Ba’al

(lord).

1. A Reubenite

1Ch 5:5

2. The son of Jehiel, and grandfather of Saul.

1Ch 8:30; 9:36

Ba’al,

the supreme male divinity of the Phoenician and Canaanitish nations, as Ashtoreth was their supreme female divinity. Some suppose Baal to correspond to the sun and Ashtoreth to the moon; others that Baal was Jupiter and Ashtoreth Venus. There can be no doubt of the very high antiquity of the worship of Baal. It prevailed in the time of Moses among the Moabites and Midianites,

Nu 22:41

and through them spread to the Israelites.

Nu 25:3-18; De 4:3

In the times of the kings it became the religion of the court and people of the ten tribes,

1Ki 16:31-33; 18:19,22

and appears never to have been permanently abolished among them.

2Ki 17:16

Temples were erected to Baal in Judah,

1Ki 16:32

and he was worshipped with much ceremony.

1Ki 18:19,26-28; 2Ki 10:22

The attractiveness of this worship to the Jews undoubtedly grew out of its licentious character. We find this worship also in Phoenician colonies. The religion of the ancient British islands much resembled this ancient worship of Baal, and may have been derived from it. Nor need we hesitate to regard the Babylonian Bel,

Isa 46:1

or Beaus, as essentially identical with Baal, though perhaps under some modified form. The plural, BAALIM, is found frequently, showing that he was probably worshipped under different compounds, among which appear—

BAALIM - See 5546

1. BAAL-BERITH (the covenant Baal),

Jud 8:33; 9:4

the god who comes into covenant with the worshippers.

2. BAAL-ZEBUB (lord of the fly), and worshipped at Ekron.

2Ki 1:2,3,16

3. BAAL-HANAN. a. The name of one of the early kings of Edom.

Ge 36:38,39; 1Ch 1:49,50

b. The name of one of David’s officers, who had the superintendence of his olive and sycamore plantations.

1Ch 27:28

4. BAAL-PEOR (lord of the opening, i.e. for others to join in the worship). We have already referred to the worship of this god. The narrative (Numb 25) seems clearly to show that this form of Baal-worship was connected with licentious rites.

Ba’al,

geographical. This word occurs as the prefix or suffix to the names of several places in Palestine, some of which are as follows:

1. BAAL a town of Simeon, named only in

1Ch 4:33

which from the parallel list in

Jos 19:8

seems to have been identical with BAALATH-BEER.

2. BAALAH (mistress).

BAALAH - See 5542

a. Another name for KIRJATH-JEARIM, or KIRJATH BAAL, the well-known town now Kuriet el Enab.

KIRJATHJEARIM - See 7593

KIRJATH - See 7587

Jos 15:9,10; 1Ch 13:6

b. A town in the south of Judah,

Jos 15:29

which in Josh 19:3 is called BALAH, and in the parallel list,

BALAH - See 5571

1Ch 4:29

BILHAH.

BILHAH - See 5779

3. BAALATH (mistress), a town of Dan named with Gibbethon, Gath-rim-mon and other Philistine places.

BAALATH - See 5543

Jos 19:44

4. BAALATH-BEER (lord of the well). BAAL 1, a town among those in the south part of Judah, given to Simeon, which also bore the name of RAMATH-NEGEB, or "the height of the south."

Jos 19:8

5. BAAL-GAD (lord of fortune), used to denote the most northern,

Jos 11:17; 12:7

or perhaps northwestern,

Jos 13:5

point to which Joshua’s victories extended. It was in all probability a Phoenician or Canaanite sanctuary of Baal under the aspect of Gad or Fortune.

6. BAAL-HAMON (lord of a multitude), a place at which Solomon had a vineyard, evidently of great extent.

So 8:11

7. BAAL-HAZOR (village of Baal), a place where Absalom appears to have had a sheep-farm, and where Amnon was murdered.

2Sa 13:23

8. MOUNT BAAL-HERMON (Lord of Hermon),

MOUNT - See 8066

MOUNT - See 8067

Jud 3:3

and simply Baal-hermon.

1Ch 5:23

This is usually considered as a distinct place from Mount Hermon; but we know that this mountain had at least three names

De 3:9

and Baal-hermon may have been a fourth in use among the Phoenician worshippers.

9. BAAL-MEON (lord of the house), one of the towns which were built by the Reubenites.

Nu 32:38

It also occurs in

1Ch 5:8

and on each occasion with Nebo. In the time of Ezekiel it was Moabite, one of the cities which were the "glory of the country."

Eze 25:9

10. BAAL-PERAZIM (lord of divisions), the scene of a victory of David over the Philistines, and of a great destruction of their images.

2Sa 5:20; 1Ch 14:11

See

Isa 28:21

where it is called MOUNT PERAZIM.

MOUNT - See 8066

MOUNT - See 8067

PERAZIM - See 8376

11. BAAL-SHALISHA (lord of Shalisha), a place named only in

2Ki 4:42

apparently not far from Gilgal; comp.

2Ki 4:38

12. BAAL-TAMAR (lord of the palm tree), a place named only in

Jud 20:33

as near Gibeah of Benjamin. The palm tree (tamar) of Deborah,

Jud 4:5

was situated somewhere in the locality, and is possibly alluded to.

13. BAAL-ZEPHON (lord of the north), a place in Egypt near where the Israelites crossed the Red Sea.

Nu 33:7; Eze 14:2,9

We place Baal-zephon on the western shore of the Gulf of Suez, a little below its head, which at that time was about 30 or 40 miles northward of the Present head.

Ba’alah.

[BAAL, NO. 2]

BAAL - See 5540

Ba’alath.

[BAAL, Nos. 3,4]

BAAL - See 5540

Ba’ale of Judah.

[BAAL, NO. 2, a]

BAAL - See 5540

Ba’ali.

Ho 2:16

[BAAL]

BAAL - See 5540

Ba’alim.

[BAAL]

BAAL - See 5540

Ba’alis,

king of the Ammonites at the time of the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar.

Jer 40:14

(B.C. 588.)

Ba’ana.

1. The son of Ahilud, Solmon’s commissariat officer in Jezreel and the north of the Jordan valley.

1Ki 4:12

(B.C.1000.)

2. Father of Zadok, who assisted in rebuilding the wall of Jerusalem under Nehemiah.

Ne 3:4

(B.C. 446.)

Ba’anah.

1. Son of Rimmon, a Benjamite, who with his brother Rechab murdered Ishbosheth For this they were killed by David; and their mutilated bodies hung up over the pool at Hebron.

2Sa 4:2,5,6,9

(B.C. 1046.)

2. A Netophathite, father of Heleb or Heled, one of David’s mighty men.

2Sa 23:29; 1Ch 11:30

(B.C. before 1066.)

3. Accurately Baana, son of Hushai, Solomon’s commissariat officer in Asher.

1Ki 4:16

(B.C. 1012.)

4. Aman who accompanied Zerubbabel on his return from the captivity.

Ezr 2:2; Ne 7:7

Possibly the same person is intended in

Ne 10:27

(B.C. 536.)

Ba’ara

(brutish) one of the wives of Shaharaim, a descendant of Benjamin.

1Ch 8:8

Ba-asei’ah, or Basse’iah

(work of Jehovah), a Gershonite Levite, one of the forefathers of Asaph the singer.

1Ch 6:40

, [ 1Chr 6:25 ]. (B.C. 1310.)

Ba’asha

(wicked), B.C. 953-931, third sovereign of the separate kingdom of Israel, and the founder of its second dynasty. He was son of Ahijah of the tribe of Issachar and conspired against King Nadab,

1Ki 15:27

and killed him with his whole family. He appears to have been of humble origin.

1Ki 16:2

It was probably in the 13th year of his reign that he made war on Asa, and began to fortify Ramah. He was defeated by the unexpected alliance of Asa with Ben-hadad I. of Damascus. Baasha died in the 24th year of his reign, and was buried in Tirzah,

So 6:4

which he had made his capital.

1Ki 16:6; 2Ch 16:1-6

Ba’bel

(confusion), Bab’ylon (Greek form of Babel), is properly the capital city of the country which is called in Genesis Shinar, and in the later books Chaldea, or the land of the Chaldeans. The first rise of the Chaldean power was in the region close upon the Persian Gulf; thence the nation spread northward up the course of the rivers, and the seat of government moved in the same direction, being finally fixed at Babylon, perhaps not earlier than B.C, 1700. I. Topography of Babylon—Ancient description of the city.—All the ancient writers appear to agree in the fact of a district of vast size, more or less inhabited having been enclosed within lofty walls and included under the name of Babylon. With respect to the exact extent of the circuit they differ. The estimate of Herodotus and of Pliny is 480 stades (60 Roman miles, 53 of our miles) of Strabo 385, of Q. Curtius 368, of Clitarchus 365 and of Ctesias 360 stades (40 miles). (George Smith, in his "Assyrian Discoveries," differs entirely from all these estimates, making the circuit of the city but eight miles.) Perhaps Herodotus spoke of the outer wall, which could be traced in his time. Taking the lowest estimate of the extent of the circuit, we shall have for the space within the rampart an area of above 100 square miles—nearly five times the size of London! It is evident that this vast space cannot have been entirely covered with houses. The city was situated on both sides of the river Euphrates, and the two parts were connected together by a stone bridge five stades (above 1000 yards) long and 30 feet broad. At either extremity of the bridge was a royal palace, that in the eastern city being the more magnificent of the two. The two palaces were joined not only by the bridge, but by a tunnel under the river. The houses, which were frequently three or four stories high, were laid out in straight streets crossing each other at right angles. II. Present state of the ruins.—A portion of the ruins is occupied by the modern town of Hillah. About five miles above Hillah, on the opposite or left bank of the Euphrates occurs a series of artificial mounds of enormous size. They consist chiefly of three great masses of building,—the high pile of unbaked brickwork which is known to the Arabs as Babel, 600 feet square and 140 feet high; the building denominated the Kasr or palace, nearly 2000 feet square and 70 feet high, and a lofty mound upon which stands the modern tomb of Amram-ibn-’Alb. Scattered over the country on both sides of the Euphrates are a number of remarkable mounds, usually standing single, which are plainly of the same date with the great mass of ruins upon the river bank. Of these by far the most striking is the vast ruin called the Birs-Nimrud, which many regard as the tower of Babel, situated about six miles to the southwest of Hillah. [BABEL, TOWER OF]

TOWER - See 9352

III. Identification of sites.—The great mound of Babel is probably the ancient temple of Beaus. The mound of the Kasr marks the site of the great palace of Nebuchadnezzar. The mound of Amram is thought to represent the "hanging gardens" of Nebuchadnezzar; but most probably it represents the ancient palace, coeval with Babylon itself, of which Nebuchadnezzar speaks in his inscriptions as adjoining his own more magnificent residence. IV. History of Babylon.—Scripture represents the "beginning of the kingdom" as belonging to the time of Nimrod.

Ge 10:6-10

The early annals of Babylon are filled by Berosus, the native historian, with three dynasties: one of 49 Chaldean kings, who reigned 458 years; another of 9 Arab kings, who reigned 245 years; and a third of 49 Assyrian monarchs, who held dominion for 526 years. The line of Babylonian kings becomes exactly known to us from B.C. 747. The "Canon of Ptolemy" gives us the succession of Babylonian monarchs from B.C. 747 to B.C. 331, when the last Persian king was dethroned by Alexander. On the fall of Nineveh, B.C. 625, Babylon became not only an independent kingdom, but an empire. The city was taken by surprise B.C. 539, as Jeremiah had prophesied,

Jer 51:31

by Cyrus, under Darius, Dan. 5, as intimated 170 years earlier by Isaiah,

Isa 21:1-9

and, as Jeremiah had also foreshown,

Jer 51:39

during a festival. With the conquest of Cyrus commenced the decay of Babylon, which has since been a quarry from which all the tribes in the vicinity have derived the bricks with which they have built their cities. The "great city" has thus emphatically "become heaps."

Jer 51:37

Ba’bel, Tower of. The "tower of Babel" is only mentioned once in Scripture,

Ge 11:4,5

and then as incomplete. It was built of bricks, and the "slime" used for mortar was probably bitumen. Such authorities as we possess represent the building as destroyed soon after its erection. When the Jews, however, were carried captive into Babylonia, they thought they recognized it in the famous temple of Beaus, the modern Birs Nimrod. But the Birs-Nimrrud though it cannot be the tower of Babel itself; may well be taken to show the probable shape and character of the edifice. This building appears to have been a sort of oblique pyramid built in seven receding stages, each successive one being nearer to the southwestern end which constituted the back of the building. The first, second and third stories were each 26 feet high the remaining four being 15 feet high. On the seventh stage there was probably placed the ark or tabernacle, which seems to have been again 15 feet high, and must have nearly, if not entirely, covered the top of the seventh story The entire original height, allowing three feet for the platform, would thus have been 156 feet, or, without the plat-form, 163 feet.

Bab’ylon

in the Apocalypse, is the symbolical name by which Rome is denoted.

Re 14:8; 17:18

The power of Rome was regarded by the later Jews as was that of Babylon by their forefathers. Comp.

Jer 51:7

with Reve 14:8 The occurrence of this name in

1Pe 5:13

has given rise to a variety of conjectures, many giving it the same meaning as in the Apocalypse; others refer it to Babylon in Asia, and others still to Babylon in Egypt. The most natural supposition of all is that by Babylon is intended the old Babylon of Assyria, which was largely inhabited by Jews at the time in question.

Babylo’nians,

the inhabitants of Babylon, a race of Shemitic origin, who were among the colonists planted in the cities of Samaria by the conquering Assyrian.

Ezr 4:9

Babylonish garment,

literally "robe of Shinar,"

Jos 7:21

an ample robe, probably made of the skin or fur of an animal, comp.

Ge 25:25

and ornamented with embroidery or perhaps a variegated garment with figures inwoven in the fashion for which the Babylonians were celebrated.

Ba’ca

(weeping), The Valley of, A valley in Palestine, through which the exiled Psalmist sees in vision the pilgrims passing in their march towards the sanctuary of Jehovah at Zion.

Ps 84:6

That it was a real locality is most probable from the use of the definite article before the name. The rendering of the Targum is Gehenna, i.e. the Ge-Hinnom or ravine below Mount Zion. This locality agrees well with the mention of became (Authorized Version "mulberry") trees in

2Sa 5:23

Bach’rites, The,

the family of BECHER, son of Ephraim.

BECHER - See 5631

Nu 26:35

Badger skins.

There is much obscurity as to the meaning of the word tachash, rendered "badger" in the Authorized Version,

Ex 25:5; 35:7

etc. The ancient versions seem nearly all agreed that it denotes not an animal but a color, either black or sky-blue. The badger is not found in the Bible lands. The Arab duchash or tufchash denotes a dolphin, including seals and cetaceans. The skins referred to are probably those of these marine animals, some of which are found in the Red Sea. The skin of the Halicore, one of these, from its hardness would be well suited for making soles for shoes.

Eze 16:10

Bag

is the rendering of several words in the Old and New Testaments.

1. Charitim, the "bags" in which Naaman bound up the two talents of silver for Gehazi.

2Ki 5:23

They were long cone-like bags of the size to hold a precise amount of money, and tied or sealed for that amount, as we stamp the value on a coin.

2. Cis, a bag for carrying weights,

De 25:13

also used as a purse

Pr 1:14

3. Celi, in

Ge 42:25

is the "sack" in which Jacob’s sons carried the corn which they brought from Egypt.

4. The shepherd’s "bag" used by David was for the purpose of carrying the lambs unable to walk.

Zec 11:15, 16:5

5. Tschar, properly a "bundle,"

Ge 42:35

appears to have been used by travellers for carrying money during a long journey.

Pr 7:20

6. The "bag" which Judas carried was probably a small box or chest.

Joh 12:6; 13:29

Baha’rumite, The.

[BAHURIM]

BAHURIM - See 5562

Bahu’rim

(low ground), a village,

2Sa 16:6

apparently on or close to the road leading up from the Jordan valley to Jerusalem, and near the south boundary of Benjamin.

Ba’jith

(the horse), referring to the "temple" of the false gods of Moab, as opposed to the "high places" in the same sentence.

Isa 15:2

and comp.

Isa 16:12

Bakbak’kar

(admirable), a Levite, apparently a descendant of Asaph.

1Ch 9:15

(B.C.588.)

Bak’buk

(bottle). "Children of Bakkuk" were among the Nethinim who returned from captivity with Zerubbabel.

Ezr 2:51; Ne 7:53

(B.C. before 536).

Bakbuki’ah

(wasting of Jehovah), a Levite in the time of Nehemiah.

Ne 11:17; 12:9

(B.C. before 536.)

Bake.

Reference to baking is found in

Le 26:26; 1Sa 8:13; 2Sa 13:8; Jer 7:18; 37:21; Ho

7:4-7

Ba’laam

(B.C. 1451), the son of beor, a man endowed with the gift of prophecy.

Nu 22:5

He is mentioned in conjunction with the five kings of Midian, apparently as a person of the same rank.

Nu 31:8

cf. Numb 31:16 He seems to have lived at Pethor,

De 23:4; Nu 22:5

on the river Euphrates, in Mesopotamia. Such was his reputation that when the Israelites were encamped in the plains of Moab, Balak, the king of Moab, sent for Balaam to curse them. Balaam at first was prohibited by God from going. He was again sent for by the king and again refused, but was at length allowed to go. He yielded to the temptations of riches and honor which Balak set before him; but God’s anger was kindled at this manifestation of determined self-will, and the angel of the Lord stood in the way for an adversary against him. See

2Pe 2:16

Balaam predicted a magnificent career for the people whom he was called to curse, but he nevertheless suggested to the Moabites the expedient of seducing them to commit fornication. The effect of this is recorded in

Nu 25:1

... A battle was afterwards fought against the Midianites, in which Balaam sided with them, and was slain by the sword of the people whom he had endeavored to curse.

Nu 31:8

Ba’lac.

Re 2:14

[BALAK]

BALAK - See 5572

Bal’adan.

[MERODACH-BALADAN]

MERODACHBALADAN - See 7946

Ba’lah.

Jos 19:3

[BAAL, Geogr. No. 2, b]

BAAL - See 5541

Ba’lak

(spoiler), son of Zippor, king of the Moabites, who hired Balaam to curse the Israelites; but his designs were frustrated int he manner recorded in

Nu 22:24

(B.C. 1451.)

Balances.

Reference to balances is found in

Le 19:36

They were in common use, gold and silver being paid out and received by weight. Reference is also made in

Mic 6:11; Ho 12:7

to the dishonest practice of buying by heavier and selling by lighter weights.

Bal’amo.

[BAAL, Geogr. No. 6]

BAAL - See 5541

Baldness.

Natural baldness seems to have been uncommon, since it exposed people to public derision.

Le 13:29; 2Ki 2:23; Isa 3:24; 15:2; Jer 47:5; Eze

7:18

Artificial baldness marked the conclusion of a Nazarite’s vow,

Nu 6:9; Ac 18:18

and was a sign of mourning.

Balm

(from balsam, Heb. tzori, tezri) occurs in

Ge 37:25; 43:11; Jer 8:22; 46:11; 51:8; Eze 27:17

(It is an aromatic plant, or the resinous odoriferous sap or gum which exudes from such plants.) It is impossible to identify it with any certainty. It is impossible to identify it with any certainty. It may represent the gum of the Pistacia lentiscus, or more probably that of the Balsamodendron opobalsamum, allied to the balm of Gilead, which abounded in Gilead east of the Jordan. The trees resembled fig trees (or grape vines), but were lower, being but 12 to 15 feet high. It is now called the BALM OF GILEAD, or Meccabalsam, the tree or shrub being indigenous in the mountains around Mecca. [INCENSE; SPICES] Hasselquist says that the exudation from the plant "is of a yellow color, and pellucid. It has a most fragrant smell, which is resinous, balsamic and very agreeable. It is very tenacious or glutinous, sticking to the fingers, and may be drawn into long threads." It was supposed to have healing as well as aromatic qualities.

GILEAD - See 6690

INCENSE - See 7107

SPICES - See 9116

Ba’mah

(high place). Found only in

Eze 20:29

applied to places of idolatrous worship.

Ba’moth-ba’al

(heights of Baal), a sanctuary of Baal in the country of Moab

Jos 13:17

which is probably mentioned in

Nu 21:19

under the shorter form of Bamoth, or Bamoth-in-the-ravine (20), and again in

Isa 15:2

Band.

The "band of Roman soldiers" referred to in

Mt 27:27

and elsewhere was the tenth part of a legion. It was called a "cohort," and numbered 400 to 600 men. [See ARMY]

ARMY - See 5413

Ba’ni

(built).

1. A Gadite, one of David’s mighty men.

2Sa 23:36

(B.C. 1046.)

2. A Levite of the line of Merari, and forefather to Ethan.

1Ch 6:46

3. A man of Judah of the line of Pharez.

1Ch 9:4

4. "Children of Bani" returned from captivity with Zerubbabel.

Ezr 2:10; 10:29,34; Ne 10:14

1 Esd. 5:12. [BINNUI; MANI]

BINNUI - See 5784

5. An Israelite "of the sons of Bani."

Ezr 10:38

6. A Levite.

Ne 3:17

7. A Levite.

Ne 8:7; 9:4,5; 10:13

8. Another Levite, of the sons of Asaph.

Ne 11:22

Banner.

[See ENSIGN]

ENSIGN - See 6397

Banquets

among the Hebrews, were not only a means of social enjoyment, but were a part of the observance of religious festivity. At the three solemn festivals the family also had its domestic feast.

De 16:11

Sacrifices, both ordinary and extraordinary,

Ex 34:15; Jud 16:23

includes a banquet. Birthday banquets are only mentioned

Ge 40:20; Mt 14:6

The usual time of the banquet was the evening, and to begin early was a mark of excess.

Ec 10:16; Isa 5:11

The most essential materials of the banqueting room, next to the viands and wine, which last was often drugged with spices,

Pr 9:2

were perfumed unguents, garlands or loose flowers, white or brilliant robes; after these, exhibitions of music singers and dancers, riddles, jesting and merriment.

Jud 14:12; 2Sa 19:35; Ne 8:10; Ec 10:19; Isa 5:12; 25:6;

28:1; Mt 22:11; Lu 15:25

The posture at table in early times was sitting,

1Sa 16:11; 20:5,18

and the guests were ranged in order of dignity. (Gene 43:33; 1Sam 9:22 Words which imply the recumbent posture belong to the New Testament.

Baptism.

It is well known that ablution or bathing was common in most ancient nations as a preparation for prayers and sacrifice or as expiatory of sin. In warm countries this connection is probably even closer than in colder climates; and hence the frequency of ablution in the religious rites throughout the East. Baptism in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost is the rite or ordinance by which persons are admitted into the Church of Christ. It is the public profession of faith and discipleship. Baptism signifies—

1. A confession of faith in Christ;

2. A cleansing or washing of the soul from sin;

3. A death to sin and a new life in righteousness. The mode and subjects of baptism being much-controverted subjects, each one can best study them in the works devoted to those questions. The command to baptize was co-extensive with the command to preach the gospel. All nations were to be evangelized; and they were to be made disciples, admitted into the fellowship of Christ’s religion, by baptism.

Mt 28:19

It appears to have been a kind of transition from the Jewish baptism to the Christian. The distinction between John’s baptism and Christian baptism appears in the case of Apollos,

Ac 18:26,27

and of the disciples at Ephesus mentioned

Ac 19:1-6

We cannot but draw from this history the inference that in Christian baptism there was a deeper spiritual significance.

Barab’bas

(son of Abba), a robber,

Joh 18:40

who had committed murder in an insurrection,

Mr 15:7; Lu 28:18

in Jerusalem and was lying in prison the time of the trial of Jesus before Pilate.p

Bar’achel

(God has blessed), father of Elihu.

Job 32:2,6

[BUZ]

BUZ - See 5852

Barachi’as.

Mt 23:35

[ZACHARIAS]

ZACHARIAS - See 9507

Ba’rak

(lightning), son of Abinoam of Kedesh, a refuge city in Mount Naphtali, was incited by Deborah, a prophetess of Ephraim, to deliver Israel from the yolk of Jabin. Judges 4. He utterly routed the Canaanites int eh plain of Jezreel (Esdraelon). (B.C. 1291-1251.)

Barbarian.

"every one not a Greek is a barbarian" is the common Greek definition, and in this strict sense the word is sued in

Ro 1:14

It often retains this primitive meaning, as in

1Co 14:11; Ac 28:24

Barhu’mite, The.

[BAHURIM]

BAHURIM - See 5562

Bari’ah

(fugitive), a descendant of the royal family of Judah.

1Ch 3:22

(B.C. before 410.)

Bar-je’sus

(son of Jesus). [ELYMAS]

ELYMAS - See 6363

Bar-jo’na

(son of Jonah). [PETER]

PETER - See 8391

Bar’kos

(painted). "Children of Barkos" were among the Nethinim who returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel.

Ezr 2:53; Ne 7:55

(B.C. 536.)

Barley

is one of the most important of the cereal grains, and the most hardy of them all. It was grown by the Hebrews,

Le 27:16; De 8:8; Ru 2:17

etc., who used it for baking into bread chiefly among the poor,

Jud 7:13; 2Ki 4:42; Joh 6:9,13

and as fodder for horses.

1Ki 4:28

The barley harvest,

Ru 1:22; 2:23; 2Sa 21:9;10

takes place in Palestine in March and April, and in the hilly district as late as May. It always precedes the wheat harvest, in some places by a week, in others by fully three weeks. In Egypt the barley is about a month earlier than the wheat; whence its total destruction by the hail storm.

Ex 9:31

Bar’nabas

(son of consolation or comfort) a name given by the apostles,

Ac 4:36

to Joseph (or Jose), a Levite of the island of Cyprus, who was early a disciple of Christ. In

Ac 9:27

we find him introducing the newly-converted Saul to the apostles at Jerusalem. Barnabas was sent to Jerusalem,

Ac 11:19-26

and went to Tarsus to seek Saul, as one specially raised up to preach to the Gentiles.

Ac 26:17

He brought him to Antioch, and was sent with him to Jerusalem.

Ac 11:30

On their return, they were ordained by the church for the missionary work,

Ac 13:2

and sent forth (A.D. 45). From this time Barnabas and Paul enjoy the title and dignity of apostles. Their first missionary journey is related in

Ac 13:14

Returning to Antioch (A.D. 47 or 48), they were sent (A.D. 50), with some others, to Jerusalem.

Ac 15:1,36

Afterwards they parted and Barnabas took Mark and sailed to Cyprus, his native island. Here the Scripture notices of him cease. The epistle attributed to Barnabas is believed to have been written early in the second century.

Bar’sabas

(son of Sabas or rest). [JOSEPH BARSABAS; JUDAS BARSABAS]

JOSEPH - See 7487

JUDAS - See 7514

Barsab’bas.

Revised Version of

Ac 1:23

for BAR’SABAS.

Barthol’omew

(son of Tolmai), one of the twelve apostles of Christ.

Mt 10:3; Mr 3:18; Lu 6:14; Ac 1:13

It has been not improperly conjectured that he is identical with Nathanael.

Joh 1:45

ff. He is said to have preached the gospel in India, that is, probably, Arabia Felix, and according to some in Armenia.

Bartimae’us

(son of Timeus), a blind beggar of Jericho who,

Mr 10:46

ff., sat by the wayside begging as our Lord passed out of Jericho on his last journey to Jerusalem.

Ba’ruch

(blessed).

1. Son of Neriah, the friend,

Jer 32:12

amanuensis,

Jer 26:4-32

and faithful attendant of Jeremiah.

Jer 36:10

ff. (B.C. 603.) He was of a noble family, comp.

Jer 51:59

Bar. 1:1, and of distinguished acquirements. His enemies accused him of influencing Jeremiah in favor of the Chaldaeans,

Jer 43:3

cf. Jere 27:13 and he was imprisoned until the capture of Jerusalem, B.C. 586. By the permission of Nebuchadnezzar he remained with Jeremiah at Mizpeh, Jos. Ant. x.9, 1, but was afterwards forced to go down to Egypt.

Jer 43:6

Nothing is known certainly of the close of his life.

2. The son of Zabbai, who assisted Nehemiah in rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem.

Ne 3:20

(B.C. 446.)

3. A priest, or family of priests, who signed the covenant with Nehemiah.

Ne 10:6

(B.C. 410.).

4. The son of Col-hozeh, a descendant of Perez or Pharez, the son of Judah.

Ne 11:5

(B.C. 536.)

Ba’ruch, Book of.

One of the apocryphal books of the Old Testament. The book was held in little esteem by the Jews, and both its date and authorship are very uncertain.

Barzil’la-i

(iron, i.e., strong).

1. A wealthy Gileadite who showed hospitality to David when he fled form Absalom.

2Sa 17:27

(B.C. 1023.) He declined the king’s offer of ending his days at court.

2Sa 19:32-39

2. A Meholathite, whose son Adriel married Michal, Saul’s daughter.

2Sa 21:8

(B.C. before 1062.)

3. Son-in-law to Barzillai the Gileadite.

Ezr 2:61; Ne 7:63,64

(B.C. before 536.)

Ba’shan

(fruitful), a district on the east of Jordan. It is sometimes spoken of as the "land of Bashan,"

1Ch 5:11

and comp. Numb 21:33; 32:33 and sometimes as "all Bashan."

De 3:10,13; Jos 12:5; 13:12,30

It was taken by the children of Israel after their conquest of the land of Sihon from Arnon to Jabbok. The limits of Bashan are very strictly defined. It extended from the "border of Gilead" on the south to Mount Hermon on the north,

De 3:3,10,14; Jos 12:5; 1Ch 5:23

and from the Arabah or Jordan valley on the west to Salchah (Sulkhad) and the border of the Geshurites and the Maachathites on the east.

Jos 12:3-5; De 3:10

This important district was bestowed on the half-tribe of Manasseh,

Jos 13:29-31

together with "half Gilead." This country is now full of interesting ruins, which have lately been explored and from which much light has been thrown upon Bible times. See Porter’s "Giant Cities of Bashan."

Ba’shan-ha’voth-ja’ir

(Bashan of the villages of Jair), a name given to Argob after its conquest by Jair.

De 3:14

Bash’emath

(fragrant, pleasing), daughter of Ishmael, the last married of the three wives of Esau.

Ge 26:34; 36:3,4,13

(B.C. after 1797.) In

Ge 28:9

she is called Mahalath.

Basin.

Among the smaller vessels for the tabernacle or temple service, many must have been required to receive from the sacrificial victims the blood to be sprinkled for purification. The "basin" from which our Lord washed the disciples’ feet was probably deeper and larger than the hand-basin for sprinkling.

Basket.

The Hebrew terms used in the description of this article are as follows: (1) Sal, so called from the twigs of which it was originally made, specially used for holding bread.

Ge 40:16

ff.

Ex 29:3,23; Le 8:2,26,31; Nu 6:15,17,19

(2) Salsilloth, a word of kindred origin, applied to the basket used in gathering grapes.

Jer 6:9

(3) Tene, in which the first-fruits of the harvest were presented.

De 26:2,4

(4) Celub, so called from its similarity to a bird-cage. (5) Dud, used for carrying fruit,

Jer 24:1,2

as well as on a larger scale for carrying clay to the brick-yard,

Ps 81:6

(pots, Authorized Version), or for holding bulky articles.

2Ki 10:7

In the New Testament baskets are described under three different terms.

Bas’math

(fragrant, pleasing), a daughter of Solomon, married to Ahimaaz, one of his commissariat officers.

1Ki 4:15

(B.C. after 1014.)

Bastard.

Among those who were excluded from entering the congregation, even to the tenth generation, was the bastard.

De 23:2

The term is not, however, applied to any illegitimate offspring, born out of wedlock, but is restricted by the rabbins to the issue of any connection within the degrees prohibited by the law.

Bat.

Le 11:19; De 14:18

Many travellers have noticed the immense numbers of bats that are found in caverns in the East, and Mr. Layard said that on the occasion of a visit to a cavern these noisome beasts compelled him to retreat.

Bath, Bathing.

This was a prescribed part of the Jewish ritual of purification in cases of accident, or of leprous or ordinary uncleanness,

Le 15; 16:28; 22:6; Nu 19:7, 19; 2Sa 11:2,4; 2Ki

5:10

as also after mourning, which always implied defilement.

Ru 3:3; 2Sa 12:20

The eastern climate made bathing essential alike to health and pleasure, to which luxury added the use of perfumes.

Es 2:12

Judith 10:3; Susan 17. The "pools," such as that of Siloam and Hezekiah,

2Ki 20:20; Ne 3:15,16; Isa 22:11; Joh 9:7

often sheltered by porticos,

Joh 5:2

are the first indications we have of public bathing accommodation.

Bath.

[MEASURES]

MEASURES - See 7886

Bath-rab’bim

(daughter of many), The gate of, One of the gates of the ancient city of heshbon.

So 7:4,5

Bath’-sheba, or Bath-she’ba

(daughter of the oath),

2Sa 11:3

etc., also called Bath-shua in

1Ch 3:5

the daughter of Eliam,

2Sa 11:3

or Ammiel,

1Ch 3:5

the son of Ahithophel,

2Sa 23:34

and wife of Uriah the Hittite. (B.C. 1035.) The child which was the fruit of her adulterous intercourse with David died; but after marriage she became the mother of four sons, Solomon,

Mt 1:6

Shimea, Shobab and Nathan. When Adonijah attempted to set aside the succession promised to Solomon, Bath-sheba informed the king of the conspiracy.

1Ki 1:11,15,23

After the accession of Solomon, she, as queen-mother, requested permission of her son for Adonijah to take in marriage Abishag the Shunammite.

1Ki 2:21-25

Bath-shu’a.

[BATH-SHEBA]

BATHSHEBA - See 5614

Battering-ram,

Eze 4:2; 21:22

a large beam with a head of iron which was sometimes made to resemble the head of a ram. It was suspended by ropes to a beam supported by posts, and balanced so as to swing backward and forward, and was impelled by men against the wall. In attacking the walls of a fort or city, the first step appears to have been to form an inclined plane or bank of earth, comp.

Eze 4:2

"cast a mount against it," by which the besiegers could bring their battering-rams and other engines to the foot of the walls. "The battering-rams," says Mr. Layard "were of several kinds. Some were joined to movable towers which held warriors and armed men. The whole then formed one great temporary building, the top of which is represented in sculptures as on a level with the walls, and even turrets, of the besieged city. In some bas-reliefs the battering-ram is without wheels: it was then perhaps constructed upon the spot and was not intended to be moved."

Battle-axe.

Jer 51:20

[MAUL]

MAUL - See 7879

Battlement.

Among the Jews a battlement was required by law to be built upon every house. It consisted of a low wall built around the roofs of the houses to prevent persons from falling off, and sometimes serving as a partition from another building.

De 22:8; Jer 5:10

Bav’a-i

son of Henadad, ruler of the district of Keilah in the time of Nehemiah.

Ne 3:18

(B.C. 446.)

Bay tree.

A species of laurel. Laurus nobilis. An evergreen, with leaves like our mountain laurel.

Ps 37:35

Baz’lith

(asking). "Children of Bazlith" were among the Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel.

Ne 7:54

In

Ezr 2:52

the name is given as BAZLUTH. (B.C. 536.)

BAZLUTH - See 5622

Baz’luth

[BAZLITH]

BAZLITH - See 5621

Bdellium

(bedolach).

Ge 2:12; Nu 11:7

It is quite impossible to say whether bedolach denotes a mineral or an animal production or a vegetable exudation. Bdellium is an odoriferous exudation from a tree which is perhaps the Borassus flabelliformis, Lin., of Arabia Felix.

Beacon.

A signal or conspicuous mark erected on an eminence for direction.

Isa 30:17

Beali’ah

(Jehovah is lord), a Benjamite who went over to David at Ziklag.

1Ch 12:5

(B.C. 1062.)

Be’aloth

(ladies) a town in the extreme south of Judah.

Jos 15:24

Beans.

2Sa 17:28; Eze 4:9

Beans are cultivated in Palestine, which produces many of the leguminous order of plants, such, as lentils, kidney-beans, vetches, etc.

Bear.

1Sa 17:34; 2Sa 17:8

The Syrian bear, Ursus syriacus, which is without doubt the animal mentioned in the Bible, is still found on the higher mountains of Palestine. During the summer months these bears keep to the snowy parts of Lebanon, but descend in winter to the villages and Gardens. It is probable also that at this period in former days they extended their visits to other parts of Palestine.

Beard.

Western Asiatics have always cherished the beard as the badge of the dignity of manhood, and attached to it the importance of a feature. The Egyptians, on the contrary for the most part shaved the hair of the face and head, though we find some instances to the contrary. The beard is the object of an oath, and that on which blessing or shame is spoken of as resting. The custom was and is to shave or pluck it and the hair out in mourning,

Ezr 9:3; Isa 15:2; 50:6; Jer 41:5; 48:37

Bar. 6:31; to neglect it in seasons of permanent affliction,

2Sa 19:24

and to regard any insult to it as the last outrage which enmity can inflict.

2Sa 10:4

The beard was the object of salutation.

2Sa 20:9

The dressing, trimming, anointing, etc., of the beard was performed with much ceremony by persons of wealth and rank

Ps 133:2

The removal of the beard was a part of the ceremonial treatment proper to a leper.

Le 14:9

Beb’a-i

(fatherly).

1. "Sons of Bebai," 623 (Nehe 6:28) in number, returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel,

Ezr, 2:11; Ne 7:16

(B.C. 536), and at a later period twenty-eight more under Zechariah, son of Bebai, returned with Ezra.

Ezr 8:11

Four of this family had taken foreign wives.

Ezr 10:28

The name occurs also among those who sealed the covenant.

Ne 10:15

2. Father of Zechariah, who was the leader of the twenty-eight men of his tribe mentioned above.

Be’cher

(young or firstborn)

1. The second son of Benjamin, according to the list in both

Ge 46:21

and 1Chr 7:6 but omitted in

1Ch 8:1

(B.C. about 1690.)

2. Son of Ephraim,

Nu 26:35

called BERED in

1Ch 7:20

BERED - See 5691

Same as the preceding.

Becho’rath

(first-born), son of Aphiah or Abiah, and grandson of Becher according to

1Sa 9:1; 1Ch 7:8

(B.C. before 1093.)

Bed.

The Jewish bed consisted of the mattress, a mere mat, or one or more quilts; the covering, a finer quilt, or sometimes the outer garment worn by day,

1Sa 19:13

which the law provided should not be kept in pledge after sunset, that the poor man might not lack his needful covering,

De 24:13

the pillow,

1Sa 19:13

probably formed of sheep’s fleece or goat’s skin with a stuffing of cotton, etc.; the bedstead, a divan or bench along the side or end of the room, sufficing at a support for the bedding. Besides we have bedsteads made of ivory, wood, etc. referred to in

De 3:11; Am 6:4

The ornamental portions were pillars and a canopy, Judith 13:9, ivory carvings, gold and silver, and probably mosaic work, purple and fine linen.

Es 1:6; So 3:9,10

The ordinary furniture of a bedchamber in private life is given in

2Ki 4:10

Be’dad

(solitary), the father of Hadad king of Edom.

Ge 36:35; 1Ch 1:46

(B.C. before 1093.)

Be’dan

(son of judgement).

1. Mentioned in

1Sa 12:11

as a judge of Israel between Jerubbaal (Gideon) and Jephthah. The Chaldee Paraphrase reads Samson for Bedan; the LXX., Syriac and Arabic all have Barak. Ewald suggests that it may be a false reading for Abdon. (B.C. about 1150.)

2. The son of Gilead.

1Ch 7:17

Bede-i’ah,

one of the sons of Bani, in the time of Ezra, who had taken a foreign wife.

Ezr 10:35

(B.C. 458.)

Bee

(deborah).

De 1:44; Jud 14:8; Ps 118:12; Isa 7:18

Bees abounded in Palestine, honey being a common article of food

Ps 81:16

and was often found in the clefts of rocks and in hollow trees.

1Sa 14:25,27

English naturalists know little of the species of bees that are found in Palestine, but are inclined tn believe that the honey-bee of Palestine is distinct from the honey-bee (Apis mellifica) of this country. The passage in

Isa 7:18

refers "to the custom of the people in the East of calling attention to any one by a significant hiss or rather hist." We read,

Jud 14:8

that "after a time," probably many days, Samson returned to the carcass of the lion he had slain, and saw bees and honey therein. "If any one here represents to himself a corrupt and putrid carcass, the occurrence ceases to have any true similitude, for it is well known that in these countries, at certain seasons of the year, the heat will in the course of twenty-four hours completely dry up the moisture of dead camels, and that, without their undergoing decomposition their bodies long remain like mummies, unaltered and entirely free from offensive odor."—Edmann.

Beeli’ada

(the Lord knows); one of David’s 9 sons, born in Jerusalem.

1Ch 14:7

In the lists in Samuel the name is ELIADA. (B.C. after 1045.)

ELIADA - See 6305

Be-el’zebub.

[See BEELZEBUL]

BEELZEBUL - See 5640

Be-el’zebul

(lord of the house), the title of a heathen deity, to whom the Jews ascribed the sovereignty of the evil spirits; Satan, the prince of the devils.

Mt 10:25; 12:24; Mr 3:22; Lu 11:15

ff. The correct reading is without doubt Beelzebul, and not Beelzebub.

Be’er

(a well).

1. One of the latest halting-places of the Israelites, lying beyond the Arnon.

Nu 21:16-18

This is possibly the BEER-ELIM of

BEERELIM - See 5644

Isa 15:8

2. A place to which Jotham, the son of Gideon, fled for fear of his brother Abimelech.

Jud 9:21

Be-e’ra

(a well), son of Zophah, of the tribe of Asher.

1Ch 7:37

(B.C. after 1450.)

Be-e’rah,

prince of the Reubenites, carried away by Tiglath-pileser.

1Ch 5:6

(B.C. 738).

Be-er-e’lim

(well of heroes), a spot named in

Isa 15:8

as on the "border of Moab."

Nu 21:16

comp. Numb 21:13

Be-e’ri.

1. The father of Judith, one of the wives of Esau.

Ge 26:34

[ANAH] (B.C. 1797.)

ANAH - See 5293

2. Father of the prophet Hosea.

Ho 1:1

(B.C. before 725.)

Be-er-laha’i-roi

(a well of the living), a living spring, Authorized Version, fountain, comp.

Jer 6:7

between Kadesh and Bered, in the wilderness.

Ge 24:62

Be-e’roth

(wells), one of the four cities of the Hivites who deluded Joshua into a treaty of peace with them.

Jos 9:17

It is now el-Bireh, which stands about 10 miles north of Jerusalem.

Be-e’roth of the children of Jaakan,

the wells of the tribe of Bene-Jaakan, which formed one of the halting-places of the Israelites in the desert.

De 10:6

In

Nu 33:31

the name is given as BENE-JAAKAN only.

BENEJAAKAN - See 5669

Be-er’-sheba, or Be-er-she’ba

(well of the oath), the name of one of the old places in Palestine which formed the southern limit of the country. There are two accounts of the origin of the name. According to the first, the well was dug by Abraham, and the name given to Judah,

Jos 15:28

and then to Simeon,

Jos 19:2; 1Ch 4:28

In the often-quoted "from Dan even unto Beersheba,"

Jud 20:1

it represents the southern boundary of Canaan, as Dan the northern. In the time of Jerome it was still a considerable place, and still retains its ancient name —Bir es-Seba. There are at present on the spot two principal wells and five smaller ones. The two principal wells are on or close to the northern bank of the Wady es-Seba. The larger of the two, which lies to the east, is, according to Dr. Robinson, 12 1/2 feet in diameter, and at the time of his visit (April

12) was 44 1/2 feet to the surface of the water. The masonry which encloses the well extends downward 28 1/2 feet. The other well is 5 feet in diameter, and was 42 feet to the water. The curb-stones around the mouth of both wells are worn into deep grooves by the action of the ropes of so many centures. These wells are in constant use today. The five lesser wells are in a group in the bed of the wady. On some low hills north of the large wells are scattered the foundations and ruins of a town of moderate size.

Be-esh-terah

(house of Ashterah), one of the two cities allotted to the sons of Gershon out of the tribe of Manasseh beyond Jordan.

Jos 21:27

Probably identical with Ashtaroth.

1Ch 6:71

Beetle.

[LOCUST]

LOCUST - See 7707

Beeves.

Same as cattle.

Le 22:19

[See BULL]

BULL - See 5841

Beggar, Begging.

The poor among the Hebrews were much favored. They were allowed to glean in the fields, and to gather whatever the land produced in the year in which it was not tilled

Le 19:10; 25:5,6; De 24:19

They were also invited to feasts.

De 14:29

and Deut 26:12 The Israelite could not be an absolute pauper. His land was in alienable, except for a certain term, when it reverted to him or his posterity. And if this resource were insufficient, he could pledge the services of himself and family or a valuable sum. Those who were indigent through bodily infirmities were usually taken care of by their kindred. A beggar was sometimes seen, however, and was regarded and abhorred as a vagabond.

Ps 109:10

In later times beggars were accustomed, it would seem, to have a fixed place at the corners of the streets,

Mr 10:46

or at the gates of the temple,

Ac 3:2

or of private houses,

Lu 16:20

Be’hemoth

(great beasts). There can be little or no doubt that by this word,

Job 40:15-24

the hippopotamus is intended since all the details descriptive of the behemoth accord entirely with the ascertained habits of that animal. The hippopotamus is an immense creature having a thick and square head, a large mouth often two feet broad, small eyes and ears, thick and heavy body, short legs terminated by four toes, a short tail, skin without hair except at the extremity of the tail. It inhabits nearly the whole of Africa, and has been found of the length of 17 feet. It delights in the water, but feeds on herbage on land. It is not found in Palestine, but may at one time have been a native of western Asia.

Be’kah.

[WEIGHTS AND MEASURES]

WEIGHTS - See 9455

MEASURES - See 7886

Bel.

[BAAL]

BAAL - See 5540

Be’la

(destruction).

1. One of the five cities of the plain which was spared at the intercession of Lot, and received the name of Zoar,

Ge 14:2; 19:22

[ZOAR]

ZOAR - See 9619

2. Son of Beor, who reigned over Edom in the city of Dinhabah, eight generations before Saul.

Ge 36:31-33; 1Ch 1:43,44

3. Eldest son of Benjamin, according to

Ge 46:21

(Authorized Version "Belah");

Nu 26:38,40; 1Ch 7:6; 8:1

and head of the family of the Belaites.

4. Son of Ahaz, a Reubenite.

1Ch 5:8

Be’lah.

[BELA, 3]

BELA - See 5657

Be’la-ites, The.

Nu 26:38

[BELA, 3]

BELA - See 5657

Be’lial.

The meaning of this word as found in the Scriptures is worthlessness, and hence reckless, lawlessness. The expression son or man of Belial must be understood as meaning simply a worthless, lawless fellow. The term as used in

2Co 6:15

is generally understood as an appellative of Satan, as the personification of all that was bad.

Bellows.

The word occurs only in

Jer 6:29

where it denotes an instrument to heat a smelting furnace. Wilkinson in "Ancient Egypt," iii. 338, says, "They consisted of a leather, secured and fitted into a frame, from which a long pipe extended for carrying the wind to the fire. They were worked by the feet, the operator standing upon them, with one under each foot, and pressing them alternately, while he pulled up each exhausted skin with a string he held in his hand."

Bells.

In

Ex 28:33

the bells alluded to were the golden ones 72 in number, round the hem of the his priest’s ephod. The object of them was so that his sound might be heard."

Ex 28:34

Ecclus. 45:9. To this day bells are frequently attached, for the sake of their pleasant sound, to the anklets of women. The little girls of Cairo wear strings of them around their feet. In

Zec 14:20

"bells of the horses" were concave or flat pieces of brass, which were sometimes attached to horses for the sake of ornament.

Belshaz’zar

(prince of Bel), the last king of Babylon. In

Da 5:2

Nebuchadnezzar is called the father of Belshazzar. This, of course, need only mean grandfather or ancestor. According to the well-known narrative Belshazzar gave a splendid feast in his palace during the siege of Babylon (B.C. 538), using the sacred vessels of the temple, which Nebuchadnezzer had brought from Jerusalem. The miraculous appearance of the handwriting on the wall, the calling in of Daniel to interpret its meaning the prophecy of the overthrow of the kingdom, and Belshazsar’s death, accorded in Dan. 5.

Belteshaz’zar

(favored by Bel.) [DANIEL]

DANIEL - See 6138

DANIEL - See 6139

Ben

(son), a Levite, one of the porters appointed by David for the ark.

1Ch 15:18

Bena’iah

(made by the Lord).

1. The son of Jehoiada the chief priest,

1Ch 27:5

of the tribe of Levi, though a native of Kabzeel,

2Sa 23:20

set by David,

1Ch 11:25

over his body-guard.

2Sa 8:18; 20:23; 1Ki 1:38; 1Ch 18:17

One of the mighty men.

2Sa 23:22,23; 1Ch 11:25; 27:6

The exploits which gave him this rank are narrated in

2Sa 28:20,21; 1Ch 11:22

He was captain of the host for the third month.

1Ch 27:5

Benaiah remained faithful to Solomon during Adonijah’s attempt on the crown,

1Ki 1:8,10,32,38,44

and was raised unto the place of Joab as commander-in-chief of the whole army.

1Ki 2:35; 4:4

(B.C. 1005.)

2. Benaiah the Pirathonite, an Ephraimite, one of David’s thirty mighty men,

2Sa 23:30; 1Ch 11:31

and the captain of the eleventh monthly course.

1Ch 27:14

3. A Levite in the time of David, who "played with a psaltry on Alamoth."

1Ch 15:18,20; 16:5

4. A priest in the time of David, appointed to blow the trumpet before the ark.

1Ch 15:24; 16:6

5. A Levite of the sons of Asaph.

2Ch 20:14

6. A Levite in the time of Hezekiah.

2Ch 31:13

7. One of the "princes" of the families of Simeon.

1Ch 4:36

8. Four laymen in the time of Ezra who had taken strange wives.

Ezr 10:25,30,35,43

9. The father of Pelatiah.

Eze 11:1,13

Ben-am’mi

(son of my people), the son of the younger daughter of Lot, and progenitor of the Ammonites.

Ge 19:38

(B.C. 1897.)

Ben-eb’erak

(son of lightning), one of the cities of the tribe of Dan, mentioned only in

Jos 19:45

Bene-ja’akan

(sons of Jaakan), a tribe who gave their name to certain wells in the desert which formed one of the halting-places of the Israelites on their journey to Canaan. [BEEROTH BENE-JAAKAN] Also given in

BEEROTH - See 5648

Ge 36:27

as AKAN.

AKAN - See 5205

Bene-ke’dem

(the children of the East), an appellation given to a people or to peoples dwelling to the east of Palestine. It occurs in

Ge 29:1; Jud 6:3,33; 7:12; 8:10; Job 1:3

Ben-ha’dad

(son of Hadad), the name of three kings of Damascus. BENHADAD I., King of Damascus, which in his time was supreme in Syria. He made an alliance with Asa, and conquered a great part of the north of Israel.

1Ki 15:18

His date is B.C. 950. BEN-HADAD II., son of the preceding, and also king of Damascus. Long wars with Israel characterized his reign. Some time after the death of Ahab, Benhadad renewed the war with Israel, attacked Samaria a second time, and pressed the siege so closely that there was a terrible famine in the city. But the Syrians broke up in the night in consequence of a sudden panic. Soon after Ben-hadad fell sick, and sent Hazael to consult Elisha as to the issue of his malady. On the day after Hazael’s return Ben-hadad was murdered, probably by some of his own servants.

2Ki 8:7-15

Ben-hadad’s death was about B.C. 890, and he must have reigned some 30 years. BEN-HADAD III., son of Hazael, and his successor on the throne of Syria. When he succeeded to the throne, Jehoash recovered the cities which Jehoahaz had lost to the Syrians, and beat him in Aphek.

2Ki 13:17,25

The date of Ben-hadad III is B.C. 840.

Ben-ha’il

(son of the host, strong), one of the princes whom King Jehoshaphat sent to teach in the cities of Judah.

2Ch 17:7

Ben-ha’nan

(son of the gracious), son of Shimon, in the line of Judah.

1Ch 4:20

Beni’nu

(our son), a Levite; one of those who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah.

Ne 10:13,14

Ben’jamin

(son of the right hand, fortunate).

1. The youngest of the children of Jacob. His birth took place on the road between Bethel and Bethlehem, near the latter, B.C. 1729. His mother, Rachel, died in the act of giving him birth, naming him with her last breath Ben-oni (son of my sorrow). This was by Jacob changed into Benjamin.

Ge 35:16,18

Until the journeys of Jacob’s sons and Jacob himself into Egypt we hear nothing of Benjamin. Nothing personal is known of him. Henceforward the history of Benjamin is the history of the tribe.

2. A man of the tribe of Benjamin, son of bilhan, and the head of a family of warriors.

1Ch 7:10

3. One of the "sons of Harim," an Israelite in the time of Ezra who had married a foreign wife.

Ezr 10:32

Ben’jamin, The tribe of.

The contrast between the warlike character of the tribe and the peaceful image of its progenitor comes out in many scattered notices. Benjamin was the only tribe which seems to have pursued archery to any purpose, and their skill in the bow,

1Sa 20:20,36; 2Sa 1:232; 1Ch 8:40; 12:2 2Ch 17:17

and the sling,

Jud 20:16

is celebrated. The dreadful deed recorded in Judges 19 was defended by Benjamin. Later the tribe seems, however, to assume another position, as Ramah,

1Sa 9:12

etc., Mizpeh,

1Sa 7:5

Bethel and Gibeon,

1Ki 3:4

were all in the land of Benjamin. After the struggles and contests which followed the death of Saul, the history of Benjamin becomes merged in that of the southern kingdom.

Ben’jamin, The land of.

The proximity of Benjamin to Ephraim during the march to the promised land was maintained in the territory allotted to each. That given to Benjamin formed almost a parallelogram, of about 26 miles in length by 12 in breadth, lying between Ephraim, the Jordan, Judah and Dan. The general level of this part of Palestine is not less than 2000 feet above the Mediterranean or than 3000 feet above the valley of the Jordan, the surrounding country including a large number of eminences—almost every one of which has borne some part in the history of the tribe—and many torrent beds and deep ravines.

Ben’jamin, High gate or gate of.

Jer 20:2; 37:13; 38:7; Zec 14:10

[JERUSALEM]

JERUSALEM - See 7373

Be’no

(his son), a Levite of the sons of Merari.

1Ch 24:26,27

Ben-o’ni

(son of my sorrow).

Ge 35:18

[BENJAMIN]

BENJAMIN - See 5675

BENJAMIN - See 5676

Ben-zo’heth

(son of Zoheth), a descendant of Judah.

1Ch 4:20

Ben’on.

Nu 32:3

[BETH-BAALMEON] Comp. ver. 38.

BETHBAALMEON - See 5719

Be’or

(burning or torch).

1. The father of Bela, one of the early Edomite kings.

Ge 36:32; 1Ch 1:43

2. Father of Balaam.

Nu 22:5; 24:3,15; 31:8; De. 23:4; Jos 13:22; 24:9; Mic

6:5

He is called BOSOR in the New Testament. (B.C. before 1450.)

BOSOR - See 5819

Be’ra

(son of evil) king of Sodom.

Ge 14:2

also

Ge 14:17,21

Ber’achah

(blessing), a Benjamite who attached himself to David at Ziklag.

1Ch 12:3

(B.C. 1054.)

Ber’achah, Valley of,

a valley in which Jehoshaphat and his people assembled to "bless" Jehovah after the overthrow of the hosts of Moabites.

2Ch 20:26

It is now called Bereikut, and lies between Tekua and the main road from Bethlehem to Hebron.

Berachi’ah

(blessed of Jehovah), a Gershonite Levite, father of Asaph.

1Ch 6:39

[BERECHIAH]

BERECHIAH - See 5690

Berai’ah

(created by Jehovah), son of Shimhi, a chief man of Benjamin.

1Ch 8:21

Bera’a

(well watered).

1. A city of Macedonia, mentioned in

Ac 17:10,13

It is now called Verria or Kara-Verria, and is situated on the eastern slope of the Olympian mountain range, and has 15,000 or 20,000 inhabitants.

2. The modern Aleppo, mentioned in 2 Macc. 13:4.

3. A place in Judea, apparently not very far from Jerusalem. 1 Macc. 9:4.

Berechi’ah

(blessed of Jehovah).

1. A descendant of the royal family of Judah.

1Ch 3:20

2. A man mentioned as the father of Meshullam, who assisted in rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem.

Ne 3:4,30; 6:18

3. A Levite.

1Ch 9:16

4. A doorkeeper for the ark.

1Ch 15:23

5. One of the tribe of Ephraim in the time of Ahaz.

2Ch 28:12

6. Father of Asaph the singer.

1Ch 15:17

[BERACHIAH]

BERACHIAH - See 5687

7. Father of Zechariah.

Zec 1:1,7

Be’red

(hail).

1. A place in the south of Palestine, near the well Lahairoi.

Ge 16:14

2. A son or descendant of Ephraim,

1Ch 7:20

possibly identical with Becher in

Nu 26:35

Bereni’ce.

[BERNICE]

BERNICE - See 5697

Be’ri

(a well), son of Zophah, of the tribe of Asher.

1Ch 7:36

Beri’ah

(in evil, or a gift).

1. A son of Asher.

Ge 46:17; Nu 26:44,45

2. A son of Ephraim.

1Ch 7:20-23

3. A Benjamite.

1Ch 8:13,16

4. A Levite.

1Ch 23:10,11

Beri’ites, The,

A tribe of people who are named with Abel and Beth-maachah, and who were therefore doubtless situated in the north of Palestine.

2Sa 20:14

Be’rith.

Jud 9:46

[BAAL-BERITH]

Berni’ce, or Bereni’ce

(bringing victory), the eldest daughter of Herod Agrippa I.

Ac 12:1

etc. She was first married to her uncle Herod, king of Chaleis, and after his death (A.D. 48) she lived under circumstances of great suspicion with her own brother, Agrippa II., in connection with whom she is mentioned,

Ac 25:13,23; 26:30

as having visited Festus on his appointment as procurator of Judea.

Ber’odach-bal’adan.

2Ki 20:12

[MERODACH-BALADAN]

MERODACHBALADAN - See 7946

Bero’thah

(toward the wells), Bero’-tha-i (my wells). The first of these two names is given by Ezekiel,

Eze 47:16

in connection with Hahlath and Damascus as forming part of the northern boundary of the promised land. The second is mentioned,

2Sa 8:8

in the same connection. The well-known city Beirut (Berytus) naturally suggests itself as identical with one at least of the names; but in each instance the circumstances of the case seem to require a position farther east. They were probably in the vicinity of the springs near the present Hasbeya.

Bero’thite, The.

1Ch 11:39

[BEEROTH]

BEEROTH - See 5648

Beryl

(tarshish) occurs in

Ex 28:20

It is generally supposed that the tarshish derives its name from the place so called, in Spain. Beryl is a mineral of great hardness, and, when transparent, of much beauty. By tarshish the modern yellow topaz is probably intended, while in

Re 21:20

a different stone is perhaps referred to, probably the mineral now called beryl, which is identical with the emerald except in color, being a light green or bluish-green.

Be’sa-i

(sword). "Children of Besai" were among the Nethinim who returned to Judea with Zerubbabel.

Ezr 2:49; Ne 7:52

Besode’iah

(n the secret of the Lord) father of one of the repairers of the wall of Jerusalem.

Ne 3:6

Be’som

a brush or broom of twigs for sweeping

Isa 14:23

Be’sor, The brook

(cool), a torrent-bed or wady in the extreme south of Judah.

1Sa 30:9,10,21

Be’tah

(confidence), a city belonging to Hadadezer king of Zobah, mentioned with Berothai.

2Sa 8:8

In the parallel account,

1Ch 18:8

the name is called Tibhath.

Be’ten

(height), one of the cities on the border of the tribe of Asher.

Jos 19:25

Beth,

the most general word for a house or habitation. It has the special meaning of a temple or house of worship Beth is more frequently employed in compound names of places than any other word.

Bethab’ara

(house of the ford), a place beyond Jordan, in which according to the Received Text of the New Testament, John was baptizing.

Joh 1:28

If this reading be correct, Bethabara is identical with Beth-barah (fords of Abarah) the ancient ford of Jordan on the road to Gilead; or, which seems more likely, with Beth-nimrah, on the east of the river, nearly opposite Jericho. The Revised Version reads BETHANY, which see below.

BETHANY - See 5713

Beth’-anath

(house of echo or reply), one of the "fenced cities" of Naphtali, named with Beth-shemesh,

Jos 19:38

from neither of them were the Canaanites expelled.

Jud 1:33

).

Beth’-anoth

(house of echo), a town in the mountainous district of Judah, named with Halhul, Beth-zur and others in

Jos 15:58

only.

Beth’any

(house of dates, or house of misery), a village which, scanty as are the notices of it contained in Scripture, is more intimately associated in our minds than perhaps any other place with the most familiar acts and scenes of the last days of the life of Christ. It was situated "at" the Mount of Olives,

Mr 11:1; Lu 19:29

about fifteen stadia (furlongs, i.e. 1 1/2 or 2 miles) from Jerusalem

Joh 11:18

on or near the usual road From Jericho to the city,

Lu 19:29

comp. Mark 11:1 comp. Mark 10:46 and close by the west(?) of another village called Bethphage, the two being several times mentioned together. Bethany was the home of Mary and Martha and Lazarus, and is now known by a name derived from Lazarus—el-Azariyeh or Lazarieh. It lies on the eastern slope of the Mount of Olives, fully a mile beyond the summit, and not very far from the point at which the road to Jericho begins its more sudden descent towards the Jordan valley. El-’Azariyeh is a ruinous and wretched village, a wild mountain hamlet of some twenty families. Bethany has been commonly explained "house of dates," but it more probably signifies "house of misery." H. Dixon, "Holy Land," ii. 214, foll.

Beth’any.

In the Revised Version for BETHABARA,

BETHABARA - See 5709

Joh 1:28

where Jesus was baptized by John. It was probably an obscure village near Bethabara, and in time its name faded out and was replaced by the larger and more important Bethabara.

Beth-ar’abah

(house of the desert), one of the six cities of Judah which were situated down in the Arabah, the sunk valley of the Jordan and Dead Sea,

Jos 15:61

on the north border of the tribe. It is also included in the list of the towns of Benjamin.

Jos 18:22

Beth’-aram

(house of the height), accurately BETH-HARAM, one of the towns of Gad on the east of Jordan, described as in "the valley,"

Jos 13:27

and no doubt the same place as that named BETH-HARAN in

BETHHARAN - See 5734

Nu 32:36

Be-ar’bel

(house of God’s court), named only in

Ho 10:14

as the scene of a sack and massacre by Shalman.

Beth-a’ven

(house of nothingness, i.e. of idols), a place on the mountains of Benjamin, east of Bethel,

Jos 7:2; 18:12

and lying between that place and Michmash.

1Sa 13:5; 14:28

In

Ho 4:15; 5:8; 10:5

the name is transferred to the neighboring Bethel, —once the "house of God" but then the house of idols of "naught."

Beth-baalmaveth

(house of Azmaveth). Under this name is mentioned, in

Ne 7:28

only, the town of Benjamin which is elsewhere called AZMAVETH and BETH-SAMOS.

AZMAVETH - See 5527

Beth-baal-me’on

(house of Baalmeon), a place in the possessions of Reuben, on the downs (Authorized Version "plain") east of the Jordan.

Jos 13:17

At the Israelites’ first approach is name was BAAL-MEON,

Nu 32:38

or, in its contracted form, BEON

Nu 32:3

to which the Beth was possibly a Hebrew addition. Later it would seem to have come into possession of Moab, and to be known either as Beth-meon,

Jer 48:23

or Baal-meon.

Eze 25:9

The name is still attached to a ruined place of considerable size a short distance to the southwest of Hesban, and bearing the name of "the fortress of Mi’un," or Makin.

Beth-ba’rah

(house of the ford), named only in

Jud 7:24

It derived its chief interest in the possibility that its more modern representative may have been Beth-abara, where John baptized. It was probably the chief ford of the district.

Beth-bir’e-i

(house of my creation), a town of Simeon,

1Ch 4:31

which by comparison with the parallel list in

Jos 19:6

appears to have had also the name Of BETH-LEBAOTH. It lay to the extreme south.

BETHLEBAOTH - See 5738

Beth’-car

(house of the lamb), a place named as the point to which the Israelites pursued the Philistines,

1Sa 7:11

and therefore west of Mizpeh.

Beth-da’gon

(house of Dagon).

1. A city in the low country of Judah,

Jos 15:41

and therefore not far from the Philistine territory.

2. A town apparently near the coast, named as one of the landmarks of the boundary of Asher.

Jos 19:27

Beth-diblatha’im

(house of fig-cakes), a town of Moab,

Jer 48:22

apparently the place elsewhere called ALMON-DIBLATHAIM.

ALMONDIBLATHAIM - See 5228

Beth’el

(the house of God) well known city and holy place of central Palestine, about 12 mlles north of Jerusalem. If we are to accept the precise definition of

Ge 12:8

the name of Bethel would appear to have existed at this spot even before the arrival of Abram in Canaan.

Ge 12:8; 13:3,4

Bethel was the scene of Jacob’s vision.

Ge 28:11-19; 31:13

Jacob lived there.

Ge 35:1-8

The original name was Luz.

Jud 1:22,23

After the conquest Bethel is frequently heard of. In the troubled times when there was no king in Israel, it was to Bethel that the people went up in their distress to ask counsel of God.

Jud 20:18,26,31; 21:2

Authorized Version, "house of God." Here was the ark of the covenant.

Jud 20:26-28; 21:4

Later it is named as one of the holy cities to which Samuel went on circuit.

1Sa 7:16

Here Jeroboab placed one of the two calves of gold. Toward the end of Jeroboam’s life Bethel fell into the hands of Judah.

2Ch 13:19

Elijah visited Bethel, and we hear of "sons of the prophets" as resident there.

2Ki 2:2,3

But after the destruction of Baal worship by Jehu Bethel comes once more into view.

2Ki 10:29

After the desolation of the northern kingdom by the king of Assyria, Bethel still remained an abode of priests.

2Ki 17:27,28

In later times Bethel is named only once under the scarcely-altered name of Beitin. Its ruins still lie on the righthand side of the road from Jerusalem to Nablus.

2. A town in the south part of Judah, named in

Jos 12:16

and 1Sam 30:27 In

Jos 15:30; 19:4; 1Ch 4:29,30

the place appears under the name of CHESIL, BETHUL and BETHUEL. Hiel the Bethelite is recorded as the rebuilder of Jericho.

CHESIL - See 5974

BETHUL - See 5758

BETHUEL - See 5757

1Ki 16:34

3. In

Jos 16:1

and 1Sam 13:2 Mount Bethel, a hilly section near Beth-el, is referred to.

Beth-e’mek

(house of the valley), a place on or near the border of Asher, on the north side of which was the ravine of Jiphthah-el

Jos 19:27

Be’ther

(depth), The mountains of.

So 2:17

There is no clue to guide us as to what mountains are intended here.

Bethes’da

(house of mercy, or the flowing water), the Hebrew name of a reservoir or tank, with five "porches," close upon the sheep-gate or "market" in Jerusalem.

Joh 5:2

The largest reservoir - Birket Israil - 360 feet long, 120 feet wide and 80 feet deep, within the walls of the city, close by St. Stephen’s Gate, and under the northeast wall of the Haram area, is generally considered to be the modern representative of Bethesda. Robinson, however, suggests that the ancient Bethesda is identical with what is now called the Pool of the Virgin, an intermittent pool, south of Birket Israil and north of the pool of Siloam.

Bethe’zel

(neighbor’s house), a place named only in

Mic 1:11

From the context it was doubtless situated in the plain of Philistia.

Beth-ga’der

(house of the wall), doubtless a place, though it occurs in the genealogies of Judah as if a person.

1Ch 2:51

Beth-ga’mul

(camel-house), a town of Moab, in the downs east of Jordan.

Jer 48:23

comp. Jere 48:21

Beth-gil’gal

Same as Gilgal.

Ne 12:29

Beth-hac’cerem

(house of the vine).

Ne 3:14; Jer 6:1

A beacon station near Tekoa, supposed to be the Frank Mountain, a few miles southeast of Bethlehem.

Beth-ha’ran.

Nu 32:36

It is no doubt the same place as BETH-ARAM.

BETHARAM - See 5715

Jos 13:27

Beth-hog’la

(partridge-house), and Holg’lah a place on the border of Judah,

Jos 15:6

and of Benjamin.

Jos 18:19,21

A magnificent spring and a ruin between Jericho and the Jordan still bear the names of Ainhajala.

Beth-ho’ron

(house of caverns), the name of two towns or villages, an "upper" and a "nether,"

Jos 16:3,5; 1Ch 7:24

on the road from Gibeon to Azekah,

Jos 10:10,11

and the Philistine plain. 1 Macc. 3:24. Beth-horon lay on the boundary line between Benjamin and Ephraim,

Jos 16:3,5

and Josh 18:13,14 was counted to Ephraim,

Jos 21:22; 1Ch 7:24

and given to the Kohathites.

Jos 21:22; 1Ch 6:68

( 1Chr 6:53 ) The two Beth-horons still survive in the modern villages of Beit-ur, et-tahta and el-foka.

Beth-jesh’imoth

(house of deserts) or Jes’imoth, a town or place east of Jordan, on the lower level at the south end of the Jordan valley,

Nu 33:49

and named with Ashdod-pisgah and Beth-peor. It was one of the limits of the encampment of Israel before crossing the Jordan. Later it was allotted to Reuben,

Jos 12:3; 13:20

but came at last into the hands of Moab, and formed one of the cities which were "the glory of the country."

Eze 25:9

Beth-leb’aoth

(house of lionesses), a town in the lot of Simeon,

Jos 19:6

in the extreme south of Judah. [

Jos 15:32

LEBAOTH]

LEBAOTH - See 7665

In

1Ch 4:31

the name is given BETH-BIREI.

BETHBIREI - See 5721

Beth’lehem

(house of bread).

1. One of the oldest towns in Palestine, already in existence at the time of Jacob’s return to the country. Its earliest name was EPHRATH or EPHRATAH. See

EPHRATH - See 6424

Ge 35:16,19; 48:7

After the conquest Bethlehem appears under its own name, BETHLEHEM-JUDAH.

Jud 17:7; 1Sa 17:12; Ru 1:1,2

The book of Ruth is a page from the domestic history of Bethlehem. It was the home of Ruth,

Ru 1:19

and of David.

1Sa 17:12

It was fortified by Rehoboam.

2Ch 11:6

It was here that our Lord was born,

Mt 2:1

and here that he was visited by the shepherds,

Lu 2:15-17

and the Magi. Matt 2. The modern town of Beit-lahm lies to the east of the main road from Jerusalem to Hebron, six miles from the former. It covers the east and northeast parts of the ridge of a long gray hill of Jura limestone, which stands nearly due east and west, and is about a mile in length. The hill has a deep valley on the north and another on the south. On the top lies the village in a kind of irregular triangle. The population is about 3000 souls, entirely Christians. The Church of the Nativity, built by the empress Helena A.D. 330, is the oldest Christian church in existence. It is built over the grotto where Christ is supposed to have been born.

2. A town in the portion of Zebulun, named nowhere but in

Jos 19:15

Now known as Beit-lahm.

Bethlo’mon.

1 Esd. 5:17. [BETHLEHEM, 1]

BETHLEHEM - See 5739

Beth-ma’achah

(house of oppression), a place named only in

2Sa 20:14,15

In the absence of more information we can only conclude that it is identical with Maachah or Aram-maachah, one of the petty Syrian kingdoms in the north of Palestine. (Comp.

2Ki 15:29

Beth-mar’caboth

(house of the chariots), one of the towns of Simeon, situated to the extreme south of Judah.

Jos 19:5; 1Ch 4:31

In the parallel list,

Jos 15:31

MADMANNAH occurs in place of Beth-marcaboth.

MADMANNAH - See 7771

Beth-me’on.

Jer 48:23

A contracted form of Beth-baal-meon.

Beth-nim’rah

(house of leopards) one of the fenced cities on the east of Jordan taken and built by the tribe of Gad

Nu 32:36

and described as being in the valley beside Beth-haran.

Jos 13:27

In

Nu 32:3

it is called simply NIMRAH. The name still survives in the modern Nahr Nimrim, above Jericho on the Jordan.

NIMRAH - See 8201

Beth-pa’let

(house of flight), a town among those in the extreme south of Judah, named in

Jos 15:27

Beth-paz’zez

(house of the dispersion), a town of Issachar named with En-haddah

Jos 19:21

and of which nothing is known.

Beth-pe’or

(house of Peor), a place on the east of Jordan, opposite Jericho and six miles above Libias or Beth-haran.

Jos 13:20; De 3:29; 4:46

Beth-pha-ge

(g hard) (house of figs) the name of a place on the Mount of Olives on the road between Jericho and Jerusalem. It was apparently close to Bethany.

Mt 21:1; Mr 11:1; Lu 19:29

Beth-phe’let.

Ne 11:26

[BETHPALET]

BETHPALET - See 5745

Beth’rapha

a name which occurs in the genealogy of Judah as the son of Eshton.

1Ch 4:12

Beth-re’hob

(house of Rehob), place mentioned as having near it the valley in which lay the town of Laish or Dan.

Jud 18:28

It was one of the little kingdoms of Aram or Syria.

2Sa 10:6

Robinson conjectures that this ancient place is represented by the modern Hunin.

Bethsa’ida

(house of fish) of Galilee,

Joh 12:21

a city which was the native place of Andrew, Peter and Philip,

Joh 1:44; 12:21

in the land of Gennesareth,

Mr 6:46

comp. Mark 6:53 and therefore on the west side of the lake. By comparing the narratives in

Mr 6:31-53

and Luke 9:10-17 it appears certain that the Bethsaida at which the five thousand were fed must have been a second place of the same name on the east of the lake. (But in reality "there is but one Bethsaida, that known on our maps at Bethsaida Julias." L. Abbot in Biblical and Oriental Journal. The fact is that Bethsaida was a village on both sides of the Jordan as it enters the sea of Galilee on the north, so that the western part of the village was in Galilee and the eastern portion in Gaulonitis, part of the tetrarchy of Philip. This eastern portion was built up into a beautiful city by Herod Philip, and named by him Bethsaida Julias, after Julia the daughter of the Roman emperor Tiberius Caesar. On the plain of Butaiha, a mile or two to the east, the five thousand were fed. The western part of the town remained a small village.—ED.)

Beth-she’an

(house of rest), or in Samuel, BETHSHAN, a city which belonged to Manasseh,

1Ch 7:29

though within the limits of Issachar

Jos 17:11

and therefore on the west of Jordan. Comp. 1 Macc. 5:62. In later times it was called Scythopolis. 2 Macc. 12:29. The place is still known as Beisan. It lies in the Ghor or Jordan valley, about twelve miles south of the Sea of Galilee and four miles west of the Jordan.

Beth-she’mesh

(house of the sun).

1. One of the towns which marked the north boundary of Judah.

Jos 15:10

It is now ’Ainshems, about two miles from the great Philistine plain, and seven from Ekron.

2. A city on the border of Issachar.

Jos 19:22

3. One of the "fenced cities" of Naphtali.

Jos 19:38; Jud 1:33

4. An idolatrous temple, or place in Egypt.

Jer 43:13

In the middle ages Heliopolis was still called by the Arabs Ain Shems.

Beth-shit’tah

(home of the acacia), one of the spots to which the flight of the host of the Midianites extended after their discomfiture by Gideon.

Jud 7:22

Beth-tap’puah

(house of apples), one of the towns of Judah in the mountainous district, and near Hebron.

Jos 15:53

comp. 1Chr 2:43 Here it has actually been discovered by Robinson under the modern name of Teffuh, five miles west of Hebron, on a ridge of high table-land.

Be’thuel

(dweller in God), the son of Nahor by Milcah; nephew of Abraham, and father of Rebekah,

Ge 22:22,23; 24:15,24,47; 28:2

In

Ge 25:20

and

Ge 28:5

he is called "Bethuel the Syrian."

Be’thul

(dweller in God) a town of Simeon in the south named with Eltolad and Hormah,

Jos 19:4

called also Chesil and Bethuel.

Jos 15:30; 1Ch 4:30

Beth’zur

(house of rock) a town in the mountains of Judah, built by Jeroboam,

Jos 15:58; 2Ch 11:7

now Beit-zur. It commands the road from Beersheba and Hebron, which has always been the main approach to Jerusalem from the south.

Bet’onim

a town of Gad, apparently on the northern boundary.

Jos 13:26

Betrothing.

[MARRIAGE.1]

MARRIAGE - See 7847

Beu’lah

(married), the name which the land of Israel is to bear when "the land shall be married."

Isa 62:4

Be’za-i

(conqueror). "Children of Bezai," to the number of 328, returned from captivity with Zerubbabel

Ezr 2:17; Ne 7:23; 10:18

Bezal’e-el

(in the shadow of God).

1. The son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah and one of the architects of the tabernacle.

Ex 31:1-6

His charge was chiefly in all works of metal, wood and stone. (B.C. 1490.)

2. One of the sons of Pahath-moab who had taken a foreign wife.

Ezr 10:30

(B.C. 458.)

Be’zek

(lightning).

1. The residence of Adonibezek,

Jud 1:6

in the lot of Judah. ver.

Jud 1:3

2. Where Saul numbered the forces of Israel and Judah before going to the relief of Jabesh-gilead.

1Sa 11:8

This was doubtless somewhere in the centre of the country, near the Jordan valley. No identification of either place has been made in modern times.

Be’zer

(gold ore), son of Zophah, one of the heads of the houses of Asher.

1Ch 7:37

Be’zer in the wilderness,

a city of refuge in the downs on the east of the Jordan.

De 4:43; Jos 20:8; 21:36; 1Ch 6:78

Bi’ble.

The Bible is the name given to the revelation of God to man contained in sixty-six books or pamphlets, bound together and forming one book and only one, for it has in reality one author and one purpose and plan, and is the development of one scheme of the redemption of man. I. ITS NAMES.—

NAMES - See 8123

(1) The Bible, i.e. The Book, from the Greek "ta biblia," the books. The word is derived from a root designating the inner bark of the linden tree, on which the ancients wrote their books. It is the book as being superior to all other books. But the application of the word BIBLE to the collected books of the Old and New Testaments is not to be traced farther back than the fifth century of our era. (2) The Scriptures, i.e. the writings, as recording what was spoken by God. (3) The Oracles, i.e. the things spoken, because the Bible is what God spoke to man, and hence also called (4) The Word. (5) The Testaments or Covenants, because it is the testimony of God to man, the truths to which God bears witness; and is also the covenant or agreement of God with man for his salvation. (6) The Law, to express that it contains God’s commands to men. II. COMPOSITION.—The Bible consists of two great parts, called the Old and New Testaments, separated by an interval of nearly four hundred years. These Testaments are further divided into sixty-six books, thirty-nine in the Old Testament and twenty-seven in the New. These books are a library in themselves being written in every known form old literature. Twenty-two of them are historical, five are poetical, eighteen are prophetical, twenty-one are epistolary. They contain logical arguments, poetry, songs and hymns, history, biography, stories, parables, fables, eloquence, law, letters and philosophy. There are at least thirty-six different authors, who wrote in three continents, in many countries, in three languages, and from every possible human standpoint. Among these authors were kings, farmers, mechanics, scientific men, lawyers, generals, fishermen, ministers and priests, a tax-collector, a doctor, some rich, some poor, some city bred, some country born—thus touching all the experiences of men extending over 1500 years. III. UNITY.—And yet the Bible is but one book, because God was its real author, and therefore, though he added new revelations as men could receive them, he never had to change what was once revealed. The Bible is a unit, because (1) It has but one purpose, the salvation of men. (2) The character of God is the same. (3) The moral law is the same. (4) It contains the development of one great scheme of salvation. IV. ORIGINAL LANGUAGES.—The Old Testament was written in Hebrew, a Shemitic language, except that parts of the books of Ezra

Ezr 5:8; 6:12; 7:12-26

and of Daniel

Da 2:4-7,28

and one verse in Jeremiah

Jer 10:11

were written in the Chaldee language. The New Testament is written wholly in Greek. V. ANCIENT MANUSCRIPTS OF THE ORIGINAL.—There are no ancient Hebrew manuscripts older than the tenth century, but we know that these are in the main correct, because we have a translation of the Hebrew into Greek, called the Septuagint, made nearly three hundred years before Christ. Our Hebrew Bibles are a reprint from what is called the Masoretic text. The ancient Hebrew had only the consonant printed, and the vowels were vocalized in pronunciation, but were not written. Some Jewish scholars living at Tiberias, and at Sora by the Euphrates, from the sixth to the twelfth century, punctuated the Hebrew text, and wrote is the vowel points and other tone-marks to aid in the reading of the Hebrew; and these, together with notes of various kinds, they called Masora (tradition), hence the name Masoretic text. 0f the Greek of the New Testament there are a number of ancient manuscripts They are divided into two kinds, the Uncials, written wholly in capitals, and the Cursives, written in a running hand. The chief of these are— (1) the Alexandrian (codex Alexandrinus, marked A), so named because it was found in Aiexandria in Egypt, in 1628. It date back to A.D. 350, and is now in the British Museum. (2) The Vatican (codex Vaticanus, B), named from the Vatican library at Rome, where it is kept. Its date is A.D. 300 to

325. (3) The Sinaitic (codex Sinaiticus) so called from the convent of St. Catherine on Mount Sinai, there it was discovered by or Tichendorf in 1844. It is now at St. Petersburg Russia. This is one of the earliest best of all the manuscripts. VI. TRANSLATIONS.—The Old Testament was translated into Greek by a company of learned Jews at Alexandria, who began their labor about the year B.C. 286. It is called the Septuagint, i.e. the seventy, from the tradition that it was translated by seventy (more exactly seventy-two) translators. The Vulgate, or translation of the Bible into Latin by Jerome, A.D. 385-405, is the authorized version of the Roman Catholic Church. The first English translation of the whole Bible was by John de Wickliffe (1324-1384). Then followed that of William Tyndale (1525) and several others. As the sum and fruit of all these appeared our present Authorized Version, or King James Version, in 1611. It was made by forty-seven learned men, in two years and nine months, with a second revision which took nine months longer. These forty-seven formed themselves into six companies, two of whom met at Westminster, two at Oxford and two at Cambridge. The present English edition is an improvement, in typographical and grammatical correctness, upon this revision, and in these respects is nearly perfect. [See VERSIONS]

VERSIONS - See 9428

A REVISED VERSION of this authorized edition was made by a group of American and English scholars, and in 1881 the Revised New Testament was published simultaneously in the United States and England. Then followed the Revised Old Testament in 1885, and the Apocrypha in 1894. The American revision committee was permitted to publish its own revision, which appeared in 1901 as the American Standard Version. Modern-speech translations have been made from time to time between 1898-1945. Among these were Moulton’s Modern Reader’s Bible, the Twentieth century New Testament, Weymouth’s, Moffatt’s, and the American translation. As a result of the modern-speech translations that have appeared and been widely received, the American Revision Committee set to work again, and in 1946 the Revised Standard Version of the New Testament was published. VII. DIVISIONS INTO CHAPTERS AND VERSES.—The present division of the whole Bible into chapters was made by Cardinal Hugo de St. Gher about 1250. The present division into verses was introduced by Robert Stephens in his Greek Testament, published in 1551, in his edition of the Vulgate, in 1555. The first English Bible printed with these chapters and verses was the Geneva Bible, in 1560. VIII. CIRCULATION OF THE BIBLE.—The first book ever printed was the Bible; and more Bibles have been printed than any other book. It has been translated, in its entirety or in part, into more than a thousand languages and dialects and various systems for the blind. The American Bible Society (founded in 1816) alone has published over 356 million volumes of Scripture.

Bich’ri

(first-born),

2Sa 20:1

an ancestor of Sheba.

Bid’kar

(son of stabbing, i.e, one who stabs), Jehu’s "captain," originally his fellow officer,

2Ki 9:25

who completed the sentence on Jehoram, son of Ahab.

Bier.

[BURIAL.1]

BURIAL - See 5846

Big’tha

(gift of God), one of the seven chamberlains or eunuchs of the harem of King Ahasuerus.

Es 1:10

(B.C. 483.)

Big’than, or Big’thana

(gift of God), a eunuch (chamberlain, Authorized Version) in the court of Ahasuerus, one of those "who kept the door," and conspired with Teresh against the king’s life.

Es 2:21

(B.C. 479.)

Big’va-i

(happy).

1. "Children of Bigvai," 2056 (Neh. 2067) in number, returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel,

Ezr 2:14; Ne 7:19

and 72 of them at a later date with Ezra.

Ezr 8:14

(B.C. 536.)

2. Apparently one of the chiefs of Zerubbabel’s expedition,

Ezr 2:2; Ne 7:7

whose family afterwards signed the covenant.

Ne 10:16

(B.C. 410.)

Bil’dad

(son of contention), the second of Job’s three friends. He is called "the Shuhite," which implies both his family and nation.

Job 2:11

(B.C. about 2000.)

Bil’eam

(foreigners), a town in the western half of the tribe of Manasseh, named only in

1Ch 6:70

same as Ibleam and Gath-rimmon.

Jos 17:11

and Josh 21:24

Bil’gah

(first-born).

1. A priest in the time of David; the head of the fifteenth course for the temple service.

1Ch 24:14

(B.C. 1015.)

2. A priest or priestly family who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel and Jeshua.

Ne 12:5,18

(B.C. 536.)

Bil’ga-i.

Ne 10:8

[BILGAH, 2]

BILGAH - See 5777

Bil’hah

(timid, bashful), handmaid of Rachel,

Ge 29:29

and concubine of Jacob, to whom she bore Dan and Naphtali.

Ge 30:3-8; 35:25; 46:25; 1Ch 7:13

(B.C 53.)

Bil’han

(modest).

1. A Horite chief dwelling in Mount Seir.

Ge 36:27; 1Ch 1:42

2. A Benjamite, son of Jediael.

1Ch 7:10

Bil’shan

(eloquent), one of Zerubbabel’s companions on his expedition from Babylon.

Ezr 2:2; Ne 7:7

(B.C. 536).

Bim’hal

(circumcised), one of the sons of Japhlet in the line of Asher.

1Ch 7:33

Bin’ea

(fountain), one of the descendants of Saul.

1Ch 8:37; 7:43

(B.C. 850.)

Bin’nu-i

(familyship).

1. A Levite, father of Noadiah.

Ezr 8:33

2. One who had taken a foreign wife.

Ezr 10:30

3. Another Israelite who had also taken a foreign wife.

Ezr 10:38

4. Altered from BANI in the corresponding list in Ezra.

BANI - See 5580

Ne 7:15

5. A Levite, son of Henadad, who assisted at the reparation of the wall of Jerusalem, under Nehemiah.

Ne 3:24; 10:9

Birds

[SPARROW]

SPARROW - See 9112

Bir’sha

(son of godlessness), a king of Gomorrah.

Ge 14:2

Birthday

The custom of observing birthdays is very ancient,

Ge 40:20; Jer 20:15

and in

Job 1:4

etc., we read that Job’s sons "feasted every one his day." In Persia birthdays were celebrated with peculiar honors and banquets, and in Egypt those of the king were kept with great pomp. It is very probable that in

Mt 14:6

the feast to commemorate Herod’s accession is intended, for we know that such feasts were common, and were called "the day of the king."

Ho 7:5

Birthright

the advantages accruing to the eldest son. These were not definitely fixed in patriarchal times. Great respect was paid to him in the household, and, as the family widened into a tribe, this grew into a sustained authority, undefined save by custom, in all matters of common interest. Thus the "princes" of the congregation had probably rights of primogeniture.

Nu 7:2; 21:18; 25:14

(Gradually the rights of the eldest son came to be more definite: (1) The functions of the priesthood in the family with the paternal blessing. (2) A "double portion" of the paternal property was allotted by the Mosaic law.

De 21:16-17

(3) The eldest son succeeded to the official authority of the father. The first-born of the king was his successor by law.

2Ch 21:3

In all these Jesus was the first-born of the father.

Bir’zavith

a name occurring in the genealogies of Asher.

1Ch 7:31

Bishop.

The word originally signified an "overseer" or spiritual superintendent. The titles bishop and elder, or presbyter, were essentially equivalent. Bishop is from the Greek, and denotes one who exercises the function of overseeing. Presbyter was derived from the office in the synagogue. Of the order in which the first elders or bishops were appointed, as of the occasion which led to the institution of the office, we have no record. The duties of the bishop-elders appear to have been as follows:

1. General superintendence over the spiritual well-being of the flock.

1Pe 5:2

2. The work of teaching, both publicly and privately.

1Th 5:12; Tit 1:9; 1Ti 5:17

3. The work of visiting the sick,

Jas 5:14

4. Among other acts of charity, that of receiving strangers occupied a conspicuous place.

1Ti 3:2; Tit 1:8

Peter calls Christ "the shepherd and bishop of your souls."

1Pe 2:25

Bishopric,

the district over which the jurisdiction of a bishop extended.

Ac 1:20; 1Ti 3:1

Bithi’ah

(daughter of the Lord), daughter of a Pharaoh, and wife of Mered.

1Ch 4:18

(B.C. about 1491.)

Bith’ron,

more accurately the Bithron (a craggy gorge or ravine), a place, doubtless a district, in the Jordan valley on the east side of the river.

2Sa 2:29

Bithyn’ia,

a Roman province of Asia Minor. Mentioned only in

Ac 16:7

and in 1Pet 1:1 The chief town of Bithynia was Nicaea, celebrated for the general Council of the Church held there in A.D. 325 against the Arian heresy.

Bitter herbs.

The Israelites were commanded to eat the Paschal lamb "with unleavened bread and with bitter herbs."

Ex 12:8

These "bitter herbs" consisted of such plants as chicory, bitter cresses, hawkweeds, sow-thistles and wild lettuces, which grow abundantly in the peninsula of Sinai, in Palestine and in Egypt. The purpose of this observance was to recall to the minds of the Israelites their deliverance from the bitter bondage of the Egyptians.

Bittern

The word occurs in

Isa 14:23; 34:11; Zep 2:14

and we are inclined to believe that the Authorized Version is correct. The bittern (Botaurus stellaris) belongs to the Ardeidae, the heron family of birds, and is famous for the peculiar nocturnal booming sound which it emits.

Bizjoth’jah

(contempt of Jehovah), a town in the south of Judah.

Jos 15:28

Biz’tha

(eunuch), the second of the seven eunuchs of King Ahasuerus’ harem.

Es 1:10

(B.C. 483.)

Blains

violent ulcerous inflammations, the sixth plague of Egypt,

Ex 9:9,10

and hence called in

De 28:27,35

"the botch of Egypt." It seems to have been the black leprosy, a fearful kind of elephantiasis.

Blasphemy

in its technical English sense, signifies the speaking evil of God and in this sense it is found

Ps 74:18; Isa 52:5; Ro 2:24

etc. But according to its derivation it may mean any species of calumny and abuse: see

1Ki 21:10; Ac 18:6; Jude 1:9

etc. Blasphemy was punished by stoning, which was inflicted on the son of Shelomith.

Le 24:11

On this charge both our Lord and St. Stephen were condemned to death by the Jews. The blasphemy against the Holy Ghost,

Mt 12:32; Mr 3:28

consisted in attributing to the power of Satan those unquestionable miracles which Jesus performed by "the finger of God" and the power of the Holy Spirit. It is plainly such a state of wilful, determined opposition to God and the Holy Spirit that no efforts will avail to lead to repentance. Among the Jews it was a sin against God answering to treason in our times.

Blas’tus

(sprout), the chamberlain of Herod Agrippa I.

Ac 12:20

Blindness

is extremely common in the East from many causes. Blind beggars figure repeatedly in the New Testament

Mt 12:22

and "opening the eyes of the blind" is mentioned in prophecy as a peculiar attribute of the Messiah.

Isa 29:18; 42:7

etc. The Jews were specially charged to treat the blind with compassion and care.

Le 19:14; De 27:18

Blindness willfully inflicted for political or other purposes is alluded to in Scripture.

1Sa 11:2; Jer 39:7

Blood

To blood is ascribed in Scripture the mysterious sacredness which belongs to life, and God reserved it to himself when allowing man the dominion over and the use of the lower animals for food. Thus reserved, it acquires a double power: (1) that of sacrificial atonement; and (2) that of becoming a curse when wantonly shed, unless duly expiated.

Ge 9:4; Le 7:26; 17:11-13

Blood, Revenger of.

He who avenged the blood of one who had been killed. The nearest relative of the deceased became the authorized avenger of blood.

Nu 35:19

The law of retaliation was not to extend beyond the immediate offender.

De 24:16 2Ki 14:6; 2Ch 25:4; Jer 31:29,30; Eze 18:20

Boaner’ges

a name signifying sons of thunder, given by our Lord to the two sons of Zebedee, James and John, probably on account of their fiery earnestly.

Mr 3:17

See

Lu 9:54; Mr 9:38

comp. Matt 20:20 etc.

Boar.

[SWINE]

SWINE - See 9158

Bo’az

(fleetness).

1. A wealthy Bethlehemite kinsman to Elimelech the husband of Naomi. He married Ruth, and redeemed the estates of her deceased husband Mahlon.

Ru 4:1

Boaz is mentioned in the genealogy of Christ,

Mt 1:5

(B.C. 1250, but there is great difficulty in assigning his date.)

2. The name of one of Solomon’s brazen pillars erected in the temple porch. [JACHIN] It stood on the left, and was eighteen cubits high.

JACHIN - See 7207

1Ki 7:15, 21; 2Ch 3:15; Jer 52:21

Boch’eru

(youth), son of Azel, according to the present Hebrew text of

1Ch 8:38

Bo’chim

(the weepers) a place on the west of Jordan, above Gilgal; so named from the weeping of Israel.

Jud 2:1,6

Bo’han

(thumb), a Reubenite.

Jos 15:6; 18:17

Bo’han, Stone of,

a stone erected in honor of Bohan on the boundary between Judah and Benjamin, in the valley of Achor, along the eastern side of the present Wady Dahr, running into the Dead Sea.

Boil.

[MEDICINE]

MEDICINE - See 7896

Bondage.

[SLAVE]

SLAVE - See 9077

Book.

[WRITING]

WRITING - See 9485

Booths.

[SUCCOTH; TABERNACLES, FEAST OF]

SUCCOTH - See 9144

TABERNACLES - See 9182

Booty

consisted of captives of both sexes, cattle, and whatever a captured city might contain, especially metallic treasures. Within the limits of Canaan no captives were to be made,

De 20:14,16

beyond these limits, in case of warlike resistance, all the women and children were to be made captives, and the men put to death. The law of booty is given in

Nu 31:26-47

As regarded the army, David added a regulation that the baggage guard should share equally with the troops engaged.

1Sa 30:24 25

Bo’oz.

Mt 1:5; Lu 3:32

[BOAZ]

BOAZ - See 5807

Bos’cath.

2Ki 22:1

[BOZKATH]

BOZKATH - See 5824

Bo’sor

same as BEOR.

BEOR - See 5683

2Pe 2:15

Bottle.

The Arabs keep their water, milk and other liquids in leathern bottles. These are made of goatskins. When the animal is killed they cut off its feet and its head, and draw it in this manner out of the skin without opening its belly. The great leathern bottles are made of the skin of a he-goat, and the small ones, that serve instead of a bottle of water on the road, are made of a kid’s skin. The effect of external heat upon a skin bottle is indicated in

Ps 119:83

"a bottle in the smoke," and of expansion produced by fermentation in

Mt 9:17

"new wine in old bottles." Vessels of metal, earthen or glassware for liquids were in use among the Greeks, Egyptians, Etruscans and Assyrians, and also no doubt among the Jews, especially in later times. Thus

Jer 19:1

"a potter’s earthen bottle." (Bottles were made by the ancient Egyptians of alabaster, gold, ivory and stone. They were of most exquisite workmanship and elegant forms. Tear-bottles were small urns of glass or pottery, made to contain the tears of mourners at funerals, and placed in the sepulchres at Rome and in Palestine. In some ancient tombs they are found in great numbers.

Ps 56:8

refers to this custom.—ED.)

Bow.

Ge 37:10

The eastern mode of salutation, by kneeling upon one knee and bending the head forward till it touched the ground.

Boxtree.

Isa 41:19; 60:13

A beautiful evergreen growing in many parts of Europe and Asia. Its hard wood is much prized by engravers. The reference in

Isa 60:13

is supposed by some to mean a species of cedar.

Bo’zes

(the height), one of the two sharp rocks between the passages which Jonathan entered the Philistine garrison. It seems to have been that on the north.

1Sa 14:4,5

Boz’kath

(rocky height), a city of Judah in the lowlands

Jos 15:39 2Ki 22:1

Boz’rah

(fortress).

1. In Edom, the city of Jobab the son of Zerah, one of the early king of that nation.

Ge 36:33; 1Ch 1:44

Mentioned by Isaiah,

Isa 34:6; 63:1

in connection with Edom, and by Jeremiah,

Jer 49:13,22; Am 1:12

and

Mic 2:12

Its modern representative is el-Busaireh, which lies on the mountain district to the southeast of the Dead Sea.

2. In his catalogue of the cities of the land of Moab, Jeremiah,

Jer 48:24

mentions a Bozrah as in "the plain country" (ver 21), i.e. the high level downs on the east of the Dead Sea.

Bracelet

[See ARMLET] Bracelets of fine twisted Venetian gold are still common in Egypt.

ARMLET - See 5410

In

Ge 38:18,25

the word rendered "bracelet" means probably a string by which a seal-ring was suspended. Men as well as women wore bracelets, as we see from

So 5:14

Layard says of the Assyrian kings, "The arms were encircled by armlets, and the wrists by bracelets."

Bramble.

[THORNS]

THORNS - See 9278

Brass.

The word nechosheth is improperly translated by "brass." In most places of the Old Testament the correct translation would be copper, although it may sometimes possibly mean bronze a compound of copper and tin. Indeed a simple metal was obviously intended, as we see from

De 8:9; 33:25; Job 28

Copper was known at a very early period.

Ge 4:22

Brazen serpent.

[SERPENT]

SERPENT - See 8814

Bread.

The preparation of bread as an article of food dates from a very early period.

Ge 18:6

The corn or grain employed was of various sorts. The best bread was made of wheat, but "barley" and spelt were also used.

Joh 6:9,13; Isa 28:25

The process of making bread was as follows: the flour was first mixed with water or milk; it was then kneaded with the hands (in Egypt with the feet also) in a small wooden bowl or "kneading-trough" until it became dough.

Ex 12:34,39; 2Sa 13:3; Jer 7:18

When the kneading was completed, leaven was generally added [LEAVEN]; but when the time for preparation was short, it was omitted, and unleavened cakes, hastily baked, were eaten as is still the prevalent custom among the Bedouins. (

LEAVEN - See 7661

Ge 18:6; 19:3; Ex 12:39; Jud 6:19; 1Sa 28:24

The leavened mass was allowed to stand for some time,

Mt 13:33; Lu 13:21

the dough was then divided into round cakes,

Ex 29:23; Jud 7:13; 8:5; 1Sa 10:3; Pr 6:26

not unlike flat stones in shape and appearance,

Mt 7:9

comp. Matt 4:8 about a span in diameter and a finger’s breadth in thickness. In the towns where professional bakers resided, there were no doubt fixed ovens, in shape and size resembling those in use among ourselves; but more usually each household poured a portable oven, consisting of a stone or metal jar, about three feet high which was heated inwardly with wood,

1Ki 17:12; Isa 44:15; Jer 7:18

or dried grass and flower-stalks.

Mt 6:30

Breastplate.

[ARMS]

ARMS - See 5412

Brethren of Jesus.

[JAMES]

JAMES - See 7242

Brick.

Ge 11:3

The brick in use among the Jews were much larger than with us, being usually from 12 to 13 inches square and 3 1/2 inches thick; they thus possess more of the character of tiles.

Eze 4:1

The Israelites, in common with other captives, were employed by the Egyptian monarchs in making bricks and in building.

Ex 1:14; 5:7

Egyptian bricks were not generally dried in kilns, but in the sun. That brick-kilns were known is evident from

2Sa 12:31; Jer 43:9

When made of the Nile mud they required straw to prevent cracking. [See STRAW]

STRAW - See 9139

Bride, Bridegroom.

[MARRIAGE]

MARRIAGE - See 7847

Brigandine.

Jer 46:4

elsewhere "habergeon," or "coat of mail."

Brimstone.

Brimstone, or sulphur, is found in considerable quantities on the shores of the Dead Sea.

Ge 19:24

It is a well-known simple mineral substance, crystalline, easily melted, very inflammable, and when burning emits a peculiar suffocating odor. It is found in great abundance near volcanoes. The soil around Sodom and Gomorrah abounded in sulphur and bitumen.

Brother.

The Hebrew word is used in various senses in the Old Testament, as,

1. Any kinsman, and not a mere brother; e.g. nephew,

Ge 13:8; 14:16

husband,

So 4:9

2. One of the same tribe.

2Sa 19:13

3. Of the same people,

Ex 2:11

or even of a cognate people.

Nu 20:14

4. An ally.

Am 1:9

5. Any friend,

Job 5:15

6. One of the same office.

1Ki 9:13

7. A fellow man.

Le 19:17

8. Metaphorically of any similarity, as in

Job 30:19

The word adelphos has a similar range of meanings in the New Testament.

Buk’ki

(wasting).

1. Son of Abishua and father of Uzzi fifth from Aaron in the line of the high priests in

1Ch 6:5, 6:5,51

(Authorized Version), and in the genealogy of Ezra.

Ezr 7:4

2. Son of Jogli, prince of the tribe of Dan, one of the ten men chosen to apportion the land of Canaan between the tribes.

Nu 34:22

Bukki’ah

(wasting from Jehovah), a Kohathite Levite, of the sons of Heman, one of the musicians in the temple.

1Ch 25:4,13

Bul

(rain). [MONTH]

MONTH - See 8052

Bull, Bullock,

terms used synonymously with ox, oxen, and properly a generic name for horned cattle when a full age and fit for the plough. It is variously rendered "bullock,"

Isa 65:25

"cow,"

Eze 4:15

"oxen,"

Ge 12:16

Kine is used in the Bible as the plural of cow. In

Isa 51:20

the "wild bull" ("wild ox" in

De 14:5

) was possibly one of the larger species of antelope, and took its name from its swiftness. Dr. Robinson mentions larger herds of black and almost harmless buffaloes as still existing in Palestine, and these may be the animal indicated.

Bulrush

(or papyrus), a red growing in the shallow water on the banks of the Nile. It grows to the height of 12 or 15 feet, with a stalk two or three inches in diameter. The stalks are very pliable and can be very closely interwoven, as is evident from their having been used in the construction of arks.

Ex 2:3,5

Paper was made from this plant, from which it derives its name.

Bu’nah

(understanding), a son of Jerahmeel, of the family of Pharez in Judah.

1Ch 2:25

Bu’nah

(understanding), a son of Jerahmeel, of the family of Pharez in Judah.

1Ch 2:25

Bun’ni

(my understanding).

1. One of the Levites in the time of Nehemiah.

Ne 9:4

2. Another Levite, but of earlier date than the preceding.

Ne 11:15

Burial, Sepulchres.

[TOMBS] On this subject we have to notice —

1. The place of burial, its site and shape;

2. The mode of burial;

3. The prevalent notions regarding this duty.

1. A natural cave enlarged and adapted by excavation, or an artificial imitation of one was the standard type of sepulchre. Sepulchres, when the owner’s means permitted it, were commonly prepared beforehand, and stood often in gardens, by roadsides, or even adjoining houses. Kings and prophets alone were probably buried within towns.

1Ki 2:10; 16:6,28

Cities soon became populous and demanded cemeteries,

Eze 39:15

which were placed without the walls. Sepulchres were marked sometimes by pillars or by pyramids. Such as were not otherwise noticeable were scrupulously "whited,"

Mt 23:27

once a year, after the rains before the passover, to warn passers-by of defilement.

2. "The manner of the Jews" included the use of spices, where they could command the means.

2Ch 16:10

A portion of these was burnt in honor of the deceased, and to this use was probably destined part of the one hundred pounds weight of "myrrh and aloes" in our Lord’s case. In no instance, save that of Saul and his sons, were the bodies burned; and even then the bones were interred, and re-exhumed for solemn entombment. It was the office of the next of kin to perform and preside over the whole funeral office; though public buriers were not unknown in New Testament times.

Ac 5:6,10

The body was borne by the nearest relatives. The grave-clothes were probably of the fashion worn in life, but swathed and fastened with bandages, and the head covered separately.

3. The precedent of Jacob’s and Joseph’s remains being returned to the land of Canaan was followed, in wish at least, by every pious Jew.

Burnt offering.

The word is applied to the offering which was wholly consumed by fire on the altar, and the whole of which, except the refuse ashes "ascended" in the smoke to God. The meaning of the whole burnt offering was that which is the original idea of all sacrifice, the offering by the sacrificer of himself, soul and body, to God—the submission of his will to the will of the Lord. The ceremonies of the burnt offering are given in detail in the book of Leviticus. [SACRIFICE]

SACRIFICE - See 8701

Bush.

The Hebrew word seneh occurs only in those passages which refer to Jehovah’s appearance to Moses "in the flame of fire in the bush."

Ex 3:2,3,4; De 33:16

It is quite impossible to say what kind of thorn bush is intended; but it was probably the acacia a small variety of the shittim tree found in the Sinai region.

Bushel.

[WEIGHTS AND MEASURES]

WEIGHTS - See 9455

MEASURES - See 7886

Butler.

One of the officers of the king’s household,

Ne 1:11

who had charge of the wine and poured it out for the king. The chief butler, as the title signifies, was in charge of the butlers.

Ge 40:1-13

Butter.

Curdled milk.

Ge 18:8; De 32:14; Jud 5:25; Job 20:17

Milk is generally offered to travellers in Palestine in a curdled or sour state, leben, thick, almost like butter. Hasselquist describes the method of making butter employed by the Arab women: "they made butter in a leather bag, hung on three poles erected for the purpose, in the form of a cone, and drawn to and fro by two women."

Buz

(contempt).

1. The second son of Milcah and Nahor.

Ge 22:21

Elihu "the Buzite" was probably a descendant of Buz.

2. A name occurring in the genealogies of the tribe of Gad.

1Ch 5:14

Bu’zi

(contempt), father of Ezekiel the prophet.

Eze 1:3