(Heb. nesher, i.e. a tearer with the beak). At least four distinct kinds of eagles have been observed in Palestine, viz., the golden eagle, Aquila chrysaetos, the spotted eagle, Aquila naevia, the imperial eagle, Aquila heliaca, and the very common Circaetos gallicus. The Hebrew nesher may stand for any of these different species, though perhaps more particular reference to the golden and imperial eagles and the griffon vulture may be intended. The passage in Micah,
"enlarge thy baldness as the eagle," may refer to the griffon vulture, Vultur fulvus, in which case the simile is peculiarly appropriate, for the whole head and neck of this bird are destitute of true feathers. The "eagles" of
Mt 24:28; Lu 17:37
may include the Vultur fulvus and Neophron percnopterus; though, as eagles frequently prey upon dead bodies, there is no necessity to restrict the Greek word to the Vulturidae. The figure of an eagle is now and has long been a favorite military ensign. The Persians so employed it; a fact which illustrates the passage in
The same bird was similarly employed by the Assyrians and the Romans.
Ge 45:6; Ex 34:21
Derived from the Latin arare, to plough; hence it means ploughing.
2Co 1:22; 5:5; Eph 1:14
The Hebrew word was used generally for pledge,
and in its cognate forms for surety,
The Greek derivative, however, acquired a more technical sense as signifying the deposit paid by the purchaser on entering into an agreement for the purchase of anything. In the New Testament the word is used to signify the pledge or earnest of the superior blessings of the future life.
The material of which earrings were made was generally gold,
and their form circular. They were worn by women and by youth of both sexes. These ornaments appear to have been regarded with superstitious reverence as an amulet. On this account they were surrendered along with the idols by Jacob’s household.
Chardin describes earrings with talismanic figures and characters on them as still existing in the East. Jewels were sometimes attached to the rings. The size of the earrings still worn in eastern countries far exceeds what is usual among ourselves; hence they formed a handsome present,
or offering to the service of God.
The term is used in two widely-different senses: (1) for the material of which the earth’s surface is composed; (2) as the name of the planet on which man dwells. The Hebrew language discriminates between these two by the use of separate terms, adamah for the former, erets for the latter.
1. Adamah is the earth in the sense of soil or ground, particularly as being susceptible of cultivation.
2. Erets is applied in a more or less extended sense— (1) to the whole world,
(2) to land as opposed to sea,
(3) to a country,
(4) to a plot of ground,
and (5) to the ground on which a man stands.
The two former senses alone concern us, the fairest involving an inquiry into the opinions of the Hebrews on cosmogony, the second on geography.
1. cosmogony. — (1) The Hebrew cosmogony is based upon the leading principle that the universe exists, not independently of God, nor yet co-existent with God, nor yet in opposition to him as a hostile element, but dependently upon him, subsequently to him and in subjection to him. (2) Creation was regarded as a progressive work —a gradual development from the inferior to the superior orders of things.
2. Geography. —There seems to be traces of the same ideas as prevailed among the Greeks, that the world was a disk,
bordered by the ocean, with Jerusalem as its centre, like Delphi as the navel, or, according to another view, the highest point of the world. As to the size of the earth, the Hebrews had but a very indefinite notion.
Earthquakes, more or less violent, are of frequent occurrence in Palestine. The most remarkable occurred in the reign of Uzziah.
we are led to infer that a great convulsion took place at this time in the Mount of Olives, the mountain being split so as to leave a valley between its summit. An earthquake occurred at the time of our Saviour’s crucifixion.
Earthquakes are not unfrequently accompanied by fissures of the earth’s surface; instances of this are recorded in connection with the destruction of Korah and his company,
and at the time of our Lord’s death,
the former may be paralleled by a similar occurrence at Oppido in Calabria A.D. 1783, where the earth opened to the extent of five hundred and a depth of more than two hundred feet.
The Hebrew term kedem properly means that which is before or in front of a person, and was applied to the east form the custom of turning in that direction when describing the points of the compass, before, behind, the right and the left representing respectively east, west, south and north.
The term as generally used refers to the lands lying immediately eastward of Palestine, viz., Arabia, Mesopotamia and Babylonia; on the other hand mizrach is used of the far east with a less definite signification.
Isa 42:2,25; 43:5; 46:11
In the earlier English versions Easter has been frequently used as the translation of pascha (passover). In the Authorized Version Passover was substituted in all passages but this; and in the new Revision Passover is used here. [PASSOVER]
(stone, bare mountain).
1. One of the sons of Shobal the son of Seir.
Ge 36:23; 1Ch 1:40
2. Obal the son of Joktan.
comp. Gene 10:28
a mount in the promised land, on which the Israelites were to "put" the curse which should fall upon them if they disobeyed the commandments of Jehovah. The blessing consequent on obedience was to be similarly localized on Mount Gerizim.
Ebal and Gerizim are the mounts which form the sides of the fertile valley in which lies Nablus, the ancient Shechem-Ebal on the north and Gerizim on the south. (They are nearly in the centre of the country of Samaria, about eight hundred feet above Nablus in the valley; and they are so near that all the vast body of the people could hear the words read from either mountain. The experiment has repeatedly been tried in late years. —Ed.) The modern name of Ebal is Sitti Salamiyah, from a Mohammedan female saint, whose tomb is standing on the eastern part of the ridge, a little before the highest point is reached.
(a servant). (Many MSS. have EBER.)
1. Father of Gaal, who with his brethren assisted the men of Shechem in their revolt against Abimelech.
2. Son of Jonathan; one of the Bene-Adin who returned form Babylon with Ezra.
(a king’s servant), an Ethiopian eunuch in the service of King Zedekiah, through whose interference Jeremiah was released from prison.
ff.; Jere 39:15 ff. (B.C. 1589).
(stone of help), a stone set up by Samuel after a signal defeat of the Philistines, as a memorial of the "help" received on the occasion from Jehovah.
Its position is carefully defined as between Mizpeh and Shen.
(the region beyond).
1. Son of Salah, and great-grandson of Shem.
Ge 10:24; 1Ch 1:19
(B.C. 2277-1813.) [For confusion between Eber and Heber see HEBER]
2. Son of Elpaal and descendant of Sharahaim of the tribe of Benjamin.
3. A priest in the days of Joiakim the son of Jeshua.
one of the valuable commodities imported into Tyre by the men of Dedan; a hard, heavy and durable wood, which admits of a fine polish or gloss. The most usual color is black, but it also occurs red or green. The black is the heart of a tree called Diospyros ebenum. It was imported from India or Ceylon by Phoenician traders.
(passage), one of the halting-places of the Israelites in the desert, immediately preceding Ezion-geber.
margin. In the apocryphal books Ecbatana is frequently mentioned. Two cities named Ecbatana seem to have existed in ancient times, one the capital of northern Media —the Media Atropatene of Strabo —the other the metropolis of the larger and more important province known as Media Magna. The site of the former appears to be marked by the very curious ruins at Takht-i-Suleiman (lat. 36
(the preacher). The title of this book is in Hebrew Koheleth, signifying one who speaks publicly in an assembly. Koheleth is the name by which Solomon, probably the author, speaks of himself throughout the book. The book is that which it professes to be, —the confession of a man of wide experience looking back upon his past life and looking out upon the disorders and calamities which surround him. The writer is a man who has sinned in giving way to selfishness and sensuality, who has paid the penalty of that sin in satiety and weariness of life, but who has through all this been under the discipline of a divine education, and has learned from it the lesson which God meant to teach him.
one of the books of the Apocrypha. This title is given in the Latin version to the book which is called in the Septuagint THE WISDOM OF JESUS THE SON OF SIRACH. The word designates the character of the writing, as publicly used in the services of the Church.
Eclipse of the sun.
No historical notice of an eclipse occurs in the Bible, but there are passages in the prophets which contain manifest allusion to this phenomenon.
Joe 2:10,31; 3:15; Am 8:9; Mic 3:6; Zec 14:6
Some of these notices probably refer to eclipses that occurred about the time of the respective compositions: thus the date of Amos coincides with a total eclipse which occurred Feb. 9, B.C. 784, and was visible at Jerusalem shortly after noon; that of Micah with the eclipse of June 5, B.C. 716. A passing notice in
coincides in date with the eclipse of Sept. 30, B.C. 610, so well known from Herodotus’ account (i. 74, 103). The darkness that overspread the world at the crucifixion cannot with reason be attributed to an eclipse, as the moon was at the full at the time of the passover.
(witness), a word inserted in the Authorized Version of
apparently on the authority of a few MSS., and also of the Syriac and Arabic versions, but not existing in the generally-received Hebrew text.
E’dar, Tower of
(accur. EDER, a flock), a place named only in
According to Jerome it was one thousand paces from Bethlehem.
1. The first residence of man, called in the Septuagint Paradise. The latter is a word of Persian origin, and describes an extensive tract of pleasure land, somewhat like an English park; and the use of it suggests a wider view of man’s first abode than a garden. The description of Eden is found in
In the eastern portion of the region of Eden was the garden planted. The Hiddekel, one of its rivers, is the modern Tigris; the Euphrates is the same as the modern Euphrates. With regard to the Pison and Gihon a great variety of opinion exists, but the best authorities are divided between (1) Eden as in northeast Arabia, at the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris, and their separation again, making the four rivers of the different channels of these two, or (2), and most probably, Eden as situated in Armenia, near the origin of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, and in which same region rise the Araxes (Pison of Genesis) and the Oxus (Gihon).
2. One of the marts which supplied the luxury of Tyre with richly-embroidered stuffs. In
and Isai 37:12 "the sons of Eden" are mentioned with Gozan, Haran and Rezeph as victims of the Assyrian greed of conquest. Probability seems to point to the northwest of Mesopotamia as the locality of Eden.
3. BETH-EDEN, "house of pleasure:" probably the name of a country residence of the kings of Damascus.
1. A Gershonite Levite, son of Joah, in the days of Hezekiah.
2. Also a Levite, probably identical with the preceding.
1. One of the towns of Judah, in the extreme south, and on the borders of Edom.
No trace of it has been discovered in modern times.
2. A Levite of the family of Merari, in the time of David.
1Ch 23:23; 24:30
E’dom, Idumae’aor Idume’a
(red). The name Edom was given to Esau, the first-born son of Isaac and twin brother of Jacob, when he sold his birthright to the latter for a meal of lentil pottage. The country which the Lord subsequently gave to Esau was hence called "the country of Edom,"
and his descendants were called Edomites. Edom was called Mount Seir and Idumea also. Edom was wholly a mountainous country. It embraced the narrow mountainous tract (about 100 miles long by 20 broad) extending along the eastern side of the Arabah from the northern end of the Gulf of Elath to near the southern end of the Dead Sea. The ancient capital of Edom was Bozrah (Buseireh). Sela (Petra) appears to have been the principal stronghold in the days of Amaziah (B.C. 838).
Elath and Ezion-geber were the seaports.
2Sa 8:14; 1Ki 9:26
History. —Esau’s bitter hatred to his brother Jacob for fraudulently obtaining his blessing appears to have been inherited by his latest posterity. The Edomites peremptorily refused to permit the Israelites to pass through their land.
For a period of 400 years we hear no more of the Edomites. They were then attacked and defeated by Saul,
and some forty years later by David.
In the reign of Jehoshaphat (B.c. 914) the Edomites attempted to invade Israel, but failed.
They joined Nebuchadnezzar when that king besieged Jerusalem. For their cruelty at this time they were fearfully denounced by the later prophets.
Isa 34:5-8; 63:1-4; Jer 49:17
After this they settled in southern Palestine, and for more than four centuries continued to prosper. But during the warlike rule of the Maccabees they were again completely subdued, and even forced to conform to Jewish laws and rites, and submit to the government of Jewish prefects. The Edomites were now incorporated with the Jewish nation. They were idolaters.
Their habits were singular. The Horites, their predecessors in Mount Seir, were, as their name implies, troglodytes, or dwellers in caves; and the Edomites seem to have adopted their dwellings as well as their country. Everywhere we meet with caves and grottos hewn in the soft sandstone strata.
1. One of the two capital cities of Bashan, in the territory of Manasseh east of the Jordan.
Nu 21:33; De 1:4; 3:10; Jos 12:4
In Scripture it is only mentioned in connection with the victory gained by the Israelites over the Amorites under Og their king, and the territory thus acquired. The ruins of this ancient city, still bearing the name Edr’a, stand on a rocky promontory which projects from the southwest corner of the Lejah. The ruins are nearly three miles in circumference, and have a strange, wild, look, rising up in dark, shattered masses from the midst of a wilderness of black rocks.
2. A town of northern Palestine, allotted to the tribe of Naphtali, and situated near Kedesh.
About two miles south of Kedesh is a conical rocky hill called Tell Khuraibeh, the "tell of the ruin," which may be the site of Edrei.
There is little trace among the Hebrews in earlier times of education in any other subjects than the law. The wisdom therefore and instruction, of which so much is said in the book of Proverbs, are to be understood chiefly of moral and religious discipline, imparted, according to the direction of the law, by the teaching and under the example of parents. (But Solomon himself wrote treatises on several scientific subjects, which must have been studied in those days.) In later times the prophecies and comments on them, as well as on the earlier Scriptures, together with other subjects, were studied. Parents were required to teach their children some trade. (Girls also went to schools, and women generally among the Jews were treated with greater equality to men than in any other ancient nation.) Previous to the captivity, the chief depositaries of learning were the schools or colleges, from which in most cases proceeded that succession of public teachers who at various times endeavored to reform the moral and religious conduct of both rulers and people. Besides the prophetical schools instruction was given by the priests in the temple and elsewhere. [See SCHOOLS]
(a heifer), one of David’s wives during his reign in Hebron.
2Sa 3:5; 1Ch 3:3
(two ponds), a place named only in
probably the same as EN-EGLAIM.
1. A king of the Moabites,
ff., who, aided by the Ammonites and the Amelekites, crossed the Joran and took "the city of palm trees." (B.C. 1359.) here, according to Josephus, he built himself a palace, and continued for eighteen years to oppress the children of Israel, who paid him tribute. He was slain by Ehud. [EHUD]
2. A town of Judah in the low country.
The name survives in the modern Ajlan, a shapeless mass of ruins, about 10 miles from Eleutheropolis and 14 from Gaza, on the south of the great maritime plain.
(land of the Copts), a country occupying the northeast angle of Africa. Its limits appear always to have been very nearly the same. It is bounded on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, on the east by Palestine, Arabia and the Red Sea, on the south by Nubia, and on the west by the Great Desert. It is divided into upper Egypt —the valley of the Nile —and lower Egypt, the plain of the Delta, from the Greek letter; it is formed by the branching mouths of the Nile, and the Mediterranean Sea. The portions made fertile by the Nile comprise about 9582 square geographical miles, of which only about 5600 is under cultivation. —Encyc. Brit. The Delta extends about 200 miles along the Mediterranean, and Egypt is 520 miles long from north to south from the sea to the First Cataract. NAMES. —The common name of Egypt in the Bible is "Mizraim." It is in the dual number, which indicates the two natural divisions of the country into an upper and a lower region. The Arabic name of Egypt —Mizr— signifies "red mud." Egypt is also called in the Bible "the land of Ham,"
comp. Psal 78:51 —a name most probably referring to Ham the son of Noah —and "Rahab," the proud or insolent: these appear to be poetical appellations. The common ancient Egyptian name of the country is written in hieroglyphics Kem, which was perhaps pronounced Chem. This name signifies, in the ancient language and in Coptic, "black," on account of the blackness of its alluvial soil. We may reasonably conjecture that Kem is the Egyptian equivalent of Ham. GENERAL APPEARANCE, CLIMATE, ETC. —The general appearance of the country cannot have greatly changed since the days of Moses. The whole country is remarkable for its extreme fertility, which especially strikes the beholder when the rich green of the fields is contrasted with the utterly bare, yellow mountains or the sand-strewn rocky desert on either side. The climate is equable and healthy. Rain is not very unfrequent on the northern coast, but inland is very rare. Cultivation nowhere depends upon it. The inundation of the Nile fertilizes and sustains the country, and makes the river its chief blessing. The Nile was on this account anciently worshipped. The rise begins in Egypt about the summer solstice, and the inundation commences about two months later. The greatest height is attained about or somewhat after the autumnal equinox. The inundation lasts about three months. The atmosphere, except on the seacoast, is remarkably dry and clear, which accounts for the so perfect preservation of the monuments, with their pictures and inscriptions. The heat is extreme during a large part of the year. The winters are mild, —from 50
the native or natives of Egypt.
(my brother), head of one of the Benjamite houses according to the list in
He seems to be the same as Ahiram in the list in
he is called Aharah, and perhaps also Ahoah in ver. 4, Ahiah, ver. 7, and Aher,
1. Ehud son of Bilhah, and great-grandson of Benjamin the patriarch.
1Ch 7:10; 8:6
2. Ehud son of Gera, of the tribe of Benjamin,
the second judge of the Israelites. (B.C. about 1370.) In the Bible he is not called a judge, but a deliverer (l.c.): so Othniel,
and all the Judges.
As a Benjamite he was specially chosen to destroy Eglon, who had established himself in Jericho, which was included in the boundaries of that tribe. He was very strong, and left-handed. [EGLON]
(a rooting up), a descendant of Judah.
(torn up by the roots; emigration), one of the five towns belonging to the lords of the Philistines, and the most northerly of the five.
Like the other Philistine cities its situation was in the lowlands. It fell to the lot of Judah.
Jos 15:45,46; Jud 1:18
Afterwards we find it mentioned among the cities of Dan.
Before the monarchy it was again in full possession of the Philistines.
Akir, the modern representative of Ekron, lies about five miles southwest of Ramleh. In the Apocrypha it appears as ACCARON. 1Macc 10:89 only.
(whom God has put on), a descendant of Ephraim through Shuthelah.
(an oak, strength).
1. The son and successor of Baasha king of Israel.
His reign laster for little more than a year; comp. ver. 8 with 10. (B.C. 928-7.) He was killed while drunk, by Zimri, in the house of his steward Azra, who was probably a confederate in the plot.
2. Father of Hoshea, the last king of Israel.
2Ki 15:30; 17:1
(B.C. 729 or before.).
1. One of the dukes of Edom.
Ge 36:41; 1Ch 1:52
2. Shimei ben-Elah was Solomon’s commissariat officer in Benjamin.
3. A son of Caleb the son of Jephuneh.
4. Son of Uzzi, a Benjamite,
s, and one of the chiefs of the tribe at the settlement of the country. (B.C. 536.)
E’lah, The valley of
(valley of the terebinth), the valley in which David killed Goliath.
It lay somewhere near Socoh of Judah and Azekah, and was nearer Ekron than any other Philistine town. 1Sam. 17.
1. This seems to have been originally the name of a man, the son of Shem.
Ge 10:22; 1Ch 1:17
Commonly, however, it is used as the appellation of a country.
Ge 14:1,9; Isa 11:11; 21:2
The Elam of Scripture appears to be the province lying south of Assyria and east of Persia proper, to which Herodotus gives the name of Cissia (iii. 91, v. 49, etc.), and which is termed Susis or Susiana by the geographers. Its capital was Susa. This country was originally people by descendants of Shem. By the time of Abraham a very important power had been built up in the same region. It is plain that at this early time the predominant power in lower Mesopotamia was Elam, which for a while held the place possessed earlier by Babylon,
and later by either Babylon or Assyria.
2. A Korhite Levite in the time of King David.
3. A chief man of the tribe of Benjamin.
4. "Children of Elam," to the number of 1254, returned with Zerubbabel from Babylon.
Ezr 2:7; Ne 7:12
1Esd. 5:12. (B.C. 536 or before.) Elam occurs amongst the names of the chief of the people who signed the covenant with Nehemiah.
5. In the same lists is a second Elam, whose sons, to the same number as in the former case, returned with Zerubbabel,
Ezr 2:31; Ne 7:34
and which for the sake of distinction is called "the other Elam."
6. One of the priests who accompanied Nehemiah at the dedication of the new wall of Jerusalem.
This word is found only in
The Elamites were the original inhabitants of the country called Elam; they were descendants of Shem, and perhaps drew their name from an actual man Elam.
(whom God made).
1. A priest in the time of Ezra who had married a Gentile wife.
2. Son of Shaphan, one of the two men who were sent on a mission by King Zedekiah to Nebuchadnezzar at Babylon.
(a grove), the name of a town of the land of Edom, commonly mentioned with Ezion-geber, and situated at the head of the Arabian Gulf, which was thence called the Elanitic Gulf. It first occurs in the account of the wanderings,
and in later times must have come under the rule of David.
We find the place named again in connection with Solomon’s navy.
comp. 2Chr 8:17 In the Roman period it became a frontier town of the south and the residence of a Christian bishop. The Arabic name is Eyleh, and palm groves still exist there, after which it was named.
(the God of Bethel), the name which Jacob is said to have bestowed on the place at which God appeared to him when he was flying from Esau.
Ge 25:4; 1Ch 1:3
the last in order of the sons of Midian.
(favored of God) andMe’dad (love), two of the seventy elders to whom was communicated the prophetic power of Moses.
(B.C. 1490.) Although their names were upon the last which Moses had drawn up,
they did not repair with the rest of their brethren to the tabernacle, but continued to prophesy in the camp. moses, being requested by Joshua to forbid this, refused to do so, and expressed a wish that the gift of prophecy might be diffused throughout the people.
The term elder, or old man as the Hebrew literally imports, was one of extensive use, as an official title, among the Hebrews and the surrounding nations, because the heads of tribes and the leading people who had acquired influence were naturally the older people of the nation. It had reference to various offices.
Ge 24:2; 50:7; 2Sa 12:17; Eze 27:9
As betokening a political office, it applied not only to the Hebrews, but also to the Egyptians,
the Moabites and the Midianites.
The earliest notice of the elders acting in concert as a political body is at the time of the Exodus. They were the representatives of the people, so much so that elders and people are occasionally used as equivalent terms; comp.
Their authority was undefined, and extended to all matters concerning the public weal. Their number and influence may be inferred from
ff. They retained their position under all the political changes which the Jews underwent. The seventy elders mentioned in Exodus and Numbers were a sort of governing body, a parliament, and the origin of the tribunal of seventy elders called the Sanhedrin or Council. In the New Testament Church the elders or presbyters were the same as the bishops. It was an office derived from the Jewish usage of elders or rulers of the synagogues. [BISHOP]
(praised by God), a descendant of Ephraim.
(the ascending of God), a place on the east of Jordan, taken possession of and rebuilt by the tribe of Reuben.
By Isaiah and Jeremiah it is mentioned as a Moabite town.
Isa 15:4; 16:9; Jer 48:34
(whom God made).
1. Son of Helez, one of the descendants of Judah, of the family of Hezron.
(B.C. after 1046.)
2. Son of Rapha or Rephaiah; a descendant of Saul through Jonathan and Merib-baal or Mephibosheth.
1Ch 8;37; 9:43
(B.C. before 588.)
(help of God).
1. Third son of Aaron. After the death of Nadab and Abihu without children,
Le 10:6; Nu 3:4
Eleazar was appointed chief over the principal Levites.
With his brother Ithamar he ministered as a priest during their father’s lifetime, and immediately before his death was invested on Mount Hor with the sacred garments, as the successor of Aaron in the office of high priest.
(B.C. 1452.) One of his first duties was in conjunction with Moses to superintend the census of the people.
After the conquest of Canaan by Joshua he took part in the distribution of the land.
The time of his death is not mentioned in Scripture.
2. The son of Abinadab, of the hill of Kirjath-jearim.
3. One of the three principal mighty men of David’s army.
2Sa 23:9; 1Ch 11:12
4. A Merarite Levite, son of Mahli and grandson of Merari.
1Ch 23:21,22; 24:28
5. A priest who took part in the feast of dedication under Nehemiah.
6. One of the sons of Parosh, an Israelite (i.e. a layman) who had married a foreign wife.
7. Son of Phinehas, a Levite.
8. The son of Eliud, in the genealogy of Jesus Christ.
(God, the God of Israel), the name bestowed by Jacob on the altar which he erected facing the city of Shechem.
(the ox), one of the towns allotted to Benjamin, and named next to Jerusalem.
(the grace of God).
1. A distinguished warrior in the time of King David, who performed a memorable exploit against the Philistines.
2Sa 21:19; 1Ch 20:5
(B.C. about 1020.)
2. One of "the thirty" of David’s guard, and named first on the list.
2Sa 23:24; 1Ch 11:26
(ascension), a descendant of Aaron through Ithamar, the youngest of his two surviving sons.
comp. 1Kin 2:27 with 2Sam 8:17; 1Chr 24:3 (B.C. 1214-1116.) he was the first of the line of Ithamar who held the office of high priest. The office remained in his family till Abiathar was thrust out by Solomon,
1Ki 1:7; 2:26,27
when it passed back again to the family of Eleazar int he person of Zadok.
Its return to the elder branch was one part of the punishment which had been denounced against Eli during his lifetime, for his culpable negligence.
when his sons profaned the priesthood; comp.
with 1Kin 2:27 Notwithstanding this one great blemish, the character of Eli is marked by eminent piety, as shown by his meek submission to the divine judgment,
and his supreme regard for the ark of God.
In addition to the office of high priest he held that of judge. He died at the advanced age of 98 years,
In addition to the office of high priest he held that of judge. He died at the advanced age of 98 years,
overcome by the disastrous intelligence that the ark of God had been taken in battle by the Philistines, who had also slain his sons Hophni and Phinehas.
E’li, E’li, lama sabachthani.
The Hebrew form, as Eloi, Eloi, etc., is the Syro-Chaldaic (the common language in use by the Jews in the time of Christ) of the first words of the twenty-second Psalm; they mean "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?"
(God is my father).
1. Son of Helon and leader of the tribe of Zebulun at the time of the census in the wilderness of Sinai.
Nu 1:9; 2:7; 7:24,29 10:16
2. A Reubenite, father of Dathan and Abiram.
Nu 16:1,12; 26:8,9; De 11:6
3. One of David’s brothers, the eldest of the family.
1Sa 16:6; 17:13,28; 1Ch 2:13
4. A Levite in the time of David, who was both a "porter" and a musician on the "psaltery."
1Ch 15:18,20; 16:5
5. One of the warlike Gadite leaders who came over to David when he was in the wilderness taking refuge from Saul.
6. An ancestor of Samuel the prophet; a Kohathite Levite, son of Nahath.
7. Son of Nathanael, one of the fore-fathers of Judith, and therefore belonging to the tribe of Simeon. Judith 8:1.
(known by God).
1. One of David’s sons; according to the lists, the youngest but one of the family born to him after his establishment in Jerusalem.
2Sa 5:16; 1Ch 3:8
(B.C. after 1033.)
2. A mighty man of war, a Benjamite, who led 200,000 of his tribe to the army of Jehoshaphat.
father of Rezon, the captain of a marauding band that annoyed Solomon.
(my God is Jehovah).
1. A Benjamite, a chief man of the tribe.
2. One of the Bene-Elam, an Israelite (i.e. a layman) who had married a foreign wife.
(whom God hides), on of the thirty of David’s guard.
2Sa 23:32; 1Ch 11:33
(raised up by God.).
1. Son of Hilkiah, master of Hezekiah’s household ("over the house," as)
(B.C. 713.) Eliakim was a good man, as appears by the title emphatically applied to him by God, "my servant Eliakim,"
and also in the discharge of the duties of his high station, in which he acted as a "father to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to the house of Judah."
2. The original name of Jehoiakim king of Judah.
2Ki 23:34; 2Ch 36:4
3. A priest in the days of Nehemiah, who assisted at the dedication of the new wall of Jerusalem.
4. Eldest son of Abiud or Judah; brother of Joseph, and father of Azor.
5. son of Melea, and father of Jonan.
1. Father of Bath-sheba, the wife of David.
2. One of David’s "thirty" warriors.
the Greek form of Elijah.
1. Head of the tribe of Dan at the time of the census in the wilderness of Sinai.
Nu 1:14; 2:14; 7:42,47; 10:20
2. A levite, and "chief of the Gershonites" at the same time.
(whom God restores).
1. A priest in the time of King David eleventh in the order of the "governors" of the sanctuary.
2. One of the latest descendants of the royal family of Judah.
3. High priest at Jerusalem at the time of the rebuilding of the walls under Nehemiah.
4. A singer in the time of Ezra who had married a foreign wife.
5. A son of Zattu,
6. A son of Bani,
both of whom had transgressed in the same manner. (B.C. 458.)
(to whom God comes), a musician in the temple in the time of King David.
(whom God loves), the man chosen to represent the tribe of Benjamin in the division of the land of Canaan.
(to whom God is strength).
1. One of the heads of the tribe of Manasseh on the east of Jordan.
2. A forefather of Samuel the prophet.
3. A chief man in the tribe of Benjamin.
4. Also a Benjamite chief.
5. One of the heroes of David’s guard.
6. Another of the same guard.
7. One of the Gadite heroes who came across Jordan to David when he was in the wilderness of Judah hiding from Saul.
8. A Kohathite Levite at the time of transportation of the ark from the house of Obed-edom to Jerusalem.
9. A Levite in the time of Hezekiah; one of the overseers of the offerings made in the temple.
(my eyes are toward God) a descendant of Benjamin, and a chief man in the tribe.
(God is his help).
1. Abraham’s chief servant, called by him "Eliezer of Damascus."
2. Second son of Moses and Zipporah (B.c. 1523), to whom his father gave this name because "the God of my father was mine help, and delivered me from the sword of Pharaoh."
Ex 18:4; 1Ch 23:15,17; 26:25
3. One of the sons of Becher, the son of Benjamin.
4. A priest in the reign of David.
5. Son of Zichri, ruler of the Reubenites in the reign of David.
6. Son of Dodavah, of Mareshah in Judah,
a prophet, who rebuked Jehoshaphat for joining himself with Ahaziah king of Israel. (B.C. 895.)
7. A chief Israelite whom Ezra sent with others from Ahava to Cesiphia, to induce some Levites and Nethinim to accompany him to Jerusalem.
(B.C. 459.) 8,9,10. A priest, a Levite and an Israelite of the sons of Harim, who had married foreign wives.
11. Son of Jorim, in the genealogy of Christ.
(my eyes are toward Jehovah), son of Zerahiah, who with 200 men returned from the captivity with Ezra.
(God is his reward), one of Solomon’s scribes.
(whose God is he (Jehovah)).
1. One of the interlocutors in the book of Job. [JOB] He is described as the "son of Baerachel the Buzite."
JOB -See 7439
2. A forefather of Samuel the prophet.
Elihu "of the brethren of David" is mentioned as the chief of the tribe of Judah.
4. One of the captains of the thousands of Manasseh,
who followed David to Ziklag after he had left the Philistine army on the eve of the battle of Gilboa.
5. A Korhite Levite in the time of David.
(my God is Jehovah) has been well entitled "the grandest and the most romantic character that Israel ever produced." "Elijah the Tishbite,... of the inhabitants of Gilead" is literally all that is given us to know of his parentage and locality. Of his appearance as he "stood before" Ahab (B.C. 910) with the suddenness of motion to this day characteristic of the Bedouins from his native hills, we can perhaps realize something from the touches, few but strong, of the narrative. His chief characteristic was his hair, long and thick, and hanging down his back. His ordinary clothing consisted of a girdle of skin round his loins, which he tightened when about to move quickly.
But in addition to this he occasionally wore the "mantle" or cape of sheepskin which has supplied us with one of our most familiar figures of speech. His introduction, in what we may call the first act of his life, is the most startling description. He suddenly appears before Ahab, prophesies a three-years drought in Israel, and proclaims the vengeance of Jehovah for the apostasy of the king. Obliged to flee from the vengeance of king, or more probably of the queen (comp.
he was directed to the brook Cherith. There in the hollow of the torrent bed he remained, supported in the miraculous manner with which we are all familiar, till the failing of the brook obliged him to forsake it. His next refuge was at Zarephath. Here in the house of the widow woman Elijah performed the miracles of prolonging the oil and the meal, and restored the son of the widow to life after his apparent death. 1Kin 17. In this or some other retreat an interval of more than two years must have elapsed. The drought continued, and at last the full horrors of famine, caused by the failure of the crops, descended on Samaria. Again Elijah suddenly appears before Ahab. There are few more sublime stories in history than the account of the succeeding events —with the servant of Jehovah and his single attendant on the one hand, and the 850 prophets of Baal on the other; the altars, the descending fire of Jehovah consuming both sacrifice and altar; the rising storm, and the ride across the plain to Jezreel. 1Kin 18. Jezebel vows vengeance, and again Elijah takes refuge in flight into the wilderness, where he is again miraculously fed, and goes forward, in the strength of that food, a journey of forty days to the mount of God, even to Horeb, where he takes refuge in a cave, and witnesses a remarkable vision of Jehovah.
He receives the divine communication, and sets forth in search of Elisha, whom he finds ploughing in the field, and anoints him prophet in his place. ch. 19. For a time little is heard of Elijah, and Ahab and Jezebel probably believed they had seen the last of him. But after the murder of Naboth, Elijah, who had received an intimation from Jehovah of what was taking place, again suddenly appears before the king, and then follow Elijah’s fearful denunciation of Ahab and Jezebel, which may possibly be recovered by putting together the words recalled by Jehu,
and those given in
A space of three or four years now elapses (comp.
1Ki 22:1,51; 2Ki 1:17
before we again catch a glimpse of Elijah. Ahaziah is on his death-bed,
1Ki 22:51; 2Ki 1:1,2
and sends to an oracle or shrine of Baal to ascertain the issue of his illness; but Elijah suddenly appears on the path of the messengers, without preface or inquiry utters his message of death, and as rapidly disappears. The wrathful king sends two bands of soldiers to seize Elijah, and they are consumed with fire; but finally the prophet goes down and delivers to Ahaziah’s face the message of death. No long after Elijah sent a message to Jehoram denouncing his evil doings, and predicting his death.
It was at Gilgal —probably on the western edge of the hills of Ephraim— that the prophet received the divine intimation that his departure was at hand. He was at the time with Elisha, who seems now to have become his constant companion, and who would not consent to leave him. "And it came to pass as they still went on and talked, that, behold, a chariot of fire and horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven." (B.C. 896.) Fifty men of the sons of the prophets ascended the abrupt heights behind the town, and witnessed the scene. How deep was the impression which he made on the mind of the nation may be judged of from the fixed belief which many centuries after prevailed that Elijah would again appear for the relief and restoration of his country, as Malachi prophesied.
He spoke, but left no written words, save the letter to Jehoram king of Judah.
(rejected of God), a Harodite, one of David’s guard.
Ex 15:27; Nu 33:9
the second station where the Israelites encamped after crossing the Red Sea. It is distinguished as having had "twelve wells (rather ‘fountains’) of waster, and three-score and ten palm trees." It is generally identified by the best authorities with Wady Garundel, about halfway down the shore of the Gulf of Suez. A few palm trees still remain, and the water is excellent.
(my God is king), a man of the tribe of Judah and of the family of the Hezronites, who dwelt in Bethlehem-Ephratah in the days of the Judges. (B.C. 1312.) In consequence of a great death in the land he went with his wife, Naomi, and his two sons, Mahlon and Chilion, to dwell in Moab, where he and his sons died without posterity.
(my eyes are toward the Lord).
1. Elsest son of Neariah, the son of Shemaiah.
2. Head of a family of the Simeonites.
(B.C. after 1451.)
3. Head of one of the families of the sons of Becher, the son of Benjamin.
4. A Korhite Levite, and one of the doorkeepers of the "house of Jehovah."
5. A priest in the days of Ezra, one of those who had married foreign wives.
(B.C. 446.) Possibly the same as
6. An Israelite of the sons of Zattu, who had also married a foreign wife.
(whom God judges), son of Ur, one of David’s guard.
(the god of deliverance), the last of the thirteen sons born to David after his establishment in Jerusalem.
2Sa 5:16; 1Ch 14:7
(God is his strength).
1. The son of Esau and Adah, and the father of Teman.
Ge 36:4; 1Ch 1:35,36
2. The chief of the "three friends" of Job. He is called "the Temanite;" hence it is naturally inferred that he was a descendant of Teman. On him falls the main burden of the argument, that God’s retribution in this world is perfect and certain, and that consequently suffering must be a proof of previous sin. Job 4,5,15,22. The great truth brought out by him is the unapproachable majesty and purity of God.
Job 4:12-21; 15:12-16
JOB -See 7439
(whom God makes distinguished), a Merarite Levite, one of the gate-keepers appointed by David to play on the harp "on the Sheminith" on the occasion of bringing up the ark to the city of David.
(the God of deliverance).
1. The name of a son of David, one of the children born to him after his establishment in Jerusalem.
(B.C. after 1044.)
2. Another son of David, belonging also to the Jerusalem family, and apparently the last of his sons.
3. One of the thirty warriors of David’s guard.
4. Son of Eshek, a descendant of King Saul through Jonathan.
(B.C. before 536.)
5. One of the leaders of the Bene-Adonikam who returned from Babylon with Ezra.
6. A man of the Bene-Hushum in the time of Ezra who had married a foreign wife.
(the oath of God), the wife of Zacharias and mother of John the Baptist. She was herself of the priestly family, and a relation,
of the mother of our Lord.
the Greek form of the name Elisha.
(God his salvation), son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah; the attendant and disciple of Elijan, and subsequently his successor as prophet of the kingdom of Israel. The earliest mention of his name is in the command to Elijah in the cave at Horeb.
(B.C. about 900.) Elijah sets forth to obey the command, and comes upon his successor engaged in ploughing. He crosses to him and throws over his shoulders the rough mantle —a token at once of investiture with the prophet’s office and of adoption as a son. Elisha delayed merely to give the farewell kiss to his father and mother and preside at a parting feast with his people, and then followed the great prophet on his northward road. We hear nothing more of Elisha for eight years, until the translation of his master, when he reappears, to become the most prominent figure in the history of his country during the rest of his long life. In almost every respect Elisha presents the most complete contrast to Elijah. Elijah was a true Bedouin child of the desert. If he enters a city it is only to deliver his message of fire and be gone. Elisha, on the other hand, is a civilized man, an inhabitant of cities. His dress was the ordinary garment of an Israelite, the beged, probably similar in form to the long abbeyeh of the modern Syrians.
His hair was worn trimmed behind, in contrast to the disordered locks of Elijah, and he used a walking-staff,
of the kind ordinarily carried by grave or aged citizens.
After the departure of his master, Elisha returned to dwell at Jericho,
where he miraculously purified the springs. We next meet with Elisha at Bethel, in the heart of the country, on his way from Jericho to Mount Carmel.
The mocking children, Elisha’s curse and the catastrophe which followed are familiar to all. Later he extricates Jehoram king of Israel, and the kings of Judah and Edom, from their difficulty in the campaign against Moab arising from want of water.
Then he multiplies the widow’s oil.
The next occurrence is at Shunem, where he is hospitably entertained by a woman of substance, whose son dies, and is brought to life again by Elisha.
Then at Gilgal he purifies the deadly pottage,
and multiplies the loaves.
The simple records of these domestic incidents amongst the sons of the prophets are now interrupted by an occurrence of a more important character.
The chief captain of the army of Syria, Naaman, is attacked with leprosy, and is sent by an Israelite maid to the prophet Elisha, who directs him to dip seven times in the Jordan, which he does and is healed,
while Naaman’s servant, Gehazi, he strikes with leprosy for his unfaithfulness. ch.
Again the scene changes. It is probably at Jericho that Elisha causes the iron axe to swim.
A band of Syrian marauders are sent to seize him, but are struck blind, and he misleads them to Samaria, where they find themselves int he presence of the Israelite king and his troops.
During the famine in Samaria,
he prophesied incredible plenty, ch.
which was soon fulfilled. ch.
We next find the prophet at Damascus. Benhadad the king is sick, and sends to Elisha by Hazael to know the result. Elisha prophesies the king’s death, and announces to Hazael that he is to succeed to the throne.
Finally this prophet of God, after having filled the position for sixty years, is found on his death-bed in his own house.
The power of the prophet, however, does not terminate with his death. Even in the tomb he restores the dead to life. ch.
(God is salvation), the eldest son of Javan.
The residence of his descendants is described in
as the isles of Elishah, whence the Phoenicians obtained their purple and blue dyes. Some connect the race of Elishah with the AEolians, others with Elishah, and in a more extended sense Peloponnesus, or even Hellas.
(whom God hears).
1. The "prince" or "captain" of the tribe of Ephraim in the wilderness of Sinai.
Nu 1:10; 2:18; 7:48; 10:22
(B.C. 1491.) From
we find that he was grandfather to the great Joshua.
2. A son of King David.
1Sa 5:16; 1Ch 3:8; 14:7
3. Another son of David,
who in the other lists is called ELISHUA. (B.C. after 1044.)
4. A descendant of Judah.
5. The father of Nethaniah and grandfather of Ishmael.
2Ki 25:25; Jer 41:1
6. Scribe of King Jehoiakim.
7. A priest in the time of Jehoshaphat.
(whom God judges), son of Zichri; one of the captains of hundreds in the time of Jehoiada.
(God is her oath), the wife of Aaron.
She was the daughter of Amminadab, and sister of Nahshon the captain of the host of Judah.
(God is my salvation), one of David’s sons, born after his settlement in Jerusalem.
2Sa 5:15; 1Ch 14:5
(God his praise), son of Achim in the genealogy of Christ.
(whom God protects).
1. A Levite, son of Uzziel, chief of the house of the Kohathites at the time of the census in the wilderness of Sinai.
2. Prince of the tribe of Zebulun.
prince of the tribe and over the host of Reuben.
Nu 1:5; 2:10; 7:30,35; 10:18
1. Son, or rather grandson, see
( 1Chr 6:7,8 ) of Korah, according to
2. A descendant of the above in the line of Ahimoth, otherwise Mahath, (1Chr 6;26,35; Hebr 11:20
3. Another Kohathite Levite, father of Samuel the illustrious judge and prophet.
(B.C. about 1190.) All that is known of him is contained in the above notices and in
and 1Sam 2:11,20
4. A Levite.
5. A Korhite who joined David while he was at Ziklag.
6. An officer in the household of Ahaz king of Judah, who was slain by Zichri the Ephraimite when Pekah invaded Judah.
(God my bow), the birthplace of the prophet Nahum, hence called "the Elkoshite."
This place is located at the modern Alkush, a village on the east bank of the Tigris, about two miles north of Mosul. Some think a small village in Galilee is intended.
(oak), the city of Arioch,
seems to be the Hebrew representative of the old Chaldean town called in the native dialect Larsa or Larancha. Larsa was a town of lower Babylonia or Chaldea, situated nearly halfway between Ur (Mugheir) and Erech (Warka), on the left bank of the Euphrates. It is now Senkereh.
In the Revised Version,
Same as ELMODAM.
(measure), son of Er, in the genealogy of Joseph.
(God his delight), the father of Jeribai and Joshaviah, two of David’s guard, according to
(God hath given).
1. The maternal grandfather of Jehoiachin,
the same with Elnathan the son of Achbor.
Jer 26:22; 36:12,25
2. The name of three persons, apparently Levites, in the time of Ezra.
1. A Hittite, whose daughter was one of Esau’s wives.
Ge 26:34; 36:2
2. The second of the three sons attributed to Zebulun,
Ge 46:14; Nu 26:26
and the founder of the family of the Elonites. (B.C. 1695.)
3. Elon the Zebulonite, who judged Israel for ten years, and was buried in Aijalon in Zebulun.
4. On of the towns in the border of the tribe of Dan.
(oak of the house of grace) is named with two Danite towns as forming one of Solomon’s commissariat districts.
(God his wages), a Benjamite, son of Hushim and brother of Abitub.
He was the founder of numerous family.
(God his deliverance), one of David’s sons born in Jerusalem.
(God his deliverance), literally "the terebinth of Paran."
(God its fear), one of the cities in the border of Dan,
which with its suburbs was allotted to the Kohathite Levites.
(God its foundation), one of the towns of the tribe of Judah in the mountains.
It has not yet been identified.
(God’s kindred), one of the cities in the south of Judah,
allotted to Simeon,
and in possession of that tribe until the time of David.
1Macc 14:27. [MONTH]
(God is my praise), one of the warriors of Benjamin who joined David at Ziklag.
(a wise man), the Arabic name of the Jewish magus or sorcerer Bar-jesus.
ff. (A.D. 44.)
(whom God hath given).
1. One of the Gadite heroes who came across the Jordan to David.
2. A Korhite Levite.
(whom God protects), second son of Uzziel, who was the son of Kohath son of Levi.
the process by which dead bodies are preserved from putrefaction and decay. It was most general among the Egyptians, and it is in connection with this people that the two instances which we meet with in the Old Testament are mentioned.
The embalmers first removed part of the brain through the nostrils, by means of a crooked iron, and destroyed the rest by injecting caustic drugs. An incision was then made along the flank with a sharp Ethiopian stone, and the whole of the intestines removed. The cavity was rinsed out with palm wine, and afterwards scoured with pounded perfumes. It was then filled with pure myrrh pounded, cassia and other aromatics, except frankincense. This done, the body was sewn up and steeped in natron (salf-petre) for seventy days. When the seventy days were accomplished, the embalmers washed the corpse and swathed it in bandages of linen, cut in strips and smeared with gum. They then gave it up to the relatives of the deceased, who provided for it a wooden case, made in the shape of a man, in which the dead was placed,a nd deposited in an erect position against the wall of the sepulchral chamber. Sometimes no incision was made in the body, nor were the intestines removed, but cedar-oil was injected into the stomach by the rectum. At others the oil was prevented from escaping until the end of the steeping process, when it was withdrawn, and carried off with it the stomach and intestines in a state of solution, while the flesh was consumed by the natron, and nothing was left but the skin and bones. The body in this state was returned to the relatives of the deceased. The third mode, which was adopted by the poorer classes, and cost but little, consisted in rinsing out the intestines with syrmaea, an infusion of senna and cassia, and steeping the body for several days in natron. It does not appear that embalming was practiced by the Hebrews. The cost of embalming was sometimes nearly $2000, varying from this amount down to $200 or $300.
Various explanations have been offered as to the distinction between "needle-work" and "cunning work." Probably neither term expresses just what is to-day understood by embroidery, though the latter may come nearest to it. The art of embroidery by the loom was extensively practiced among the nations of antiquity. In addition to the Egyptians, the Babylonians were celebrated for it.
a precious stone of a rich green color, upon which its value chiefly depends. This gem was the first in the second row on the breastplate of the high priest.
Ex 28:18; 39:11
It was imported to Tyre from Syria,
was used as a seal or signet, Ecclus. 32:6, as an ornament of clothing and bedding,
Eze 28:13; Jud 10:21
and is spoken of as one of the foundations of Jerusalem.
Tob. 13:16. The rainbow around the throne is compared to emerald in
De 28:27; 1Sa 5:6,9,12; 6:4,5,11
Probably hemorrhiodal tumors, or bleeding piles, are intended. These are very common in Syria at present, Oriental habits of want of exercise and improper food, producing derangement of the liver, constipation, etc., being such as to cause them.
(terrors), a tribe or family of gigantic stature which originally inhabited the region along the eastern side of the Dead Sea. They were related to the Anakim.
(warm baths), the village to which the two disciples were going when our Lord appeared to them on the way, on the day of his resurrection.
Luke makes its distance from Jerusalem sixty stadia (Authorized Version "threescore furlongs"), or about 7 1/2 miles; and Josephus mentions "a village called Emmaus" at the same distance. The site of Emmaus remains yet to be identified.
(an ass), the father of Sychem.
at the beginning of many Hebrew words, signifies a spring or fountain.
(double spring), one of the cities of Judah int he Shefelah or lowland.
(having eyes.). Ahira ben-Enan was "prince" of the tribe of Naphtali at the time of the numbering of Israel in the wilderness of Sinai.
primarily denoted the resting-place of an army or company of travellers at night,
Ge 32:21; Ex 16:13
and was hence applied to the army or caravan when on its march.
Ge 32:7,8; Ex 14:19; Jos 10:5; 11:4
The description of the camp of the Israelites, on their march from Egypt, Numb 2,3, supplies the greatest amount of information on the subject. The tabernacle, corresponding to the chieftains tent of an ordinary encampment, was placed in the centre, and around and facing it,
arranged in four grand divisions, corresponding to the four points of the compass, lay the host of Israel, according to their standards.
Nu 1:52; 2:2
In the centre, round the tabernacle, and with no standard but the cloudy or fiery pillar which rested over it, were the tents of the priests and Levites. The former, with Moses and Aaron at their head, were encamped on the eastern side. The order of encampment was preserved on the march.
The words so translated have several signification: the practice of secret arts,
Ex 7:11,22; 8:7
; "muttered spells,"
2Ki 9:22; Mic 5:12
the charming of serpents,
the enchantments sought by Balaam,
the use of magic,
Any resort to these methods of imposture was strictly forbidden in Scripture,
Le 19:26; Isa 47:9
etc.; but to eradicate the tendency is almost impossible,
and we find it still flourishing at the Christian era.
(fountain of Dor), a place in the territory of Issachar, and yet possessed by Manasseh.
Endor was the scene of the great victory over Sisera and Jabin. It was here that the witch dwelt whom Saul consulted.
it was known to Eusebius, who describes it was a large village four miles south of Tabor. Here to the north of Jebel Duhy the name still lingers. The distance from the slopes of Gilboa to Endor is seven or eight miles, over difficult ground.
(fountain of the two calves), a place named only by Ezekiel,
apparently as on the Dead Sea; but whether near to or far from Engedi, on the east or the west side of the sea, it is impossible to ascertain.
(fountain of the garden).
1. A city in the low country of Judah, named between Zanoah and Tappuah.
2. A city on the border of Issachar.
allotted with its "suburbs" to the Gershonite Levites,
probably Jenin, the first village encountered on the ascent from the great plain of Esdraelon into the hills of the central country.
(fount of the kid), a town in the wilderness of Judah,
on the western shore of the Dead Sea.
Its original name was Hazezon-tamar, on account of the palm groves which surrounded it.
Its site is about the middle of the western shore of the lake, at the fountain of Ain Jidy, from which the place gets its name. It was immediately after an assault upon the "Amorites that dwelt in Hazezon-tamar," that the five Mesopotamian kings were attacked by the rulers of the plain of Sodom.
comp. 2Chr 20:2 Saul was told that David was in the "wilderness of Engedi;" and he took "three thousand men, and went to seek David and his men upon the rocks of the wild goats."
The vineyards of Engedi were celebrated by Solomon.
a term applied exclusively to military affairs in the Bible. The engines to which the term is applied in
were designed to propel various missiles from the walls of the besieged town. One, with which the Hebrews were acquainted, was the battering ram, described in
and still more precisely in
Eze 4:2; 21:22
His chief business was cutting names or devices on rings and seals; the only notices of engraving are in connection with the high priest’s dress —the two onyx stones, the twelve jewels and the mitre-plate having inscriptions on them.
(swift fountain), one of the cities on the border of Issachar named next to Engannim.
(fount of the caller), the spring which burst out in answer to the cry of Samson after his exploit with the jawbone.
(fount of Hazor), one of the fenced cities in the inheritance of Naphtali, distinct from Hazor.
It has not yet been identified.
(fount of judgment).
1. The eldest son of Cain,
who called after his name the city which he built.
2. The son of Jared and father of Methuselah.
ff.; Luke 3:37 (B.C. 3378-3013.) In the Epistle of Jude
he described as "the seventh from Adam;" and the number is probably noticed as conveying the idea of divine completion and rest, while Enoch was himself a type of perfected humanity. After the birth of Methuselah it is said,
that Enoch "walked with God three hundred years... and he was not; for God took him." The phrase "walked with God" is elsewhere only used of Noah,
cf. Gene 17:1 etc., and is to be explained of a prophetic life spent in immediate converse with the spiritual world. Like Elijah, he was translated without seeing death. In the Epistle to the Hebrews the spring and issue of Enoch’s life are clearly marked. Both the Latin and Greek fathers commonly coupled Enoch and Elijah as historic witnesses of the possibility of a resurrection of the body and of a true human existence in glory.
E’noch, The book of.
The first trance of the existence of this work is found in the Epistle of
An apocryphal book called Enoch was known at a very early date, but was lost sight of until 1773, when Bruce brought with him on his return from Egypt three MSS. containing the complete Ethiopic translation. In its present shape the book consists of a series of revelations supposed to have been given to Enoch and Noah, which extend to the most varied aspects of nature and life. And are designed to offer a comprehensive vindication of the action of Providence. Notwithstanding the quotation in Jude, and the wide circulation of the book itself, the apocalypse of Enoch was uniformly and distinctly separated from the canonical Scriptures. Its authorship and date are unknown.
(springs), a place "near to Salim," at which John baptized.
It was evidently west of the Jordan, comp.
with John 3:26 and with John 1:28 and abounded in water. This is indicated by the name, which is merely a Greek version of a Chaldee word signifying "springs." AEnon is given in the Onomasticon as eight miles south of Scythopolis, "near Salem and the Jordan."
(mortal man), the son of Seth,
Ge 4:26; 5:6,7,9,10,11; Lu 3:38
properly ENOSH, as in
Same as ENOS.
(fount of the pomegranate), one of the places which the men of Judah reinhabited after their return from the captivity.
Perhaps the same as "Ain and Rimmon,"
and "Ain, Remmon,"
(fount of the fuller), a spring which formed one of the landmarks on the boundary line between Judah,
It may be identified with the present "Fountain of the Virgin," ’Ain Umm ed-Daraj, the perennial source from which the pool of Siloam is supplied.
(fountain of the sun), a spring which formed one of the landmarks on the north boundary of Judah,
and the south boundary of Benjamin,
perhaps Ain Haud or Ain-Chot —the "well of apostles" —about a mile below Bethany.
(nes; in the Authorized Version generally "ensign," sometimes "standard;" degel, "standard," with the exception of
"banner;" oth, "ensign"). This distinction between these three Hebrew terms is sufficiently marked by their respective uses. Nes is a signal, and not a military standard. It is an occasional signal, which was exhibited on the top of a pole from a bare mountain-top,
Isa 13:2; 18:3
degel a military standard for a large division of an army; and oth the same for a small one. Neither of them, however, expresses the idea which "standard" conveys to our minds, viz. a flag. The standards in use among the Hebrews probably resembled those of the Egyptians and Assyrians —a figure or device of some kind elevated on a pole; usually a sacred emblem, such as an animal, a boat, or the king’s name.
(praiseworthy), a Christian at Rome, greeted by St. Paul in
and designated as his beloved and the first-fruit of Asia unto Christ.
(praiseworthy), a Christian at Rome, greeted by St. Paul in
and designated as his beloved and the first-fruit of Asia unto Christ.
(lovely), a fellow laborer with the apostle Paul, mentioned
as having taught the Colossian church the grace of God in truth, and designated a faithful minister of Christ on their behalf. He was at that time with St. Paul at Rome. (A.D. 57.) For Paul’s estimate of him see
Col 1:7,8; 4:12
(lovely), the full name of which Epaphras is a contraction.
Phm 2:25; 4:18
(gloomy), the first, in order,of the sons of Midian,
Ge 25:4; 1Ch 1:33
afterwards mentioned by
1. Concubine of Caleb, in the line of Judah.
2. Son of Jahdai; also in the line of Judah.
[WEIGHTS AND MEASURES]
MEASURES -See 7886
(gloomy), a Netophathite, whose sons were among the "captains of the forces" left in Judah after the deportation to Babylon.
Jer 40:8; 41:3
comp. Jere 40:13 (B.C. 588.)
(a calf), the second, in order, of the sons of Midian.
Ge 25:4; 1Ch 1:33
1. A son of Ezra, among the descendants of Judah.
2. One of the heads of the families of Manasseh on the east of Jordan.
(cessation of blood-shed), a place between Socoh and Arekah, at which the Philistines were encamped before the affray in which Goliath was killed.
Under the shorter form of PAS-DAMMIM it occurs once again in a similar connection.
Ephe’sians, The Epistle to the,
was written by the apostle St. Paul during his first captivity at Rome,
apparently immediately after he had written the Epistle to the Colossians [COLOSSIANS, EPISTLE TO], and during that period (perhaps the early part of A.D. 62) when his imprisonment had not assumed the severer character which seems to have marked its close. This epistle was addressed to the Christian church at Ephesus. [EPHESUS] Its contents may be divided into two portions, the first mainly doctrinal, ch. 1-3, the second hortatory and practical.
EPHESUS -See 6411
(permitted), the capital of the Roman province of Asia, and an illustrious city in the district of Ionia, nearly opposite the island of Samos. Buildings. —Conspicuous at the head of the harbor of Ephesus was the great temple of Diana or Artemis, the tutelary divinity of the city. This building was raised on immense substructions, in consequence of the swampy nature of the ground. The earlier temple, which had been begun before the Persian war, was burnt down in the night when Alexander the Great was born; and another structure, raise by the enthusiastic co-operation of all the inhabitants of "Asia," had taken its place. The magnificence of this sanctuary was a proverb throughout the civilized world. In consequence of this devotion the city of Ephesus was called neo’koros,
or "warden" of Diana. Another consequence of the celebrity of Diana’s worship at Ephesus was that a large manufactory grew up there of portable shrines, which strangers purchased, and devotees carried with them on journeys or set up in the houses. The theatre, into which the mob who had seized on Paul,
rushed, was capable of holding 25,000 or 30,000 persons, and was the largest ever built by the Greeks. The stadium or circus, 685 feet long by 200 wide, where the Ephesians held their shows, is probably referred to by Paul as the place where he "fought with beasts at Ephesus."
Connection with Christianity —The Jews were established at Ephesus in considerable numbers.
Ac 2:9; 6:9
It is here and here only that we find disciples of John the Baptist explicitly mentioned after the ascension of Christ.
Ac 18:25; 19:3
The first seeds of Christian truth were possibly sown here immediately after the great Pentecost.
... St. Paul remained in the place more than two years,
Ac 19:8,10; 20:31
during which he wrote the First Epistle to the Corinthians. At a later period Timothy was set over the disciples, as we learn from the two epistles addressed to him. Among St. Paul’s other companions, two, Trophimus and Tychicus, were natives of Asia,
and the latter was probably,
the former certainly,
a native of Ephesus. Present condition —The whole place is now utterly desolate, with the exception of the small Turkish village at Ayasaluk. The ruins are of vast extent.
(judgment), a descendant of Judah, of the family of Hezron and of Jerahmeel.
(image), father of Hanniel of the tribe of Manesseh.
(a sacred vestment originally appropriate to the high priest.
(double fruitfulness), the second son of Joseph by his wife Asenath. (B.C. 1715-1708.) The first indication we have of that ascendancy over his elder brother Manasseh which at a later period the tribe of Ephraim so unmistakably possessed is in the blessing of the children by Jacob.
that portion of Canaan named after Joseph’s second son.
The boundaries of the portion of Ephraim are given in
The south boundary was coincident for part of its length with the north boundary of Benjamin. It extended from the Jordan on the east, at the reach opposite Jericho, to the Mediterranean on the west, probably about Joppa. On the north of Ephraim and Manasseh were the tribes of Asher, Zebulun and Issachar. The territory thus allotted to the "house of Joseph" may be roughly estimated at 55 miles from east to west by 70 from north to south. It was one at once of great richness and great security. Its fertile plains and well-watered valleys could only be reached by a laborious ascent through steep and narrow ravines, all but impassable for an army. Under Joshua the tribe must have taken a high position in the nation, to judge from the tone which the Ephraimites assumed on occasions shortly subsequent to the conquest. After the revolt of Jeroboam the history of Ephraim is the history of the kingdom of Israel, since not only did the tribe become a kingdom, but the kingdom embraced little besides the tribe.
In "Baal-hazor which is by Ephraim" was Absalom’s sheepfarm, at which took place the murder of Amnon, one of the earliest precursors of the great revolt.
There is no clue to its situation.
a city "in the district near the wilderness" to which our Lord retired with his disciples when threatened with violence by the priests.
E’phra-im, Gate of,
one of the gates of the city of Jerusalem,
2Ki 14:13; 2Ch 25:23; Ne 8:16; 12:39
probably at or near the position of the present "Damascus gate."
is a district which seems to extend as far south as Ramah and Bethel,
1Sa 1:1; 7:17; 2Ch 13:4,19
compared with 2Chr 15:8 places but a few miles north of Jerusalem, and within the limits of Benjamin.
E’phra-im, The wood of,
a wood, or rather a forest, on the east of Jordan, in which the fatal battle was fought between the armies of David and of Absalom.
Of the tribe of Ephraim; elsewhere called "Ephrathite."
(hamlet), a city of Israel which Judah captured from Jeroboam.
It has been conjectured that this Ephrain or Ephron is identical with the Ephraim by which Absalom’s sheep-farm of Baal-hazor was situated; with the city called Ephraim near the wilderness in which our Lord lived for some time; and with Ophrah, a city of Benjamin, apparently not far from Bethel. But nothing more than conjecture can be arrived at on these points.
1. Second wife of Caleb the son of Hezron, mother of Hur and grandmother of Caleb the spy, according to
and probably 1Chr 2:24 and 1Chr 4:4 (B.C. 1695.)
2. The ancient name of Bethlehem-judah.
Ge 35:16,19; 48:7
1. An inhabitant of Bethlehem.
2. An Ephraimite.
1Sa 1:1; 1Ki 11:26
(fawn-like), the son of Zochar, a Hittite, from whom Abraham bought the field and cave of Machpelah.
Ge 23:8-17; 25:9; 49:29,30; 50:13
The "cities of Mount Ephron" formed one of the landmarks on the northern boundary of the tribe of Judah.
derived their name from Epicurus (342-271 B.C.), a philosopher of Attic descent, whose "Garden" at Athens rivalled in popularity the "Porch" and the "Academy." The doctrines of Epicurus found wide acceptance in Asia Minor and Alexandria. (95-50 B.C.) The object of Epicurus was to find in philosophy a practical guide to happiness. True pleasure and not absolute truth was the end at which he aimed; experience and not reason the test on which he relied. It is obvious that a system thus formed would degenerate by a natural descent into mere materialism; and in this form Epicurism was the popular philosophy at the beginning of the Christian era. When St. Paul addressed "Epicureans and Soics,"
at Athens, the philosophy of life was practically reduced to the teaching of these two antagonistic schools.Epistles, letters; personal correspondence by writing. The twenty-one epistles of the New Testament took the place of tracts among us. In their outward form they are such as might be expected from men who were brought into contact with Greek and Roman customs, themselves belonging to a different race, and so reproducing the imported style with only partial accuracy. They begin (the Epistle to the Hebrews and 1John excepted) with the names of the writer and of those to whom the epistle is addressed. Then follows the formula of salutation. Then the letter itself commences in the first person, the singular and plural being used indiscriminately. When the substance of the letter has been completed, come the individual messages. The conclusion in this case was probably modified by the fact that the letters were dictated to an amanuensis. When he had done his work, the apostle took up the pen or reed, and added in his own large characters,
the authenticating autograph. In one instance,
the amanuensis in his own name adds his salutation. An allusion in
brings before us another class of letters which must have been in frequent use in the early ages of the Christian Church, by which travellers or teachers were commended by one church to the good offices of others.
1. First-born of Judah. Er "was wicked in the sight of the Lord; and the Lord slew him."
Ge 38:3-7; Nu 26:19
2. Descendant of Shelah the son of Judah.
3. Son of Jose and father of Elmodam.
(watchful), the eldest son of Ephraim.
(length), one of the cities of Nimrod’s kingdom in the land of Shinar,
doubtless the same as Orchoe, 82 miles south and 43 east of Babylon, the modern designations of the site —Warka, Irka and Irak —bearing a considerable affinity to the original name.
1. One of the attendants of St. Paul at Ephesus, who with Timothy was sent forward into Macedonia.
(A.D. 51.) He is probably the same with Erastus who is again mentioned in the salutations to Timothy.
2. Erastus the chamberlain, or rather the public treasurer, of Corinth, who was one of the early converts to Christianity.
According to the traditions of the Greek Church, he was first treasurer to the church at Jerusalem, and afterwards bishop of Paneas.
(watchful), son of Gad,
and ancestor of the Erites.
the Greek form of Isaiah. [ISAIAH]
(victor), one of the greatest of the kings of Assyria, was the son of Sennacherib,
and the grandson of Sargon, who succeeded Shalmaneser. He appears by his monuments to have been one of the most powerful, if not the most powerful, of all the Assyrian monarchs. He is the only one of them whom we find to have actually reigned at Babylon, where he built himself a palace, bricks from which have been recently recovered bearing his name. His Babylonian reign lasted thirteen years, from B.C. 680 to B.C. 667; and it was doubtless within this space of time that Manasseh king of Judah, having been seized by his captains at Jerusalem on a charge of rebellion, was brought before him at Babylon,
and detained for a time as prisoner there. As a builder of great works Esar-haddon is particularly distinguished. Besides his palace at Babylon, he built at least three others in different parts of his dominions, either for himself or his sons, and thirty temples.
(hairy), the eldest son of Isaac, and twin-brother of Jacob. The singular appearance of the child at his birth originated the name.
Esau’s robust frame and "rough" aspect were the types of a wild and daring nature. He was a thorough Bedouin, a "son of the desert." He was much loved by his father, and was of course his heir, but was induced to sell his birthright to Jacob. Mention of his unhappy marriages may be found in
The next episode in the life of Esau is the loss of his father’s covenant blessing, which Jacob secured through the craft of his mother, and the anger of Esau, who vows vengeance.
... Later he marries a daughter of Ishmael,
and soon after establishes himself in Mount Seir, where he was living when Jacob returned from Padan-aram rich and powerful, and the two brothers were reconciled.
Twenty years thereafter they united in burying Isaac’s body in the cave of Machpelah. Of Esau’s subsequent history nothing is known; for that of his descendants see EDOM.
This name is merely the Greek form of the Hebrew word Jezreel. "The great plain of Esdraelon" extends across central Palestine from the Mediterranean to the Jordan, separating the mountain ranges of Carmel and Samaria from those of Galilee. The western section of it is properly the plain of Accho or ’Akka. The main body of the plain is a triangle. Its base on the east extends from Jenin (the ancient Engannim) to the foot of the hills below Nazareth, and is about 15 miles long; the north side, formed by the hills of Galilee, is about 12 miles long; and the south side, formed by the Samaria range, is about 18 miles. The apex on the west is a narrow pass opening into the plain of ’Akka. From the base of this triangular plain three branches stretch out eastward, like fingers from a hand, divided by two bleak, gray ridges —one bearing the familiar name of Mount Gilboa, the other called by Franks Little Hermon, but by natives Jebel ed-Duhy. The central branch is the richest as well as the most celebrated. This is the "valley of Jezreel" proper —the battle-field on which Gideon triumphed, and Saul and Jonathan were overthrown.
... and 1Sam 31:1 ... Two things are worthy of special notice in the plain of Esdraelon:
1. Its wonderful richness;
2. Its present desolation. If we except the eastern branches, there is not a single inhabited village on its whole surface, and not more than one-sixth of its soil is cultivated. It is the home of the wild wandering Bedouin.
the form of the name of Ezra the scribe in 1 and 2 Esdras.
(Greek form of Ezra), The First Book of, the first in order of the apocryphal books in the English Bible. The first chapter is a transcript of the last two chapters of 2 Chron., for the most part verbatim, and only in one or two parts slightly abridged and paraphrased. Chapters 3,4, and 5 to the end of ver. 6, are the original portions of the book, and the rest is a transcript more or less exact of the book of Ezra, with the chapters transposed and quite otherwise arranged, and a portion of Nehemiah. Hence a twofold design in the compiler is discernible —one to introduce and give scriptural sanction to the legend about Zerubbabel; the other to explain the great obscurities of the book of Ezra, in which, however, he has signally failed. Its author is unknown, and it was probably written in Egypt. It has no historical value.
Es’dras, The Second Book of.
This exists in a Latin translation, the Greek being lost. Chapters 3-14 consist of a series of angelic revelations and visions in which Ezra is instructed in some of the great mysteries of the moral world, and assured of the final triumph of the righteous. The date of the book is uncertain. Like the first book, it was probably written in Egypt.
(contention), a well which the herdsmen of Isaac dug in the valley of Gerar.
1Ch 8:33; 9:39
the same as Ish-bosheth.
(wise man), a Horite; one of the four sons of Dishon.
Ge 36:26; 1Ch 1:41
(cluster of grapes), brother of Mamre the Amorite and of Aner, and one of Abraham’s companions in his pursuit of the four kings who had carried off Lot.
Esh’col, The valley
or The brook of, a wady in the neighborhood of Hebron (Mamre), explored by the spies who were sent by Moses from Kadesh-barnea.
Nu 13:23,24; De 1:24
The name is still attached to a spring of fine water called ’Ain Eshkali, in a valley about two miles north of Hebron.
(slope), one of the cities of Judah.
(oppression), one of the late descendants of Saul.
(a pass), a town in the low country —the Shefelah —of Judah, after wards allotted to Dan.
Jos 15:33; 19:41
Here Samson spent his boyhood, and hither after his last exploit his body was brought.
Jud 13:25; 16:31; 18:2,8,11,12
with the Zareathites, were among the families of Kirjath-jearim.
and in shorter form Eshtemoh (obedience), a town of Judah in the mountains,
allotted to the priest.
Jos 21:14; 1Ch 6:57
It was one of the places frequented by David and his followers during the long period of their wanderings.
comp. 1Sam 30:31 Its site is at Semu’a, a village seven miles south of Hebron.
(effeminate), a name which occurs in the genealogies of Judah.
son of Nagge or Naggai, in the genealogy of Christ.
1 Esd. 9:34. [AZAREEL, or SHARAI]
SHARAI -See 8859
Mt 1:3; Lu 3:33
HEZRON -See 6978
a Jewish sect, who, according to the description of Josephus, combined the ascetic virtues of the Pythagoreans and Stoics with a spiritual knowledge of the divine law. It seems probable that the name signifies seer, or the silent, the mysterious. As a sect the Essenes were distinguished by an aspiration after ideal purity rather than by any special code of doctrines. There were isolated communities of Essenes, which were regulated by strict rules, analogous to those of the monastic institutions of a later date. All things were held in common, without distinction of property; and special provision was made for the relief of the poor. Self-denial, temperance and labor —especially agriculture— were the marks of the outward life of the Essenes; purity and divine communion the objects of their aspiration. Slavery, war and commmerce were alike forbidden. Their best-known settlements were on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea.
(a star), the Persian name of HADASSAH (myrtle), daughter of Abihail, the son of Shimei, the son of Kish, a Benjamite. Esther was a beautiful Jewish maiden. She was an orphan, and had been brought up by her cousin Mordecai, who had an office in the household of Ahasuerus king of Persia —supposed to be the Xerxes of history— and dwelt at "Shushan the palace." When Vashti was dismissed from being queen, the king chose Esther to the place on account of her beauty, not knowing her race or parentage; and on the representation of Haman the Agagite that the Jews scattered through his empire were pernicious race, he gave him full power and authority to kill them all. The means taken by Esther to avert this great calamity from her people and her kindred are fully related in the book of Esther. The Jews still commemorate this deliverance in the yearly festival Purim, on the 14th and 15th of Adar (February, March). History is wholly silent about both Vashti and Esther.
Es’ther, Book of,
one of the latest of the canonical books of Scripture, having been written late in the reign of Xerxes, or early in that of his son Artaxerxes Longimanus (B.C. 444, 434). The author is not known. The book of Esther is placed among the hagiographa by the Jews, and in that first portion of them which they call "the five rolls." It is written on a single roll, sin a dramatic style, and is read through by the Jews in their synagogues at the feast of Purim, when it is said that the names of Haman’s sons are read rapidly all in one breath, to signify that they were all hanged at the same time; while at every mention of Haman the audience stamp and shout and hiss, and the children spring rattles. It has often been remarked as a peculiarity of this book that the name of God does not once occur in it. Schaff gives as the reason for this that it was to permit the reading of the book at the hilarious and noisy festival of Purim, without irreverence. The style of writing is remarkably chaste and simple. It does not in the least savor of romance. The Hebrew is very like that of Ezra and parts of the Chronicles; generally pure, but mixed with some words of Persian origin and some of the Chaldaic affinity. In short it is just what one would expect to find in a work of the age to which the book of Esther professes to belong.
(lair of wild beasts).
1. A village of the tribe of Simeon, specified only in the list in
comp. Josh 19:7
2. A place in Judah, fortified and garrisoned by Rehoboam.
Here, according to the statements of Josephus and the Talmudists, were the sources of the water from which Solomon’s gardens and the pleasure-grounds were fed, and Bethlehem and the temple supplied.
E’tam, The rock,
a cliff or lofty rock, into a cleft or chasm of which Samson retired after his slaughter of the Philistines.
This natural stronghold was in the tribe of Judah; and near it, probably at its foot, were Lehi and Ramath-lehi and Enhakkore.
The name Etam was held by a city in the neighborhood of Bethlehem,
which is known to have been situated in the extremely uneven and broken country round the modern Urtas.
(bounded by the sea), one of the early resting-places of the Israelites when they quitted Egypt; described as "in the edge of the wilderness."
Ex 13:20; Nu 33:6,7
Etham may be placed where the cultivable land ceases, near the Seba Biar or Seven Wells, about three miles from the western side of the ancient head of the gulf.
1. Ethan the Ezrahite, one of the four sons of Mahol, whose wisdom was excelled by Solomon.
1Ki 4:31; 1Ch 2:6
His name is in the title of
2. Son of Kishi or Kushaiah; a Merarite Levite, head of that family in the time of King David,
and spoken of as a "singer." With Heman and Asaph, the heads of the other two families of Levites, Ethan was appointed to sound with cymbals.
3. A Gershonite Levite, one of the ancestors of Asaph the singer.
Hebr 27. (B.C. 1420.)
(with Baal), king of Sidon and father of Jezebel.
Josephus represents him as a king of the Tyrians as well as of the Sidonians. We may thus identify him with Eithobalus, who, after having assassinated Pheles, usurped the throne of Tyre for thirty-two years. The date of Ethbaal’s reign may be given as about B.C. 940-908.
(abundance), one of the cities of Judah in the low country, the Shefelah,
allotted to Simeon.
(burnt faces). The country which the Greeks and Romans described as "AEthiopia" and the Hebrews as "Cush" lay to the south of Egypt, and embraced, in its most extended sense, the modern Nubia, Sennaar, Kordofan and northern Abyssinia, and in its more definite sense the kingdom of Meroe.
The Hebrews do not appear to have had much practical acquaintance with Ethiopia itself, though the Ethiopians were well known to them through their intercourse with Egypt. The inhabitants of Ethiopia were a Hamitic race.
They were divided into various tribes, of which the Sabeans were the most powerful. The history of Ethiopia is closely interwoven with that of Egypt. The two countries were not unfrequently united under the rule of the same sovereign. Shortly before our Saviour’s birth a native dynasty of females, holding the official title of Candace (Plin. vi. 35), held sway in Ethiopia, and even resisted the advance of the Roman arms. One of these is the queen noticed in
used of Zerah,
(8), and Ebed-melech.
Jer 38:7,10,12; 39:16
Ethio’pian eunuch, The,
a Jewish proselyte,
etc., who was treasurer of Candace queen of Ethiopia, but who was converted to Christianity on a visit to Jerusalem, through philip the evangelist. Nothing is known of him after his return to Ethiopia.
The wife of Moses is to described in
She is elsewhere said to have been the daughter of a Midianite, and in consequence of this some have supposed that the allusion is to another wife whom Moses married after the death of Zipporah.
(hire), one of the sons of Helah the wife of Ashur.
(munificent), a Gershonite Levite.
(prudent), a Christian at Rome mentioned by St. Paul.
(good victory), mother of Timotheus.
(A.D. before 47.)
"The English form of the Greek word which means bed-keeper. In the strict and proper sense they were the persons who had charge of the bed-chambers in palaces and larger houses. But as the jealous and dissolute temperament of the East required this charge to be in the hands of persons who had been deprived of their virility, the word eunuch came naturally to denote persons in that condition. But as some of these rose to be confidential advisers of their royal master or mistresses, the word was occasionally employed to denote persons in such a position, without indicating anything of their proper manhood." -Abbott.
(fragrant), a Christian woman at Philippi.
(A.D. 57.) The name is correctly EUODIA, as given in the Revised Version.
is probably a word of Aryan origin, signifying "the good and abounding river." It is most frequently denoted in the Bible by the term "the river." The Euphrates is the largest, the longest and by far the most important of the rivers of western Asia. It rises from two chief sources in the Armenian mountains, and flows into the Persian Gulf. The entire course is 1780 miles, and of this distance more than two-thirds (1200 miles) is navigable for boats. The width of the river is greatest at the distance of 700 or 800 miles from its mouth —that is to say, from it junction with the Khabour to the village of Werai. It there averages 400 yards. The annual inundation of the Euphrates is caused by the melting of the snows in the Armenian highlands. It occurs in the month of May. The great hydraulic works ascribed to Nebuchadnezzar had for their chief object to control the inundation. The Euphrates is first mentioned in Scripture as one of the four rivers of Eden.
We next hear of it in the covenant made with Abraham.
During the reigns of David and Solomon it formed the boundary of the promised land to the northeast.
De 11:24; Jos 1:4
Prophetical reference to the Euphrates is found in
Jer 13:4-7; 46:2-10; 51:63; Re 9:14; 16:12
"The Euphrates is linked with the most important events in ancient history. On its banks stood the city of Babylon; the army of Necho was defeated on its banks by Nebuchadnezzar; Cyrus the Younger and Crassus perished after crossing it; Alexander crossed it, and Trajan and Severus descended it." —Appleton’s Cyc.
the word used in the Revised Version instead of euroclydon in
It is compounded of two words meaning east and north, and means a northeast gale.
(a violent agitation), a tempestuous wind or hurricane, cyclone, on the Mediterranean, and very dangerous; now called a "levanter." This wind seized the ship in which St. Paul was ultimately wrecked on the coast of Malta. It came down from the island and therefore must have blown more or less from the northward.
(fortunate), a youth at Troas,
who sitting in a window, and having fallen asleep while St. Paul was discoursing, fell from the third story, and being taken up dead, was miraculously restored to life by the apostle.
(publisher of glad tidings). In the New Testament the "evangelists" appear on the one hand after the "apostles" and "prophets;" on the other before the "pastors" and "teachers." They probably stood between the two.
Ac 21:8; Eph 4:11
The work of the evangelist is the proclamation of the glad tidings to those who have not known them, rather than the instruction and pastoral care of those who have believed and been baptized. It follows also that the name denotes a work rather than an order. Its use is nearly like our word missionary. The evangelist might or might not be a bishop-elder or a deacon. The apostles, so far as they evangelized,
Ac 8:25; 14:7; 1Co 1:17
might claim the title, though there were many evangelists who were not apostles. If the gospel were a written book, and the office of the evangelists was to read or distribute it, then the writers of such books were pre-eminently THE evangelists. In later liturgical language the word was applied to the reader of the gospel for the day.
(life), the name given in Scripture to the first woman. The account of Eve’s creation is found at
Perhaps that which we are chiefly intended to learn from the narrative is the foundation upon which the union between man and wife is built, viz., identity of nature and oneness of origin. Through the subtlety of the serpent Eve was beguiled into a violation of the one commandment which had been imposed upon her and Adam. The Scripture account of Eve closes with the birth of Seth.
(desire), one of the five kings or princes of Midian slain by the Israelites.
Nu 31:8; Jos 13:21
(the fool of Merodach),
the son and successor of Nebuchadnezzar. He reigned but a short time, having ascended the throne on the death of Nebuchadnezzar in B.C. 561, and being himself succeeded by Neriglissar in B.C. 559. He was murdered by Neriglissar.
(expulsion from communion).
1. Jewish excommunication. —The Jewish system of excommunication was threefold. The twenty-four offences for which it was inflicted are various, and range in heinousness from the offence of keeping a fierce dog to that of taking God’s name in vain. The offender was first cited to appear in court; and if he refused to appear or to make amends, his sentence was pronounced. The term of this punishment was thirty days; and it was extended to a second and to a third thirty days when necessary. If at the end of that time the offended was still contumacious, he was subjected to the second excommunication. Severer penalties were now attached. The sentence was delivered by a court of ten, and was accompanied by a solemn malediction. The third excommunication was an entire cutting off from the congregation. The punishment of excommunication is not appointed by the law of Moses; it is founded on the natural right of self-protection which all societies enjoy. In the New Testament, Jewish excommunication is brought prominently before us in the case of the man that was born blind.
it has been thought that our Lord referred specifically to the three forms of Jewish excommunication: "Blessed are ye when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from their company, and shall reproach you, and cast out your name as evil, for the Son of man’s sake."
2. Christian excommunication. —Excommunication, as exercised by the Christian Church, was instituted by our Lord,
and it was practiced and commanded by St. Paul
1Co 5:11; 1Ti 1:20; Tit 3:10
Int he epistles we find St. Paul frequently claiming the right to exercise discipline over his converts; comp.
2Co 1:23; 13:10
We find, (1) that it is a spiritual penalty, involving no temporal punishment, except accidentally; (2) that it consists in separation from the communion of the Church; (3) that its object is the good of the sufferer,
and the protection of the sound members of the Church,
(4) that its subjects are those who are guilty of heresy,
or gross immorality,
(5) that it is inflicted by the authority of the Church at large,
wielded by the highest ecclesiastical officer,
1Co 5:3; Tit 3:10
(6) that this officer’s sentence is promulgated by the congregation to which the offender belongs,
in defence to his superior judgment and command,
and in spite of any opposition on the part of a minority,
(7) that the exclusion may be of indefinite duration, or for a period; (8) that its duration may be abridged at the discretion and by the indulgence of the person who has imposed the penalty,
(9) that penitence is the condition on which restoration to communion is granted,
(10) that the sentence is to be publicly reversed as it was publicly promulgated.
The post of executioner was one of high dignity. Potiphar was "captain of the executioners."
see margin. That the "captain of the guard" himself occasionally performed the duty of an executioner appears from
(that is, going out [of Egypt]), the second book of the law or Pentateuch. Its author was Moses. It was written probably during the forty-years wanderings int he wilderness, between B.C. 1491 and 1451. It may be divided into two principal parts:
1. Historical, chs.
Ex 1:1-18; 27:1
2. Legislative, chs.
Ex 19:40; 38:1
1. The first part contains an account of the following particulars: the great increase of Jacob’s posterity in the land of Egypt, and their oppression under a new dynasty, which occupied the throne after the death of Joseph; the birth, education, flight and return of Moses; the ineffectual attempts to prevail upon Pharaoh to let the Israelites go; the successive signs and wonders, ending in the death of the first-born, by means of which the deliverance of Israel from the land of bondage is at length accomplished, and the institution of the Passover; finally the departure out of Egypt and the arrival of the Israelites at Mount Sinai.
2. This part gives a sketch of the early history of Israel as a nation; and the history has three clearly-marked stages. First we see a nation enslaved; next a nation redeemed; lastly a nation set apart, and through the blending of its religious and political life consecrated to the service of God.
of the Israelites from Egypt. the common chronology places the date of this event at B.C. 1491, deriving it in this way: —In
it is stated that the building of the temple, in the forth year of Solomon, was in the 480th year after the exodus. The fourth year of Solomon was bout B.C. 1012. Add the 480 years (leaving off one years because neither the fourth nor the 480th was a full year), and we have B.C. 1491 as the date of the exodus. This is probably very nearly correct; but many Egyptologists place it at 215 years later, —about B.C. 1300. Which date is right depends chiefly on the interpretation of the Scripture period of 430 years, as denoting the duration of the bondage of the Israelites. The period of bondage given in
Ge 15:13,14; Ex 12:40,41
and Gala 3:17 as 430 years has been interpreted to cover different periods. The common chronology makes it extend from the call of Abraham to the exodus, one-half of it, or 215 years, being spend in Egypt. Others make it to cover only the period of bondage spend in Egypt. St. Paul says in
that from the covenant with (or call of) Abraham the giving of the law (less than a year after the exodus) was 430 years. But in
it is said that they should be strangers in a strange land,a nd be afflicted 400 years, and nearly the same is said in
But, in very truth, the children of Israel were strangers in a strange land from the time that Abraham left his home for the promised land, and during that whole period of 430 years to the exodus they were nowhere rulers in the land. So in
it is said that the sojourning of the children of Israel who dwelt in Egypt was 430 years. But it does not say that the sojourning was all in Egypt, but this people who lived in Egypt had been sojourners for 430 years. (a) This is the simplest way of making the various statements harmonize. (b) The chief difficulty is the great increase of the children of Israel from 70 to 2,000,000 in so short a period as 215 years, while it is very easy in 430 years. But under the circumstances it is perfectly possible in the shorter period. See on ver. 7 (c) If we make the 430 years to include only the bondage in Egypt, we must place the whole chronology of Abraham and the immigration of Jacob into Egypt some 200 years earlier, or else the exodus 200 years later, or B.C. 1300. in either case special difficulty is brought into the reckoning. (d) Therefore, on the whole, it is well to retain the common chronology, though the later dates may yet prove to be correct. The history of the exodus itself commences with the close of that of the ten plagues. [PLAGUES, THE TEN] In the night in which, at midnight, the firstborn were slain,
TEN -See 9247
Pharaoh urged the departure of the Israelites. vs.
They at once set forth from Rameses, vs.
apparently during the night v.
but towards morning on the 15th day of the first month.
They made three journeys, and encamped by the Red Sea. Here Pharaoh overtook them, and the great miracle occurred by which they were saved, while the pursuer and his army were destroyed. [RED SEA, PASSAGE OF]
PASSAGE -See 8339
one who pretends to expel evil spirits by conjuration, prayers and ceremonies. Exorcism was frequently practiced among the Jews.
Mt 12:27; Ac 19:13
David, by playing skillfully on a harp, procured the temporary departure of the evil spirit which troubled Saul.
The power of casting out devils was bestowed by Christ while on earth upon the apostles,
and the seventy disciples
and was, according to his promise,
exercised by believers after his ascension.
(The practice of painting the eyelids to make the eyes look large, lustrous and languishing is often alluded to in the Old Testament, and still extensively prevails among the women of the East, and especially among the Mohammedans. Jezebel, in
is said to have prepared for her meeting with Jehu by painting her face, or, as it reads in the margin, "put her eyes in paint." See also
A small probe of wood, ivory or silver is wet with rose-water and dipped in an impalpable black powder, and is then drawn between the lids of the eye nearly closed, and leaves a narrow black border, which is though a great ornament. —ED.)
(shining), father of Naarai, who was one of David’s thirty mighty men.
1. Son of Gad, and founder of one of the Gadite families.
Ge 46:16; Nu 26:16
2. Son of Bela, the son of Benjamin according to
(the strength of God), one of the four greater prophets, was the son of a priest named Buzi, and was taken captive in the captivity of Jehoiachin, eleven years before the destruction of Jerusalem. He was a member of a community of Jewish exiles who settled on the banks of the Chebar, a "river’ or stream of Babylonia. He began prophesying B.C. 595, and continued until B.C. 573, a period of more than twenty-two years. We learn from an incidental allusion,
that he was married, and had a house,
in his place of exile, and lost his wife by a sudden and unforeseen stroke. He lived in the highest consideration among his companions in exile, and their elders consulted him on all occasions. He is said to have been buried on the banks of the Euphrates. The tomb, said to have been built by Jehoiachin, is shown, a few days journey from Bagdad. Ezekiel was distinguished by his stern and inflexible energy of will and character and his devoted adherence to the rites and ceremonies of his national religion. The depth of his matter and the marvellous nature of his visions make him occasionally obscure. Prophecy of Ezekiel. —The book is divided into two great parts, of which the destruction of Jerusalem is the turning-point. Chapters 1-24 contain predictions delivered before that event, and chs. 25-48 after it, as we see from ch.
Again, chs. 1-32 are mainly occupied with correction, denunciation and reproof, while the remainder deal chiefly in consolation and promise. A parenthetical section in the middle of the book, chs. 25-32, contains a group of prophecies against seven foreign nations, the septenary arrangement being apparently intentional. There are no direct quotations from Ezekiel in the New Testament, but in the Apocalypse there are many parallels and obvious allusions to the later chapters 40-48.
(departure),The stone, a well-known stone in the neighborhood of Saul’s residence, the scene of the parting of David and Jonathan.
(bone), one of the towns of Simeon.
1. A son of Ephraim, who was slain by the aboriginal inhabitants of Gath while engaged in a foray on their cattle.
(B.C. before 1491.)
2. A priest who assisted in the dedication of the walls of Jerusalem under Nehemiah.
3. Father of Hushah of the sons of Hur.
4. One of the Gadite chiefs who fought with David.
5. One who aided in repairing the wall at Jerusalem; a Levite.
Nu 33:35; De 2:8; 1Ki 9:26; 22:48; 2Ch 8:17
the last station named for the encampment of the Israelites before they came to the wilderness of Zin. It probably stood at Ain el-Ghudyan, about ten miles up what is now the dry bed of the Arabah, but which was probably then the northern end of the gulf.
According to the statement of
Adino the Eznite was another name for Jashobeam, a Tachmonite.
(Probably the words are a corruption for the Hebrew "he lifted up his spear." —Fausset.)
(help), called ESDRAS in the Apocrypha, the famous scribe and priest. He was a learned and pious priest residing at Babylon in the time of Artaxerxes Longimanus. The origin of his influence with the king does not appear, but in the seventh year of his reign he obtained leave to go to Jerusalem, and to take with him a company of Israelites. (B.C. 457.) The journey from Babylon to Jerusalem took just four months; and the company brought with them a large freewill offering of gold and silver, and silver vessels. It appears that Ezra’s great design was to effect a religious reformation among the Palestine Jews. His first step was to enforce separation upon all who had married foreign wives.
... This was effected in little more than six months after his arrival at Jerusalem. With the detailed account of this important transaction Ezra’s autobiography ends abruptly, and we hear nothing more of him till, thirteen years afterwards, in the twentieth of Artaxerxes, we find him again at Jerusalem with Nehemiah. It seems probable that after effecting the above reformations he returned to the king of Persia. The functions he executed under Nehemiah’s government were purely of a priestly and ecclesiastical character. The date of his death is uncertain. There was a Jewish tradition that he was buried in Persia. The principal works ascribed to him by the Jews are—
1. The instruction of the great synagogue;
2. The settling the canon of Scripture, and restoring, correcting and editing the whole sacred volume;
3. The introduction of the Chaldee character instead of the old Hebrew or Samaritan;
4. The authorship of the books of Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and, some add, Esther; and, many of the Jews say, also of the books of Ezekiel, Daniel, and the twelve prophets;
5. The establishment of synagogues.
Ez’ra, Book of,
is a continuation of the books of Chronicles. The period covered by the book is eighty years, from the first of Cyrus, B.C. 536, to the beginning of the eighth of Artaxerxes, B.C. 456. It consist of the contemporary historical journals kept from time to time, containing, chs. 1-12, and account of the return of the captives under Zerubbabel, and the rebuilding of the temple in the reign of Cyrus and Cambyses. Most of the book is written in Hebrew, but from chs. 4:8 to 6:19 it is written in Chaldee. The last four chapters, beginning with ch. 7, continue the history after a gap of fifty-eight years —from the sixth of Darius to the seventh of Artaxerxes— narrating his visit to Jerusalem, and giving an account of the reforms there accomplished, referred to under EZRA. Much of the book was written by Ezra himself, though the first chapter was probably written by Daniel; and other hands are evident.
(son of Zerah), a title attached to two persons —Ethan,
1Ki 4:31; Ps 89:1
title, and Heman, Psal 88:1 title.
(help of Jehovah), son of Chelub, superintendent of King David’s farm-laborers.