south. In the middle of April, their numbers were so vastly increased, that in the heat of the day they formed themselves into large and numerous swarms, flew in the air like a succession of clouds, and as the prophet Joel expresses it, they darkened the sun. When the wind blew briskly, so that these swarms were crowded by others, or thrown one upon another, we had a lively idea of that comparison of the psalmist, Ps 109:23, of being tossed up and down as the locust. In the month of May, these swarms gradually retired into the Metijiah and other adjacent plains, where they deposited their eggs. These were no sooner hatched, in June, than each of the broods collected itself into a compact body of a furlong or more square, and marching afterwards in a direct line towards the sea, they let nothing escape them; eating up every thing that was green and juicy, not only the lesser kinds of vegetables, but the vine likewise, the fig-tree, the pomegranate, the palm, and the apple-tree, even all the trees of the field, Joe 1:12; in doing which, kept their ranks like men of war, climbing over, as they advanced, every tree or wall that was in their way; nay, they entered into our very houses and bedchambers like thieves. The inhabitants, to stop their progress, made a variety of pits and trenches all over their fields and gardens, which they filled with water; or else they heaped up therein heath, stubble, and such like combustible matter, which were severally set on fire upon the approach of the locusts. But this was all to no purpose, for the trenches were quickly filled up and the fires extinguished by infinite swarms succeeding one another, while the front was regarded less of danger and the rear pressed on so close that a retreat was altogether impossible. A day or two after one of these broods was in motion, others were already hatched to march and glean after them, gnawing off the very bark and the young branches of such trees as had before escaped with the loss only of their fruit and foliage. So justly have they been compared by the prophet to a great army; who further observes, that the land is as the Garden of Eden before them, and behind them a desolate wilderness."

Mr. Morier says, "On the 11th of June, while seated in our tents about noon, we heard a very unusual noise, that sounded like the rustling of a great wind at a distance. On looking up, we perceived an immense cloud, here and there semi-transparent, in other parts quite black, that spread itself all over the sky, and at intervals shadowed the sun. These we soon found to be locusts, whole swarms of them falling about us. These were of a red color, and I should suppose are the red predatory locusts, one of the Egyptian plagues. As soon as they appeared, the gardeners and husbandmen made loud shouts, to prevent their settling on their grounds. They seemed to be impelled by one common instinct, and moved in one body, which had the appearance of being organized by a leader, Joe 2:7."

The locust was a "clean" animal for the Jews, Le 11:22, and might be used for food. In Mt 3:4, it is said of John the Baptist, that "his meat was locusts, and wild honey." They are still eaten in the East, and regarded by some as a delicacy, though usually left to the poorest of the people. Niebuhr remarks, "Locusts are brought to market on mount Sumara I saw an Arab who had collected a whole sackful of the. They are prepared in different ways. An Arab in Egypt, of whom we requested that he would immediately eat locusts in our presence, threw them upon the glowing coals, and after he supposed they were roasted enough, he took them upon the glowing coals, and after he supposed they were roasted enough, he took them by the legs and head, and devoured the remainder at one mouthful. When the Arabs have them in quantities, they roast or dry them in an oven, or boil the locusts, and then dry them on the roofs of their houses. One sees there large baskets full of them in the markets."

Burckhardt also relates the fact in a similar manner: "The Bedaween eat locusts, which are collected in great quantities in the beginning of April, when they are easily caught. After having been roasted a little upon the iron plate on which bread is baked, they are dried in the sun, and then put into large sacks, with the mixture of a little salt."

In Re 9:7-10, there is a terrific description of symbolical locusts, in which they are compared to war-horses, their hair to the hair of women, etc. Niebuhr heard an Arab of the desert, and another in Bagdad, make the same comparison. They likened "the head of the locust to that of the horse; its breast to that of the lion; its feet to those of the camel; its body to that of the serpent; its tail to that of the scorpion; its antennae, if I mistake not, to the locks of hair of a virgin; and so of other parts." In like manner, the Italians still call locusts little horses, and the Germans hayhorses.

LOD

See LYDDA.

LODGE

See GARDEN.

LOG

A Hebrew measure for liquids, containing five-sixths of a pint, Le 14:10,12,24.

LOINS

See GIRDLE.

LOIS

A pious Jewess, whose "unfeigned faith" Paul traces in her daughter Eunice, and her grandson Timothy, 2Ti 1:5.

LOOKING-GLASSES

Or rather, mirrors, were anciently made of metal, chiefly copper, Ex 38:8; Job 37:18, melted and cast in a circular form, highly polished, and attached to an ornamental handle. Similar mirrors have been found in the ruins of ancient Egypt.

LORD

This name belongs to God by preeminence; and in this sense ought never to be given to any creature. Jesus Christ, as the Messiah, the Son of God, and equal with the Father, is often called Lord in Scripture, especially in the writing of Paul. The word LORD, in the English Bible, when printed in small capitals, stands always for JEHOVAH in the Hebrew. See JEHOVAH.

LORDíS-DAY

See SABBATH.

LORDíS SUPPER

Called also "the breaking of bread," Ac 2:42 20:7, and the communion of the body and blood of Christ, 1Co 10:16, is one of the two simple ordinances of the Christian church; instituted by our Savior in the most affecting circumstances on the Passover night in which he was betrayed, to be observed by his followers until his second coming. Bread and wine, the symbols of his body broken and his blood shed for our redemption, are to be tasted by each communicant, to keep in mind that great sacrifice, the foundation of all out hopes and the strongest motive to a holy and devoted life. In the Lordís supper the covenant is renewed between Christ and his people. It is also the visible token of Christian fellowship; and all true believers, and none but they, should claim to partake of it, 1Co 5:6-8. In it Christians may expect and should seek to receive of the fullness of Christ, grace for grace, 2Co 1:21,22 Eph 4:15,15; while those who partake heedlessly incur great guilt, and may look for chastisement, 1Co 11:20-34. The dogma of the Romish church, that the bread is changed into the very body and soul of Christ, which the priest offers anew in sacrifice, is contrary to the Scripture and to all the senses, as it is also to commonsense.

LOT

The son of Haran, and nephew of Abraham, followed his uncle from Ur, and afterwards from Haran, to settle in Canaan, Ge 11:31 12:4-6 13:1. Abraham always had a great affection for him, and when they could not continue longer together in Canaan, because they both had large flocks and their shepherds sometimes quarreled, Ge 13:5-7, he gave Lot the choice of his abode. Lot chose the plain of Sodom, which appears then to have been the most fertile parts of the land. Here he continued to dwell till the destruction of Sodom and the adjacent cities. He was a righteous man even in Sodom, 2Pe 2:7; but the calamities consequent upon his choice of this residence-his capture by eastern marauders, the molestation caused by his ungodly and vicious neighbors, the loss of his property in the burning city, the destruction of his sons-in-law and of his wife-if they do not prove that he regarded ease and profit more than duty, show that the most beautiful and fruitful land is not always the best; the profligacy of its citizens may sink it into the abyss of perdition, and endanger all who have any concern with it. Lotís wife, looking back with disobedient regrets, and arrested by the threatened judgment midway in her flight to the mountain, is an awful warning to all who turn their faces Zionward, but are unwilling to leave all for Christ, Ge 19:1-38 Lu 17:32.

LOTS

Were often cast by the Jews, as well as other ancient nations, with the expectation, when God was appealed to, that he would so control them as to give a right direction in doubtful cases, Ps 22:18 16:11 18:18. They were often used by the divine appointment. The portions of the twelve tribes were thus assigned to them; and hence each tribeís portion was called "the lot of its inheritance," Nu 26:55,56 Ps 125:3 Ac 8:21. The scapegoat was to be selected, and the other of the priestsí service determined by lot, Le 16:8 1Ch 24:5 25:8. By the same means Achan, Jonathan, and Jonah were discovered, Jos 7:14 1Sa 14:41,42 Jon 1:7; and thus Matthias was designated by Christ to be an apostle in the place of Judas, Ac 1:26. A common mode of casting lots was by the use of pebbles, one or more of them being marked, and all of them being shaken together in some fold of a garment, an urn, or a helmet, before drawing, Pr 16:33 Joh 19:24. As the use of lots by one who believes in the particular providence of God involves a solemn appeal to the Disposer of all events, they should never be used on trivial occasions; and in this day, a case can hardly occur when such an appeal would be warranted. See PURIM.

LOVE

GOD IS LOVE; AND HE THAT DWELLETH IN LOVE DWELLETH IN GOD, AND GOD IN HIM, 1Jo 4:16. Love is a chief attribute of Jehovah, the length and breadth and height and depth of which are beyond comprehension, for they are infinite, Eph 3:18,19. Between the three Persons of the Godhead, love is unutterable full, perfect, and blissful; towards holy angels and Christians, Godís love is an infinite fatherly complacency and affection; towards sinners, it is immeasurable compassion. It is shown in all his works and ways, and dictated his holy law, but is most signally displayed in the gospel, Joh 3:16. "Herein is love."

Holy love in man would make the whole heart and soul supremely delight in and obey God, and cordially and practically love all beings according to their character-the good with fellowship of soul, and the evil with a Christ-like benevolence. Such a love would meet and fulfil all the ends of the law, Mt 22:37-40 Ro 13:8-10. Without it, none can enter heaven; and as the affections of every unrenewed heart are all mixed with sin, being given to forbidden objects, or selfishly and unduly given to objects not forbidden, we must be "born again" in order to see God, Joh 3:3 1Jo 4:7,19 5:4.

LOWER PARTS OF THE EARTH

Valleys, Isa 44:23; also the grave, or the abode of disembodied spirits secluded from our view,

"That undiscovered country from whose bourne no traveler returns." Ps 63:9 139:15 Eph 4:9.

LUBIM

See LIBYA.

LUCAS

The same with LUKE.

LUCIFER

Light-bringer, the Latin name of the morning-star, or "son of the morning." In the figurative language of Scripture, a brilliant star denoted an illustrious prince, Nu 24:17. Christ was given to men as the "bright and morning Star," Re 2:28; 22:16. The word Lucifer is used once only in the English Bible, and then of the king of Babylon, Isa 14:12. It is now commonly, though inappropriately, given to the prince of darkness.

LUCIUS

Of Cyrene, mentioned Ac 13:1, was on of the ministers and teachers of the Christian church at Antioch, and probably a kinsman of Paul, Ro 16:21. He is supposed by some to be the same with the evangelist Luke; but of this there is no evidence.

LUD

A son of Shem, Ge 10:22, and ancestor, it is thought, of the Lydians in Asia Minor.

LUDIM

Descendants of Mizraim, Ge 10:13, dwelling in Africa, probably near Ethiopia; they were famous bowmen, Isa 66:19, and are mentioned as soldiers with the Ethiopians, Libyans, and Tyrians, Jer 46:9; Eze 27:10; 30:5.

LUKE

The evangelist, probably the same person who is called by St. Paul, "the beloved physician," Col 4:14. The name Luke, or Lucas, Phm 1:24, is the same as Lucanus in Latin. Luke was the writer of the gospel, which bears his name, and of the Acts of the Apostles, having been the friend and companion of St. Paul in most of the journeys recorded in the latter book. Thus, in Ac 16:11, he first uses the word "we," and shows that he was with Paul at Troas and in his first Macedonian tour. After they reach Philippe, an interval of separation occurs; but they are again together at Philippi when Paul sails thence for Jerusalem, and from that time he continues with the apostle in his labors, voyages, and sufferings, to the close of his first imprisonment at Rome, Ac 17:1 20:5,6,13-16 21:1-28:31 Phm 1:24 2Ti 4:11. His personal history before and after this period of his companionship with Paul, is unknown, or rests on uncertain traditions. His own narrative contains the least possible mention of himself; yet we cannot doubt that he was eminently useful to the early church, by his learning, judgment, fidelity, and even his medical skill, besides leaving to the church universal the invaluable legacy of his writings.

LUNATIC

A word formed from the Latin luna, the moon, and thus corresponding to the original Greek word and to the English "moonstruck;" applied to a class of persons mentally and often corporally diseased, who were believed to suffer most when the moon was full. Inanity, epilepsy, and morbid melancholy were among the frequent effects of demoniac possession, yet this possession existed independently of these effects, and was a more dreadful calamity. Lunatics are expressly mentioned in distinction from men possessed by evil spirits, Mt 4:24 17:15. See DEVILS.

LUST

Originally meant any longing desire, however innocent, De 12:15 14:26. But, in tacit acknowledgment of the depravity of manís passions, general usage soon attached the idea of guilt to the word; and now it usually denotes carnal, lascivious desire. In Ga 5:17, we see that the aspirations of the heart renewed by the Holy Spirit, oppose and will subdue the native evil desires, 1Co 15:57; but in the unrenewed heart these reign uncontrolled, lead to greater and greater outwards sin, and secure eternal death, Jas 1:14,15.

LUZ

The ancient name of a part at least of Bethel, Ge 28:19 Joh 16:2 18:13; afterwards given to a smaller place founded by a refugee from Bethel, Jud 1:26. See Bethel, Jud 1:26. See BETHEL.

LYCAONIA

A small province of Asia Minor, bounded north by Galatia, east by Cappadocia, south by Isauria and Cilicia, and west by Phrygia. It appears to have been within the limits of Phrygia Major, but was erected into a Roman province by Augustus. The country is level, but not fertile, though peculiarly adapted to pasturage. Of its cities, Iconium, Derbe, and Lystra and mentioned in the New Testament, Ac 14:6. The "speech of Lycaonia now forms part of the Turkish province of Caramania.

LYCIA

A province in the southwest of Asia Minor bounded west by Caria, east by Pamphylia, north by Phrygia and Pisidia, and south by the Mediterranean. The country is somewhat mountainous, though not barren. Of its cities, only Patara and Myra are mentioned in the New Testament, Ac 21:1,2; 27:5.

LYDDA

In Hebrew Lud or Lod, 1Ch 8:12; Ezr 2:33, and by the Greeks called Diospolis, was a city nine miles east of Joppa, on the way to Jerusalem. Here Peter healed Aeneas, Ac 9:33,34. It was destroyed not long after Jerusalem; but was soon rebuilt, and became the seat of a famous Jewish school. A Christian church was here organized, and was in existence A. D. 518. Lydda is often mentioned in the history of the crusades. It was situated in the midst of fine and extensive plains, the soil of which is a rich black mould, that might be rendered exceedingly fertile. It is at present only a miserable village called Ludd. The ruins of a stately church of the middle ages, called the church of St. George, preserve the name of a saint and martyr said to have been buried here in the third century. The English crusaders adopted him as the "patron" of England, and many fabulous legends are told of his exploits.

LYDIA

A woman of Thyatira, residing at Philippi in Macedonia, and dealing in purple cloths. She was not a Jewess by birth, but had become a proselyte to Judaism and "worshipped God." She was led by the grace of God to receive the gospel with joy; and having been baptized, with her household, constrained Paul and his fellow-laborers to make her house their home while at Philippi, Ac 16:14,40. See PHILIPPI.

LYSANIAS

See ABILENE.

LYSIAS

Or Claudius Lysias, commander of the Roman guard at Jerusalem during Paulís last visit there. In the honorable discharge of his duty, he repeatedly saved Paul from the malice of the Jews, Ac 21:27-40 22:1-23:35.

LYSTRA

A city of Lycaonia, near Derbe and Iconium, and the native place of Timothy. Paul and Barnabas preached the gospel here; and having healed a cripple, were almost worshipped. Soon after, however, Paul was stoned there, Ac 14:6,21 16:1 2Ti 3:11. It is now a small place called Latik.