a town in the low country of Judah.
1. One of the landmarks on the boundary of Asher,
now Kabul, 9 or 10 miles east of Accho.
2. Name of the land given to Hiram by Solomon.
always in the New Testament the Roman emperor, the sovereign of Judea.
Joh 19:12,15; Ac 17:7
Ac 8:40; 9:30; 10:1,24; 11:11; 12:19; 18:22; 21:8,16;
was situated on the coast of Palestine, on the line of the great road from Tyre to Egypt, and about halfway between Joppa and Dora. The distance from Jerusalem was about 70 miles; Josephus states it in round numbers as 600 stadia. In Strabo’s time there was on this point of the coast merely a town called "Strato’s Tower," with a landing-place, whereas in the time of Tacitus Caesarea is spoken of as being the head of Judea. It was in this interval that the city was built by Herod the Great. It was the official residence of the Herodian kings, and of Festus, Felix and the other Roman procurators of Judea. Here also lived Philip the deacon and his four prophesying daughters. Caesarea continued to be a city of some importance even in the time of the Crusades, and the name still lingers on the site (Kaisariyeh), which is a complete desolation, many of the building-stones having been carried to other towns.
is mentioned only in the first two Gospels,
Mt 16:13; Mr 8:27
and in accounts of the same transactions. It was at the easternmost and most important of the two recognized sources of the Jordan, the other being at Tel-el-Kadi. The spring rises from and the city was built on a limestone terrace in a valley at the base of Mount Hermon 20 miles north of the Sea of Galilee. It was enlarged by Herod Philip, and named after Caesar, with his own name added to distinguish it from Caesarea. Its present name is Banias, a village of some 50 houses, with many interesting ruins. Caesarea Philippi has no Old Testament history, though it has been not unreasonably identified with Baal-gad. It was visited by Christ shortly before his transfiguration,
and was the northern limit of his journeys.
The term so rendered in
is more properly a trap in which decoy birds were placed. In
the (Greek term means a prison.
(depression), in full JOSEPH CAIAPHAS, high priest of the Jews under Tiberius.
Mt 26:3,57; Joh 11:49; 18:13,14,24,28; Ac 4:6
The procurator Valerius Gratus appointed him to the dignity, He was son-in-law of Annas. [ANNAS]
(possession). Gen. 4. He was the eldest son of Adam and Eve; he followed the business of agriculture. In a fit of jealousy, roused by the rejection of his own sacrifice and the acceptance of Abel’s, he committed the crime of murder, for which he was expelled from Eden, and led the life of an exile. He settled in the land of Nod, and built a city, which he named after his son Enoch. His descendants are enumerated together with the inventions for which they were remarkable. (B.C. 4000.)
one of the cities in the low country of Judah, named with Zanoah and Gibeah.
1. Son of Enos, aged 70 years when he begat Mahalaleel his son. He lived 840 years afterwards, and died aged 910.
2. Son of Arphaxad, and father of Sala, according to
and usually called the second Cainan. The is nowhere named in the Hebrew MSS. It seems certain that his name was introduced into the genealogies of the Greek Old Testament in order to bring them into harmony with the genealogy of Christ in St. Luke’s Gospel.
(completion, old age), one of the most ancient cities of Assyria.
The site of Calah is probably market by the Nimrud ruins. If this be regarded as ascertained, Calah must be considered to have been at one time (about B.C. 930-720) the capital of the empire.
(sustenance), a man of Judah, son or descendant of Zerah.
Probably identical with CHALCOL.
a vessel for boiling flesh, for either ceremonial or domestic use.
1Sa 2:14; 2Ch 35:13; Job 41:20; Mic 3:3
1. According to
the son of Hezron the son of Pharez the son of Judah, and the father of Hur, and consequently grandfather of Caleb the spy. (B.C. about 1600.)
2. Son of Jephunneh, one of the twelve spies sent by Moses to Canaan.
(B.C. 1490.) He and Oshea or Joshua the son of Nun were the only two of the whole number who encouraged the people to enter in boldly to the land and take possession of it. Fortyfive years afterwards Caleb came to Joshua and claimed possession of the land of the Anakim, Kirjath-arba or Hebron, and the neighboring hill country. Josh 14. This was immediately granted to him, and the following chapter relates how he took possession of Hebron, driving out the three sons of Anak; and how he offered Achsah his daughter in marriage to whoever would take Kirjath-sepher, i.e. Debir; and how when Othniel, his younger brother, had performed the feat, he not only gave him his daughter to wife, but with her the upper and nether springs of water which she asked for. It is probable that Caleb was a foreigner by birth, —a proselyte, incorporated into the tribe of Judah.
The calf was held in high esteem by the Jews as food.
1Sa 28:24; Lu 15:23
The molten calf prepared by Aaron for the people to worship,
was probably a wooden figure laminated with gold, a process which is known to have existed in Egypt. [AARON]
Cal’neh, or Cal’no (fortress of Anu), appears in
among the cities of Nimrod. Probably the site is the modern Niffer. In the eighth century B.C. Caneh was taken by one of the Assyrian kings, and never recovered its prosperity.
Isa 10:9; Am 6:2
The species of camel which was in common use among the Jews and the heathen nations of Palestine was the Arabian or one-humped camel, Camelus arabicus. The dromedary is a swifter animal than the baggage-camel, and is used chiefly for riding purposes; it is merely a finer breed than the other. The Arabs call it the heirie. The speed, of the dromedary has been greatly exaggerated, the Arabs asserting that it is swifter than the horse. Eight or nine miles an hour is the utmost it is able to perform; this pace, however, it is able to keep up for hours together. The Arabian camel carries about 500 pounds. "The hump on the camel’s back is chiefly a store of fat, from which the animal draws as the wants of his system require; and the Arab is careful to see that the hump is in good condition before a long journey. Another interesting adaptation is the thick sole which protects the foot of the camel from the burning sand. The nostrils may be closed by valves against blasts of sand. Most interesting is the provision for drought made by providing the second stomach with great cells in which water is long retained. Sight and smell is exceedingly acute in the camel." —Johnson’s Encyc. It is clear from
that camels were early known to the Egyptians. The importance of the camel is shown by
Ge 24:64; 37:25; Jud 7:12; 1Sa 27:9; 1Ki 19:2; 2Ch 14:15;
Job 1:3; Jer 49:29,32
and many other texts. John the Baptist wore a garment made of camel hair,
Mt 3:4; Mr 1:6
the coarser hairs of the camel; and some have supposed that Elijah was clad in a dress of the same stuff.
(full of grain), the place in which Jair the judge was buried.
There can be no doubt that "camphire" is the Lawsonia alba of botanists, the henna of Arabian naturalists. The henna plant grows in Egypt, Syria, Arabia and northern India. The flowers are white and grow in clusters, and are very fragrant. The whole shrub is from four to six feet high,
(place of reeds)of Galilee, once Cana in Galilee, a village or town not far from Capernaum, memorable as the scene of Christ’s first miracle,
Joh 2:1,11; 4:46
as well as of a subsequent one,
and also as the native place of the apostle Nathanael.
The traditional site is at Kefr-Kenna, a small village about 4 1/2 miles northwest of Nazareth. The rival site is a village situated farther north, about five miles north of Seffurieh (Sepphoris) and nine north of Nazareth.
(Ca’nan) (low, flat).
1. The fourth son of Ham,
Ge 10:6; 1Ch 1:8
the progenitor of the Phoenicians [ZIDON], and of the various nations who before the Israelite conquest people the seacoast of Palestine, and generally the while of the country westward of the Jordan.
Ge 10:13; 1Ch 1:13
2. The name "Canaan" is sometimes employed for the country itself.
Ca’naan, The land of
(lit. lowland), a name denoting the country west of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, and between those waters and the Mediterranean; given by God to Abraham’s posterity, the children of Israel.
Ex 6:4; Le 25:38
Used in the Revised Version in place of "Canaanite." [See CANAANITE]
the designation of the apostle Simon, otherwise known as "Simon Zelotes." It occurs in
Mt 10:4; Mr 3:18
and is derived from a Chaldee or Syriac word by which the Jewish sect or faction of the "Zealots" was designated —a turbulent and seditious sect, especially conspicuous at the siege of Jerusalem. They taught that all foreign rule over Jews was unscriptural, and opposed that rule in every way.
a word used in two senses:
1. A tribe which inhabited a particular locality of the land west of the Jordan before the conquest; and
2. The people who inhabited generally the whole of that country.
the seats of the Canaanite tribe are given as on the seashore and in the Jordan valley; comp.
2. Applied as a general name to the non-Israelite inhabitants of the land, as we have already seen was the case with "Canaan." Instances of this are,
Ge 12:6; Nu 21:3
The Canaanites were descendants of Canaan. Their language was very similar to the Hebrew. The Canaanites were probably given to commerce; and thus the name became probably in later times an occasional synonym for a merchant.
(prince of servants), a queen of Ethiopia (Meroe), mentioned
(A.D. 38.) The name was not a proper name of an individual, but that of a dynasty of Ethiopian queens.
which Moses was commanded to make for the tabernacle, is described
Ex 25:31-37; 37:17-24
It was not strictly a "candlestick," as it held seven richly-adorned lamps. With its various appurtenances it required a talent of "pure gold;" and it was not moulded, but "of beaten work," and has been estimated to have been worth in our money over $25,000. From the Arch of Titus, where the sculptured the spoils taken from Jerusalem, we learn that it consisted of a central stem, with six branches, three on each side. It was about five feet high. [See ARCH OF TITUS] The candlestick was placed on the south side of the first apartment of the tabernacle, opposite the table of shewbread,
and was lighted every evening and dressed every morning.
Ex 27:20,21; 30:8
comp. 1Sam 3:2 Each lamp was supplied with cotton and about two wineglasses of the purest olive oil, which was sufficient to keep it burning during a long night. In Solomon’s temple, instead of or in addition to this candlestick there were ten golden candlesticks similarly embossed, five in the right and five on the left.
1Ki 7:49; 2Ch 4:7
They were taken to Babylon.
In the temple of Zerubbabel there was again a single candlestick. 1Macc 1:21: 4:49.
Mt 5:15; Mr 4:21
is merely a lamp-stand, made in various forms, to hold up the simple Oriental hand-lamps.
Canon of Scripture, The,
may be generally described as the "collection of books which form the original and authoritative written rule of the faith and practice of the Christian Church," i.e. the Old and New Testaments. The word canon, in classical Greek, is properly a straight rod, "a rule" in the widest sense, and especially in the phrases "the rule of the Church," "the rule of faith," "the rule of truth," The first direct application of the term canon to the Scriptures seems to be in the verses of Amphilochius (cir. 380 A.D.), where the word indicates the rule by which the contents of the Bible must be determined, and thus secondarily an index of the constituent books. The uncanonical books were described simply as "those without" or "those uncanonized." The canonical books were also called "books of the testament," and Jerome styled the whole collection by the striking name of "the holy library," which happily expresses the unity and variety of the Bible. After the Maccabean persecution the history of the formation of the Canon is merged in the history of its contents. The Old Testament appears from that time as a whole. The complete Canon of the New Testament, as commonly received at present, was ratified at the third Council of Carthage (A.D. 397), and from that time was accepted throughout the Latin Church. Respecting the books of which the Canon is composed, see the article BIBLE. (The books of Scripture were not made canonical by act of any council, but the council gave its sanction to the results of long and careful investigations as to what books were really of divine authority and expressed the universally-accepted decisions of the church. The Old Testament Canon is ratified by the fact that the present Old Testament books were those accepted in the time of Christ and endorsed by him, and that of 275 quotations of the Old Testament in the New, no book out of the Canon is quoted from except perhaps the word of Enoch in Jude. —ED.)
Judith 10:21; 13:9; 16:19. The canopy of Holofernes is the only one mentioned.
(Song of Songs), entitled in the Authorized Version THE SONG OF SOLOMON. It was probably written by Solomon about B.C. 1012. It may be called a drama, as it contains the dramatic evolution of a simple love-story. Meaning.— The schools of interpretation may be divided into three: the mystical or typical, the allegorical, and the literal.
1. The mystical interpretation owes its origin to the desire to find a literal basis of fact for the allegorical. This basis is either the marriage of Solomon with Pharoah’s daughter or his marriage with an Israelitish woman, the Shulamite.
2. The allegorical. According to the Talmud the beloved is taken to be God; the loved one, or bride, is the congregation of Israel. In the Christian Church the Talmudical interpretation, imported by Origen, was all but universally received.
3. The literal interpretation. According to the most generally-received interpretation of the modern literalists, the Song is intended to display the victory of humble and constant love over the temptations of wealth and royalty. Canonicity.— The book has been rejected from the Canon by some critics; but in no case has its rejection been defended on external grounds. It is found in the LXX. and in the translations of Aquila, Symmachus and Theodotion. It is contained in the catalog given in the Talmud,a nd in the catalogue of Melito; and in short we have the same evidence for its canonicity as that which is commonly adduced for the canonicity of any book of the Old Testament.
(village of Nahum) was on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.
comp. John 6:24 It was in the "land of Gennesaret," [
comp. John 6:17,21,24 ] It was of sufficient size to be always called a "city,"
Mt 9:1; Mr 1:33
had its own synagogue, in which our Lord frequently taught,
Mr 1:21; Lu 4:33,38; Joh 6:59
and there was also a customs station, where the dues were gathered both by stationary and by itinerant officers.
Mt 9:9; 17:24; Mr 2:14; Lu 5:27
The only interest attaching to Capernaum is as the residence of our Lord and his apostles, the scene of so many miracles and "gracious words." It was when he returned thither that he is said to have been "in the house."
The spots which lay claim to its site are,
1. Kahn Minyeh, a mound of ruins which takes its name from an old khan hard by. This mound is situated close upon the seashore at the northwestern extremity of the plain (now El Ghuweir).
2. Three miles north of Khan Minyeh is the other claimant, Tell Hum, —ruins of walls and foundations covering a space of half a mile long by a quarter wide, on a point of the shore projecting into the lake and backed by a very gently-rising ground. It is impossible to locate it with certainty, but the probability is in favor of Tell Hum.
one of the numerous words employed in the Bible to denote a village or collection of dwellings smaller than a city (Ir). Mr Stanley proposes to render it by "hamlet." In names of places it occurs in Chephar-he-Ammonai, Chephirah, Caphar-salama. To us its chief interest arises from its forming a part of the name of Capernaum, i.e. Capharnahum.
(a crown), thrice mentioned as the primitive seat of the Philistines,
De 2:23; Jer 47:4; Am 9:7
who are once calledCaphtorim.
Supposed to be in Egypt, or near to it in Africa.
(province of good horses),
Ac 2:3; 1Pe 1:1
the largest province in ancient Asia Minor. Cappadocia is an elevated table-land intersected by mountain chains. It seems always to have been deficient in wood, but it was a good grain country, and particularly famous for grazing. Its Roman metropolis was Caesarea. The native Cappadocians seem to have originally belonged to the Syrian stock.
1. As a purely military title, "captain" answers to sar in the Hebrew army and tribune in the Roman. The captain of the guard in
was probably the prefectus pratorio.
2. Katsin, occasionally rendered captain, applies Sometimes to a military,
Jos 10:24; Jud 11:6,11; Isa 22:3; Da 11:18
sometimes to a civil command, e.g.
Isa 1:10; 3:6
3. The captain of the temple, mentioned
Lu 22:4; Ac 4:1; 5:24
superintended the guard of priests and Levites who kept watch by night in the temple.
A prisoner of war. Such were usually treated with great cruelty by the heathen nations. They were kept for slaves, and often sold; but this was a modification of the ancient cruelty, and a substitute for putting them to death Although the treatment of captives by the Jews seems sometimes to be cruel, it was very much milder than that of the heathen, and was mitigated, as far as possible in the circumstances, by their civil code.
Captivities of the Jews.
The present article is confined to the forcible deportation of the Jew; from their native land, and their forcible detention, under the Assyrian or Babylonian kings. Captives of Israel.—The kingdom of Israel was invaded by three or four successive kings of Assyria. Pul or Surdanapalus, according to Rawlinson, imposed a tribute (B.C. 771 or 712), Rawl.) upon Menahem.
and 1Chr 5:26 Tiglath-pileser carried away (B.C. 740) the trans-Jordanic tribes,
and the inhabitants of Galilee,
comp. Isai 9:1 to Assyria. Shalmaneser twice invaded,
the kingdom which remained to Hoshea, took Samaria (B.C. 721) after a siege of three years, and carried Israel away into Assyria. This was the end of the kingdom of the ten tribes of Israel. Captivities of Judah.—Sennacherib (B.C. 713) is stated to have carried into Assyria 200,000 captives from the Jewish cities which he took.
Nebuchadnezzar, in the first half of his reign (B.C. 606-562), repeatedly invaded Judea, besieged Jerusalem, carried away the inhabitants to Babylon, and destroyed the temple. The 70 years of captivity predicted by Jeremiah,
are dated by Prideaux from B.C. 606. The captivity of Ezekiel dates from B.C. 598, when that prophet, like Mordecai the uncle of Esther
accompanied Jehoiachin. The captives were treated not as slaves but as colonists. The Babylonian captivity was brought to a close by the decree,
of Cyrus (B.C. 536), and the return of a portion of the nation under Sheshbazzar or Zerubbabel (B.C. 535), Ezra (B.C. 458) and Nehemiah (B.C. 445). Those who were left in Assyria,
and kept up their national distinctions, were known as The Dispersion.
Joh 7:35; 1Pe. 1:1; Jas 1:1
The lost tribes.—Many attempts have been made to discover the ten tribes existing as a distinct community; but though history bears no witness of the present distinct existence, it enables us to track the footsteps of the departing race in four directions after the time of the Captivity.
1. Some returned and mixed with the Jews.
Lu 2:36; Phm 3:5
2. Some were left in Samaria, mingled with the Samaritans,
Ezr 6:21; Joh 4:12
and became bitter enemies of the Jews.
3. Many remained in Assyria, and were recognized as an integral part of the Dispersion; see
Ac 2:1; 26:7
4. Most, probably, apostatized in Assyria, adopted the usages and idolatry of the nations among whom they were planted, and became wholly swallowed up in them.
This word represents two Hebrew words. The first may he a general term to denote any bright,sparkling gem,
Ex 28:17; 39:10; Eze 28:13
is supposed to be and smaragdus or emerald.
(severe), the seventh of the seven "chamberlains," i.e. eunuchs, of King Ahasuerus.
(fortress of Chemosh) occupied nearly the site of the later Mabug or Hierapolis. It seems to have commanded the ordinary passage of the Euphrates at Bir or Birekjik. Carchemish appears to have been taken by Pharoah Necho shortly after the battle of Megiddo (cir. B.C. 608), and retaken by Nebuchadnezzar after a battle three years later, B.C. 605.
(bald head), father of Johanan,
elsewhere spelt KAREAH.
the southern part of the region which int he New Testament is called ASIA, and the southwestern part of the peninsula of Asia Minor.
Ac 20:15; 27:7
(fruitful place or park).
1. A mountain which forms one of the most striking and characteristic features of the country of Palestine. It is a noble ridge, the only headland of lower and central Palestine, and forms its southern boundary, running out with a bold bluff promontory, nearly 600 feet high, almost into the very waves of the Mediterranean, then extending southeast for a little more than twelve miles, when it terminates suddenly in a bluff somewhat corresponding to its western end. In form Carmel is a tolerably continuous ridge, its highest point,a bout four miles from the eastern end, being 1740 feet above the sea. That which has made the name of Carmel most familiar to the modern world is its intimate connection with the history of the two great prophets of Israel, Elijah and Elisha.
2Ki 2:25; 4:25; 1Ki 18:20-42
It is now commonly called Mar Elyas; Kurmel being occasionally, but only seldom, hear.
2. A town in the mountainous country of Judah,
familiar to us as the residence of Nabal.
1. The fourth son of Reuben, the progenitor of the family of the Carmites.
Ge 46:9; Ex 6:14; Nu 26:6; 1Ch 5:3
2. A man of the tribe of Judah, father of Achan, the "troubler of Israel."
Jos 7:1,18; 1Ch 2:7; 4:1
a Christian at Troas.
This word signifies what we now call "baggage." In the margin of
and 1Sam 26:5-7 and there only, "carriage" is employed int he sense of a wagon or cart.
(illustrious), one of the seven princes of Persia and Media.
Ge 45:19,27; Nu 7:3,7,8
a vehicle drawn by cattle,
to be distinguished from the chariot drawn by horses. Carts and wagons were either open or covered,
and were used for conveyance of person,
The only cart used in western Asia has two wheels of solid wood.
The arts of carving and engraving were much in request in the construction of both the tabernacle and the temple.
Ex 31:5; 35:33; 1Ki 6:18,35; Ps 74:6
as well as in the ornamentation of the priestly dresses.
Ex 28:9-36; 2Ch 2:7,14; Zec 3:9
(silvery, white), a place of uncertain site on the road between Babylon and Jerusalem.
(fortified), a Mizraite people or tribe.
Ge 10:14; 1Ch 1:12
Ex 30;24; Eze 27:19
The cassia bark of commerce is yielded by various kinds of Cinnamomum, which grow in different parts of India. The Hebrew word in
is generally supposed to be another term for cassia.
Cas’tor and Pol’lux,
the twin sons of Jupiter and Leda, were regarded as the tutelary divinities of sailors; hence their image was often used as a figure-head for ships. They appeared in heaven as the constellation Gemini. In art they were sometimes represented simply as stars hovering over a ship.
The representative in the Authorized Version of the Hebrew word chasil and yelek.
1. Chasil occurs in
1Ki 8:37; 2Ch 6:28; Ps 78:46; Isa 33:4; Joe 1:4
and seems to be applied to a locust, perhaps in its larva state.
2. Yelek. [LOCUST].
The form given in the Revised Version to Clauda, an island south of Crete. It bears a closer relation to the modern name Gaudonesi of the Greek, the Gauda of P. Mela. (Clauda. —ED.)
a sort of ornamental head-dress,
with a net for its base. The name is derived from the caul, the membranous bag which encloses the heart—the pericardium. —ED.
The most remarkable caves noticed in Scripture are, that in which Lot dwelt after the destruction of Sodom,
the cave of Machpelah,
cave of Makkedah,
cave of Adullam,
cave od Engedi,
Elijah’s cave in Horeb,
the rock sepulchres of Lazarus and of our Lord.
Mt 27:60; Joh 11:38
Caves were used for temporary dwelling-places and for tombs.
The Hebrew word erez, invariably rendered "cedar" by the Authorized Version, stands for that tree in most of the passages where the word occurs. While the word is sometimes used in a wider sense,
for evergreen cone-bearing trees, generally the cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus libani) is intended.
1Ki 7:2; 10:27; Ps 92:12; So 5:15; Isa 2:13; Eze
The wood is of a reddish color, of bitter taste and aromatic odor, offensive to insects, and very durable. The cedar is a type of the Christian, being evergreen, beautiful, aromatic, wide spreading, slow growing, long lived, and having many uses. As far as is at present known, the cedar of Lebanon is confined in Syria to one valley of the Lebanon range, viz., that of the Kedisha river, which flows from near the highest point of the range westward to the Mediterranean, and enters the sea at the port of Tripoli. The grove is at the very upper part of the valley, about 15 miles from the sea, 6500 feet above that level, and its position is moreover above that of all other arboreous vegetation. ("Of the celebrated cedars on Mount Lebanon, eleven groves still remain. The famous B’Sherreh grove is three-quarters of a mile in circumference, and contains about 400 trees, young and old. Perhaps a dozen of these are very old; the largest, 63 feet in girth and 70 feet high, is thought by some to have attained the age of 2000 years." —Johnson’s Encycl.)
The descriptions of Scripture,
1Ki 6:9,15; 7:3; 2Ch 3:5,9; Jer 22:14; Hag 1:4
and of Josephus, show that the ceilings of the temple and the palaces of the Jewish kings were formed of cedar planks applied to the beams or joists crossing from wall to wall. "Oriental houses seem to have been the reverse of ours, the ceiling being of wood, richly ornamented, and the floor of plaster or tiles."
(accuratelyCenchre’ae) (millet), the eastern harbor of Corinth (i.e. its harbor on the Saronic Gulf) and the emporium of its trade with the Asiatic shores of the Mediterranean, as Lechaeum on the Crointhian Gulf connected it with Italy and the west. St. Paul sailed from Cenchrae,
on his return to Syria from his second missionary journey. An organized church seems to have been formed here.
A small portable vessel of metal fitted to receive burning coals from the altar, and on which the incense for burning was sprinkled.
2Ch 26:19; Lu 1:9
The only distinct precepts regarding the use of the censer are found in
Solomon prepared "censers of pure gold" as part of the temple furniture.
1Ki 7:50; 2Ch 4:22
The word rendered "censer" in
probably means the "altar of incense."
the husk of corn or wheat which was separated from the grain by being thrown into the air, the wind blowing away the chaff, while the grain was saved. The carrying away of chaff by the wind is an ordinary scriptural image of the destruction of the wicked and of their powerlessness to resist God’s judgments.
Ps 1:4; Isa 17:13; Ho 13:3; Zep 2:2
Chains were used,
1. As badges of office;
2. For ornament;
3. For confining prisoners.
1. the gold chain placed about Joseph’s neck,
and that promised to Daniel,
are instances of the first use. In
the chain is mentioned as the symbol of sovereignty.
2. Chains for ornamental purposes were worn by men as well as women.
Judith 10:4. The Midianites adorned the necks of their camels with chains.
Step-chains were attached to the ankle-rings.
3. The means adopted for confining prisoners among the Jews were fetters similar to our handcuffs.
Jud 16:21; 2Sa 3:34; 2Ki 25:7; Jer 39:7
Among the Romans the prisoner was handcuffed to his guard, and occasionally to two guards.
Ac 12:6,7; 21:33
The name is applied in modern mineralogy to one of the varieties of agate. It is generally translucent and exhibits a great variety of colors. So named because it was found near the ancient Chalcedon, near Constantinople.
more correctlyChaldae’a, the ancient name of a country of Asia bordering on the Persian Gulf. Chaldea proper was the southern part of Babylonia, and is used in Scripture to signify that vast alluvial plain which has been formed by the deposits of the Euphrates and the Tigris. This extraordinary flat, unbroken except by the works of man, extends a distance of 400 miles along the course of the rivers, and is on an average about 100 miles in width. In addition to natural advantages these plains were nourished by a complicated system of canals, and vegetation flourished bountifully. It is said to be the only country in the world where wheat grows wild. Herodotus declared (i. 193) that grain commonly returned two hundred fold to the sower, and occasionally three hundred fold. Cities. —Babylonia has long been celebrated for the number and antiquity of its cities. The most important of those which have been identified are Borsippa (Birs-Nimrun), Sippara or Sepharvaim (Mosaib), Cutha (Ibrahim), Calneh (Niffer), Erech (Warka), Ur (Mugheir), Chilmad (Kalwadha), Larancha (Senkereh), Is (Hit), Durabe (Akkerkuf); but besides these there were a multitude of others, the sites of which have not been determined. Present condition —This land, once so rich in corn and wine, is to-day but a mass of mounds, "an arid waste; the dense population of former times is vanished, and no man dwells there." The Hebrew prophets applied the term "land of the Chaldeans" to all Babylonia and "Chaldeans" to all the subjects of the Babylonian empire.
It appears that the Chaldeans (Kaldai or Kaldi) were in the earliest times merely one out of many Cushite tribes inhabiting the great alluvial plain known afterwards as Chaldea or Babylonia. Their special seat was probably that southern portion of the country which is found to have so late retained the name of Chaldea. In process of time, as the Kaldi grew in power, their name gradually prevailed over those of the other tribes inhabiting the country; and by the era of the Jewish captivity it had begun to be used generally for all the inhabitants of Babylonia. It appears that while, both in Assyria and in later Babylonia, the Shemitic type of speech prevailed for civil purposes, the ancient Cushite dialect was retained, as a learned language for scientific and religious literature. This is no doubt the "learning" and the "tongue" to which reference it made in the book of Daniel,
The Chaldeans were really the learned class; they were priests, magicians or astronomers, and in the last of the three capacities they probably effected discoveries of great importance. In later times they seem to have degenerated into mere fortune-tellers.
Ge 43:30; 2Sa 18:33; Ps 19:5; Da 6:10
The word chamber in these passages has much the same significance as with us, meaning the private rooms of the house —the guest chamber, as with us, meaning a room set apart for the accommodation of the visiting friend.
Mr 14:14,15; Lu 22:12
The upper chamber was used more particularly for the lodgment of strangers.
an officer attached to the court of a king, who formerly had charge of the private apartments or chambers of the palace. He kept the accounts of the public revenues. The office held by Blastus, "the king’s chamberlain," was entirely different from this.
It was a post of honor which involved great intimacy and influence with the king. For chamberlain as used in the Old Testament, see [EUNUCH]
a species of lizard. The reference in
is to some kind of an unclean animal, supposed to be the lizard, known by the name of the "monitor of the Nile," a large, strong reptile common in Egypt and other parts of Africa.
(pronounced often shame), the translation of the Hebrew zemer in
But the translation is incorrect; for there is no evidence that the chamois have ever been seen in Palestine or the Lebanon. It is probable that some mountain sheep is intended.
CANAAN -See 5878
the capital of a pillar; i.e. the upper part, as the term is used in modern architecture.
(i.e. cheap man), merchant.
Char’ashim, The valley of
(ravine of craftsmen), a place near Lydda, a few miles east of Joppa.
a shallow vessel for receiving water or blood, also for presenting offerings of fine flour with oil.
The daughter of Herodias brought the head of St. John the Baptist in a charger,
probably a trencher or platter. [BASIN]
a vehicle used either for warlike or peaceful purposes, but most commonly the former. The Jewish chariots were patterned after the Egyptian, and consisted of a single pair of wheels on an axle, upon which was a car with high front and sides, but open at the back. The earliest mention of chariots in Scripture is in Egypt, where Joseph, as a mark of distinction, was placed in Pharaoh’s second chariot.
Later on we find mention of Egyptian chariots for a warlike purpose.
In this point of view chariots among some nations of antiquity, as elephants among others, may be regarded as filling the place of heavy artillery in modern times, so that the military power of a nation might be estimated by the number of its chariots. Thus Pharaoh in pursuing Israel took with him 600 chariots. The Philistines in Saul’s time had 30,000.
David took from Hadadezer, king of Zobah, 1000 chariots,
and from the Syrians a little later 700,
who in order to recover their ground, collected 32,000 chariots.
Up to this time the Israelites possessed few or no chariots. They were first introduced by David,
who raised and maintained a force of 1400 chariots,
by taxation on certain cities agreeably to eastern custom in such matters.
1Ki 9:19; 10:25
From this time chariots were regarded as among the most important arms of war.
1Ki 22:34; 2Ki 9:16,21; 13:7,14; 18:24; 23:30; Isa
Most commonly two persons, and sometimes three, rode in the chariot, of whom the third was employed to carry the state umbrella.
1Ki 22:34; 2Ki 9:20,24; Ac 8:38
The prophets allude frequently to chariots as typical of power.
Ps 20:7; 104:3; Jer 51:21; Zec 6:1
(length), a river in the "land of the Chaldeans."
Eze 1:3; 3:15,23
etc. It is commonly regarded as identical with the Habor,
and perhaps the Royal Canal of Nebuchadnezzar, —the greatest of all the cuttings in Mesopotamia.
(cord), one of the singular topographical terms in which the ancient Hebrew language abounded. We find it always attached to the region of Argob.
De 3:4,13,14; 1Ki 4:13
(handful of sheaves), a king of Elam, in the time of Abraham, who with three other chiefs made war upon the kings of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboim and Zoar, and reduced them to servitude.
is mentioned only three times in the Bible, and on each occasion under a different name in the Hebrew.
1Sa 17:18; 2Sa 17:29; Job 10:10
It is difficult to decide how far these terms correspond with our notion of cheese, for they simply express various degrees of coagulation. Cheese is not at the present day common among the Bedouin Arabs, butter being decidedly preferred; but there is a substance closely corresponding to those mentioned in 1Sam 17, 2Sam 17, consisting of coagulated buttermilk, which is dried until it become quite hard, and is then ground; the Arabs eat it mixed with butter.
one who had a strange wife.
another like the above.
1. A man among the descendants of Judah.
2. Ezri the son of Chelub, one of David’s officers.
(capable), the son of Hezron. Same as Caleb.
(those who go about in black, i.e. ascetics). In the Hebrew applied to the priests of the worship of false gods.
2Ki 23:5; Ho 10:5
(subduer), the national deity of the Moabites.
Nu 21:29; Jer 48:7,13,46
he also appears as the god of the Ammonites. Solomon introduced, and Josiah abolished, the worship of Chemosh at Jerusalem.
1Ki 11:7; 2Ki 23:13
Also identified with Baal-peor, Baalzebub, Mars and Saturn.
1. Son of Bilhan, son of Jediael, son of Benjamin, head of a Benjamite house,
probably of the family of the Belaites. [BELA]
2. Father or ancestor of Zedekiah the false prophet.
1Ki 22:11,24; 2Ch 18:10,23
(a contraction of Chenaniah), one of the Levites who assisted at the solemn purification of the people under Ezra.
(established by the Lord), chief of the Levites when David carried the ark to Jerusalem.
1Ch 15:22; 26:29
(hamlet of the Ammonites), a place mentioned among the town of Benjamin.
(the hamlet), one of the four cities of the Gibeonites,
named afterwards among the towns of Benjamin.
Ezr 2:25; Ne 7:29
(lyre), one of the sons of Dishon the Horite "duke."
Ge 36:26; 1Ch 1:41
same as CHERETHITES.
(executioners) and of King David.
2Sa 8:18; 15:18; 20:7,23; 1Ki 1:38,44; 1Ch 18:17
It is plain that these royal guards were employed as executioners.,
and as couriers,
But it has been conjectured that they may have been foreign mercenaries, and therefore probably Philistines, of which name Pelethites may be only another form.
Che’rith, The brook
(cutting, ravine), the torrent-bed or wady in which Elijah hid himself during the early part of the three-years drought.
The position of the Cherith has been much disputed. The argument from probability is in favor of the Cherith being on the east of Jordan, and the name may possibly be discovered there.
apparently a place in Babylonia from which some persons of doubtful extraction returned to Judea with Zerubbabel.
Ezr 2:59; Ne 7:61
The symbolical figure so called was a composite creature-form which finds a parallel in the religious insignia of Assyria, Egypt and Persia, e.g. the sphinx, the winged bulls and lions of Nineveh, etc. A cherub guarded paradise.
Figures of Cherubim were placed on the mercy-seat of the ark.
A pair of colossal size overshadowed it in Solomon’s temple with the canopy of their contiguously extended wings.
Those on the ark were to be placed with wings stretched forth, one at each end of the mercy-seat." Their wings were to be stretched upwards, and their faces "towards each other and towards the mercy-seat." It is remarkable that with such precise directions as to their position, attitude and material, nothing, save that they were winged, is said concerning their shape. On the whole it seems likely that the word "cherub" meant not only the composite creature-form, of which the man, lion, ox and eagle were the elements, but, further, some peculiar and mystical form. (Some suppose that the cherubim represented God’s providence among men, the four faces expressing the characters of that providence: its wisdom and intelligence (man), its strength (ox), its kingly authority (lion), its swiftness, far-sighted (eagle). Others, combining all the other references with the description of the living creatures in Revelation, make the cherubim to represent God’s redeemed people. The qualities of the four faces are those which belong to God’s people. Their facing four ways, towards all quarters of the globe, represents their duty of extending the truth. The wings show swiftness of obedience; and only the redeemed can sing the song put in their mouths in
(hopes), a place named as one of the landmarks on the west part of the north boundary of Judah,
probably Kesla, about six miles to the northeast of Ainshems, on the western mountains of Judah.
(increase), fourth son of Nahor.
(idolatrous), a town in the extreme south of Palestine,
15 miles southwest of Beersheba. In
the name is BETHUL.
By this word are translated in the Authorized Version two distinct Hebrew terms:
1. Aron; this is invariably used for the ark of the covenant, and, with two exceptions, for that only. The two exceptions alluded to are (a) the "coffin" in which the bones of Joseph were carried from Egypt,
and (b) the "chest" in which Jehoiada the priest collected the alms for the repairs of the temple.
2Ki 12:9,10; 2Ch 24:8-11
2. Genazim, "chests."
Ge 30:37; Eze 31:8
Probably the "palm tree" (Platanus orientalis) is intended. This tree thrives best in low and rather moist situations in the north of Palestine, and resembles our sycamore or buttonwood (Platanus occidentalis).
(the loins), one of the towns of Issachar.
From its position int he lists it appears to be between Jezreel and Shunem (Salam).
(lying), a name which occurs but once,
probably the same as ACHZIB.
(a javelin), the name which in
is given to the threshing-floor at which the accident to the ark took place. In the parallel account in 2Sam 6 the name is given as NACHON.
The blessing of offspring, but especially of the male sex, is highly valued among all eastern nations, while a the absence is regarded as one of the severest punishments.
Ge 16:2; De 7:14; 1Sa 1:6; 2Sa 6:23; 2Ki 4:14; Isa 47:9;
Jer 20:15; Ps 127:3,5
As soon as the child was born it was washed in a bath, rubbed with salt and wrapped in swaddling clothes.
Eze 16:4; Job 38:9; Lu 2:7
On the 8th day the rite of circumcision, in the case of a boy, was performed and a name given. At the end of a certain time (forty days if a son and twice as long if a daughter) the mother offered sacrifice for her cleansing.
Le 12:1-8; Lu 2:22
The period of nursing appears to have been sometimes prolonged to three years.
2 Macc. 7:27. The time of weaning was an occasion of rejoicing.
Both boys and girls in their early years were under the care of the women.
Afterwards the boys were taken by the father under his charge. Daughters usually remained in the women’s apartments till marriage.
Le 21:9; Nu 12:14; 1Sa 9:11
The authority of parents, especially of the father, over children was very great, as was also the reverence enjoined by the law to be paid to parents. The inheritance was divided equally between all the sons except the eldest, who received a double portion.
Ge 25:31; 49:3; De 21:17; Jud 11:2,7; 1Ch 5:1,2
Daughters had by right no portion in the inheritance; but if a man had no son, his inheritance passed to his daughters, who were forbidden to marry out of the father’s tribe.
Nu 27:1,8; 36:2,8
(like his father), a son of David by Abigail. [ABIGAIL]
(pining, sickly), the son of Naomi and husband of Ruth.
Ru 1:2-5; 4:9
(enclosure), a place or country mentioned in conjunction with Sheba and Asshur.
(longing), a follower and probably a son, of Barzillai the Gileadite, who returned from beyond Jordan with David.
(B C 1023.) David appears to have bestowed on him a possession at Bethlehem, on which, in later times, an inn or khan was standing.
(circuit), accurately Cinnareth, a fortified city in the tribe of Naphtali,
only, of which no trace is found in later writers, and no remains by travellers.
Chin’nereth, Sea of.
Nu 34:11; Jos 13:27
the inland sea, which is most similarly known to us as the "Lake of Gennesareth" or "Sea of Galilee."
CHINNERETH -See 5987
(snowy), an island of the Aegean Sea, 12 miles from Smyrna. It is separated from the mainland by a strait of only 5 miles. Its length is about 12 miles, and in breadth it varies from 8 to 18. Paul passed it on his return voyage from Troas to Caesarea. Acts 20:15 it is now called Scio.
(confidence), father of Elidad, the prince of the tribe of Benjamin chosen to assist in the division of the land of Canaan among the tribes.
(loins of Tabor) a place to the border of which reached the border of Zebulun.
It may be the village Iksal, which is now standing about 2 1/2 miles to the west of Mount Tabor.
(bruisers), a family or race descended from Javan.
Ge 10:4; 1Ch 1:7
Authorized Version KITTIM. Chittim is frequently noticed in Scripture.
Nu 24:24; Isa 23::1,12; Jer 2:10; Eze 27:6; Da 11:30
In the above passages, the "isles of Chittim," the "ships of Chittim, the "coasts of Chittim," are supposed to refer to the island of Cyprus. Josephus considered Cyprus the original seat of the Chittim. The name Chittim, which in the first instance had implied to Phoenicians only, passed over to the islands which they had occupied, and thence to the people who succeeded the Phoenicians in the occupation of them.
(a statue, perhaps of Saturn), an idol made by the Israelites in the wilderness. [REMPHAN]
(green herb), a woman mentioned in
It may perhaps, be identified with ASHAN of Simeon.
one of the cities in which our Lord’s mighty works were done, but named only in his denunciation. Matt. 11:21; Luke 10:13 St. Jerome describes it as on the shore of the lake, two miles from Capernaum, but its modern site is uncertain.
Perhaps the same as ACHZIB.
The disciples, we are told,
were first called Christians at Antioch on the Orontes, somewhere about A.D. 43. They were known to each other as, and were among themselves called, brethren,
Ac 15:1,23; 1Co 7:12
Ac 9:26; 11:29
Ro 8:27; 15:25
The name "Christian," which, in the only other cases where it appears in the New Testament,
Ac 26:28; 1Pe 4:16
is used contemptuously, could not have been applied by the early disciples to themselves, but was imposed upon them by the Gentile world. There is no reason to suppose that the name "Christian" of itself was intended as a term of scurrility or abuse, though it would naturally be used with contempt.
Chron’icles, First and Second Books of,
the name originally given to the record made by the appointed historiographers in the kingdoms of Israel and Judah. In the LXX. these books are called Paralipomena (i.e. things omitted), which is understood as meaning that they are supplementary to the books of Kings. The constant tradition of the Jews is that these books were for the most part compiled by Ezra. One of the greatest difficulties connected with the captivity and return must have been the maintenance of that genealogical distribution of the land which yet was a vital point of the Jewish economy. To supply this want and that each tribe might secure the inheritance of its fathers on its return was one object of the author of these books. Another difficulty intimately connected with the former was the maintenance of the temple services at Jerusalem. Zerubbabel, and after him Ezra and Nehemiah, labored most earnestly to restore the worship of God among the people, and to reinfuse something of national life and spirit into their hearts. Nothing could more effectually aid these designs than setting before the people a compendious history of the kingdom of David, its prosperity under God; the sins that led to its overthrow; the captivity and return. These considerations explain the plan and scope of that historical work which consists of the two books of Chronicles. The first book contains the sacred history by genealogies from the Creation to David, including an account of David’s reign. In the second book he continues the story, giving the history of the kings of Judah, without those of Israel, down to the return from the captivity. As regards the materials used by Ezra, they are not difficult to discover. The genealogies are obviously transcribed from some register in which were preserved the genealogies of the tribes and families drawn up at different times; while the history is mainly drawn from the same document as those used in the books of King. [KINGS, BOOKS OF]
By this term we understand the technical and historical chronology of the Jews and their ancestors from the earliest time to the close of the New Testament Canon.
1. TECHNICAL CHRONOLOGY.—The technical part of Hebrew chronology presents great difficulties.
2. HISTORICAL CHRONOLOGY.—The historical part of Hebrew chronology is not less difficult than the technical. The information in the Bible is indeed direct rather than inferential although there is very important evidence of the latter kind, but the present state of the numbers make absolute certainty in many cases impossible. Three principal systems of biblical chronology have been founded, which may be termed (the Long System, the short, and the Rabbinical. There is a fourth, which although an off shoot in part of the last, can scarcely be termed biblical, in as much as it depends for the most part upon theories, not only independent of but repugnant to the Bible: this last is at present peculiar to Baron Bunsen. The principal advocates of the Long chronology are Jackson. Hales and Des-Vignoles. Of the Short chronology Ussher may be considered as the most able advocate The Rabbinical chronology accept the biblical numbers, but makes the most arbitrary corrections. For the date of the Exodus it has been virtually accepted by Bunsen, Lepsius and Lord A. Hervey. The numbers given by the LXX. for the antediluvian patriarchs would place the creation of Adam 2262 years before the end of the flood or B.C. cir. 5361 or 5421.
one of the precious stones in the foundation of the heavenly Jerusalem.
It has been already stated [BERYL] that the chrysolite of the ancients is identical with the modern oriental topaz the tarhish of the Hebrew Bible.
occurs only in
The true chrysoprase is sometimes found in antique Egyptian jewelry set alternately with bits of lapis-lazuli. It is problem therefore, that this is the stone named as the tenth in the walls of the heavenly Jerusalem.
Latin form of CHRYSOPRAS.
the name of a people in alliance with Egypt in the time of Nebuchadnezzar,
and probably of northern Africa.
called Berothai in
1. The derivation of the word is generally said to be from the Greek kuriakon (kuriakon) "belonging to the Lord." But the derivation has been too hastily assumed. It is probably connected with kirk, the Latin circus, circulus, the Greek kuklos (kuklos) because the congregations were gathered in circles.
2. Ecclesia (ekklesia) the Greek word for church, originally meant an assembly called out by the magistrate, or by legitimate authority. It was in this last sense that the word was adapted and applied by the writers of the New Testament to the Christian congregation. In the one Gospel of St. Matthew the church is spoken of no less than thirty-six times as "the kingdom." Other descriptions or titles are hardly found in the evangelists. It is Christ’s household,
the salt and light of the world,
Mt 26:31; Joh 10:15
its members are the branches growing on Christ the Vine, John 15; but the general description of it, not metaphorical but direct, is that it is a kingdom,
From the Gospel then we learn that Christ was about to establish his heavenly kingdom on earth, which was to be the substitute for the Jewish Church and kingdom, now doomed to destruction
The day of Pentecost is the birthday of the Christian church. Before they had been individual followers Jesus; now they became his mystical body, animated by his spirit. On the evening of the day of Pentecost, the 3140 members of which the Church consisted were — (1) Apostles; (2) previous Disciples; (3) Converts. In
we have indirectly exhibited the essential conditions of church communion. They are (1) Baptism, baptism implying on the part of the recipient repentance and faith; (2) Apostolic Doctrine; (3) Fellowship with the Apostles; (4) The Lord’s Supper; (5) Public Worship. The real Church consists of all who belong to the Lord Jesus Christ as his disciples, and are one in love, in character, in hope, in Christ as the head of all, though as the body of Christ it consists of many parts.
(chief of two governments), the king of Mesopotamia who oppressed Israel during eight years in the generation immediately following Joshua.
(B.C. after 1420.) His yoke was broken from the neck of the people of Israel by Othniel, Caleb’s nephew.
properlyChu’zas (the seer), the house-steward of Herod Antipas.
( the land of Celix), a maritime province int he southeast of Asia Minor, bordering on Pamphylia in the west, Lycaonia and Cappadocia in the north, and Syria in the east.
Cilicia was from its geographical position the high road between Syria and the west; it was also the native country of St. Paul, hence it was visited by him, firstly, soon after his conversion,
Ac 9:30; Ga 1:21
and again in his second apostolical journey.
a well-known aromatic substance, the rind of the Laurus cinnamomum, called Korunda-gauhah in Ceylon. It is mentioned in
as one of the component parts of the holy anointing oil. In
it is enumerated among the merchandise of the great Babylon.
This was possibly the small enclosed district north of Tiberias, and by the side of the lake, afterwards known as "the plain of Gennesareth."
was peculiarly, though not exclusively, a Jewish rite. It was enjoined upon Abraham, the father of the nation, by God, at the institution and as the token of the covenant, which assured to him and his descendants the promise of the Messiah. Gen. 17. It was thus made a necessary condition of Jewish nationality. Every male child was to be circumcised when eight days old,
on pain of death. The biblical notice of the rite describes it as distinctively Jewish; so that in the New Testament "the circumcision" and "the uncircumcision" are frequently used as synonyms for the Jews and the Gentiles. The rite has been found to prevail extensively in both ancient and modern times. Though Mohammed did not enjoin circumcision in the Koran, he was circumcised himself, according to the custom of his country; and circumcision is now as common among the Mohammedans as among the Jews. The process of restoring a circumcised person to his natural condition by a surgical operation was sometimes undergone. Some of the Jews in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, wishing to assimilate themselves to the heathen around them, "made themselves uncircumcised." Against having recourse to this practice, from an excessive anti-Judaistic tendency, St. Paul cautions the Corinthians.
the father of Saul,
usually called KISH.
a receptacle for water, either conducted from an external spring or proceeding from rain-fall. The dryness of the summer months and the scarcity of springs in Judea made cisterns a necessity, and they are frequent throughout the whole of Syria and Palestine. On the long-forgotten way from Jericho to Bethel, "broken cisterns" of high antiquity are found at regular intervals. Jerusalem depends mainly for water upon its cisterns, of which almost every private house possesses one or more, excavated in the rock on which the city is built. The cisterns have usually a round opening at the top, sometimes built up with stonework above and furnished with a curb and a wheel for a bucket.
Empty cisterns were sometimes used as prisons and places of confinement. Joseph was cast into a "pit,"
as was Jeremiah.
The earliest notice in Scripture of city-building is of Enoch by Cain, in the land of his exile.
After the confusion of tongues the descendants of Nimrod founded Babel, Erech, Accad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar, and Asshur, a branch from the same stock, built Nineveh, Rehoboth-by-the-river, Calah and Resen, the last being "a great city." The earliest description of a city, properly so called, is that of Sodom,
Even before the time of Abraham there were cities in Egypt,
Ge 12:14,15; Nu 13:22
and the Israelites, during their sojourn there, were employed in building or fortifying the "treasure cities" of Pithom and Raamses.
Fenced cities, fortified with high walls,
were occupied and perhaps partly rebuilt after the conquest, by the settled inhabitants of Syria on both sides of the Jordan.
Cities of refuge,
six Levitical cities specially chosen for refuge to the involuntary homicide until released from banishment by the death of the high priest.
Nu 35:6,13,15; Jos 20:2,7,9
There were three on each side of Jordan.
1. KEDESH, in Naphtali.
2. SHECHEM, in Mount Ephraim.
Jos 21:21; 1Ch 6:67; 2Ch 10:1
3. HEBRON, in Judah.
Jos 21:13; 2Sa 5:5; 1Ch 6:55; 29:27; 2Ch 11:10
4. On the east side of Jordan - BEZER, in the tribe of Reuben, in the plains of Moab.
De 4:43; Jos 20:8; 21:36
5. RAMOTH-GILEAD, in the tribe of Gad.
De 4:43; Jos 21:38; 1Ki 22:3
6. GOLAN, in Bashan, in the half-tribe of Manasseh.
De 4:43; Jos 21:27; 1Ch 6:71
1 Macc. 8:5. [CHITTIM]
The use of this term in Scripture has exclusive reference to the usages of the Roman empire. The privilege of Roman citizenship was originally acquired in various ways, as by purchase,
by military services, by favor or by manumission. The right once obtained descended to a man’s children.
Among the privileges attached to citizenship we may note that a man could not be bound or imprisoned without a formal trial,
still less be scourged.
Cic. in Verr. v. 63,66. Another privilege attaching to citizenship was the appeal from a provincial tribunal to the emperor at Rome.
a small island nearly due west of Cape Matala on the south coast of Crete, and nearly due south of Phoenice; now Gozzo.
(lame), a Christian woman mentioned in
as saluting Timotheus.
(lame), fourth Roman emperor, reigned from 41 to 54 A.D. He was nominated to the supreme power mainly through the influence of Herod Agrippa the First. In the reign of Claudius there were several famines, arising from unfavorable harvests, and one such occurred in Palestine and Syria.
Claudius was induced by a tumult of the Jews in Rome to expel them from the city. cf.
The date of this event is uncertain. After a weak and foolish reign he was poisoned by his fourth wife, Agrippina, the mother of Nero, October 13, A.D. 54.
As the sediment of water remaining in pits or in streets, the word is used frequently in the Old Testament.
Ps 18:42; Isa 57:20; Jer 38:6
and in the New Testament,
a mixture of sand or dust with spittle. It is also found in the sense of potter’s clay.
The great seat of the pottery of the present day in Palestine is Gaza, where are made the vessels in dark-blue clay so frequently met with. Another use of clay was for sealing.
Our Lord’s tomb may have been thus sealed,
as also the earthen vessel containing the evidences of Jeremiah’s purchase.
The seal used for public documents was rolled on the moist clay, and the tablet was then placed in the fire and baked.
a fellow laborer of St. Paul when he was at Philippi. (A.D. 57.) It was generally believed in the ancient Church that this Clement was identical with the bishop of Rome who afterwards became so celebrated.
(of a renowned father), one of the two disciples who were going to Emmaus on the day of the resurrection.
Some think the same as Cleophas in
But they are probably two different persons. Cleopas is a Greek name, contracted from Cleopater, while Cleophas, or Clopas as in the Revised Version, is an Aramaic name, the same as Alphaeus.
Revised VersionClo’pas, the husband of Mary the sister of Virgin Mary.
He was probably dead before Jesus’ ministry began, for his wife and children constantly appear with Joseph’s family in the time of our Lord’s ministry. —Englishman’s Cyc. [CLEOPAS; ALPHAEUS]
ALPHAEUS -See 5236
The shelter given, and refreshment of rain promised, by clouds give them their peculiar prominence in Oriental imagery. When a cloud appears rain is ordinarily apprehended, and thus the "cloud without rain" becomes a proverb for the man of promise without performance.
Pr 16:15; Isa 18:4; 25:5; Jude 1:12
comp. Prov 25:14 The cloud is a figure of transitoriness,
Job 30:15; Ho 6:4
and of whatever intercepts divine favor or human supplication.
La 2:1; 3:44
A bright cloud at times visited and rested on the mercy-seat.
Ex 29:42,43; 1Ki 8:10,11; 2Ch 5:14; Eze 43:4
and was by later writers named Shechinah.
Cloud, Pillar of.
The pillar of cloud by day and of fire by night that God caused to pass before the camp of the children of Israel when in the wilderness. The cloud, which became a pillar when the host moved, seems to have rested at other times on the tabernacle, whence god is said to have "come down in the pillar."
Nu 12:5 So Ex 33:9,10
It preceded the host, apparently resting on the ark which led the way.
Ex 13:21; 40:36
etc.; Numb 9:15-23; 10:34
(nidus), a city of great consequence, situated at the extreme south west of the peninsula of Asia Minor, on a promontory now called Cape Crio, which projects between the islands of Cos and Rhodes. See
It is now in ruins.
The first and most frequent use of the word rendered coal is a live ember, burning fuel.
"coals of fire" are put metaphorically for the lightnings proceeding from God.
Ps 18:8,12,13; 140:10
fuel not yet lighted is clearly signified. The fuel meant in the above passage is probably charcoal, and not coal in our sense of the word.
border, with no more reference to lands bordering on the sea than to any other bordering lands.
Mt 26:34; Mr 13:35; 14:30
etc. The domestic cock and hen were early known to the ancient Greeks and Romans, and as no mention is made in the Old Testament of these birds, and no figures of them occur on the Egyptian monuments, they probably came into Judea with the Romans, who, as is well known, prized these birds both as articles of food and for cock-fighting.
probably signifies bad weeds or fruit.
(hollow Syria), the remarkable valley or hollow which intervenes between Libanus and Anti-Libanus, stretching a distance of nearly a hundred miles. The only mention of the region as a separate tract of country which the Jewish Scriptures contain is probably that in
where "the inhabitants of the plain of Aven" are threatened in conjunction with those of Damascus. The word is given in the Authorized Version as CELO-SYRIA.
(argaz), a movable box hanging from the side of a cart.
The word is found nowhere else.
(all-seeing), a man of the tribe of Judah in the time of Nehemiah.
Ne 3:15; 11:5
For the proper sense of this term, as it occurs in
it is probable that the word translated "college" represents here not an institution of learning, but that part of Jerusalem known as the "lower city" or suburb, built on the hill Akra, including the Bezetha or new city.
a designation of Philippi, in
After the battle of Actium, Augustus assigned to his veterans those parts of Italy which had espoused the cause of Antony, and transported many of the expelled inhabitants to Philippi, Dyrrhachium and other cities. In this way Philippi was made a Roman colony with the "Jus Italicum." At first the colonists were all Roman citizens, and entitled to vote at Rome.
The terms relative to color, occurring in the Bible, may be arranged in two classes, the first including those applied to the description of natural objects, the second those artificial mixtures which were employed in dyeing or painting. The purple and the blue were derived from a small shellfish found in the Mediterranean, and were very costly, and hence they were the royal colors. Red, both scarlet and crimson, was derived from an insect resembling the cochineal. The natural colors noticed in the Bible are white, black, red, yellow and green. The only fundamental color of which the Hebrews appear to have had a clear conception was red; and even this is not very often noticed.
more properlyColos’sae, was a city of Phrygia in Asia Minor, in the upper part of the basin of the Maeander, on the Lycus. Hierapolis and Laodicea were in its immediate neighborhood.
Col 1:2; 4:13,15,16
see Reve 1:11; 3:14 St. Paul is supposed by some to have visited Colosse and founded or confirmed the Colossian church on his third missionary journey.
Ac 18:23; 19:1
Colos’sians, The Epistle to the,
was written by the apostle St. Paul during his first captivity at Rome.
(A.D. 62.) The epistle was addressed to Christians of the city of Colosse, and was delivered to them by Tychicus, whom the apostle had sent both to them,
and to the church of Ephesus,
to inquire into their state and to administer exhortation and comfort. The main object of the epistle is to warn the Colossians against the spirit of semi-Judaistic and semi-Oriental philosophy which was corrupting the simplicity of their belief, and was noticeably tending to obscure the eternal glory and dignity of Christ. The similarity between this epistle and that to the Ephesians is striking. The latter was probably written at a later date.
The name given by Christ to the Holy Spirit. The original word is Paraclete, and means first Advocate, a defender, helper, strengthener, as well as comforter.
From the time that men began to live in cities, trade, in some shape, must have been carried on to supply the town-dwellers with necessaries from foreign as well as native sources, for we find that Abraham was rich, not only in cattle, but in silver, gold and gold and silver plate and ornaments.
Ge 13:2; 24:22,53
Among trading nations mentioned in Scripture, Egypt holds in very early times a prominent position. The internal trade of the Jews, as well as the external, was much promoted by the festivals, which brought large numbers of persons to Jerusalem.
The places of public market were chiefly the open spaces near the gates, to which goods were brought for sale by those who came from the outside.
Ne 13:15,16; Zep 1:10
The traders in later times were allowed to intrude into the temple, in the outer courts of which victims were publicly sold for the sacrifice.
Zec 14:21; Mt 21:12; Joh 2:14
(made by Jehovah), one of the chiefs of the Levites in the time of Josiah.
The difference between wife and concubine was less marked among the Hebrews than among us, owing to the absence of moral stigma. The difference probably lay in the absence of the right of the bill of divorce, without which the wife could not be repudiated. With regard to the children of wife and of concubine, there was no such difference as our illegitimacy implies. The latter were a supplementary family to the former; their names occur in the patriarchal genealogies,
Ge 22:24; 1Ch 1:22
and their position and provision would depend on the father’s will.
The state of concubinage is assumed and provided for by the law of Moses. A concubine would generally be either (1) a Hebrew girl bought of her father; (2) a Gentile captive taken in war; (3) a foreign slave bought; or (4) a Canaanitish woman, bond or free. The rights of the first two were protected by the law,
Ex 21:7; De 21:10-14
but the third was unrecognized and the fourth prohibited. Free Hebrew women also might become concubines. To seize on royal concubines for his use was probably the intent of Abner’s act,
and similarly the request on behalf of Adonijah was construed.
meaning an aqueduct or trench through which water was carried. Tradition, both oral and as represented by Talmudical writers, ascribes to Solomon the formation of the original aqueduct by which water was brought to Jerusalem.
(shaphan), a gregarious animal of the class Pachydermata, which is found in Palestine, living in the caves and clefts of the rocks, and has been erroneously identified with the rabbit or coney. Its scientific name as Hyrax syriacus. The hyrax satisfies exactly the expressions in
Ps 104:18; Pr 30:26
Its color is gray or brown on the back, white on the belly; it is like the alpine marmot, scarcely of the size of the domestic cat, having long hair, a very short tail and round ears. It is found on Lebanon and in the Jordan and Dead Sea valleys.
This describes the Hebrew people in its collective capacity under its peculiar aspect as a holy community, held together by religious rather than political bonds. Sometimes it is used in a broad sense as inclusive of foreign settlers,
but more properly as exclusively appropriate to the Hebrew element of the population.
The congregation was governed by the father or head of each family and tribe. The number of these representatives being inconveniently large for ordinary business, a further selection was made by Moses of 70, who formed a species of standing committee.
Occasionally indeed the whole body of people was assembled at the door of the tabernacle, hence usually called the tabernacle of the congregation.
The people were strictly bound by the acts of their representatives, even in cases where they disapproved of them.
(appointed by the Lord), a Levite, ruler of the offerings and tithes in the time of Hezekiah.
This term (with one exception)—
is applied invariably to meetings of a religious character, in contradistinction to congregation.
As meet did not form an article of ordinary diet among the Jews, the art of cooking was not carried to any perfection. Few animals were slaughtered except for purposes of hospitality or festivity. The proceedings on such occasions appear to have been as follows: —On the arrival of a guest, the animal, either a kid, lamb or calf, was killed,
Ge 18:7; Lu 15:23
its throat being cut so that the blood might be poured out,
it was then flayed, and was ready for either roasting or boiling. In the former case the animal was preserved entire,
and roasted either over a fire,
or perhaps in an oven, consisting simply of a hole dug in the earth, well heated, and covered up. Boiling, however, was the more usual method of cooking.
Heb. nechosheth, in the Authorized Version always rendered "brass," except in
and Jere 15:12 It was almost exclusively used by the ancients for common purposes, and for every kind of instrument, as chains, pillars, lavers and the other temple vessels. We read also of copper mirrors,
and even of copper arms, as helmets, spears, etc.
1Sa 17:5,6,38; 2Sa 21:16
A production of the sea, formed by minute animals called zoophytes. It is their shell or house. It takes various forms, as of trees, shrubs, hemispheres. The principal colors are red and white. It was used for beads and ornaments. With regard to the estimation in which coral was held by the Jews and other Orientals, it must be remembered that coral varies in price with us. Pliny says that the Indians valued coral as the Romans valued pearls.
an offering to God of any sort, bloody or bloodless, but particularly in fulfillment of a vow. The law laid down rules for vows, (1) affirmative; (2) negative.
Le 27:1 ... Nu 30:1
... Upon these rules the traditionists enlarged, and laid down that a man might interdict himself by vow, not only from using for himself, bur from giving to another or receiving from him, some particular object, whether of food or any other kind whatsoever. The thing thus interdicted was considered as corban. A person might thus exempt himself from any inconvenient obligation under plea of corban. It was practices of this sort that our Lord reprehended,
Mt 15:5; Mr 7:11
as annulling the spirit of the law.
The materials of which cord was made varied according to the strength required; the strongest rope was probably made of strips of camel hide, as still used by the Bedouins. The finer sorts were made of flax,
and probably of reeds and rushes. In the New Testament the term is applied to the whip which our Saviour made,
and to the ropes of a ship.
The plant called Coriandrum sativum is found in Egypt, Persia and India, and has a round tall stalk; it bears umbelliferous white or reddish flowers, from which arise globular, grayish, spicy seed-corns, marked with fine striae. It is mentioned twice in the Bible.
Ex 16:31; Nu 11:7
an ancient and celebrated city of Greece, on the Isthmus of Corinth, and about 40 miles west of Athens. In consequence of its geographical position it formed the most direct communication between the Ionian and AEgean seas. A remarkable feature was the Acrocorinthus, a vast citadel of rock, which rises abruptly to the height of 2000 feet above the level of the sea, and the summit of which is so extensive that it once contained a whole town. The situation of Corinth, and the possession of its eastern and western harbors, Cenchreae and Lechaeum, are the secrets of its history. Corinth was a place of great mental activity, as well as of commercial and manufacturing enterprise. Its wealth was so celebrated as to be proverbial; so were the vice and profligacy of its inhabitants. The worship of Venus where was attended with shameful licentiousness. Corinth is still an episcopal see. The city has now shrunk to a wretched village, ont he old site and bearing the old name, which, however, is corrupted into Gortho. St. Paul preached here,
and founded a church, to which his Epistles to the Corinthians are addressed. [EPISTLES TO THE CORINTHIANS]
CORINTHIANS -See 6073
Corinth’ians, First Epistle to the,
was written by the apostle St. Paul toward the close of his nearly three-years stay at Ephesus,
Ac 19:10; 20:31
which, we learn from
probably terminated with the Pentecost of A.D. 57 or 58. The bearers were probably (according to the common subscription) Stephanas, Fortunatus and Achaicus. It appears to have been called forth by the information the apostles had received of dissension in the Corinthian church, which may be thus explained: —The Corinthian church was planted by the apostle himself,
in his second missionary journey.
seq. He abode in the city a year and a half.
A short time after the apostle had left the city the eloquent Jew of Alexandria, Apollos, went to Corinth,
and gained many followers, dividing the church into two parties, the followers of Paul and the followers of Apollos. Later on Judaizing teachers from Jerusalem preached the gospel in a spirit of direct antagonism to St. Paul personally. To this third party we may perhaps add a fourth, that, under the name of "the followers of Christ,"
sought at first to separate themselves from the factious adherence to particular teachers, but eventually were driven by antagonism into positions equally sectarian and inimical to the unity of the church. At this momentous period, before parties had become consolidated and that distinctly withdrawn from communion with one another, the apostle writes; and in the outset of the epistle, 1Cor 1-4:21, we have this noble and impassioned protest against this fourfold rending of the robe of Christ.
Corinth’ians, Second Epistle to the,
was written a few months subsequent to the first, in the same year —about the autumn of A.D. 57 or 58 —at Macedonia. The epistle was occasioned by the information which the apostle had received form Titus, and also, as it would certainly seem probable, from Timothy, of the reception of the first epistle. This information, as it would seem from our present epistle, was mainly favorable; the better part of the church were returning to their spiritual allegiance to the founder,
2Co 1:13,14; 7:9,15,16
but there was still a faction who strenuously denied Paul’s claim to apostleship. The contents of this epistle comprise, (1) the apostle’s account of the character of his spiritual labors, chs. 1-7; (2) directions about the collections, chs. 8,9; (3) defence of his own apostolical character, chs. 10-13:10. The words in
seem to point to further epistles to the church by Paul, but we have no positive evidence of any.
the representative in the Authorized Version of the Hebrew words kaath and shalac. As to the former, see PELICAN. Shalac occurs only as the name of an unclean bird in
Le 11:17; De 14:17
The word has been variously rendered. The etymology points to some plunging bird. The common cormorant (phalacrocorax carbo), which some writers have identified with the shalac, is unknown in the eastern Mediterranean; another species is found south of the Red Sea, but none on the west coast of Palestine.
The most common kinds were wheat, barley, spelt, Authorized Version,
and Isai 28:25 "rye;"
"fitches" and millet; oats are mentioned only by rabbinical writers. Our Indian corn was unknown in Bible times. Corn-crops are still reckoned at twentyfold what was sown, and were anciently much more.
The Jewish law permitted any one in passing through a filed of standing corn to pluck and eat.
see also Matt 12:1 From Solomon’s time,
as agriculture became developed under a settled government, Palestine was a corn-exporting country, and her grain was largely taken by her commercial neighbor Tyre.
comp. Amos 8:5
(of a horn), a Roman centurion of the Italian cohort stationed in Caesarea,
etc., a man full of good works and alms-deeds. With his household he was baptized by St. Peter, and thus Cornelius became the firstfruits of the Gentile world to Christ.
The "corner" of the field was not allowed,
to be wholly reaped. It formed a right of the poor to carry off what was so left, and this was a part of the maintenance from the soil to which that class were entitled. Under the scribes, minute legislation fixed one-sixtieth as the portion of a field which was to be left for the legal "corner." The proportion being thus fixed, all the grain might be reaped, and enough to satisfy the regulation subsequently separated from the whole crop. This "corner" was, like the gleaning, tithe-free.
a quoin or cornerstone, of great importance in binding together the sides of a building. The phrase "corner-stone" is sometimes used to denote any principal person, as the princes of Egypt,
and is thus applied to our Lord.
Isa 28:16; Mt 21:42; 1Pe 2:6,7
(Heb. shophar), a loud-sounding instrument, made of the horn of a ram or a chamois (sometimes of an ox), and used by the ancient Hebrews for signals,
and much used by the priests.
(now Stanchio or Stanko). This small island of the Grecian Archipelago has several interesting points of connection with the Jews. Herod the Great conferred many favors on the island. St. Paul, on the return from his third missionary journey, passed the night here, after sailing from Miletus. Probably referred to in
(a diviner), son of Elmodam, in the line of Joseph the husband of Mary.
Cotton is now both grown and manufactured in various parts of Syria and Palestine; but there is no proof that, till they came in contact with Persia, the Hebrews generally knew of it as a distinct fabric from linen. [LINEN]
1. The great council of the Sanhedrin, which sat at Jerusalem. [SANHEDRIN]
2. The lesser courts,
Mt 10:17; Mr 13:9
of which there were two at Jerusalem and one in each town of Palestine. The constitution of these courts is a doubtful point. The existence of local courts, however constituted, is clearly implied in the passages quoted from the New Testament; and perhaps the "judgment,"
applies to them.
3. A kind of jury or privy council,
consisting of a certain number of assessors, who assisted Roman governors in the administration of justice and in other public matters.
(Heb. chatser), an open enclosure surrounded by buildings, applied in the Authorized Version most commonly to the enclosures of the tabernacle and the temple.
Ex 27:9; 40:33; Le 6:16; 1Ki 6:36; 7:8; 2Ki 23:12; 2Ch
The Heb. berith means primarily "a cutting," with reference to the custom of cutting or dividing animals in two and passing between the parts in ratifying a covenant.
Ge 15; Jer 34:18,19
In the New Testament the corresponding word is diathece (diatheke), which is frequently translated testament in the Authorized Version. In its biblical meaning two parties the word is used—
1. Of a covenant between God and man; e.g. God covenanted with Noah, after the flood, that a like judgment should not be repeated. It is not precisely like a covenant between men, but was a promise or agreement by God. The principal covenants are the covenant of works —God promising to save and bless men on condition of perfect obedience —and the covenant of grace, or God’s promise to save men on condition of their believing in Christ and receiving him as their Master and Saviour. The first is called the Old Covenant, from which we name the first part of the bible the Old Testament, the Latin rendering of the word covenant. The second is called the New Covenant, or New Testament.
2. Covenant between man and man, i.e. a solemn compact or agreement, either between tribes or nations,
Jos 9:6,15; 1Sa 11:1
or between individuals,
by which each party bound himself to fulfill certain conditions and was assured of receiving certain advantages. In making such a covenant God was solemnly invoked as witness,
and an oath was sworn.
A sign or witness of the covenant was sometimes framed, such a gift,
or a pillar or heap of stones erected.
(thorn), a man among the descendants of Judah.
(deceitful), daughter of Zur, a chief of the Midianites.
The crane (Grus cinerea) is a native of Europe and Asia. It stand about four feet high. Its color is ashen gray, with face and neck nearly black. It feeds on seeds, roots, insects and small quadrupeds. It retires in winter to the warmer climates.
To create is to cause something to exist which did not exist before, as distinguished from make, to re-form something already in existence.
(The creation of all things is ascribed in the Bible to God, and is the only reasonable account of the origin of the world. The method of creation is not stated in Genesis, and as far as the account there is concerned, each part of it may be, after the first acts of creation, by evolution, or by direct act of God’s will. The word create (bara) is used but three times in the first chapter of Genesis— (1) as to the origin of matter; (2) as to the origin of life; (3) as to the origin of man’s soul; and science has always failed to do any of these acts thus ascribed to God. All other things are said to be made. The order of creation as given in Genesis is in close harmony with the order as revealed by geology, and the account there given, so long before the records of the rocks were read or the truth discoverable by man, is one of the strongest proofs that the Bible was inspired by God. —Ed.)
an assistant of St. Paul, said to have been one of the seventy disciples.
the modern Candia. This large island, which closes int he Greek Archipelago on the south, extends through a distance of 140 miles between its extreme points. Though exceedingly bold and mountainous, this island has very fruitful valleys, and in early times it was celebrated for its hundred cities. It seems likely that a very early acquaintances existed between the Cretans and the Jews. Cretans,
were among those who were at Jerusalem at the great Pentecost. In [Acts 27:7-12 we have an account of Paul’s shipwreck near this island; and it is evident from
that the apostle himself was here at no long interval of time before he wrote the letter. The Cretans were proverbial liars.
Cretans, inhabitants of Crete.
The original word means some kind of female ornament, probably a reticule or richly ornamented purse, often made of silk inwrought with gold or silver.
(curled), ruler of the Jewish synagogue at Corinth,
baptized with his family by St. Paul.
As the emblem of a slave’s death and a murderer’s punishment, the cross was naturally looked upon with the profoundest horror. But after the celebrated vision of Constantine, he ordered his friends to make a cross of gold and gems, such as he had seen, and "the towering eagles resigned the flags unto the cross," and "the tree of cursing and shame" "sat upon the sceptres and was engraved and signed on the foreheads of kings." (Jer. Taylor, "Life of Christ," iii., xv. 1.) The new standards were called by the name Labarum, and may be seen on the coins of Constantine the Great and his nearer successors. The Latin cross on which our Lord suffered, was int he form of the letter T, and had an upright above the cross-bar, on which the "title" was placed. There was a projection from the central stem, on which the body of the sufferer rested. This was to prevent the weight of the body from tearing away the hands. Whether there was also a support to the feet (as we see in pictures) is doubtful. An inscription was generally placed above the criminal’s head, briefly expressing his guilt, and generally was carried before him. It was covered with white gypsum, and the letter were black.
This ornament, which is both ancient and universal, probably originated from the fillets used to prevent the hair from being dishevelled by the wind. Such fillets are still common; they gradually developed into turbans, which by the addition of ornamental or precious materials assumed the dignity of mitres or crowns. Both the ordinary priests and the high priest wore them. The crown was a symbol of royalty, and was worn by kings,
and also by queens.
The head-dress of bridegrooms,
Eze 24:17; Isa 61:10
Bar. 5:2, and of women,
a head-dress of great splendor,
a wreath of flowers,
Pr 1:9; 4:9
denote crowns. In general we must attach to it the notion of a costly turban irradiated with pearls and gems of priceless value, which often form aigrettes for feathers, as in the crowns of modern Asiatics sovereigns. Such was probably the crown which weighed (or rather "was worth") a talent, mentioned in
taken by David from the king of Ammon at Rabbah, and used as the state crown of Judah.
Re 12:3; 19:12
allusion is made to "many crowns" worn in token of extended dominion. The laurel, pine or parsley crowns given to victors int he great games of Greece are finely alluded to by St. Paul.
1Co 9:25; 2Ti 2:5
Crown of thorns,
Our Lord was crowned with thorns in mockery by the Roman soldiers. Obviously some small flexile thorny shrub is meant perhaps Capparis spinosa. "Hasselquist, a Swedish naturalist, supposes a very common plant naba or nubka of the Arabs, with many small and sharp sines; soft, round and pliant branches; leaves much resembling ivy, of a very deep green, as if in designed mockery of a victor’s wreath." —Alford.
was in used among the Egyptians,
the Carthaginians, the Persians,
the Assyrians, Scythains, Indians, Germans, and from the earliest times among the Greeks and Romans. Whether this mode of execution was known to the ancient Jews is a matter of dispute. Probably the Jews borrowed it from the Romans. It was unanimously considered the most horrible form of death. Among the Romans the degradation was also a part of the infliction, and the punishment if applied to freemen was only used in the case of the vilest criminals. The one to be crucified was stripped naked of all his clothes, and then followed the most awful moment of all. He was laid down upon the implement of torture. His arms were stretched along the cross-beams, and at the centre of the open palms the point of a huge iron nail was placed, which, by the blow of a mallet, was driven home into the wood. Then through either foot separately, or possibly through both together, as they were placed one over the other, another huge nail tore its way through the quivering flesh. Whether the sufferer was also bound to the cross we do not know; but, to prevent the hands and feet being torn away by the weight of the body, which could not "rest upon nothing but four great wounds," there was, about the centre of the cross, a wooden projection strong enough to support, at least in part, a human body, which soon became a weight of agony. Then the "accursed tree" with its living human burden was slowly heaved up and the end fixed firmly in a hole in the ground. The feet were but a little raised above the earth. The victim was in full reach of every hand that might choose to strike. A death by crucifixion seems to include all that pain and death can have of the horrible and ghastly, —dizziness, cramp, thirst, starvation, sleeplessness, traumatic fever, tetanus, publicity of shame, long continuance of torment, horror of anticipation, mortification of untended wounds, all intensified just up to the point at which they can be endured at all, but all stopping just short of the point which would give to the sufferer the relief of unconsciousness. The unnatural position made every movement painful; the lacerated veins and crushed tendons throbbed with incessant anguish; the wounds, inflamed by exposure, gradually gangrened; the arteries, especially of the head and stomach, became swollen and oppressed with surcharged blood; and, while each variety of misery went on gradually increasing, there was added to them the intolerable pang of a burning and raging thirst. Such was the death to which Christ was doomed. —Farrar’s "Life of Christ." The crucified was watched, according to custom, by a party of four soldiers,
with their centurion,
whose express office was to prevent the stealing of the body. This was necessary from the lingering character of the death, which sometimes did not supervene even for three days, and was at last the result of gradual benumbing and starvation. But for this guard, the persons might have been taken down and recovered, as was actually done in the case of a friend of Josephus. Fracture of the legs was especially adopted by the Jews to hasten death.
In most cases the body was suffered to rot on the cross by the action of sun and rain, or to be devoured by birds and beasts. Sepulture was generally therefore forbidden; but in consequence of
an express national exception was made in favor of the Jews.
This accursed and awful mode of punishment was happily abolished by Constantine.
a small vessel for holding water, such as was carried by Saul when on his night expedition after David,
and by Elijah.
the representative in the Authorized Version of two Hebrew words.
1. Zecucith occurs only in
where "glass" probably is intended.
2. kerach occurs in numerous passages in the Old Testament to denote "ice," "frost," etc.; but once only
as is generally understood, to signify "crystal." The ancients supposed rock-crystal to be merely ice congealed by intense cold. The similarity of appearance between ice and crystal caused no doubt the identity of the terms to express these substances. The Greek word occurs in
Re 4:6; 21:1
It may mean either "ice" or "crystal."
[WEIGHTS AND MEASURES]
MEASURES -See 7886
Le 11:16; De 14:15
the name of some of the larger petrels which abound in the east of the Mediterranean.
(Heb. kishshuim). This word occurs in
as one of the good things of Egypt produces excellent cucumbers, melons, etc., the Cucumis chate being the best of its tribe yet known. Besides the Cucumis chate, the common cucumber (C. sativus), of which the Arabs distinguish a number of varieties, is common in Egypt. "Both Cucumis chate and C. sativus," says Mr. Tristram, "are now grown in great quantities in Palestine. On visiting the Arab school in Jerusalem (1858) I observed that the dinner which the children brought with them to school consisted, without exception, of a piece of barley cake and a raw cucumber, which they ate rind and all." The "lodge in a garden of cucumbers,"
is a rude temporary shelter erected int eh open grounds where vines, cucumbers, gourds, etc., are grown, in which some lonely man or boy is set to watch, either to guard the plants from robbers or to scare away the foxes and jackals from the vines.
one of the cultivated plants of Palestine.
Isa 28:25,27; Mt 23:23
It is an umbelliferous plant something like fennel. The seeds have a bitterish warm taste and an aromatic flavor. The Maltese are said to grow it at the present day, and to thresh it in the manner described by Isaiah.
The cups of the Jews, whether of metal or earthenware, were possibly borrowed, in point of shape and design, from Egypt and from the Phoenicians, who were celebrated in that branch of workmanship. Egyptian cups were of various shapes, either with handles or without them. In Solomon’s time all his drinking vessels were of gold, none of silver.
Babylon is compared to a golden cup.
The great laver, or "sea," was made with a rim like the rim of a cup (cos), with flowers of lilies,"
a form which the Persepolitan cups resemble. The cups of the New Testament were often no doubt formed on Greek and Roman models. They were sometimes of gold.
an officer of high rank with Egyptian, Persian and Assyrian as well as Jewish monarchs.
It was his duty to fill the king’s cup and present it to him personally.
The chief cupbearer, or butler, to the king of Egypt was the means of raising Joseph to his high position.
Ge 40:1,21; 41:9
(black), a Benjamite mentioned only in the title to
He was probably a follower of Saul, the head of his tribe. (B.C. 1061).
the name of a son of Ham, apparently the eldest, and of a territory or territories occupied by his descendants. The Cushites appear to have spread along tracts extending from the higher Nile to the Euphrates and Tigris. History affords many traces of this relation of Babylonia, Arabia and Ethiopia.
possibly the same as Cushan-rishathaim (Authorized Version Chushan-) king of Mesopotamia.
Properly "the Cushite," "the Ethiopian," a man apparently attached to Joab’s person.
one of the countries whence Shalmaneser introduced colonists into Samaria.
Its position is undecided.
Cuttings [in the flesh].
Cuttings in the flesh, or the laceration of one’s body for the "propitiation of their gods,"
constituted a prominent feature of idolatrous worship, especially among the Syrians. The Israelites were prohibited from indulging in such practices.
Le 19:28; 21:5; De 14:1; Jer 16:6
a pecussive musical instrument. Two kinds of cymbals are mentioned in
"loud cymbals" or castagnettes, and "high-sounding cymbals." The former consisted of our small plates of brass or of some other hard metal; two plates were attached to each hand of the performer, and were struck together to produce a great noise. The latter consisted of two larger plates, on held in each hand and struck together as an accompaniment to other instruments. Cymbals were used not only in the temple but for military purposes, and also by Hebrew women as a musical accompaniment to their national dances. Both kinds of cymbals are still common in the East.
(Heb. tirzah). The Hebrew word is found only in
We are quite unable to assign any definite rendering to it. The true cypress is a native of the Taurus. The Hebrew word points to some tree with a hard grain, and this is all that can be positively said of it.
an island of Asia in the Mediterranean. It is about 140 miles long and 50 miles wide at the widest part. Its two chief cities were Salamis, at the east end of the island, and Paphos, at the west end. "Cyprus occupies a distinguished place in both sacred and profane history. It early belonged to the Phoenicians of the neighboring coast; was afterwards colonized by Greeks’ passed successively under the power of the Pharaohs, Persians, Ptolemies and Romans, excepting a short period of independence in the fourth century B.C. It was one of the chief seats of the worship of Venus, hence called Cypria. Recently the discoveries in Cyprus by Cesnola have excited new interest. —Appleton’s Am. Encyc. It was the native place of Barnabas,
and was visited by Paul.
Ac 13:4-13; 15:39; 21:3
the principal city of that part of northern Africa which was sufficiently called Cyrenaica, lying between Carthage and Egypt, and corresponding with the modern Tripoli. Though on the African coast, it was a Greek city, and the Jews were settled there in large numbers. The Greek colonization of this part of Africa under Battus began of early as B.C. 631. After the death of Alexander the Great it became a dependency of Egypt, and a Roman province B.C. 75. Simon, who bore our Saviour’s cross,
was a native of Cyrene. Jewish dwellers in Cyrenaica were in Jerusalem at Pentecost,
and gave their name to one of the synagogues in Jerusalem.
Christian converts from Cyrene were among those who contributed actively to the formation of the first Gentile church at Antioch.
(warrior), the Greek form of the Roman name of Quirinus. The full name is Publius Sulpicius Quirinus. He was consul B.C. 12, and was made governor of Syria after the banishment of Archelaus in A.D. 6. He probably was twice governor of Syria; his first governorship extended from B.C. 4 (the year of Christ’s birth) to B.C. 1. It was during this time that he was sent to make the enrollment which caused Joseph and Mary to visit Bethlehem.
The second enrollment is mentioned in
(the sun), the founder of the Persian empire —see
2Ch 36:22,23; Da 6:28; 10:1,13
—was, according to the common legend, the son of Cambyses, a Persian of the royal family of the Achaemenidae. When he grew up to manhood his courage and genius placed him at the head of the Persians. His conquests were numerous and brilliant. He defeated and captured the Median king B.C. 559. In B.V. 546 (?) he defeated Croesus, and the kingdom of lydia was the prize of his success. Babylon fell before his army, and the ancient dominions of Assyria were added to his empire B.C. 538. The prophet Daniel’s home for a time was at his court.
The edict of Cyrus for the rebuilding of the temple,
2Ch 36:22,23; Ezr 1:1-4; 3:7; 4:3; 5:13,17; 6:3
was in fact the beginning of Judaism; and the great changes by which the nation was transformed into a church are clearly marked. His tomb is still shown at Pasargadae, the scene of his first decisive victory.