ZAANAN

Mic 1:11, supposed to be the same as Zenan, Jos 15:37, a town in the plain country of Judah.

ZAANANNIM

Jos 19:33, a town in the north of Naphtali, near Kedesh and the foot of Anti-Lebanon, Jud 4:11.

ZABAD

The name of four persons, 1Ch 2:36 7:21 2Ch 24:26 Ezr 10:27.

ZABUD

A son of Nathan the prophet, the confidential friend and adviser of king Solomon, probably having shared with him the instructions of the venerable prophet, 1Ki 4:5.

ZACCHEUS

Just, from the Hebrew Zaccai, Ne 7:14, a worthy tax-gatherer at Jericho, who in order to see Christ took a position in a sycamore-tree, by which He was about to pass. The Savior drawing near and knowing his heart, called him to come down, and proposed to become his guest. As he held office under the Romans, he was called "a sinner" by the Jews, Lu 19:1-10. He showed sincere penitence and faith in the Savior, who in turn promised him salvation as a child of Abraham by faith, Ga 3:7, as he also seems to have been by birth.

The "house of Zaccheus" now shown on the plain of Jericho is probably the remnant of a fort built in the tenth century, or even more recently.

ZACHARIAH

King of Israel succeeded his father Jeroboam 2, 773 B. C., and reigned six months. He did evil in the sight of the Lord, and Shallum son of Jabesh conspired against him, killed him in public, and reigned in his stead. Thus was fulfilled what the Lord had foretold to Jehu, that his children should sit on the throne of Israel to the fourth generation, 2Ki 14:29; 15:8-11.

ZACHARIAS

1. A person mentioned in Mt 23:35 Lu 11:51, and most probably designating the son of the high-priest Jehoida, or Barachias, who was stoned to death by order of king Joash for publicly rebuking the king, his court and the people for their growing corruption, 2Ch 24:20-22. Some suppose the prophet Zechariah to be intended; but history gives no account of his death. Others refer it to a Zacharias the son of Baruch, who was put to death just before the destruction of Jerusalem; but it seems unnatural and unnecessary to suppose that Christ here spoke prophetically.

2. A priest belonging to the eighth course or class, called that of Abia, 1Ch 24:1-31, the husband of Elisabeth, and father of John the Baptist. His residence, when not on duty, was in the hillcountry south of Jerusalem. He is known to us by his pious and blameless life; his vision of Gabriel in the temple, promising him a son in his old age; his hesitancy in believing, for which he was visited by a temporary dumbness; his miraculous restoration at the circumcision of his son; and his noble and prophetic song of praise, Lu 1:52; 67-79.

ZADOK

The son of Ahitub, and father of Ahimaaz, high-priest of the Jews in the reigns of Saul and David. See ABIATHAR.

Others of this name are mentioned in 2Ki 15:33 1Ch 6:12 Ezr 7:2 Ne 3:4 13:13.

ZALMON or SALMON

Hebrew Tzalmon, a height in Samaria near Shechem, Jud 9:48, perhaps a part of mount Ebal; apparently the same that in Ps 68:14 is spoken of as covered with new-fallen snow.

ZALMUNNA and ZEBAH

Midianitish kings, defeated and slain by Gideon, Jud 8:5.

ZAMZUMMIM

A race of giants east of the Jordan, defeated by Chedorlaomer, Ge 14:5, and exterminated by the Ammonites, who possessed their territory until themselves subdued by Moses, De 2:20-21. See AMMONITES, and ZUZIM.

ZANOAH

The name of two towns in Judah, Jos 15:34,56. The inhabitants of one of them aided in rebuilding Jerusalem, Ne 3:13; 11:30.

ZAPHNATH-PAANEAH

Savior of the world, an Egyptian name given by Pharaoh to Joseph, in commemoration of the salvation wrought through him, Ge 41:45.

ZARED

See ZERED.

ZAREPHATH

Ob 1:20, a Phoenician seaport on the Mediterranean between Tyre and Zidon, usually subject to Tyre.

During a famine in Israel, the prophet Elijah resided here, with a widow whose cruse of oil and barrel of flour were supplied and whose child was restored to life by miracle. Her noble faith in God is worthy of everlasting remembrance; universal imitation, 1Ki 17:9-24. The place was afterwards called by the Greeks Sarepta, Lu 4:26, and is now known as Sarafend, a large village on the hills adjoining the seacoast.

ZARETAN

Called also Zartnah and Zarthan, 1Ki 4:12 7:46; a town on the west side of the Jordan, near Bethshean and north of Succoth. The reflux of the Jordan at the crossing of the Israelites was marked as far north as Zaretan, Jos 3:16. See ZEREDA.

ZEBEDEE

The husband of Salome, and father of James and John the apostles. He was a fisherman in comfortable circumstances, on the west shore of the sea of Galilee, and readily spared his two sons at the call of the Savior, Mr 1:19,20. His wife also attended Christ, and ministered to him of her substance. See SALOME.

His son John was personally known to the high-priest, and was charged by the dying Savior with the care of his mother, Joh 18:15,16 19:26.

ZEBOIM

1. One of the four royal cities in the vale of Siddim, destroyed by fire from heaven. See SODOM. Eusebius and Jerome mention a town by this name in their day, on the western shore of the Dead sea.

2. A valley and town of the Benjamites, east of Michmash, 1Sa 13:18 Ne 11:34.

ZEBUL

A governor of the city of Shechem, who labored adroitly to preserve the city for Abimelech his master, the son of Gideon, Jud 9:1- 57.

ZEBULUN

1. Or ZABULON, Re 7:8, the sixth son of Jacob and Leah, born in Mesopotamia, Ge 30:20. Moses gives us few particulars respecting him. His tribe was respectable for numbers, Nu 1:30 26:26; and its portion in the Holy Land accorded with the prediction of Jacob, Ge 49:13, extending from the Mediterranean sea at Carmel to the sea of Gemnesaret, between Issachar on the south, and Naphtali and Asher on the north and north-west, Jos 19:10. His posterity are often mentioned in connection with Issachar, his nearest brother, De 33:18. They were entangled with the Phoenicians on the west, Jud 1:30 Isa 8:22, and took part with Barak and Gideon in the defense of the country against its oppressors, Jud 4:10 5:18 6:35. Elon, one of the Judges of Israel, was a Zebulunite, Jud 12:11-12. The inhabitants of this region in the time of Christ were highly favored by his instructionsNazareth and Cana, Capernaum, Magdala, and Tiberias being all in these limits.

2. A city in the border of Asher, but probably belonging to Zebulun, Jos 19:27.

ZECHARIAH

1. Son of Berechiah, and grandson of Iddo the priest; called the son of Iddo in Ezr 5:1 6:14, and his successor in the priesthood, Ne 12:4,16, perhaps because Berechiah was then dead. Zechariah is the eleventh of the minor prophets. He returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel, and began to prophesy while yet young, Zec 2:4, in the second year of Darius son of Hystaspes, B. C. 520, in the eighth month of the holy year, and two months after Haggai. These two prophets, with united zeal, encouraged the people to resume the work of the temple, which had been discontinued for some years, Ezr 5:1.

Zechariahís prophecies concerning the Messiah are more particular and express than those of most other prophets, and many of them, like those of Daniel, are couched in symbols. The book opens with a brief introduction; after which six chapters contain a series of visions, setting forth the fitness of that time for the promised restoration of Israel, the destruction of the enemies of Godís people, the conversion of heathen nations, the advent of Messiah the Branch, the outpouring and blessed influences of the Holy Spirit, and the importance and safety of faithfully adhering to the service of their covenant God. Zec 7:1-14 relates to commemorative observances. Zec 9:1-11:17 predict the prosperity of Judah during the times of the Maccabees, together with the fate of Persia and other adjacent kingdoms. The remaining three chapters describe the future destiny of the Jews, the siege of Jerusalem, the triumphs of Messiah, and the glories of the latter day when "Holiness to the Lord" shall be inscribed on all things.

2. A wise and faithful prophetic counselor of king Uzziah, whose death was the beginning of calamities to Judah, 2Ch 26:5,16, perhaps the same who was the father-in-law of Ahaz, 2Ch 28:27 29:1

3. A son of Jeberechiah, associated with Urijah the high-priest by Isaiah as a "faithful witness," Isa 8:1 2Ch 29:13.

4. A son of Jehoiada. See ZACHARIAS 1.

ZEDEKIAH

1. The twentieth and last king of Judah, son of Josiah and Hamutal, and uncle to Jeconiah his predecessor, 2Ki 24:17,19 Jer 52:1. When Nebuchadnezzar took Jerusalem, he carried Jeconiah to Babylon, with his wives, children, officers, and the best artificers in Judea, and put in his place his uncle Mattaniah, whose name he changed to Zedekiah, and made him promise with an oath that he would maintain fidelity to him. He was twenty-one years old when he began to reign at Jerusalem, and he reigned there eleven years. He did evil in the sight of the Lord, committing the same crimes as Jehoiakim, 2Ki 24:18-20 2Ch 36:11-13. Compare Jer 29:16-19 34:1-22 38:5 Eze 17:12,14,18. In the ninth year of his reign, he revolted against Nebuchadnezzar, trusting to the support of Pharaoh-hophra king of Egypt, which proved ineffectual, and despising the faithful remonstranceís of Jeremiah, Jer 37:2,5,7-10.

In consequence of this the Assyrian marched his army into Judea, and took all the fortified places. In the eleventh year of his reign, on the ninth day of the fourth month, (July,) Jerusalem was taken, 588 BC. The king and his people endeavored to escape by favor of the night; but the Chaldean troops pursuing them, they were over-taken in the plain of Jericho. Zedekiah was taken and carried to Nebuchadnezzar, then at Riblah, in Syria, who reproached him with his perfidy, caused his children to be slain before his face and his own eyes to be put out; and then loading him with chains of brass, he ordered him to be sent to Babylon, 2Ki 25:1-30 Jer 39:1-18 52:1-34 Eze 19:1-14. All these events remarkably fulfilled the predictions of Jeremiah and Ezekiel, in the chapters preciously referred to. Compare also, with respect to Zedekiahís blindness, Jer 34:3 Eze 12:13.

2. A false prophet, exposed by Micaiah when urging Ahab to fight with the Syrians, 1Ki 22:11-37. His fate is foreshadowed in 1Ki 22:25.

3. Another false prophet, denounced by Jeremiah, Jer 29:21,22.

ZELOPHEHAD

A descendant of Joseph, whose death in the wilderness, leaving five daughters and no sons, led to the establishment of a law that in such cases daughters should inherit the patrimony of their father; but they were not to marry out of their tribe, Nu 26:33 27:1-11 Jos 17:3,4.

ZELOTES

A Zealot; in general, one passionately and fanatically ardent in any cause. After the time of Christ the name Zelote was commonly applied to an association of private individuals who without authority or law sought to enforce their own views of the law. In their opinion it was a high crime to pay tribute to the Romans and rebellion was the duty of every patriotic Jew. Beginning with moderation, they became more and more violent; and during the Roman war excesses and crimes under the pretext of zeal of the Lord are described by Josephus as truly appalling; so that they acquired the appropriate name of Sicarii, or assassins. As the germ of this body seems to have existed in our Lordís day, some suppose that the apostle Simon Zelotes was so called from his having once belonged to it. The name Canaanite, or more properly Canaanite, from the Hebrew kana, has the same meaning with Zelotes, Mt 10:4; Mr 3:18. Little more is known respecting Simon.

ZENAS

A pious lawyer, and a friend of Paul, who, writing from Nicopolis during the last year of his life, commends him and Apollos, then at Crete on a journey, to the kind offices of Titus, Ti 3:13. His name is Greek, and his profession may have been Greek civil law, rather than Jewish law.

ZEPHANIAH

1. A Kohathite, in the seventh generation from Levi, 1Ch 6:36.

2. A priest, high in the sacred order, during the troublous times of king Zedekiah, who often communicated with Jeremiah by his agency. He was among the captives slain by the king of Babylon at Riblah, 2Ki 25:18-21 Jer 21:1 29:25,29 37:3 52:24-27.

3. The ninth in order of the minor prophets, of the tribe of Simeon. He prophesied in the early part of king Josiahís reign, before the reforms of that good king were instituted, 2Ch 34:3 Zep 1:4-5.

This would fix his date about 630 B. C., and the destruction of Nineveh, foretold in Zep 2:13, occurred in 625 B. C. His prophecy contains two oracles, in three chapters, directed against idolaters in Judah, against surrounding idolatrous nations, and against wicked rulers, priests, and prophets. It closes with cheering promises of gospel blessings. His style and manner are like those of Jeremiah, during whose early years they were contemporary. His subsequent history is unknown.

ZEPHATH

A Canaanitish city afterwards called Hormah, one of the "uttermost cities of Judah southwards," afterwards assigned to Simeon, Jos 12:14 15:30 19:4. The name is supposed to be traceable in Sufah, a long and rough pass leading from the south up into the mountains of Judah. It was at Zephath that the Israelites were repulsed in attempting to ascend from Kadesh, Nu 14:40-45 21:3 De 1:44 Jud 1:17.

ZEPHATHAH

A valley near Mareshah, south-west of Jerusalem, where Asa defeated Zerah the Cushite, 2Ch 14:10.

ZERAH

1. The son of Reuel, and grandson of Esau, Ge 36:13,17.

2. Son of Judah and Tamar, Ge 38:30; called Zara in Mt 1:3.

3. Son of Simeon, and founder of the Zarhites, Nu 26:13; called Zohar in Ge 46:10.

4. A Cushite king who invaded Judah with an immense army in the reign of Asa, 2Ch 14:9-13. It is not agreed by interpreters whether he came from Southern Arabia or from Egypt and Ethiopia. Many, however, follow Champollion, who identifies him with Osorchon and Osoroth of the Egyptian monuments and history, the son and successor of Shishak.

ZERED or ZARED

A brook, or the valley through which it flows into the south-east part of the Dead sea, probably by Kir Moab, now Kerak, Nu 21:12 De 2:13,14.

ZEREDA or ZEREDATHAH

A city of Manasseh, near Beth-shean, 1Ki 11:26 2Ch 4:17; supposed to be the same with Zerenath, Jud 7:22, and perhaps ZARETAN.

ZERESH

The wife of Haman, haughty and revengeful like him, and destined to see him and her ten sons hanging on the gallows she had designed for Mordecai the servant of God, Es 5:10-14 6:13 7:10 9:13.

ZERUBBABEL or ZOROBABEL

Son of Salathiel of the royal race of David, called "Sheshbbazzar the prince of Judah" in Ezr 1:8. Zerubbabel, as his name imports, was born in Babylon, and was the leader of the first colony of Jews which returned from the Babylonish captivity, 536 B. C. Cyrus committed to his care the sacred vessels of the temple, with which he returned to Jerusalem, Ezr 1:11. He is always named first, as being chief of the Jews that returned to their own country, Ezr 2:2 3:8 5:2 Hag 1:1 2:1-9,21-23. He laid the foundations of the temple, Ezr 3:8,9 Zec 4:9, and restored the worship of the Lord, and the usual sacrifices.

When the Samaritans offered to assist in rebuilding the temple, Zerubbabel and the principal men of Judah refused them this honor, since Cyrus had granted his commission to the Jews only, Ezr 4:2,3. They procured from the Persian court an order that the work should cease; and it was not resumed until the second year of Darius son of Hystapes, 521 BC. We know nothing further of his history, except that from him both Joseph and Mary descended, Mt 1:13 Lu 3:27.

ZERUIAH

Sister of David, and mother of his famous generals, Joab, Abishai, and Asahel, 1Ch 2:16. Her husband is unknown.

ZIBA

A rich steward of Saul, whom David charged with similar duties towards Mephibosheth, son of Jonathan, 2Sa 9:2-10. By a false representation David was induced to transfer to Ziba the lands he had given to Mephibosheth, but afterwards divided them between the two, being convinced that he had acted hastily, and unable to decide with certainty for either, 2Sa 16:1-4; 19:24-30.

ZICHRI

A valiant Ephraimite prince, general of Pekah king of Israel in the war with Ahaz, 2Ch 28:7. He is perhaps the man called "Tabealís son," Isa 8:6, whom Rezin and Pekah proposed to make king of Judah.

ZIDON

See SIDON. The word Zidonians often includes all the Phoenicians, as well as the inhabitants of Zidon.

ZIF

The second month of the Hebrew year, also called Iyar, and nearly corresponding to our May, 1Ki 6:1.

ZIKLAG

A city of Judah and Simeon, on the borders of the Philistines, Jos 15:31; 19:5, who held it until the time of Saul, when Achish king of Gath gave it to David. Hither many other refugees from Judah resorted, and David was thus enabled to aid Achish, and to chastise the Amalekites who had sacked Ziklag during his absence, 1Sa 27:1- 6; 30:1-31; Ne 11:28.

ZILLAH

Ge 4:19. See LAMECHI.

ZILPAH

The maid of Leah, who became the secondary wife of Jacob, and the mother of Gad and Asher, Ge 29:24; 30:9-13.

ZIMRI

1. A prince of the tribe of Simeon, slain by Phinehas for his heaven- daring crime on the plains of Moab, Nu 25:14.

2. A general of half the cavalry of Elah king of Israel. He rebelled against his master, killed him, and usurped his kingdom. He cut off the whole family, not sparing any of his relations or friends; whereby was fulfilled the word of the Lord denounced to Baasha the father of Elah, by the prophet Jehu. Zimri reigned but seven days; for the army of Israel, then besieging Gibbethon, a city of the Philistines, made their general, Omri, king, and came and besieged Zimri in the city of Tirzah. Zimri, seeing the city on the point of being taken, burned himself in the palace with all its riches, 1Ki 16:1-20; 2Ki 9:31.

3. Others of this name are mentioned in 1Ch 2:6; 8:33-36.

ZIN

A desert on the south border of Canaan, and the west of Edom, Nu 34:1-4. It formed part of the great wilderness of Paran, Nu 13:26; and in its north-east corner was Kadesh-barnea, memorable for the death of Miriam, the mission of the twelve spies into Canaan, the murmuring of the Israelites, the rock flowing with water, and the unholy passion of Moses, Nu 13:21 20:1-13 27:14.

ZION or SION

In the New Testament, the highest and southernmost mount of Jerusalem, rising about twenty-five hundred feet above the Mediterranean, and from two to three hundred feet above the valleys at its base. It was separated from Akra on the north and Moriah on the north-west by the valley Tyropeon; and had the valley of Gihon on the west, that of Hinnom on the south, and that of the Kidron on the south-east. It was a fortified town of the Jebusites till subdued by David, and thenceforward was often called "the city of David," 2Sa 5:7 1Ki 8:1. He seems to have greatly delighted in its beauty and strength, and to have loved it as a type of the church of the Messiah: "Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth, is mount Zion on the sides of the north, the city of the great King." "Walk about Zion, and go round about her; tell the towers thereof; mark ye well her bulwarks; consider her palaces, that ye may tell it to the generation following:" "The kings were assembled, they passed by together; they saw it, and so they marveled; they were troubled, and hasted away," Ps 48:2,12,13.

A mosque near its southern brow now covers the "tomb of David" so called, most jealously guarded by the Mohammedans, 1Ki 2:10 11:43 22:50. This mount, together with Moriah and Ophel, was enclosed by the first wall, and fortified by citadels, 1Ch 11:5. Upon it were erected the magnificent palaces of Solomon and long afterwards of Herod. It was finely adapted for the purposes of military defense, and so strongly was it fortified at the time of its capture by the Romans, that the emperor exclaimed, "Surely we have had God for our aid in the war; for what could human hands or machines do against these towers?"

Great changes have occurred on this surface, and a considerable portion of it lies outside of the modern wall on the south, and is occupied by cemeteries, or "ploughed as a field," according to Jer 26:18 Mic 3:12. Two rabbis, we are told, approaching Jerusalem, observed a fox running upon the hill of Zion, and Rabbi Joshua wept, but Rabbi Eliezer laughed. "Wherefore dost thou laugh?" said he who wept. "Nay, wherefore dost weep?" demanded Eliezer. "I weep," replied the Rabbi Joshua, "because I see what is written in the Lamentations fulfilled; because of the mount of Zion, which is desolate, the foxes walk upon it." "And therefore," said Rabbi Eliezer, "do I laugh; for when I see with my own eyes that god has fulfilled his threatenings to the very letter, I have thereby a pledge that not one of his promises shall fail; for he is ever more ready to show mercy than judgment."

"Zion," and "the daughter of Zion," are sometimes used to denote the whole city, including especially Moriah and the temple, Ps 2:6 9:11 74:2 Isa 1:8 Joe 2:23, and sometimes figuratively for the seat of the true church on earth and in heaven, Jer 8:19 Heb 12:22 Re 14:1. See JERUSALEM.

ZIPH

A city of Judah, four miles south-east of Hebron; near it were wild fastness in which David for a long time lay hid, 1Sa 23:14,15.

ZIPPORAH

Daughter of Jethro, wife of Moses, and mother of Eliezer and Gershom. When Moses fled from Egypt into Midian, and there stood up in defense of the daughters of Jethro, priest or prince of Midian, against shepherds who would have hindered them form watering their flocks, Jethro took him into his house, and gave him his daughter Zipporah in marriage, Ex 2:15-22; 4:25; 18:2-4.

ZIZ, The Cliff Of

The pass near Engedi, by which the Moabites and Ammonites ascended from the shore of the Dead Sea, having followed the southern and western coast to this point, 2Ch 20:16. The same route is still traversed by the Arabs.

ZOAN

A very ancient city of Lower Egypt, Nu 13:22, on the east side of the Tanitic arm of the Nile, and called by the Greeks Tanis, now San. It was a royal city, Isa 19:11,13; 30:4, and gave its name to the level country around it, in which were wrought the first mighty works of God by Moses, Ps 78:12,43. Vast heaps of ruined temples, obelisks, sphinxes, etc., attest the ancient grandeur of this city, and its ruin according to prophecy, Eze 30:14.

ZOAR

A city on the south-east side of the Dead sea, was destined, with the other four cities, to be consumed by fire from heaven; but at the intercession of Lot it was preserved, Ge 14:2; 19:20-23,30. It was originally called Bela; but after Lot entreated the angelís permission to take refuge in it, and insisted on the smallness of this city, it had the name Zoar, which signifies small.

ZOBAH

A country of Syria, whose king carried on war with Saul and David, 1Sa 14:47 2Sa 8:3 10:6. It seems to have lain near Damascus, and to have included the city Hamath conquered by Solomon, 2Ch 8:3, but also to have extended towards the Euphrates, 2Sa 8:3.

ZOHAR

A Hittie, Ge 23:8. Also a son of Simeon, Ge 38:30, and a descendant of Judah, 1Ch 4:7.

ZOHELETH

A large rock near the well En-rogel, in the valley adjoining Jerusalem on the south-east, where the adherents of Adonijah assembled in rebellion, 1Ki 1:9.

ZOPHAR

One of Jobís three friends, a native of some unknown place called Naamah. He appears but twice in the dialogue, once less than his two associates, whose general sentiments he shares, with perhaps more severity of judgment against Job, Job 2:11; 11:1-20; Job 20:1- 29.

ZORAH

A city of Danites within the limits of Judah, 2Ch 11:12, called also Zoreah, Jos 15:33 19:40. Samson was a Zorite, or Zorathite, Jud 13:2,25 1Ch 2:54 4:2. It is now recognized in a secluded mountain village called Surah, on the edge of the hills north of Bethshemesh.

The road followed by Samson in going to Timnath leads down through rocky gorges, very likely to be haunted by wild beasts. It was here that he slew the lion, without the help of any weapon, Jud 14:5-7.

ZOROBABEL

See ZERUBBABEL.

ZUPH plur. ZOPHIM

An Ephrathite, ancestor of Amuel, and the region in mount Ephraim which he inhabited, 1Sa 1:1 9:5 1Ch 6:35. See under RAMAH 2.

ZUR

A Midianitish prince, whose daughter was slain by Phinehas, Nu 25:15-18, and who was himself subsequently slain in war with the Israelites, Jos 13:21.

ZUZIM

Taken by the Chaldee and Septuagint version as an appellative for stout and valiant men. They dwelt east of the Jordan in the time of Abraham, when they were subdued by Chedorlaomer and his allies, Ge 14:5, and are supposed to have been the same race of giants called Zamzummim in De 2:20.