1. The mother of Absalom; also called MAACHAH.
2. Maacah, or (in
) Maachah, a small kingdom in close proximity to Palestine which appears to have lain outside Argob,
The Ammonite war was the only occasion on which the Maacathites came into contact with Israel when their king assisted the Ammonites against Joab with a force which he led himself.
2Sa 10:6,8; 1Ch 19:7
1. The daughter of Nahor by his concubine Beumah.
2. The father of Achish who was king of Gath at the beginning of Solomon’s reign.
3. The daughter, or more probably granddaughter, of Absalom named after his mother; the third and favorite wife of Rehoboam, and mother of Abijah.
1Ki 15:22; 2Ch 11:20-22
The mother of Abijah is elsewhere called "Michaiah the daughter of Uriel of Gibeah."
During the reign of her grandson Asa she occupied at the court of Judah the high position of "king’s mother," comp.
but when he came of age she was removed because of her idolatrous habits.
4. The concubine of Caleb the son of Hezron.
5. The daughter of Talmai king of Geshur, and mother of Absalom
also called Maacah in Authorized Version of
6. The wife of Machir the Manassite.
7. The wife of Jehiel, father or founder of Gibeon.
1Ch 8:20; 9:35
8. The father of Hanan, one of the heroes of David body-guard.
9. A Simeonite, father of Sephatiah, prince of his tribe in the reign of David.
(oppression) andMaach’athites, The, two words which denote the inhabitants of the small kingdom of Maachah.
De 3:14; Jos 12:5; 13:11,13
2Sa 23:34; 2Ki 25:23; Jer 40:8
(ornament of Jehovah), one of the sons of Kani, who had married a foreign wife.
one of the priests who returned with Zerubbabel,
) called MOADIAH.
(compassionate), one of the Bene-Asaph who took part in the solemn musical service by which the wall of Jerusalem was dedicated.
(ascent of scorpions), the full form of the name given as AKRABBIM in
(bareness), one of the towns of Judah, in the district of the mountains.
The places which occur in company with have been identified at a few miles to the north of Hebron, but Maarath has hitherto eluded observation.
(work of the Lord), the name of four persons who had married foreign wives. In the time of Ezra,
1. A descendant of Jeshua the priest.
2. A priest, of the sons of Harim.
3. A priest, of the sons of Pashur.
4. One of the laymen, a descendant of Pahath-moab.
5. The father of Azariah.
6. One of those who stood on the right hand of Ezra when he read the law to the people.
7. A Levite who assisted on the same occasion.
8. One of the heads of the people whose descendants signed the covenant with Nehemiah.
9. Son of Baruch the descendant of Pharez the son of Judah,
10. A Benjamite, ancestor of Sallu.
11. Two priests of this name are mentioned,
as taking part in the musical service which accompanied the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem under Ezra. One of them is probably the same as No. 6.
12. Father of Zephaniah, who was a priest in the reign of Zedekiah.
Jer 21:1; 29:25; 37:3
13. Father of Zedekiah the false prophet.
14. One of the Levites of the second rank, appointed by David to sound "with psaltries on Alamoth."
15. The son of Adaiah, and one of the captains of hundreds in the reign of Joash king of Judah.
16. An officer of high rank in the reign of Uzziah.
He was probably a Levite, comp:
and engaged in a semi-military capacity.
17. The "king’s son," killed by Zichri the Ephraimitish hero in the invasion of Judah by Pekah king of Israel, during the reign of Ahaz.
18. The governor of Jerusalem in the reign of Josiah.
19. The son of Shallum, a Levite of high rank in the reign of Jehoiakim.
comp, 1Chr 9:19
20. A priest; ancestor of Baruch and Seraiah, the sons of Neriah.
Jer 32:12; 51:59
(work of the Lord), a priest who after the return from Babylon dwelt in Jerusalem.
(small), son of Mattathias in the genealogy of Jesus Christ.
(wrath), son of Ram, the first-born of Jerahmeel.
(consolation of Jehovah).
1. One of the priests who signed the covenant with Nehemiah.
2. A priest in the reign of David, head of the twenty-fourth course.
(a hammer), The. This title, which was originally the surname of Judas, one of the sons of Mattathias, was afterward extended to the heroic family of which he was one of the noblest representatives. Asmonaeans or Hasmonaeans is the Proper name of the family, which is derived from Cashmon, great grandfather of Mattathias. The Maccabees were a family of Jews who resisted the authority of Antiochus Epiphanes king of Syria and his successors who had usurped authority over the Jews, conquered Jerusalem, and strove to introduce idolatrous worship. The standard of independence was first raised by Mattathias, a priest of the course of Joiarih. He seems, however, to have been already advanced in years when the rising was made, and he did not long survive the fatigues of active service. He died B.C. 166, having named Judas —apparently his third son—as his successor in directing the war of independence. After gaining several victories over the other generals of Antiochus, Judas was able to occupy Jerusalem except the "tower," and purified the temple exactly three years after its profanation. Nicanor was defeated, first at Capharsalama, and again in a decisive battle at Adasa B.C. 161, where he was slain. This victory was the greatest of Judas’ successes, and practically decided the question of Jewish independence; but shortly after Judas fell at Eleasa, fighting at desperate odds against the invaders. After the death of Judas, Jonathan his brother succeeded to the command, and later assumed the high-priestly office. He died B.C. 144, and was succeeded by Simon the last remaining brother of the Maccabaean family, who died B.C. 135. The efforts of both brothers were crowned with success. On the death of Simon, Johannes Hyrcanus, one of his sons, at once assumed the government, B.C. 135, and met with a peaceful death B.C. 105. His eldest son, Aristobulus I., who succeeded him B.C. 105-101, was the first who assumed the kingly title, though Simon had enjoyed the fullness of the kingly power. Alexander Jannaeus was the next successor B.C. 104-78. Aristobulus II. and Hyrcanus III. engaged in a civil war On the death of their mother, Alexandra, B.C. 78-69, resulting in the dethronement of Aristobulus II., B.C. 69-69, and the succession of Hyrcanus under Roman rule but without his kingly title, B.C. 63-40. From B.C. 40 to B.C. 37 Antigonus, a son of Aristobulus II., ruled, and with his two grandchildren, Aristobulus and Mariurnne, the Asmonaean dynasty ended.
Mac’cabees, Books of.
Four books which bear the common title of "Maccabees" are found in some MSS. of the LXX. Two of these were included in the early current Latin versions of the Bible, and thence passed into the Vulgate. As forming part of the Vulgate they were received as canonical by the Council of Trent, and retained among the Apocrypha by the reformed churches. The two other books obtained no such wide circulation and have only a secondary connection with the Maccabaean history.
1. THE FIRST BOOK OF MACCABEES contains a history of the patriotic struggle of the Jews in resisting the oppressions of the Syrian kings, from the first resistance of Mattathias to the settled sovereignty and death of Simon, a period of thirty-three years—B.C. 168-135. The great subject of the book begins with the enumeration of the Maccabaean family, ch, 2:1-5, which is followed by an account of the part which the aged Mattathias took in rousing and guiding the spirit of his countrymen. ch. 2:6-70. The remainder of the narrative is occupied with the exploits of Mattathias’ five sons. The great marks of trustworthiness are everywhere conspicuous. Victory and failure end despondency are, on the whole, chronicled with the same candor. There is no attempt to bring into open display the working of Providence. The testimony of antiquity leaves no doubt that the book was first written in Hebrew. Its whole structure points to Palestine as the place of its composition. There is, however, considerable doubt as to its date. Perhaps we may place it between B.C. 120-100. The date and person of the Greek translator are wholly undetermined.
2. THE SECOND BOOK OF MACCABEES. —The history of the second book of Maccabees begins some years earlier than that of the first book. and closes with the victory of Judas Maccabaeus over Nicanor. It thus embraces a period of twenty years, from B.C. 180 to B.C. 161. The writer himself distinctly indicates the source of his narrative—the five books of Jason of Cyrene, ch. 2:23, of which he designed to furnish a short and agreeable epitome for the benefit of those who would be deterred from studying the larger work. Of Jason himself nothing more is known than may be gleaned from this mention of him. The second book of Maccabcees is not nearly so trustworthy as the first. In the second book the groundwork of facts is true, but the dress in which the facts are presented is due in part at least to the narrator. The latter half of the book, chs. 8-15, is to be regarded as a series of special incidents from the life of Judas, illustrating the providential interference of God in behalf of his people, true in substance, but embellished in form.
3. THE THIRD BOOK OF MACCABEES contains the history of events which preceded the great Maccabaean struggle beginning with B.C. 217.
4. THE FOURTH BOOK OF MACCABEES contains a rhetorical narrative of the martyrdom of Eleazar and of the "Maccabaean family," following in the main the same outline as 2 Macc.
(extended land), a large and celebrated country lying north of Greece, the first part of Europe which received the gospel directly from St. Paul, and an important scene of his subsequent missionary labors and those of his companions. It was bounded by the range of Haemus or the Balkan northward, by the chain of Pindus westward, by the Cambunian hills southward, by which it is separated from Thessaly, an is divided on the east from Thrace by a less definite mountain boundary running southward from Haemus. Of the space thus enclosed, two of the most remarkable physical features are two great plains, one watered by the Axius, which comes to the sea, at the Thermaic Gulf, not far from Thessalonica; the other by the Strymon, which after passing near Philippi, flows out below Amphipolis. Between the mouths of these two rivers a remarkable peninsula projects, dividing itself into three points, on the farthest of which Mount Athos rises nearly into the region of perpetual snow. Across the neck of this peninsula St. Paul travelled more than once with his companions. This general sketch sufficiently describes the Macedonia which was ruled over by Philip and Alexander and which the Romans conquered from Perseas. At first the conquered country was divided by Aemilius Paulus into four districts, but afterward was made one province and centralized under the jurisdiction of a proconsul, who resided at Thessalonica. The character of the Christians of Macedonia is set before us in Scripture in a very favorable light. The candor of the Bereans is highly commented,
the Thessalonians were evidently objects of St. Paul’s peculiar affection,
1Th 2:8,17-20; 3:10
and the Philippians, besides their general freedom from blame, are noted as remarkable for their liberality and self-denial.
Phm 4:10, 14-19
see 2Cor 9:2; 11:9
a castle of the Herods on the southern border of their Perean dominions, nine miles east of the northern end of the Dead Sea. Here John the Baptist was imprisoned, and here was held the feast where Herodias, at whose request John was beheaded, danced before the king.
(bond of the Lord), one of the lion-faced warriors of Gad, who joined the fortunes of David when living in retreat at Ziklag.
(bond). Sheva, the father of Machbena, is named in the genealogical list of Judah as the offspring of Manchah, the concubine of Caleb ben-Hezron.
(decrease), the father of Geuel the Gadite, who went with Caleb and Joshua to spy out the land of Canaan.
1. The eldest son,
of the patriarch Manasseh by an Aramite or Syrian concubine.
At the time of the conquest the family of Machir had become very powerful, and a large part of the country on the east of Jordan was subdued by them.
Nu 32:39; De 3:15
2. The son of Ammiel, a powerful sheikh of one of the transjordanic tribes, who rendered essential service to the cause of Saul and of David successively.
2Sa 9:4,5; 17:27-29
the descendants of Machir the father of Gilead.
(what is like the liberal?), one of the sons of Bani who put away his foreign wife at Ezra’s command.
(double, or a portion). [HEBRON]
is usually called the third son of Japhet, and the progenitor of the Medes; but probably all that is intended is that the Medes, as well as the Gomerites, Greeks, Tabareni, Moschi, etc., descended from Japhet.
(dunghill), one of the towns in the south district of Judah.
In the time of Eusebius and Jerome it was called Menois, and was not far from Gaza. The first stage southward from Gaza is now el-Minyay, which is perhaps the modern representative of Menois, and therefore of Madmannah.
(dunghill), a place in Moab, threatened with destruction in the pronunciations of Jeremiah.
(dunghill), one of the, Benjamite villages north of Jerusalem the inhabitants of which were frightened away by the approach of Sennacherib along the northern road.
In Scripture "madness" is recognized as a derangement proceeding either from weakness and misdirection of intellect or from ungovernable violence of passion. In one passage alone,
is madness expressly connected with demoniacal possession by the Jews in their cavil against our Lord; in none is it referred to any physical causes.
(strife) one of the principal cities of Canaan before the conquest, probably in the north. Its king joined Jabin and his confederates in their attempt against Joshua at the waters of Xierom, and like the rest was killed.
Jos 11:1; 12:19
(a tower). (The name given in the Revised Version of
for Magdala. It is probably another name for the same place, or it was a village so near it that the shore where Christ landed may have belonged to either village. —ED.)
(congregating), a proper name in
but whether of a man or of a place is doubtful; probably the latter, as all the names from
to 34, except Elam and Harim, are names of places.
(a tower). The chief MSS. and versions exhibit the name as MAGADAN, as in the Revised Version. Into the limits of Magadan Christ came by boat, over the Lake of Gennesareth after his miracle of feeding the four thousand on the Mountain of the eastern side,
and from thence he returned in the same boat to the opposite shore. In the parallel narrative of St. Mark, ch.
we find the "parts of Dalmanutha," on the western edge of the Lake of Gennesareth. The Magdala, which conferred her name on "Mary the Magdalene one of the numerous migdols, i.e. towers, which stood in Palestine, was probably the place of that name which is mentioned in the Jerusalem Talmud as near Tiberias, and this again is as probably the modern el-Mejdel, a miserable little Muslim village, of twenty huts on the water’s edge at the southeast corner of the plain of Gennesareth. It is now the only inhabited place on this plain.
(prince of God), one of the "dukes" of Edom, descended from Esau.
Ge 36:43; 1Ch 1:54
(Authorized Version wise men).
1. In the Hebrew text of the Old Testament the word occurs but twice, and then only incidentally.
"Originally they were a class of priests among the Persians and Medes who formed the king’s privy council, and cultivated as trology, medicine and occult natural science. They are frequently referred to by ancient authors. Afterward the term was applied to all eastern philosophers." —Schaff’s Popular Commentary. They appear in Herodotus’ history of Astyages as interpreters of dreams, i. 120; but as they appear in Jeremiah among the retinue of the Chaldean king, we must suppose Nebuchadnezzar’s conquests led him to gather round him the wise men and religious teachers of the nations which he subdued, and that thus the sacred tribe of the Medes rose under his rule to favor and power. The Magi took their places among "the astrologers and star gazers and monthly prognosticators." It is with such men that, we have to think of Daniel and his fellow exiles as associated. The office which Daniel accepted
was probably rab-mag —chief of the Magi.
2. The word presented itself to the Greeks as connected with a foreign system of divination and it soon became a byword for the worst form of imposture. This is the predominant meaning of the word as it appears in the New Testament.
Ac 8:9; 13:8
3. In one memorable instance, however, the word retains its better meaning. In the Gospel of St. Matthew, ch.
the Magi appear as "wise men"—properly Magians —who were guided by a star from "the east" to Jerusalem, where they suddenly appeared in the days of Herod the Great, inquiring for the new-born king of the Jews, whom they had come to worship. As to the country from which they came, opinions vary greatly; but their following the guidance of a star seems to point to the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates, where astronomy was Cultivated by the Chaldeans. [See STAR OF THE EAST] (Why should the new star lead these wise men to look for a king of the Jews?
EAST -See 6250
(1) These wise men from Persia were the most like the Jews, in religion, of all nations in the world. They believed in one God, they had no idols, they worshipped light as the best symbol of God. (2) The general expectation of such a king. "The Magi," says) Ellicott, "express the feeling which the Roman historians Tacitus and Suetonius tell us sixty or seventy years later had been for a long time very widely diffused. Everywhere throughout the East men were looking for the advent of a great king who was to rise from among the Jews. It had fermented in the minds of men, heathen as well as Jews, and would have led them to welcome Jesus as the Christ had he come in accordance with their expectation." Virgil, who lived a little before this, owns that a child from heaven was looked for, who should restore the golden age and take away sin. (3) This expectation arose largely from the dispersion of the Jews among all nations, carrying with them the hope and the promise of a divine Redeemer. Isai 9, 11; Dani 7 (4) Daniel himself was a prince and chief among this very class of wise men. His prophecies: were made known to them; and the calculations by which he pointed to the very time when Christ should be born became, through the book of Daniel, a part of their ancient literature. —ED.) According to a late tradition, the Magi are represented as three kings, named Gaspar, Melchior and Belthazar, who take their place among the objects of Christian reverence, and are honored as the patron saints of travellers.
Magic is "the science or practice of evoking spirits, or educing the occult powers of nature to produce effects apparently supernatural." It formed an essential element in many ancient religions, especially among the Persians, Chaldeans and Egyptians. The Hebrews had no magic of their own. It was so strictly forbidden by the law that it could never afterward have had any: recognized existence, save in times of general heresy or apostasy and the same was doubtless the case in the patriarchal ages. The magical practices which obtained among the Hebrews were therefore borrowed from the nations around. From the first entrance into the land of promise until the destruction of Jerusalem we have constant glimpses of magic practiced in secret, or resorted to not alone by the common but also as the great. It is a distinctive characteristic of the Bible that from first to last it warrants no such trust or dread. Laban attached great value to, and was in the habit of consulting, images.
During the plagues in Egypt the magicians appear.
Ex 7:11; 8:18,19
Balaam also practiced magic.
Saul consulted the witch of Endor. An examination of the various notices of magic in the Bible gives this general result: They do not, act far as can be understood, once state positively that any but illusive results were produced by magical rites. (Even the magicians of Egypt could imitate the plagues sent through Moses only so long as they had previous notice and time to prepare. The time Moses sent the plague unannounced the magicians failed; they "did so with their enchantments," but in vain. So in the case of the witch of Endor. Samuel appearance was apparently unexpected by her; he did not come through the enchantments. —Ed.) The Scriptures therefore afford no evidence that man can gain supernatural powers to use at his will. This consequence goes some way toward showing that we may conclude that there is no such thing se real magic; for although it is dangerous to reason on negative evidence, yet in a case of this kind it is especially strong. [DIVINATION]
(region of Gog). In
Magog appears as the second son of Japheth; in
Eze 38:2; 39:1,6
it appears as a country or people of which Gog was the prince. The notices of Magog would lead us to fix a northern locality: it is expressly stated by Ezekiel that "he was to come up from the sides of the north,"
from a country adjacent to that of Togarmah or Armenia, ch. 58:6 and not far from "the isles" or maritime regions of Europe. ch.
The people of Magog further appear as having a force of cavalry,
and as armed with the bow. ch.
From the above data, may conclude that Magog represents the important race of the Scythians.
(terror on every side), the name giver. by Jeremiah to Pashur the priest when he smote him and put him in the stocks for prophesying against the idolatry of Jerusalem.
(moth-killer) one of the heads of the people who signed the covenant with Nehemiah.
The same as MAGBISH in
(disease), one of the three children of Hammoleketh the sister of Gilead.
(praise of God).
1. The fourth in descent from Adam, according to the Sethite genealogy, and son of Cainan.
Ge 6:12,13,15-17; 1Ch 1:2; Lu 3:37
2. A descendant of Perez or Pharez the son of Judah.
(stringed instrument), the daughter of Ishmael, and one of the wives of Esau.
(stringed instrument) one of the eighteen wives of King Rehoboam, apparently his first.
only. She was her husband’s cousin, being the daughter of King David’s son Jerimoth.
the title of p, 53, andMahalath-leannoth, the title of Ps. 88. The meaning of these words is uncertain. The conjecture is that mahalath is a guitar, and that leannoth has reference to the character of the psalm, and might be rendered "to humble or afflict," in which sense the root occurs in ver. 7.
(sick),Mah’li, the son of Merari.
a town on the east of the Jordan. The name signifies two hosts or two camps,and was given to it by Jacob, because he there met "the angels of God."
We next meet with it in the records of the conquest.
It was within the territory of Gad,
and therefore on the south side of the torrent Jabbok. The town with its "suburbs" was allotted to the service of the Merarite Levites.
Jos 21:39; 1Ch 6:80
Mahanaim had become in the time of the monarchy a place of mark.
David took refuge there when driven out of the western part of his kingdom by Absalom.
2Sa 17:24; 1Ki 2:8
Mahanaim was the seat of one of Solomon’s commissariat officers.
and it is alluded to in the song which bears his name. ch.
There is a place called Mahneh among the villages of the part of Jordan, through its exact position is not certain.
(camp of Dan), spoken of as "behind Kirjath-jearim,"
and as between Zorah and Eshtaol." ch.
2Sa 23:28; 1Ch 11:30; 27:13
an inhabitant of Netophah in the tribe of Judah, and one of David’s captains.
1. A Zohathite of the house of Korah.
2. Also a Kohathite, in the reign of Hezekiah.
2Ch 29:12; 31:13
the designation of Eliel, one of the warriors of King David’s guard, whose name is preserved in the catalogue of
(visions). One of the fourteen sons of Heman the Kohathite.
(i.e. hasten-booty speedspoil), whose name was given by divine direction to indicate that Damascus and Samaria were soon to be plundered by the king of Assyria.
(disease), the eldest of the five daughters of Zelophehad the grandson of Manasseh.
1. Son of Merari, the son of Levi and ancestor of the family of the Mahlites.
Nu 3:20; 1Ch 6:19,29; 24:26
2. Bon of Mushi and grandson of Merari.
1Ch 6:47; 23:23; 24:30
(sick) the first husband of Ruth; son of Eiimelech and Naomi.
Ru 1:2,5; 4:9,10
comp. 1Sam 17:12
(dancing), the father of the four men most famous for wisdom next to Solomon himself.
1Ki 4:31; 1Ch 2:6
(end), a place, apparently a town, named once only—
—in the: specification of the jurisdiction of Solomon a commissariat officer, Ben-Dekar. Makaz has not been discovered.
(place of assemblies), a place mentioned only in
as that of a desert encampment of the Israelites.
(place of shepherds), a place memorable in the annals of the conquest of Canaan as the scene of the execution by Joshua of the five confederate kings,
who had hidden themselves in a cave at this place. (It was a royal city of the Canaanites, in the plains of Judah. Conder identifies it with the modern el-Moghar, 25 miles northwest of Jerusalem, where are two caves large enough to contain five men each. Schaff says that "one cave has, curiously enough, five loculi rudely scooped in its side, and an enthusiast might contend that this was the very place of sepulchre of the five kings."-ED.)
(a mortar or deep hollow), a place evidently in Jerusalem, the inhabitants of which are denounced by Zephaniah.
Ewald conjectures that it was the Phoenician quarter" of the city.
(king of help), one of the sons of King Saul.
1Sa 14:49; 31:2; 1Ch 8:33; 9:39
(king or kingdom), the name of the servant of the high priest whose right ear Peter cut off at the time of the Saviour’s apprehension in the garden.
Mt 26:51; Mr 14:17; Lu 22:49,51; Joh 18:10
the son of Cainan.
marg.; Luke 3:37
(my fullness), a Kohathite, one of the fourteen sons of Heman the singer.
1. A Levite of the family of Merari, and ancestor of Ethan the singer
2. One of the sons of Bani.
3. One of the descendants of Harim,
who had married foreign wives.
4. A priest or family of priests.
5. One of the heads of the people who signed the covenant with Nehemiah.
6. One of the families of priests who returned with Zerubbabel,
probably the same as No. 4.
apparently the same with SHEMAIAH in
Mt 6:24; Lu 16:9
a word which often occurs in the Chaldee Terguma of Onkelos and later writers, and in the Syriac version, and which signifies "riches." It is used in St. Matthew as a personification of riches.
(strength, fatness) an ancient Amorite, who with his brothers, Eshcol and Aner, was in alliance with Abram,
and under the shade of whose oak grove the patriarch dwelt in the interval between his residence at Bethel and at Beersheba. ch.
Ge 13:18; 18:1
In the subsequent chapters Mamre is a mere local appellation. ch,
Ge 23:17,19; 25:9; 49:30; 50:13
Four Hebrew terms are rendered "man" in the Authorized Version:
1. Adam, the name of the man created in the image of God. It appears to be derived from adam, "he or it was red or ruddy," like Edom. This was the generic term for the human race.
2. Ish, "man," as distinguished from woman, husband.
3. Geber, "a man," from gabar, "to be strong," generally with reference to his strength.
4. Methim, "men," always masculine. Perhaps it may be derived from the root muth, "he died."
(comforter) is mentioned in
as one of the teachers and prophets in the church at Antioch at the time of the appointment of Saul and Barnabas as missionaries to the heathen. He is said to have been brought up with Herod Antipas. He was probably his foster-brother.
(rest), a place named in
only in connection with the genealogies of the tribe of Benjamin.
(rest) one of the sons of Shobal, and descendant of Seir the Horite.
Ge 36:23; 1Ch 1:40
(inhabitants of Mannahath), The. "Half the Manahethites" are named in the genealogies of Judah as descended from Shobal, the father of Kirjath-jearim
and half from Salma, the founder of Bethlehem. ver. 54.
(forgetting), the eldest son of Joseph,
Ge 41:51; 46:20
born 1715-10 B.C. Both he and Ephraim were born before the commencement of the famine. He was placed after his younger brother, Ephraim, by his grandfather Jacob, when he adopted them into his own family, and made them heads of tribes. Whether the elder of the two sons was inferior in form or promise to the younger, or whether there was any external reason to justify the preference of Jacob, we are not told. In the division of the promised land half of the tribe of Manasseh settled east of the Jordan in the district embracing the hills of Gilead with their inaccessible heights and impassable ravines, and the almost impregnable tract of Argob.
Here they throve exceedingly, pushing their way northward over the rich plains of Jaulan and Jedur to the foot of Mount Hermon.
But they gradually assimilated themselves with the old inhabitants of the country, and on them descended the punishment which was ordained to he the inevitable consequence of such misdoing. They, first of all Israel, were carried away by Pul and Tiglath-pileser, and settled in the Assyrian territories.
The other half tribe settled to the west of the Jordan, north of Ephraim.
... For further particulars see EPHRAIM.
EPHRAIM -See 6416
1. The thirteenth king of Judah, son of Hezekiah,
ascended the throne at the age of twelve, and reigned 55 years, from B.C. 608 to 642. His accession was the signal for an entire change in the religious administration of the kingdom. Idolatry was again established to such an extent that every faith was tolerated but the old faith of Israel. The Babylonian alliance which the king formed against Assyria resulted in his being made prisoner and carried off to Babylon in the twenty-second year of his reign, according to a Jewish tradition. There his eyes were opened and he repented, and his prayer was heard and the Lord delivered him,
and he returned after some uncertain interval of time to Jerusalem. The altar of the Lord was again restored, and peace offerings and thank offerings were sacrificed to Jehovah.
But beyond this the reformation did not go. On his death, B.C. 642, he was buried as Ahaz had been, not with the burial of a king, in the sepulchres of the house of David, but in the garden of Uzza,
and long afterward, in suite of his repentance, the Jews held his name in abhorrence.
2. One of the descendants of Pahathmoab, who in the days of Ezra had married a foreign wife.
3. One of the laymen, of the family of Hashum who put away his foreign wife at Ezra command.
1. Manasseh, king of Judah.
2. Manasseh the son of Joseph.
that is, the members of the tribe of Manasseh.
De 4:43; Jud 12:4; 2Ki 10:33
(Heb. dudraim) are mentioned in
and in Song 7:13 The mandrake, Atropa mandragora, is closely allied to the well-known deadly nightshade, A. bellndonna, and to the tomato, and belongs to the order Solanaceae, or potato family. It grows in Palestine and Mesopotamia. (It grows low, like lettuce, which its leaves somewhat resemble, except that they are of a dark green. The flowers are purple,and the root is usually forked. Its fruit when ripe (early in May) is about the size of a small apple, 24 inches in diameter, ruddy or yellow and of a most agreeable odor (to Orientals more than to Europeans) and an equally agreeable taste. The Arabs call it "devil’s apple," from its power to excite voluptuousness. Dr. Richardson ("Lectures on Alcohol," 1881) tried some experiments with wine made of the root of mandrake, and found it narcotic, causing sleep, so that the ancients used it as an anaesthetic. Used in small quantities like opium, it excites the nerves, and is a stimulant. —ED.)
(a portion (by weight)). [WEIGHTS AND MEASURES]
MEASURES -See 7886
This word occurs only in
in connection with the birth of Christ. It means a crib or feeding trough; but according to Schleusner its real signification in the New Testament is the open court-yard attached to the inn or khan, in which the cattle would be shut at night, and where the poorer travellers might unpack their animals and take up their lodging, when they mere either by want of means excluded from the house.
(what is this?) (Heb. man). The most important passages of the Old Testament on this topic are the following:
Ex 16:14-36; Nu 11:7-9; De 11:5,16; Jos 5:12; Ps 78:24,
From these passages we learn that the manna came every morning except the Sabbath, in the form of a small round seed resembling the hear frost that it must be gathered early, before the sun became so hot as to melt it; that it must be gathered every day except the Sabbath; that the attempt to lay aside for a succeeding day, except on the clay immediately preceding the Sabbath, failed by the substance becoming wormy and offensive; that it was prepared for food by grinding and baking; that its taste was like fresh oil, and like wafers made with honey, equally agreeable to all palates; that the whole nation, of at least 2,000,000, subsisted upon it for forty years; that it suddenly ceased when they first got the new corn of the land of Canaan; and that it was always regarded as a miraculous gift directly from God, and not as a product of nature. The natural products of the Arabian deserts and other Oriental regions which bear the name of manna have not the qualities or uses ascribed to the manna of Scripture. The latter substance was undoubtedly wholly miraculous, and not in any respect a product of nature, though its name may have come from its resemblance to the natural manna The substance now called manna in the Arabian desert through which the Israelites passed is collected in the month of June from the tarfa or tamarisk shrub (Tamarix gallica). According to Burckhardt it drops from the thorns on the sticks and leaves with which the ground is covered, and must be gathered early in the day or it will be melted by the sun. The Arabs cleanse and boil it, strain it through a cloth and put it in leathern bottles; and in this way it can be kept uninjured for several years. They use it like honey or butter with their unleavened bread, but never make it into cakes or eat it by itself. The whole harvest, which amounts to only five or six hundred pounds, is consumed by the Bedouins, "who," says Schaff consider it the greatest dainty their country affords." The manna of European commerce conies mostly from Calabria and Sicily. It’s gathered during the months of June and July from some species of ash (Ornus europaea and O. rotundifolia), from which it drops in consequence of a puncture by an insect resembling the locust, but distinguished from it by having a sting under its body. The substance is fluid at night and resembles the dew but in the morning it begins to harden.
(rest), the father of Samson; a Danite, native of the town of Zorah.
(B.C. 1161) [SAMSON]
one who kills another unintentionally, and is thus distinguished from a murderer, who kills with malice aforethought. The cases of manslaughter mentioned in Scripture appear to be a sufficient indication of the intention of the lawgiver.
1. Death by a blow in a sudden quarrel.
2. Death by a stone or missile thrown at random. Ibid.
3. By the blade of an axe flying from its handle.
In all these and the like cases the manslayer was allowed to retire to a city of refuge. A thief overtaken at night in the act of stealing might lawfully be put to death, but if the sun had risen the killing him was to be regarded as murder.
the word employed in the Authorized Version to translate no less than four Hebrew terms, entirely distinct and independent in both derivation and meaning. 1.
the garment with which Jael covered Sisera.
2. Rendered "mantle" in
1Sa 15:27; 28:14; Ezr 9:3,5
etc. This word is in other passages of the Authorized Version rendered "coat," "cloak" and "robe." 3.
only. Apparently some article of a lady’s dress. 4.
1Ki 19:13,19; 2Ki 2:8,13,14
The sole garment of the prophet Elijah. It was probably of sheepskin, such as is worn by the modern dervishes.
(oppression) the father of Achish king of Gath, with whom David took refuge.
(habitation), one of the cities of the tribe of Judah, in the district of the mountains.
Its interest for us lies in its connection with David.
The name of Maon still exists in Main, a lofty conical hill, south of and about seven miles distant from Hebron.
a people mentioned in one of the addresses of Jehovah to the repentant Israelites,
elsewhere in the Authorized Version called Mehunim.
(sad, bitter), the name which Naomi adopted in the exclamation forced from her by the recognition of her fellow citizens at Bethlehem.
(bitterness), a place which lay in the wilderness of Shur or Etham, three days journey distant,
Ex 15:23; Nu 33:8
from the place at which the Israelites crossed the Red Sea, and where was a spring of bitter water, sweetened subsequently by the casting in of a tree which "the Lord showed" to Moses. Howarah, distant 16 1/2 hours (47 miles) from Ayoun Mousa, the Israelites’ first encampment, has been by many identified with it, apparently because it is the bitterest water in the neighborhood.
(trembling) one of the land marks on the boundary of the tribe of Zebulun.
an Aramaic or Syriac expression used by St. Paul at the conclusion of his first Epistle to the Corinthians, ch.
signifying "our Lord cometh."
The Hebrew shesh, the generic term for marble, may probably be taken to mean almost any shining stone. The so-called marble of Solomon’s architectural works may thus have been limestone. There can be no doubt that Herod both in the temple and elsewhere employed Parian or other marble. The marble pillars and tesserae of various colors of the palace at Susa came doubtless from Persia.
the evangelist Mark.
; Phle 1:24; 1Pet 5:13 [MARK]
(crest of a hill), one of the cities of Judah in the low country.
It was one of the cities fortified and garrisoned by Rehoboam after the rupture with the northern kingdom.
Near it was fought the great battle between Asa and Zerah.
It is mentioned once or twice in the history of the Maccabaean war of independence. 2 Macc. 12:35. About 110 B.C. it was taken from the Idumaeans by John Hyrcanus. It was in ruins in the fourth century, when Eusebius and Jerome describe it as in the second mile from Eleutheropolis. South-southwest of Beitjibrin —in all probability Eleutheropolis-and it little over a Roman mile therefrom is a site called Marash, which is possibly the representative of the ancient Mareshah.
one of the evangelists, and probable author of the Gospel bearing his name. (Marcus was his Latin surname. His Jewish name was John, which is the same as Johanan (the grace of God). We can almost trace the steps whereby the former became his prevalent name in the Church. "John, whose surname was Mark" in
Ac 12:12,25; 15:37
becomes "John" alone in
and thenceforward there is no change.
; Phlm 1:24; 2Tim 4:11 The evangelist was the son of a certain Mary, a Jewish matron of some position who dwelt in Jerusalem,
and was probably born of a Hellenistic family in that city. Of his father we know nothing; but we do know that the future evangelist was cousin of Barnabas of Cyprus, the great friend of St. Paul. His mother would seem to have been intimately acquainted with St. Peter, and it was to her house, as to a familiar home, that the apostle repaired, A.D. 44, after his deliverance from prison
This fact accounts for St. Mark’s intimate acquaintance with that apostle, to whom also he probably owed his conversion, for St. Peter calls him his son.
We hear Of him for the first time in Acts 15:25 where we find him accompanying and Barnabas on their return from Jerusalem to Antioch, A.D. 45. He next comes before us on the occasion of the earliest missionary journey of the same apostles, A.D. 48, when he joined them as their "minister."
With them he visited Cyprus; but at Perga in Pamphylia,
when they were about to enter upon the more arduous part of their mission, he left them, and, for some unexplained reason, returned to Jerusalem to his mother and his home. Notwithstanding this, we find him at Paul’s side during that apostle’s first imprisonment at Rome, A.D. 61-63, and he Is acknowledged by him as one of his few fellow laborers who had been a "comfort" to him during the weary hours of his imprisonment.
; Phle 1:24 We next have traces of him in
"The church that is in Babylon ... saluteth you, and so doth Marcus my son." From this we infer that he joined his spiritual father, the great friend of his mother, at Babylon, then and for same hundred years afterward one of the chief seats of Jewish culture. From Babylon he would seem to have returned to Asia Minor; for during his second imprisonment A.D. 68 St. Paul, writing to Timothy charges him to bring Mark with him to me, on the ground that he was "profitable to him For the ministry."
From this point we gain no further information from the New Testament respecting the evangelist. It is most probable, however that he did join the apostle at Rome whither also St. Peter would seem to have proceeded, and suffered martyrdom with St. Paul. After the death of these two great pillars of the Church; ecclesiastical tradition affirms that St. Mark visited Egypt, founded the church of Alexandria, and died by martyrdom.—Condensed from Cambridge Bible for Schools.—ED.)
Mark, Gospel of.
1. By whom written. —The author of this Gospel has been universally believed to be Mark or Marcus, designated in
Ac 12:12,25; 15:37
as John Mark, and in ch. 5,13 as John.
2. When is was written. —Upon this point nothing absolutely certain can be affirmed, and the Gospel itself affords us no information. The most direct testimony is that of Irenaeus, who says it was after the death of the apostles Peter and Paul. We may conclude, therefore, that this Gospel was not written before A.D. 63. Again we may as certainly conclude that it was not written after the destruction of Jerusalem, for it is not likely that he would have omitted to record so remarkable a fulfillment of our Lord’s predictions. Hence A.D. 63-70 becomes our limit, but nearer than this we cannot go. —Farrar.
3. Where it was written. —As to the place, the weight of testimony is uniformly in favor of the belief that the Gospel was written and published at Rome. In this Clement, Eusebius, Jerome, Epiphanius, all agree. Chrysostom, indeed, asserts that it was published at Alexandria; but his statement receives no confirmation, as otherwise it could not fail to have done, from any Alexandrine writer. —Farrar.
4. In what language. —As to the language in which it was written, there never has been any reasonable doubt that it was written in Greek.
5. Sources of information. —Mark was not one of the twelve; and there is no reason to believe that he was an eye and ear witness of the events which he has recorded but an almost unanimous testimony of the early fathers indicates Peter as the source of his information. The most important of these testimonies is that of Papias, who says, "He, the Presbyter (John), said, Mark, being the Interpreter of Peter, wrote exactly whatever he remembered but he did not write in order the things which were spoken or done by Christ. For he was neither a hearer nor a follower of the Lord, but, as I said, afterward followed Peter, who made his discourses to suit what was required, without the view of giving a connected digest of the discourses of our Lord. Mark, therefore, made no mistakes when he wrote down circumstances as he recollected them; for he was very careful of one thing, to omit nothing of what he heard, and to say nothing false in what he related." Thus Papias writes of Mark. This testimony is confirmed by other witnesses. —Abbott.
6. For whom it was written. —The traditional statement is that it was intended primarily for Gentiles, and especially for those at Rome. A review of the Gospel itself confirms this view.
7. Characteristics. — (1) Mark’s Gospel is occupied almost entirely with the ministry in Galilee and the events of the passion week. It is the shortest of the four Gospels, and contains almost no incident or teaching which is not contained in one of the other two synoptists; but (2) it is by far the most vivid and dramatic in its narratives, and their pictorial character indicates not only that they were derived from an eye and ear witness, but also from one who possessed the observation and the graphic artistic power of a natural orator such as Peter emphatically was. (3) One peculiarity strikes us the moment we open it, —the absence of any genealogy of our Lord. This is the key to much that follows. It is not the design of the evangelist to present our Lord to us, like St. Matthew as the Messiah, "the son of David and Abraham," ch. 1:1, or, like St. Luke, as the universal Redeemer, "the son of Adam, which was the son of God." ch. 3:38. (4) His design is to present him to us as the incarnate and wonder-working Son of God, living and acting among men; to portray him in the fullness of his living energy. —Cambridge Bible for Schools.
Mt 20:3; Mr 12:38; Lu 7:35; Ac 16:19
(any open place of public resort in cities or towns where public trials and assemblies were held and goods were exposed for sale. "The market-places or bazaars of the East were, and are at this day, the constant resort of unoccupied people, the idle, the news-mongers." —Hackett s Ill. S.S. —ED.)
Market of Ap’pius
In the Revised Version for Appii Forum of the Authorized Version, which see.
(bitterness), one of the towns of the western lowland of Judah.
1. Its origin and history. —The institution of marriage dates from the time of man’s original creation.
we may evolve the following principles: (1) The unity of man and wife, as implied in her being formed out of man. (2) The indissolubleness of the marriage bond, except on; the strongest grounds, Comp.
(3) Monogamy, as the original law of marriage (4) The social equality of man and wife. (5) The subordination of the wife to the husband.
1Co 11:8,9; 1Ti 2:13
(6) The respective duties of man and wife. In the patriarchal age polygamy prevailed,
Ge 16:4; 25:1,8; 28:9; 29:23,26; 1Ch 7:14
but to a great extent divested of the degradation which in modern times attaches to that practice. Divorce also prevailed in the patriarchal age, though but one instance of it is recorded.
The Mosaic law discouraged polygamy, restricted divorce, and aimed to enforce purity of life. It was the best civil law possible at the time, and sought to bring the people up to the pure standard of the moral law. In the Post-Babylonian period monogamy appears to have become more prevalent than at any previous time. The practice of polygamy nevertheless still existed; Herod the Great had no less than nine wives at one time. The abuse of divorce continued unabated. Our Lord and his apostles re-established the integrity and sanctity of the marriage bond by the following measures: (a) By the confirmation of the original charter of marriage as the basis on which all regulations were to be framed.
(b) By the restriction of divorce to the case of fornication, and the prohibition of remarriage in all persons divorced on improper grounds.
Mt 5:32; 19:9; Ro 7:3; 1Co 7:10,11
(c) By the enforcement of moral purity generally
etc., and especial formal condemnation of fornication.
2. The conditions of legal marriage. —In the Hebrew commonwealth marriage was prohibited (a) between an Israelite and a non-Israelite. There were three grades of prohibition: total in regard to the Canaanites on either side; total on the side of the males in regard to the Ammonites and Moabites; and temporary on the side of the males in regard to the Edomites and Egyptians, marriages with females in the two latter instances being regarded as legal. The progeny of illegal marriages between Israelites and non-Israelites was described as "bastard."
(b) between an Israelite and one of his own community. The regulations relative to marriage between Israelites and Israelites were based on considerations of relationship. The most important passage relating to these is contained in
wherein we have in the first place a general prohibition against marriage between a man and the "flesh of his flesh," and in the second place special prohibitions against marriage with a mother, stepmother, sister or half-sister, whether "born at home or abroad," granddaughter, aunt, whether by consanguinity on either side or by marriage on the father’s side, daughter in-law, brother’s wife, stepdaughter, wife’s mother, stepgranddaughter, or wife’s sister during the lifetime of the wife. An exception is subsequently made,
in favor of marriage with a brother’s wife in the event of his having died childless. The law which regulates this has been named the "levirate," from the Latin levir, "brother-in-law."
3. The modes by which marriage was effected. —The choice of the bride devolved not on the bridegroom himself, but on his relations or on a friend deputed by the bridegroom for this purpose. The consent of the maiden was sometimes asked
but this appears to have been subordinate to the previous consent of the father and the adult brothers.
Ge 24:51; 34:11
Occasionally the whole business of selecting the wife was left in the hands of a friend. The selection of the bride was followed by the espousal, which was a formal proceeding undertaken by a friend or legal representative on the part of the bridegroom and by the parents on the part of the bride; it was confirmed by oaths, and accompanied with presents to the bride. The act of betrothal was celebrated by a feast, and among the more modern Jews it is the custom in some parts for the bride. groom to place a ring on the bride’s finger. The ring was regarded among the Hebrews as a token of fidelity
and of adoption into a family.
Between the betrothal sad the marriage so interval elapsed, varying from a few days in the patriarchal age,
to a full year for virgins and a month for widows in later times. During this period the bride-elect lived with her friends, and all communication between herself and her future husband was carried on through the medium of a friend deputed for the purpose, termed the "friend of the bridegroom."
She was now virtually regarded as the wife of her future husband; hence faithlessness on her part was punishable with death,
the husband having, however, the option of "putting her away."
De 24:1; Mt 1:19
The essence of the marriage ceremony consisted in the removal of the bride from her father’s house to that of the bridegroom or his father. The bridegroom prepared himself for the occasion by putting on a festive dress, and especially by placing on his head a handsome nuptial turban.
Ps 45:8; So 4:10,11
The bride was veiled. Her robes were white,
and sometimes embroidered with gold thread,
and covered with perfumes!
she was further decked out with jewels.
Isa 49:18; 61:10; Re 21:2
When the fixed hour arrived, which was, generally late in the evening, the bridegroom set forth from his house, attended by his groomsmen (Authorized Version "companions,"
"children of the bride-chamber,"
preceded by a band of musicians or singers,
Ge 31:27; Jer 7:34; 16:9
and accompanied by persons hearing flambeaux,
2 Esdr. 10:2;
Mt 25:7; Re 18:23
and took the bride with the friends to his own house. At the house a feast was prepared, to which all the friends and neighbors were invited,
Ge 29:22; Mt 22:1-10; Lu 14:8; Joh 2:2
and the festivities were protracted for seven or even fourteen days.
Jud 14:12; Job 8:19
The guests were provided by the host with fitting robes,
and the feast was enlivened with riddles,
and other amusements. The last act in the ceremonial was the conducting of the bride to the bridal chamber,
Jud 15:1; Joe 2:16
where a canopy was prepared.
Ps 19:5; Joe 2:16
The bride was still completely veiled, so that the deception practiced on Jacob,
was not difficult. A newly married man was exempt from military service, or from any public business which might draw him away from his home, for the space of a year,
a similar privilege was granted to him who was ‘betrothed.
4. The social and domestic conditions of married life. —The wife must have exercised an important influence in her own home. She appears to have taken her part in family affairs, and even to have enjoyed a considerable amount of independence.
Jud 4:18; 1Sa 25:14; 2Ki 4:8
etc. In the New Testament the mutual relations of husband and wife are a subject of frequent exhortation.
Eph 5:22,33; Col 3:18,19; Tit 2:4,5; 1Pe 3:1-7
The duties of the wife in the Hebrew household were multifarious; in addition to the general superintendence of the domestic arrangements, such as cooking, from which even women of rank were not exempt.
Ge 18:8; 2Sa 13:5
and the distribution of food at meal times,
the manufacture of the clothing and of the various fabrics required in her home devolved upon her,
and if she were a model of activity and skill, she produced a surplus of fine linen shirts and girdles, which she sold and so, like a well-freighted merchant ship, brought in wealth to her husband from afar.
The legal rights of the wife are noticed in
under the three heads of food, raiment, and duty of marriage or conjugal right.
5. The allegorical and typical allusions to marriage have exclusive reference to one object, viz., to exhibit the spiritual relationship between God and his people. In the Old Testament
Isa 54:5; Jer 3:14; Ho 2:19
In the New Testament the image of the bridegroom is transferred from Jehovah to Christ,
Mt 9:15; Joh 3:29
and that of the bride to the Church,
2Co 11:2; Re 19:7; 21:2,9
the hill of Mars or Ares, better known by the name of Areopagus, of which hill of Mars or Ares is a translation. The Areopagus was a rocky height in Athens, opposite the western end of the Acropolis. It rises gradually from the northern end, and terminates abruptly on the south, over against the Acropolis, at which point it is about fifty or sixty feet above the valley. The spot is memorable as the place of meeting of the Council of Areopagus. This body existed as a criminal tribunal before the time of Solon, and was the most ancient and venerable of all the Athenian courts. It consisted of all persons who had held the office of archon, and who were members of the council for life unless expelled for misconduct. Before the time of Solon the court tried only cases of willful murder, wounding, poison, and arson: but he gave it extensive powers of a censorial and political nature. The council continued to exist even under the Roman emperors. Its meetings were held on the southeastern summit of the rock. The Areopagus possesses peculiar interest to the Christian as the spot from which St. Paul delivered his memorable address to the men of Athens.
St. Paul "disputed daily" in the "market" or agora,
which was situated south of the Areopagus in the valley lying between this and the hills of the Acropolis, the Pnyx and the Museum. Attracting more and more attention, "certain philosophers of the Epicureans and Stoics" brought him up from the valley, probably by the stone steps, to the Areopagus above, that they might listen to him more conveniently.
(worthy), one of the seven of Persia, "wise men which knew the times," which saw the king’s face and sat first in the kingdom.
(a lady), the sister of Lazarus and Mary. [LAZARUS] The facts recorded in Luke 10 and John 11 indicate a character devout after the customary Jewish type of devotion, sharing in Messianic hopes and accepting Jesus as the Christ. When she first comes before us,
her spirit is "cumbered with much serving," is "careful and troubled about many things." Her love, though imperfect in its form, is yet recognized as true, and she has the distinction of being one whom Jesus loved.
Her position is obviously that of the elder sister the head and manager of the household. In the supper at Bethany
the old character shows itself still, but it has been freed from evil. She is no longer "cumbered," no longer impatient. Activity has been calmed by trust.
(a tear)of Cle’ophas. So in Authorized Version, but accurately "of Clopas," i.e. the wife of Clopas (or Alphaeus). She is brought before us for the first time on the day of the crucifixion, standing by the cross.
In the evening of the same day we find her sitting desolate at the tomb with Mary Magdalene,
Mt 27:61; Mr 15:47
and at the dawn of Easter morning she was again there with sweet spices, which she had prepared on the Friday night,
Mt 28:1; Mr 16:1; Lu 23:56
and was one of those who had "a vision of angels, which said that he was alive."
She had four sons and at least three daughters. The names of the daughters are unknown to us; those of the sons are, James, Joses, Jude and Simon, two of whom became enrolled among the twelve apostles [JAMES], and a third [SIMON] may have succeeded his brother ill charge of the church of Jerusalem. By many she is thought to have been the sister of the Virgin Mary.
SIMON -See 9058
Different explanations have been given of this name; but the most natural is that she came from the town of Magdala. She appears before us for the first time in
among the women who "ministered unto him of their substance." All appear to have occupied a position of comparative wealth. With all the chief motive was that of gratitude for their deliverance from "evil spirits and infirmities." Of Mary it is said specially that "seven devils went out of her," and the number indicates a possession of more than ordinary malignity. She was present during the closing hours of the agony on the cross.
She remained by the cross till all was over, and waited till the body was taken down and placed in the garden sepulchre of Joseph of Arimathaea,
Mt 27:61; Mr 15:47; Lu 23:55
when she, with Salome and Mary the mother of James, "bought sweet spices that they might come and anoint" the body.
The next morning accordingly. in the earliest dawn,
Mt 28:1; Mr 16:2
they came with Mary the mother of James to the sepulchre. Mary Magdalene had been to the tomb and had found it empty, and had seen the "vision of angels."
Mt 28:5; Mr 16:6
To her first of all Jesus appeared after his resurrection.
Mary Magdalene has become the type of a class of repentant sinners; but there is no authority for identifying her with the "sinner" who anointed the feet of Jesus in
neither is there any authority for the supposition that Mary Magdalene is the same as the sister of Lazarus. Neither of these theories has the slightest foundation in fact.
Ma’ry, mother of Mark,
was sister to Barnabas.
Ac 4:36; 12:15
She was among the earliest disciples, and lived at Jerusalem. She gave up her house to be used as one of the chief places of meeting. The fact that Peter went to that house on his release from prison indicates that there was some special intimacy,
between them. (There is a tradition that the place of meeting of the disciples, and hence Mary’s house, was on the upper slope of Zion, and that it was here that the Holy Ghost came upon the disciples with tongues of flame on the day of Pentecost. —ED.)
Ma’ry, sister of Lazarus,
She and her sister Martha appear in
as receiving Christ in their house. Mary sat listening eagerly for every word that fell from the divine Teacher. She had chosen that good part, the "one thing needful." The same character shows itself in the history of
... Her grief was deeper, but less active. Her first thought, when she saw the Teacher in whose power and love she that trusted, was one of complaint. But the great joy and love which her brother’s return to life called up in her poured themselves out in larger measure than had been seen before. The treasured alabaster box of ointment was brought forth at the final feast of Bethany.
Ma’ry the virgin,
the mother of our Lord. There is no person perhaps in sacred or profane history around whom so many legends have been grouped a the Virgin Mary; and there are few whose authentic history is more concise. She was, like Joseph, of the tribe of Judah and of the lineage of David.
Ps 132:11; Lu 1:32; Ro 1:3
She had a sister, named, like herself,
and she was connected by marriage,
with Elizabeth, who was of the tribe of Levi and of the lineage of Aaron. This is all that we know of her antecedents. She was betrothed to Joseph of Nazareth; but before her marriage she became with child by the Holy Ghost, and became the mother of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the world. Her history at this time, her residence at Bethlehem, flight to Egypt, and return to her early home st Nazareth, are well known. Four times only does she appear after the commencement of Christ’s ministry. These four occasions are—
1. The marriage at Cana in Galilee took place in the three months which intervened between the baptism of Christ and the passover of the year 27. Mary was present, and witnessed the first miracle performed by Christ, when he turned the water into wine. She had probably become a widow before this time.
Mt 4:13; 13:54; Mr 6:1
appear to have been the residence of Mary for a considerable period. The next time that she is brought before us we find her at Capernaum, where she, with other relatives, had gone to inquire about the strange stories they had heard of her son Jesus. They sought an audience with our Lord, which was not granted, as he refused to admit any authority on the part of his relatives, or any privilege on account of their relationship.
3. The next scene in Mary’s life brings us to the foot of the cross. With almost his last words Christ commended his mother to the care of him who had borne the name of the disciple whom Jesus loved: "Woman, behold thy son." And front that hour St. John assures us that he took her to his own abode. So far as Mary is portrayed to us in Scripture, she is, as we should have expected the most tender, the most faithful humble, patient and loving of women, but a woman still.
4. In the days succeeding the ascension of Christ Mary met with the disciples in the upper room,
waiting for the coming of the Holy Spirit with power.
a Roman Christian who is greeted by St. Paul in his Epistle to the Romans, ch.
as having toiled hard for him.
(song of wisdom), the title of thirteen Psalms 32,45,44,45,52-55,74,78,68,69,142 Ewald regards
(Authorized Version, "sing ye praises with understanding;" Heb. maschil) as the key to the meaning of maschil, which in his opinion is a musical term denoting a melody requiring great skill in its execution.
(drawn out), one of the sons of Aram.
the name appears as Meshech. The name Mash is probably represented by the Mons Masius of classical writers, a range which forms the northern boundary of Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates.
(entreaty), the same as Misheal or Mishal.
(vineyard of noble vines), an ancient place, the native spot of Samiah, one of the old king of the Edomites.
Ge 36:36; 1Ch 1:47
(burden), a son of Ishmael.
Ge 26:14; 1Ch 1:30
His descendants were not improbably the Masani, placed by Ptolemy in the east of Arabia, near the borders of Babylonia.
(temptation), a name given to the spot, also called Meribah, where the Israelites tempted Jehovah.
Ex 16:7; Ps 95:8,9; Heb 3:8
= METHUSELAH, the son of Enoch.
(pushing forward) daughter of Mezahab and mother of Mehetabel, who was wife of Hadar or Hadad of Pau, king of Edom.
Ge 36:39; 1Ch 1:50
(rain of Jehovah), a family of the tribe of Benjamin, to which Saul the King of Israel belonged.
1. The priest of Baal slain before his altars in the idol temple at Jerusalem.
2Ki 11:18; 2Ch 23:17
He probably accompanied Athalia from Samaria.
2. The father of Shephatiah.
(gift of Jehovah), a station the latter part of the wandering of the Israelites.
It was probably situated to the southeast of the Dead Sea.
(gift of Jehovah).
1. The original name of Zedekiah king of Judah, which was changed when Nebuchadnezzar placed him on the throne.
2. A Levite singer of the sons of Asaph.
He was leader of the temple choir after its restoration,
Ne 11:17; 12:8
in the time of Nehemiah, and took part in the musical service which accompanied the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem.
3. A descendant of Asaph, and ancestor of Jahaziel the Levite, in the reign of Jehoshaphat.
4. One of the sons of Elam.
5. One of the sons of Zattu.
6. A descendant of Pahath-moab,
7. One of the sons of Bani.
who all put away their foreign wives at Ezra’s command.
8. A Levite, father of Zaccur and ancestor of Hanan the under-treasurer who had charge of the offerings for the Levites in the time of Nehemiah.
9. One of the fourteen sons of Heman, whose office it was to blow the horns in the temple service appointed by David.
10. A descendant of Asaph the Levite minstrel, who assisted in the purification of the temple in the reign of Hezekiah.
(gift of Jehovah), probably a contraction of Mattathiah.
1. Son of Nathan and grandson of David, in the genealogy of Christ.
(B.C. after 1014.)
2. An Israelite, son of Hashun, who divorced his Gentile wife after the return from Babylon.
(gift of Jehovah), the Greek form of Mattathiah.
1. Son of Amos, in the genealogy of Christ.
(B.C. after 406.)
2. Son of Semei.
3. The father of the Maccabees. (B.C. 168 and previous.)
(gift of Jehovah), a contraction of Mattaniah.
1. Two Israelites who divorced their Gentile wives after the return from the Babylonish captivity.
2. A priest, son of Joiarib, in the time of Joiakim.
(B.C. after 536.)
(gift), grandfather of Joseph the husband of the Virgin Mary.
(gift of God), a form of the name Matthan.
1. son of Levi, in the genealogy of Christ.
(B.C. after 623.)
2. Grandfather of the Virgin Mary.
(gift of Jehovah). (A contraction, as is also Matthias, of Mattathias. His original name was Levi, and his name Matthew was probably adopted as his new apostolic name was a Jew. His father’s name was Alphaeus. His home was at Capernaum His business was the collection of dues and customs from persons and goods crossing the Sea of Galilee, or passing along the great Damascus road which ran along the shore between Bethsaida, Julius and Capernaum. Christ called him from this work to he his disciple. He appears to have been a man of wealth, for he made a great feast in his own house, perhaps in order to introduce his former companions and friends to Jesus. His business would tend to give him a knowledge of human nature, and accurate business habits, and of how to make a way to the hearts of many publicans and sinners not otherwise easily reached. He is mentioned by name, after the resurrection of Christ, only in
but he must have lived many years as an apostle, since he was the author of the Gospel of Matthew which was written at least twenty years later. There is reason to believe that he remained for fifteen years at Jerusalem, after which he went as missionary to the Persians, Parthians and Medes. There is a legend that he died a martyr in Ethiopia. —ED.)
Mat’thew, Gospel of.
1. Its authorship. —That this Gospel was written by the apostle Matthew there is no reason to doubt. Seventeen independent witnesses of the first four centuries attest its genuineness.
2. Its original language. —The testimony of the early Church is unanimous that Matthew wrote originally in the Hebrew language. On the otherhand doubt is thrown over this opinion, both statements of by an examination of the fathers and by a consideration of peculiar forms of language employed in the Gospel itself. The question is unsettled, the best scholars not agreeing in their Judgment concerning it. If there was a Hebrew original, it disappeared at a very early age. The Greek Gospel which we now possess was it is almost certain, written in Matthew’s lifetime; and it is not at all improbable that he wrote the Gospel in both the Greek and Hebrew languages. —Lyman Abbolt. It is almost certain that our Lord spoke in Greek with foreigners, but with his disciples and the Jewish people in Aramaic (a form of language closely allied to the Hebrew). —Schaff. The Jewish historian Josephus furnishes an illustration of the fate of the Hebrew original of Matthew. Josephus himself informs us that he, wrote his great work "The History of the Jewish Wars," originally in Hebrew, his native tongue, for the benefit of his own nation, and he afterward translated it into Greek. No notices of the Hebrew original now survive. —Professor D.S. Gregory.
3. The date.— The testimony of the early Church is unanimous that Matthew wrote first of the early Church is among the evangelists. Irenieus relates that Matthew wrote his Gospel while Peter and Paul were preaching, and founding the Church at Rome, after A.D. 61. It was published before the destruction of Jerusalem, A.D. 50.—Alford. We would place our present Gospel between A.D. 60 and 66. If there was an original Hebrew Gospel, an earlier date belongs to it —Ellicott.
4. Its object.— This Gospel was probably written in Palestine for Jewish Christians. It is an historical proof that Jesus is the Messiah. Matthew is the Gospel for the Jew. It is the Gospel of Jesus, the Messiah of the prophets. This Gospel takes the life of Jesus as it was lived on earth, and his character as it actually appeared, and places them alongside the life and character of the Messiah as sketched in the prophets, the historic by the side of the Prophetic, that the two may appear in their marvellous unity and in their perfect identity. —Professor Gregory.
(gift of God), the apostle elected to fill the place of the traitor Judas.
All beyond this that we know of him for certainty is that he had been a constant attendant upon the Lord Jesus during the whole course of his ministry; for such was declared by St. Peter to be the necessary qualification of one who was to be a witness of the resurrection. It is said that he preached the gospel and suffered martyrdom in Ethiopia.
(gift of God).
1. A Levite who presided over the offerings made in the pans.
comp. Levi 6:20 ( Levi 6:12 ) etc.
2. One of the Levites appointed by David to minister before the ark in the musical service,
"with harps upon Sheminith," comp.
to lead the choir.
1Ch 15:18,21; 26:3,21
3. One of the family of Nebo who had married a foreign wife, in the days of Ezra.
4. Probably a priest, who stood at the right hand of Ezra when he read the law to the people.
The tool used in Arabia for loosening the ground, described by Neibuhr, answers generally to our mattock or grubbing-axe, i.e. a single-headed pickaxe. The ancient Egyptian hoe was of wood, and answered for hoe, spade and pick.
(i.e. a hammer), a sort of battleaxe or hammer, used as an implement of war.
(fortresses). The marginal note to the Authorized Version of
"the god of forces," gives as the equivalent of the last word "Mauzzim, or gods protectors, or munitions." There can be little doubt that mauzzim is to be taken in its literal sense of "fortresses," just as in
"the god of fortresses" being then the deity who presided over strongholds. The opinion of Gesenius is that "the god of fortresses" was Jupiter Capitolinus, for whom Antiochus built a temple at Antioch. Liv. xli. 20.
(the twelve signs). The margin of the Authorized Version of
gives Mazzaroth as the name of the twelve signs of the zodiac.
meadow appears to be an Egyptian term meaning some kind of flag or waterplant, as its use in
(Authorized Version "flag") seems to show.
the sense of the Hebrew word translated meadow is doubly uncertain. The most plausible interpretation is that of the Peshito-Syriac, which by a slight difference in the vowel-points makes the word mearah, "the cave."
(a hundred), The tower of, one of the towers of the wall of Jerusalem when rebuilt by Nehemiah,
Ne 3:1; 12:39
appears to have been situated somewhere at the northeast part of the city, outside of the walls of Zion.
Our information on the subject of meals is but scanty. The early Hebrews do not seem to have given special names to their several meals, for the terms rendered "dine" and "dinner" in the Authorized Version (
Ge 43:16; Pr 15:17
) are in reality general expressions, which might more correctly be rendered "eat" and "portion of food." In the New Testament "dinner" and "supper,"
Lu 14:12; Joh 21:12
are more properly "breakfast" and "dinner." There is some uncertainty as to the hours at which meals were taken; the Egyptians undoubtedly took their principal mean at noon,
laborers took a light meal at that time.
comp. ver. Ruth 2:17 The Jews rather followed the custom that prevails among the Bedouins, and made their principal meal after sunset, and a lighter meal at about 9 or 10 A.M. The old Hebrews were in the habit of sitting.
Ge 27:19; Jud 19:6; 1Sa 20:5,24; 1Ki 13:20
The table was in this case but slightly elevated above the ground, as is still the case in Egypt. As luxury increased, the practice of sitting was exchanged for that of reclining was the universal custom. As several guests reclined on the same couch, each overlapped his neighbor, as it were, and rested his head on or near the breast of the one who lay behind him; he was then said to "lean on the bosom" of his neighbor.
Joh 13:23; 21:20
The ordinary arrangement of the couches was in three sides of a square, the fourth being left open for the servants to bring up the dishes. Some doubt attends the question whether the females took their meals along with the males. Before commencing the meal the guests washed their hands. This custom was founded on natural decorum: not only was the hand the substitute for our knife and for, but the hands of all the guests were dipped into one and the same dish. Another preliminary step was the grace or blessing, of which we have but one instance in the Old Testament —
—and more than one pronounced by our Lord himself in the new Testament —Matt 15:36; Luke 9:16; John 6:11 The mode of taking the food differed in no material point from the modern usages of the East. Generally there was a single dish, into which each guest dipped his hand.
Occasionally separate portions were served out to each.
Ge 43:34; Ru 2:14; 1Sa 1:4
A piece of bread was held between the thumb and two fingers of the right hand, and was dipped either into a bowl of melted grease (in which case it was termed "a sop,")
or into the dish of meat, whence a piece was conveyed to the mouth between the layers of bread. At the conclusion of the meal, grace was again said in conformity with
and the hands were again washed. On state occasions more ceremony was used, and the meal was enlivened in various ways. A sumptuous repast was prepared; the guests were previously invited,
Es 5:8; Mt 22:3
and on the day of the feast a second invitation was issued to those that were bidden.
Es 6:14; Pr 9:3; Mt 22:4
The visitors were received with a kiss,
water was furnished for them to wash their feet with,
the head, the beard, the feet, and sometimes the clothes, were perfumed with ointment,
Ps 23:5; Joh 12:3
on special occasions robes were provided,
and the head was decorated with wreaths.
The regulation of the feast was under the superintendence of a special officer,
(Authorized Version "governor of the feast"), whose business it was to taste the food and the liquors before they were placed on the table, and to settle about the toasts and amusements; he was generally one of the guests, Ecclus. 32:1,2, and might therefore take part in the conversation. The places of the guests were settled according to their respective rand,
Ge 43:33; Mr 12:39
portions of food were placed before each,
the most honored guests receiving either larger,
or more choice,
portions than the rest. The meal was enlivened with music, singing and dancing,
or with riddles,
and amid these entertainments the festival was prolonged for several days.
(a cave), a place named in
only. The word means in Hebrew a cave, and it is commonly assumed that the reference is to some remarkable cavern in the neighborhood of Zidon.
[WEIGHTS AND MEASURES]
It does not appear that the word "meat" is used in any one instance in the Authorized Version of either the Old or New Testament in the sense which it now almost exclusively bears of animal food. The latter is denoted uniformly by "flesh." The word "meat," when our English version was made, meant food in general; or if any particular kind was designated, it referred to meal, flour or grain. The only real and inconvenient ambiguity caused by the change which has taken place in the meaning of the word is in the case of the "meat offering." [MEAT OFFERING]
The law or ceremonial of the meat offering is described in
... and Levi 6:14-23 It was to be composed of fine flour, seasoned with salt and mixed with oil and frankincense, but without leaven; and it was generally accompanied by a drink offering of wine. A portion of it, including all the frankincense, was to be burnt on the altar as "a memorial;" the rest belonged to the priest; but the meat offerings offered by the priests themselves were to be wholly burnt. Its meaning appears to be exactly expressed in the words of David.
It will be seen that this meaning involves neither of the main ideas of sacrifices —the atonement for sin and self-dedication to God. It takes them for granted, and is based on them. Rather it expresses gratitude and love to God as the giver of all. Accordingly the meat offering, properly so called, seems always to have been a subsidiary offering, needing to be introduced by the sin offering which represented the one idea, and to have formed an appendage to the burnt offering, which represented the other. The unbloody offerings offered alone did not properly belong to the regular meat offerings; they were usually substitutes for other offerings. Comp.
Le 5:11; Nu 5:15
(building of Jehovah). In this form appears, In one passage only —2Sam 23:27 —the name of one of David’s guard, who is elsewhere called SIBBECHAI,
2Sa 21:18; 1Ch 20:4
1Ch 11:29; 27:11
in the Authorized Version.
that is, the native or inhabitant of a place called Mecherah.
In the parallel list of
... the name appears, with other variations, as "the Maachathite." ver.
(love). [ELDAD AND MEDAD]
(contention), a son of Abraham and Keturah.
Ge 23:5; 1Ch 1:42
(water of rest), a town on the eastern side of Jordan, first alluded to in
Here it seems to denote the limit of the territory of Heshbon. It next occurs in the enumeration of the country divided among the transjordanic tribes,
as giving its name to a district of level downs called "the Mishor of Medeba" or "the Mishor on Medeba." At the time of the conquest Medeba belonged to the Amorites, apparently one of the towns taken from Moab by them. In the time of Ahaz Medeba was a sanctuary of Moab.
It has retained its name down, our own times, and lies four miles southeast of Heshbon, on it rounded but rocky hill.
(middle land). Media lay northwest of Persia proper, south and southwest of the Caspian Sea, east of Armenia and Assyria, west and northwest of the great salt desert of Iran. Its greatest length was from north to south, and in this direction it extended from the 32d to the 40th parallel, a distance of 550 miles. In width it reached front about long. 45 degrees to 53 degrees; but its average breadth was not more than from 250 to 300 miles. The division of Media commonly recognized by the Greeks and Romans was that into Media Magna and Media Atropatene.
1. Media Atropatene corresponded nearly to the modern Azerbijan, being the tract situated between the Caspian and the mountains which run north from Zagros.
2. Media Magna lay south and east of Atropatene. It contained great part of Kurdistan and Luristan, with all Ardelan and Arak Ajemi. It is indicative of the division that there were two Ecbatanas, respectively the capitals of the two districts. The Medes were a nation of very high antiquity; we find a notice of them in the primitive Babylonian history of Berosus, who says that the Medes conquered Babylon at a very remote period (cir. B.C. 2458), and that eight Median monarchs reigned there consecutively, over a space of 224 years. The deepest obscurity hangs, however, over the whole history of the Medes from the time of their bearing sway in Babylonia, B.C. 2458-2234, to their first appearance in the cuneiform inscriptions among the enemies of Assyria, about B.C. 880. Near the middle of the seventh century B.C. the Median kingdom was consolidated, and became formidable to its neighbors; but previous to this time it was not under the dominion of a single powerful monarch, but was ruled by a vast number of petty chieftains. Cyaxares, the third Median monarch, took Nineveh and conquered Assyria B.C. 625. The limits of the Median empire cannot be definitely fixed. From north to south it was certainly confined between the Persian Gulf and the Euphrates on the one side, the Black and Caspian Seas on the other. From east to west it had, however, a wide expansion, since it reached from the Halys at least as far as the Caspian Gates, and possible farther. It was separated from Babylonia either by the Tigris or more probably by a line running about halfway between that river and the Euphrates. Its greatest length may be reckoned at 1500 miles from northwest to southeast, and its average breadth at 400 or 450 miles. Its area would thus be about 600,000 square miles, or somewhat greater than that of modern Persia. Of all the ancient Oriental monarchies the Median was the shortest in duration. It was overthrown by the Persians under Cyrus, B.C. 558, who captured its king, Astyages. The treatment of the Medes by the victorious Persians was not that of an ordinary conquered nation. Medes were appointed to stations of high honor and importance under Cyrus and his successors. The two nations seem blended into one, and we often find reference to this kingdom as that of the "Medes and Persians."
Da 5:28; 6:8,12,15
The references to the Medes in the canonical Scriptures are not very numerous, but they are striking. We first hear of certain "cities of the Medes," in which the captive Israelites were placed by "the king of Assyria" on the destruction of Samaria, B.C. 721
2Ki 17:6; 18:12
Soon afterward Isaiah prophesies the part which the Medes shall take in the destruction of Babylon,
Isa 13:17; 21:2
which is again still more distinctly declared by Jeremiah,
who sufficiently indicates the independence of Media in his day. ch.
Daniel relates the fact of the Medo-Persia conquest,
giving an account of the reign of Darius the Mede, who appears to have been made viceroy by Cyrus.
In Ezra we have a mention of Achmetha (Ecbatana), "the palace in the province of the Medes," where the decree of Cyrus was found,
—a notice which accords with the known facts that the Median capital was the seat of government under Cyrus, but a royal residence only, and not the seat of government, under Darius Hystaspis. Finally, in Esther the high rank of Media under the Persian kings, yet at the same time its subordinate position, is marked by the frequent composition of the two names in phrases of honor, the precedence being in every ease assigned to the Persians.
Darius, "the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes,"
or "the Mede," ch.
is thus denoted in
Egypt was the earliest home of medical and other skill for the region of the Mediterranean basin, and every Egyptian mummy of the more expensive and elaborate sort involved a process of anatomy. Still we have no trace of any philosophical or rational system of Egyptian origin; still medicine in Egypt was a mere art or profession. Compared with the wild countries around them, however, the Egyptians must have seemed incalculably advanced. Representations of early Egyptian surgery apparently occur on some of the monuments of Beni-Hassan. Those who have assisted at the opening of a mummy have noticed that the teeth exhibited a dentistry not inferior in execution to the work of the best modern experts. This confirms the statement of Herodotus that every part of the body was studied by a distinct practitioner. The reputation of Egypt’s practitioners in historical times was such that both Cyrus and Darius sent to that country for physicians or surgeons. Of midwifery we have a distinct notice,
and of women as its Practitioners, which fact may also be verified from the scriptures. The scrupulous attention paid to the dead was favorable to the health of the living. The practice of physic was not among the Jews a privilege of the priesthood. Any one might practice it, and this publicity must have kept it pure. Rank and honor are said to be the portion of the physician, and his office to be from the Lord. Ecclus. 38:1,3,12. To bring down the subject to the period of the New Testament, St. Luke, "the beloved physician," who practiced at Antioch whilst the body was his care, could hardly have failed to be convenient with all the leading opinions current down to his own time. Among special diseases named in the Old Testament is ophthalmia,
which is perhaps more common in Syria and Egypt than anywhere else in the world; especially in the fig season, the juice of the newly-ripe fruit having the power of giving it. It may occasion partial or total blindness.
The "burning boil,"
is merely marked by the notion of an effect resembling that of fire, like our "carbuncle." The diseases rendered "scab" and "scurvy" in
Le 21:20; 22:22; De 28:27
may be almost any skin disease. Some of these may be said to approach the type of leprosy. The "botch (shechin) of Egypt,"
is so vague a term as to yield a most uncertain sense. In
is mentioned a disease attacking the "knees and legs," consisting in a "sore botch which cannot be healed," but extended, in the sequel of the verse, from the "sole of the foot to the top of the head." The Elephantiasis gracorum is what now passes under the name of "leprosy;" the lepers, e.g., of the: huts near the Zion gate of modern Jerusalem are elephantissiacs. [LEPROSY] The disease of King Antiochus, 2 Macc. 9:5-10, etc., was that of a boil breeding worms. The case of the widow’s son restored by Elisha,
was probably one of sunstroke. The palsy meets us in the New Testament only, and in features too familiar to need special remark. palsy, gangrene and cancer were common in all the countries familiar to the scriptural writers, and neither differs from the modern disease of the same name. Mention is also made of the bites and stings of poisonous reptiles.
Among surgical instruments or pieces of apparatus the following only are alluded to in Scripture: A cutting instrument, supposed a "sharp stone,"
the "knife" of
The "awl" of
was probably a surgical instrument. The "roller to bind" of
was for a broken limb, and is still used. A scraper, for which the "potsherd" of Job was a substitute.
Job 2:8; Ex 30:23-25
is a prescription in form. An occasional trace occurs of some chemical knowledge, e.g. the calcination of the gold by Moses,
the effect of "vinegar upon natron,"
; comp. Jere 2:22 The mention of "the apothecary,"
Ex 30:35; Ec 10:1
and of the merchant in "powders,"
shows that a distinct and important branch of trade was set up in these wares, in which, as at a modern druggist’s, articles of luxury, etc., are combined with the remedies of sickness. Among the most favorite of external remedies has always been the bath. There were special occasions on which the bath was ceremonially enjoined. The Pharisees and Essenes aimed at scrupulous strictness in all such rules.
Mt 15:2; Mr 7:5; Lu 11:38
River-bathing was common but houses soon began to include a bathroom.
Le 15:13; 2Sa 11:2; 2Ki 5:10
(place of crowns) was in a very marked position on the southern rim of the plain of Esdraelon, on the frontier line of the territories of the tribes of Issachar and Manasseh, 6 miles from Mount Carmel and 11 from Nazareth. It commanded one of those passes from the north into the hill country which were of such critical importance on various occasions in the history of Judea. Judith 4:7. The first mention occurs in
where Megiddo appears as the city of one of the kings whom Joshua defeated on the west of the Jordan. The song of Deborah brings the place vividly before us, as the scene of the great conflict between Sisera and Barak. When Pharaoh-necho came from Egypt against the king of Assyria, Josiah joined the latter, and was slain at Megiddo.
2Ki 23:29; 2Ch 35:22-24
Megiddo is the modern el-Lejjun, which is undoubtedly the Legio of Eusebius and Jerome. There is a copious stream flowing down the gorge, and turning some mills before joining the Kishon. Here are probably the "waters of Megiddo" of
(favored of God), another and less correct form of Mehetabel. The ancestor of Shemaiah the prophet who was hired against Nehemiah by Tobiah and Sanballat.
(favored of God), the daughter of Matred, and wife of Hadad king of Edom.
(famous, noble), a family of Nethinim, the descendants of Mehida. returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel.
Ezr 2:52; Ne 7:54
(price), the son of Chelub the brother of Shuah.
a word occurring once only—
It no doubt denotes that Adriel belonged to a place celled Meholah.
(smitten by God), the son of Irad, and fourth in descent from Cain.
(faithful), one of the seven eunuchs of Ahasuerus.
Elsewhere called Mehunims and Meunim.
a people against whom King Uzziah waged a successful war.
The name is the plural of Maon [MAON]. Another notice of the Mehunims in the reign of Hezekiah (cir. B.C. 726-697) is found in
Here they are spoken of as it pastoral people, either themselves Hamites or in alliance with Hamites quiet and peaceable, dwelling in tents. Here, however, the Authorized Version treats the word as an ordinary noun and renders it "habitations." The latest appearance of the name Mehunims in the Bible is in the lists of those who returned front the captivity with Zerubbabel.
Authorized Version "Mehunim;"
Authorized Version "Meunim."
(hunters of yellowness) a town in the territory of Dan.
only in the neighborhood of Joppa or Japho.
(foundation), one of the towns which were reinhabited after the captivity by the men of Judah.
(Jehovah delivers), a Gibeonite who assisted in rebuilding the wall of Jerusalem.
(my king, my counsel).
1. The son of Janna, and ancestor of Joseph in the genealogy of Jesus Christ.
(Jehovah’s king), a priest, the father of Pashur.
(king of righteousness).
Heb 5:1 ..., 6:1 ..., 7:1
A son of Saul.
1Sa 14:49; 31:2
Elsewhere correctly given Malchishua.
(king of righteousness), king of Salem and priest of the most high God, who met Abram in the valley of Shaveh, which is the king’s valley, bought out bread and wine, blessed him, and received tithes from him.
The other places in which Melchizedek is mentioned are
where Messiah is described as a priest forever, "after the order of Melchizedek," and
Heb 5:1 ..., 6:1 ..., 7:1
... where these two passages of the Old Testament are quoted, and the typical relation of Melchizedek to our Lord is stated at great length. There is something surprising and mysterious in the first appearance of Melchizedek, and in the subsequent reference to him. Bearing a title which Jews in after ages would recognize as designating their own sovereign, bearing gifts which recall to Christians the Lord’s Supper, this Canaanite crosses for a moment the path of Abram, and is unhesitatingly recognized as a person of higher spiritual rank than the friend of God. Disappearing as suddenly as he came, he is lost to the sacred writings for a thousand years. Jewish tradition pronounces Melchizedek to be a survivor of the deluge, the patriarch Shem. The way in which he is mentioned in Genesis would rather lead to the inference that Melchizedek was of one blood with the children of Ham, among whom he lived, chief (like the king od Sodom) of a settled Canaanitish tribe. The "order of Melchizedek," in
is explained to mean "manner" = likeness in official dignity = a king and priest. The relation between Melchizedek and Christ as type and antitype is made in the Epistle to the Hebrews to consist in the following particulars: Each was a priest, (1) not of the Levitical tribe; (2) superior to Abraham; (3) whose beginning and end are unknown; (4) who is not only a priest, but also a king of righteousness and peace. A fruitful source of discussion has been found in the site of Salem. [SALEM]
the son of Menan, and ancestor of Joseph in the genealogy of Jesus Christ.
the second son of Micah, the son of Merib-baal or Mephibosheth.
1Ch 8:35; 9:41
the same as MALLUCH 6.
comp. ver. Nehe 12:2
(honey), the modern Malta. This island lies in the Mediterranean 60 miles south of Cape Passaro in Sicily, 900 miles from Gibraltar and about 1200 from Jerusalem. It is 17 miles long. by 13 or 10 broad. It is naturally a barren rock, with no high mountains, but has been rendered fertile by industry and toil. It is famous for its honey and fruits. It is now in the hands of the English. —McClintock and Strong. This island has an illustrious place in Scripture as the scene of that shipwreck of St. Paul which is described in such minute detail in the Acts of the Apostle.
... The wreck probably happened at the place traditionally known as St.Paul’s day, an inlet with a creek two miles deep and one broad. The question has been set at rest forever by Mr. Smith of Jordan Hill, in his "Voyage and Shipwreck of St. Paul," the first published work in which it was thoroughly investigated from a sailor’s point of view. The objection that there are no vipers in Malta is overruled by the fact that Mr. Lewin saw such a serpent there and that there may have been vipers in the wilder ancient times, even were none found there now. As regards the condition of the island of Melitu, when St. Paul was there it was a dependency of the Roman province of Sicily. Its chief officer (under the governor of Sicily) appears from inscriptions to have had the title of protos Melitaion, or Primus Melitensium and this is the very phrase which Luke uses.
Melita, from its position in the Mediterranean and the excellence of its harbors, has always been important in both commerce and war. It was a settlement of the Phoenicians at an early period, and their language in a corrupted form, was still spoken there in St. Paul’s day.
(Heb. abattichim) are mentioned only in
By the Hebrew word we are probably to understand both the melon (Cumcumis melo) and the watermelon (Cucurbita citrullus). The watermelon, which is now extensively cultivated in all hot countries, is a fruit not unlike the common melon, but the leaves are deeply lobed and gashed; the flesh is pink or white, and contains a large quantity of cold watery juice with out much flavor; the seeds are black.
(steward). The Authorized Version is wrong in regarding melzar as a proper name; it is rather an official title,
the marginal reading, "the steward," is therefore more correct.
(haven, of the good), a city of ancient Egypt, situated on that western bank of the Nile, about nine miles south of Cairo and five from the great pyramids and the sphinx. It is mentioned by
under the name of Noph. Though some regard Thebes as the more ancient city, the monuments of Memphis are of higher antiquity than those of Thebus. The city is said to have had a circumference of about 10 miles. The temple of Apis was one of the most noted structures of Memphis. It stood opposite the southern portico of the temple of Ptah; and Psammetichus, who built that gateway, also erected in front of the sanctuary of Apis a magnificent colonnade, supported by colossal statues or Osiride pillars, such as may still be seen at the temple of Medeenet Habou at Thebes. Herod. ii, 153. Through this colonnade the Apis was led with great pomp upon state occasions. At Memphis was the reputed burial-place of Isis; it has also a temple to that "myriad-named" divinity. Memphis had also its Serapeium, which probably stood in the western quarter of the city. The sacred cubit until other symbols used in measuring the rise of the Nile were deposited in the temple of Serapis. The Necropolis, adjacent to Memphis, was on a scale of grandeur corresponding with the city itself. The "city of the pyramids" is a title of Memphis in the hieroglyphics upon the monuments. Memphis long held its place as a capital; and for centuries a Memphite dynasty ruled over all Egypt. Lepsius, Bunsen and Brugsch agree in regarding the third, fourth, sixth, seventh and eighth dynasties of the old empire as Memphite, reaching through a period of about 1000 years. The city’s overthrow was distinctly predicted by the Hebrew prophets.
Isa 19:13; Jer 46:19
The latest of these predictions was uttered nearly 600 years before Christ, and a half a century before the invasion of Egypt by Cambyses (cir, B.C. 525). Herodotus informs us that Cambyses, engaged at the opposition he encountered at Memphis, committed many outrages upon the city. The city never recovered from the blow inflicted by Cambyses. The rise of Alexandria hastened its decline. The caliph conquerors founded Fostat (old Cairo) upon the opposite bank of the Nile, a few miles north of Memphis, and brought materials from the old city to build their new capital, A.D. 638. At length so complete was the ruin of Memphis that for a long time its very site was lost. Recent explorations have brought to light many of its antiquities.
(dignified), one of the seven princes of Persia in the reign of Ahasuerus, who "saw the king’s face," and sat first in the kingdom.
(comforter), son of Gadi, who slew the usurper Shallum, and seized the vacant throne of Israel. B.C. 772. His reign, which lasted ten years, is briefly recorded in
He maintained the calf-worship of Jeroboam. The contemporary prophets Hosea and Amos have left a melancholy picture of the ungodliness, demoralization and feebleness of Israel. Menahem reigned B.C. 771-760.
(called Menna in the Revised Version), one of the ancestors of Joseph in the genealogy of Jesus Christ.
(numbered), the first word of the mysterious inscription written upon the wall of Belshazzar’s palace, in which Daniel read the doom of the king and his dynasty.
This word is a proper name, and is also the proper name of an object of idolatrous worship cultivated by the Jews in Babylon.
In the Revised Version of
(enchanters),The plain of, an oak or terebinth. or other great tree.
The meaning of Meonenim if interpreted as a Hebrew word, is enchanters or "observers of times," as it is elsewhere rendered
it is soothsayers.
(my habitations), one of the sons of Othniel, the younger brother of Caleb.
(splendor height), city of the Reubenites, one of the towns independently an Heshhon,
lying in the district of the Mishor comp. ver.
and Jere 48:21 Authorized Version "plain," which probably answered to the modern Belka. It was one of the cities allotted with their suburbs to the Merarite Levites.
Jos 21:37; 1Ch 6:79
Its site is uncertain.
(exterminating the idol), the name borne by two members of the family of Saul —his son and his grandson.
1. Saul’s son by Rizpah the daughter of Aiah, his concubine.
He and his brother Armoni were among the seven victims who were surrendered by David to the Gibeonites, and by them crucified to avert a famine from which the country was suffering.
2. The son of Jonathan, grandson of Saul and nephew of the preceding; called also Merib-baal.
His life seems to have been, from beginning to end, one of trial and discomfort. When his father and grandfather were slain on Gilboa he was an infant but five years old. At this age he met with an accident which deprived him for life of the use of both feet.
After this he is found a home with Machir ben-Ammiel a powerful Gadite, who brought him up, and while here was married. Later on David invited him to Jerusalem, and there treated him and his son Micha with the greatest kindness. From this time forward he resided at Jerusalem, of Mephibosheth’s behavior during the rebellion of Absalom we possess two accounts—his own,
and that of Ziba,
They are naturally at variance with each other. In consequence of the story of Ziba, he was rewarded by the possessions of his master. Mephibosheth’s story —which however, he had not the opportunity of telling until several days later, when he met David returning to his kingdom at the western bank of Jordan —was very different from Ziba’s. That David did not disbelieve it is shown by his revoking the judgment he had previously given. That he did not entirely reverse his decision, but allowed Ziba to retain possession of half the lands of Mephibosheth, is probably due partly to weariness at the whole transaction, but mainly to the conciliatory frame of mind in which he was at that moment. "Shall there any man be put to death this day?" is the keynote of the whole proceeding.
(increase), eldest daughter of King Saul.
In accordance with the promise which he made before the engagement with Goliath, ch.
Saul betrothed Merab to David. ch.
Before the marriage Merab’s younger sister Michal had displayed her attachment for David, and Merab was then married to Adriel the Meholathite to whom she bore five sons.
(rebellion), a priest in the day of Joiakim.
1. A descendant of Eleazar the son of Aaron and head of a priestly house.
1Ch 6:61; 7:62
It is apparently another Meraioth who comes in between Zadok and Ahitub in the genealogy of Azariah.
1Ch 9:11; Ne 11:11
2. The head of one of the houses of priests, which in the time of Joiakim the son of Jeshua was represented by helkai.
(bitter, unhappy), third son of Levi and head of the third great division of the Levites, the Merarites.
At the time of the exodus and the numbering in the wilderness, the Merarites consisted of two families, the Mahlites and the Mushites, Mahli and Mushi being either the two sons of the son and grandson of Merari.
Their chief at that time was Zuriel. Their charge was the cords of the tabernacle and the court, and all the tools connected with setting them up. In the division of the land by Joshua, the merarites had twelve cities assigned to them, out of Reuben, Gad and Zebulun.
Jos 21:7, 34-40; 1Ch 6:63, 77-81
In the days of Hezekiah the Merarites were still flourishing.
(double rebellion), The land of, alluding to the country of the Chaldeans, and to the double captivity which it had inflicted on the nation of Israel.
(herald of the gods), properly Hermes, the Greek deity, whom the Romans identified with their Mercury, the god of commerce and bargains. Hermes was the son of Zeus (Jupiter) and Maia the daughter of Atals, and is constantly represented as the companion of his father in his wandering upon earth. The episode of Baucis and Philemon, Ovid, Metam. viii. 620-724, appears to have formed part of the folk-lore of Asia Minor, and strikingly illustrates the readiness with which the simple people of Lystra recognized in Barnabas the Paul the gods who, according to their wont, had come down in the likeness of men.
the translation of the above in the Revised Version.
Ex 25:17; 37:6; Heb 9:5
This appears to have been merely the lid of the ark of the covenant, not another surface affixed thereto. (It was a solid plate of gold, 2 1/2 cubits (6 1/3 feet) long by 1 1/2 cubits (2 2/3 feet) wide, representing a kind of throne of God, where he would hear prayer and from which he spoke words of comfort. —ED.) It was that whereon the blood of the yearly atonement was sprinkled by the high priest; and in this relation it is doubtful whether the sense of the word in the Hebrew is based on the material fact of its "covering" the ark, or derived from this notion of its reference to the "covering" (i.e. atonement) of sin.
(rebellion). This name occurs in a fragmentary genealogy in
as that of one of the sons of Ezra. Tradition identifies him with Caleb and Moses.
1. Son of Uriah or Urijah the priest, of the family of Koz or Hakkoz, the head of the seventh course of priests as established by David. In
Meremoth is appointed to weigh and register the gold and silver vessels belonging to the temple. In the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem under Nehemiah we find Meremoth taking an active part.
2. A layman of the sons of Bani, who had married a foreign wife.
3. A priest, or more probably a family of priests, who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah.
(lofty), one of the seven counsellors of Ahasuerus.
(strife, contention). In
we read, "he called the name of the place Massah and Meribah," where the people murmured and the rock was smitten. [For the situation see REPHIDIM] The name is also given to Kadesh,
Nu 20:13,24; 27:14; De 32:51
(Meribah-kadesh), because there also the people, when in want of water, strove with God.
(contender against Baal).
1Ch 8:34; 9:40
identical with the famous Babylonian Bel or Belus, the word being probably at first a mere epithet of the god, which by degrees superseded his proper appellation.
(worshipper of Baal) is mentioned as king of Babylon in the days of Hezekiah both in the second hook of Kings, ch.
and in Isaiah. ch.
In the former place he is called Berodach-baladan. The name of Merodach-baladan has been recognized in the Assyrian inscriptions. It appears there were two reigns of this king, the first from B.C. 721 to B.C. 709, when he was deposed; and the second after his recovery of the throne in B.C. 702, which lasted only half a year. There is some doubt as to the time at which he went his ambassadors to Hezekiah, for the purpose of inquiring as to the astronomical marvel of which Judea had been the scene,
but it appears to have been B.C. 713.
(high place), The waters of, a lake formed by the river Jordan, about ten miles north of the Sea of Galilee. It is a place memorable in the history of the conquest of Palestine. Here Joshua completely routed the confederacy of the northern chiefs under Jabin.
It is a remarkable fact that though by common consent "the waters of Merom" are identified with the lake thorough which the Jordan runs between Banias and the Sea of Galilee —the Bahr el-Huleh of the modern Arabs— Yet that identity cannot be proved by any ancient record. In form the lake is not far from a triangle, base being at the north and the apex at the south. It measures about three miles in each direction, and eleven feet deep. The water is clear and sweet; it is covered in parts by a broad-leaved plant, and abounds in water-fowl. (The northern part is a dense swamp of papyrus reeds, as large as the lake itself. See "Rob Roy on the Jordan." —ED.)
that is, the native of the place called probably Meronoth, of which, however, no further traces have yet been discovered. The Meronothites are named in the Bible—
(refuge), a place,
denounced because its inhabitants had refused to take any part in the struggle with Sisera. Meroz must have been in the neighborhood of the Kishon, but its real position is not known. Possibly it was destroyed in the obedience to the curse.
(drawing out), a son of Japhet,
Ge 10:2; 1Ch 1:5
and the progenitor of a race frequently noticed in Scripture in connection with Tubal, Magog and other northern nations. They appear as allies of God,
Eze 38:2,3; 39:1
and as supplying the Tyrians with copper and slaves.
they are noticed as one of the remotest and at the same time rudest nations of the world. Both the name and the associations are in favor of the identification of Meshech with the Moschi, a people on the borders of Colchis and Armenia.
1. The name of one of the geographical limits of the Joktanites when they first settled in Arabia.
2. The king of Moab who was tributary to Ahab,
but when Ahab fell at Ramoth-gilead, Mesha refused to pay tribute to his successor, Jehoram. When Jehoram succeeded to the throne of Israel, one of his first acts was to secure the assistance of Jehoshaphat, his father’s ally, in reducing the Moabites to their former condition of tributaries. The Moabites were defeated, and the king took refuge in his last stronghold, and defended himself with the energy of despair. With 700 fighting men he made a vigorous attempt to cut his way through the beleaguering army, and when beaten back, he withdrew to the wall of his city, and there, in sight of the allied host, offered his first-born son, his successor in the kingdom, as a burnt offering to Chemosh, the ruthless fire-god of Moab. His bloody sacrifice had so far the desired effect that the besiegers retired from him to their own land. (At Dibon in Moab has lately been discovered the famous Moabite Stone, which contains inscriptions concerning King Mesha and his wars, and which confirms the Bible account. —ED.)
3. The eldest son of Caleb the son of Hezron by his wife Azubah, as Kimchi conjectures.
4. A Benjamite, son of Shabaraim by his wife Hodesh, who bore him in the land of Moab.
(guest of a king), the name given to Mishael, one of the companions of Daniel, who with three others was taught,
and qualified to "stand before" King Nebuchadnezzar,
as his personal attendants and advisers.
But notwithstanding their Chaldeans education, these three young Hebrews were strongly attached to the religion of their fathers; and their refusal to join in the worship of the image on the plain of Dura gave a handle of accusation to the Chaldeans. The rage of the king, the swift sentence of condemnation passed upon the three offenders, their miraculous preservation from the fiery furnace heated seven times hotter than usual, the king’s acknowledgement of the God of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego, with their restoration to office, are written in the third chapter of Daniel, and there the history leaves them.
(whom Jehovah repays), a Korhite porter or gate-keeper of the house of Jehovah in the reign of David.
1Ch 9:21; 26:1,2,9
(delivered by God).
1. Ancestor of Meshullam, who assisted Nehemiah in rebuilding the wall of Jerusalem.
2. One of the "heads of the people," probably a family, who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah.
3. The father of Pethahiah, and descendant of Zerah the son of Judah.
(recompense), the son of Immer, a priest.
Ne 11:13; 1Ch 9:12
1. An Ephraimite, one of the chiefs of the tribe in the reign of Pekah.
2. The same as MESHILLEMITH.
1. Ancestor of Shaphan the scribe.
2. The son of Zerubbabel.
3. A Gadite in the reign of Jotham king of Judah.
4. A Benjamite, of the sons of Elpaal.
5. A Benjamite, father of Sallu.
1Ch 9:7; Ne 11:7
6. A Benjamite who lived at Jerusalem after the captivity.
7. The same as Shallum, who was high priest probably in the reign of Amon, and father of Hilkiah.
1Ch 9:11; Ne 11:11
8. A priest, son of Meshillemith or Meshillemoth the son of Immer, and ancestor of Maasiai or Amashai.
comp. Nehe 11:13
9. A Kohathite or a family of Kohathite Levites, in the reign of Josiah.
10. One of the "heads" sent by Ezra to Iddo, "the head," to gather together the Levites to join the caravan about to return to Jerusalem.
11. A chief man who assisted Ezra in abolishing the marriages which some of the people had contracted with foreign wives.
12. One of the descendants of Bani, who had married a foreign wife and put her away.
Ne 3:30; 6:18
The son of Berechiah, who assisted in rebuilding the wall of Jerusalem.
14. The son of Besodeiah: he assisted Jehoiada the son of Paseah in restoring the old gate of Jerusalem.
15. One of those who stood at the left hand of Ezra when he read the law to the people.
16. A priest or family of priests who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah.
17. One of the heads of the people who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah.
18. A priest in the days of Joiakim the son of Jeshua, and representative of the house of Ezra.
19. Also a priest at the same time as the preceding, and head of the priestly family of Ginnethon.
20. A family of porters, descendants of Meshullam,
who is also called Meshelemiah,
21. One of the princes of Judah at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem.
(friend), the daughter of Haruz of Jotbah, wife of Manasseh king of Judah, and mother of his successor, Amon.
a title attached to the name of Jasiel.
It is impossible to pronounce with any certainty to what it refers.
(between the rivers), the entire country between the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates. This is a tract nearly 700 miles long and from 20 to 250 miles broad, extending in a southeasterly direction from Telek to Kurnah. The Arabian geographers term it "the Island," a name which is almost literally correct, since a few miles only intervene between the source of the Tigris and the Euphrates at Telek. But the region which bears the name of Mesopotamia, par excellence, both in Scripture and in the classical writers, is the northwestern portion of this tract, or the country between the great bend of the Euphrates, lat. 35 degrees to 37 degrees 30’, and the upper Tigris. We first hear of Mesopotamia in Scripture as the country where Nahor and his family settled after quitting Ur of the Chaldees.
Here lived Bethuel and Laban; and hither Abraham sent his servants to fetch Isaac a wife. Ibid. ver. 38. Hither too, a century later, came Jacob on the same errand; and hence he returned with his two wives after an absence of twenty-one years. After this we have no mention of Mesopotamia till the close of the wanderings int he wilderness.
About half a century later we find, for the first and last time, Mesopotamia the seat of a powerful monarchy.
... Finally, the children of Ammon, having provoked a war with David, "sent a thousand talents of silver to hire them chariots and horsemen out of Mesopotamia, and out of Syria-maachah, and out of Zobah."
According to the Assyrian inscriptions Mesopotamia was inhabited in the early times of the empire, B.C. 1200-1100, by a vast number of petty tribes, each under its own prince, and all quite independent of one another. The Assyrian monarchs contended with these chiefs at great advantage, and by the time of Jehu, B.C. 880, had fully established their dominion over them. On the destruction of the Assyrian empire, Mesopotamia seems to have been divided between the Medes and the Babylonians. The conquests of Cyrus brought it wholly under the Persian yoke; and thus it continued to the time of Alexander. Since 1516 it has formed a part of the Turkish empire. It is full of ruins and mounds of ancient cities, some of which are now throwing much light on the Scripture.
(anointed). This word (Mashiach) answers to the word Christ (Christos) in the New Testament, and is applicable in its first sense to any one anointed with the holy oil. The kings of Israel were called anointed, from the mode of their consecration.
1Sa 2:10,35; 12:3,5
etc. This word also refers to the expected Prince of the chosen people who was to complete God’s purposes for them and to redeem them, and of whose coming the prophets of the old covenant in all time spoke. He was the Messiah, the Anointed, i.e. consecrated as the king and prophet by God’s appointment. The word is twice used in the New Testament of Jesus.
Joh 1:41; 4:25
Authorized Version "Messias." The earliest gleam of the gospel is found in the account of the fall.
the blessings in store for the children of Shem are remarkable indicated int he words of Noah.
Next follows the promise to Abraham.
A great step is made in
This is the first case in which the promises distinctly centre in one person. The next passage usually quoted is the prophecy of Balaam.
The prophecy of Moses,
claims attention. Passages in the Psalms are numerous which are applied to the Messiah in the New Testament; such as Psal 2,16,22,40,110. The advance in clearness in this period is great. The name of Anointed, i.e. King, comes in, and the Messiah is to come of the Lineage of David. He is described in his exaltation, with his great kingdom that shall be spiritual rather than temporal. Psal 2,21,40,110. In other places he is seen in suffering and humiliation. Psal 16,22,40. Later on the prophets show the Messiah as a king and ruler of David’s house, who should come to reform and restore the Jewish nation and purify the Church, as in Isai 11,40-66 The blessings of the restoration, however, will not be confined to Jews; the heathen are made to share them fully.
The passage of
(comp. Matt 2:6 ) left no doubt in the mind of the Sanhedrin as to the birthplace of the Messiah. The lineage of David is again alluded to in
The coming of the Forerunner and of the Anointed is clearly revealed in
Mal 3:1; 4:5,6
The Pharisees and those of the Jews who expected Messiah at all looked for a temporal prince only. The apostles themselves were infected with this opinion till after the resurrection.
Mt 20:20,21; Lu 24:21; Ac 1:6
Gleams of a purer faith appear in
Lu 2:30; 23:42; Joh 4:25
(anointed), the Greek form of Messiah.
Joh 1:41; 4:25
The Hebrews, in common with other ancient nations, were acquainted with nearly all the metals known to modern metallurgy, whether as the products of their own soil or the results of intercourse with foreigners. One of the earliest geographical definitions is that which describes the country of Havilah as the land which abounded in gold, and the gold of which was good.
"Abram was very rich in cattle, in silver, and in gold,"
silver, as will be shown hereafter, being the medium of commerce, while gold existed in the shape of ornaments, during the patriarchal ages. Tin is first mentioned
and lead is used to heighten the imagery of Moses’ triumphal song.
Whether the ancient Hebrews were acquainted with steel, properly so called, is uncertain; the words so rendered in the Authorized Version,
2Sa 22:35; Job 20:24; Ps 18:34; Jer 15:12
are in all others passages translated brass, and would be more correctly copper. The "northern iron" of
is believed more nearly to correspond to what we call steel [STEEL] It is supposed that the Hebrews used the mixture of copper and tin known as bronze. The Hebrews obtained their principal supply from the south of Arabia and the commerce of the Persian Gulf.
The great abundance of gold in early times is indicated by its entering into the composition of all articles of ornament and almost all of domestic use. Among the spoils of the Midianites taken by the Israelites in their bloodless victory when Balaam was slain were earrings and jewels to the amount of 16,750 shekels of gold,
equal in value to more than $150,000. Seventeen hundred shekels of gold (worth more than $15,000) in nose jewels (Authorized Version "ear-rings") alone were taken by Gideon’s army from the slaughtered Midianites.
But the amount of treasure accumulated by David from spoils taken in war is so enormous that we are tempted to conclude the numbers exaggerated. Though gold was thus common, silver appears to have been the ordinary medium of commerce. The first commercial transaction of which we possess the details was the purchase of Ephron’s field by Abraham for 400 shekels of silver.
The accumulation of wealth in the reign of Solomon was so great that silver was but little esteemed.
Brass, or more properly copper, was a native product of Palestine.
De 8:9; Job 28:2
It was plentiful in the days of Solomon, and the quantity employed in the temple could not be estimated, it was so great.
No allusion is found to zinc; but tin was well known. Arms,
2Sa 21:16; Job 20:24; Ps 18:34
were made of copper, which was capable of being so wrought as to admit of a keen and hard edge. Iron, like copper, was found in the hills of Palestine. Iron-mines are still worked by the inhabitants of Kefr Hunch, in the sought of the valley of Zaharani.
(bridle of the metropolis), a place which David took from the Philistines, apparently in his last war with them.
Ammah may be taken as meaning "mother-city" or "metropolis," comp.
and Metheg-he-Ammah "the bridle of the mother-city" —viz. of Gath, the chief town of the Philistines.
(man of God), the son of Mehujael, fourth in descent from Cain, and father of Lamech.
(man of the dart), the son of Enoch, sixth in descent from Seth, and father of Lamech.
Elsewhere given in Authorized Version as Mehunim and Mehunims.
(waters of gold), the father of Matred and grandfather of Mehetabel, who was wife of Hadar or Hadad, the last-named king of Edom.
Ge 36:39; 1Ch 1:50
(from the right hand).
1. A layman of Israel who had married a foreign wife and put her away at the bidding of Ezra.
2. A priest or family of priests who went up from Babylon with Zerubbabel.
(choicest), one of David’s heroes in the list given in
1. A son of Ishmael.
Ge 25:13; 1Ch 1:29
2. A son of Simeon.
(fortress), one of the "dukes" of Edom.
Ge 36:42; 1Ch 1:53
(who is like God?), the same name as Micaiah. [MICAIAH]
1. An Israelite whose familiar story is preserved in the 17th and 18th chapters of Judges. Micah is evidently a devout believers in Jehovah, and yet so completely ignorant is he of the law of Jehovah that the mode which he adopts of honoring him is to make a molten and graven image, teraphim or images of domestic gods, and to set up an unauthorized priesthood, first in his own family,
and then in the person of a Levite not of the priestly line. ver.
A body of 600 Danites break in upon and steal his idols from him.
2. The sixth in order of the minor prophets. He is called the Morasthite, that is, a native of Moresheth, a small village near Eleutheropolis to the east, where formerly the prophet’s tomb was shown, though in the days of Jerome it had been succeeded by a church. Micah exercised the prophetical office during the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, giving thus a maximum limit of 59 years, B.C. 756-697, from the accession of Jotham to the death of Hezekiah, and a minimum limit of 16 years, B.C. 742-726, from the death of Jotham to the accession of Hezekiah. He was contemporary with Hosea and Amos during the part of their ministry in Israel, and with Isaiah in Judah.
3. A descendant of Joel the Reubenite.
4. The son of Meribbaal or Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan.
1Ch 8:34,35; 9:40,41
5. A Kohathite levite, the eldest son of Uzziel the brother of Amram.
6. The father of Abdon, a man of high station in the reign of Josiah.
Mi’cah, The book of.
Three sections of this work represent three natural divisions of the prophecy —1, 2; 3-5; 6,7 —each commencing with rebukes and threatening and closing with a promise. The first section opens with a magnificent description of the coming of Jehovah to judgment for the sins and idolatries of Israel and Judah, ch. 1:2-4, and the sentence pronounced upon Samaria, vs. 5-9, by the Judge himself. The sentence of captivity is passed upon them.
but is followed instantly by a promise of restoration and triumphant return. ch.
The second section is addressed especially to the princes and heads of the people: their avarice and rapacity are rebuked in strong terms; but the threatening is again succeeded by a promise of restoration. In the last section, chs. 6,7, Jehovah, by a bold poetical figure, is represented as holding a controversy with his people, pleading with them in justification of his conduct toward them and the reasonableness of his requirements. The whole concludes with a triumphal song of joy at the great deliverance, like that from Egypt, which jehovah will achieve, and a full acknowledgment of his mercy and faithfulness of his promises. vs. 16-20. The last verse is reproduced in the song of Zacharias.
Micah’s prophecies are distinct and clear. He it is who says that the Ruler shall spring from Bethlehem. ch.
His style has been compared with that of Hosea and Isaiah. His diction is vigorous and forcible, sometimes obscure from the abruptness of its transitions, but varied and rich.
(who is like God?). Micahiah, the son of Imlah, was a prophet of Samaria, who in the last year of the reign of Ahab king of Israel predicted his defeat and death, B.C. 897.
1Ki 22:1-35; 2Ch 18:1
(who is like God?).
1. The son of Mephibosheth.
2. A Levite who signed the covenant with Nehemiah.
3. The father of Mattaniah, a Gershonite Levite and descendant of Ashaph.
(who is like God?).
1. An Asherite, father of Sethur, one of the twelve spies.
2. One of the Gadites who settled in the land of Bashan.
3. Another Gadite, ancestor of Abihail.
4. A Gershionite Levite, ancestor of Asaph.
5. One of the five sons of Izrahiah, of the tribe of Issachar.
6. A Benjamite of the sons of Beriah.
7. One of the captains of the "thousands" of Manasseh who joined David at Ziklag.
8. The father or ancestor of Omri, chief of the tribe of Issachar in the reign of David.
9. One of the sons of Jehoshaphat who were murdered by their elder brother, Jehoram.
10. The father or ancestor of Zebadiah, of the sons of Shephatiah.
11. "One," or "the first, of the chief princes" or archangels,
as the "prince" of Israel, and in ch.
as "the great prince which standeth" in time conflict "for the children of thy people."
(who is like God?), eldest son of Uzziel the son of Kohath,
(who is like God?).
1. Same as MICAH 6.
2. Same as MICHA 3.
1Ch 9:15; Ne 12:35
3. One of the priests at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem.
4. The daughter of Uriel of Gibeah, wife of Rehoboam and mother of Abijah king of Judah.
5. One of the princes of Jehoshaphat whom he sent to teach the law of Jehovah in the cities of Judah.
6. The son of Gemariah. He is only mentioned on one occasion.
(who is like God?), the younger of Saul’s two daughters,
who married David. The price fixed on Michal’s hand was no less than the slaughter of a hundred Philistines. David by a brilliant feat doubled the tale of victims, and Michal became his wife. Shortly afterward she saved David from the assassins whom her father had sent to take his life.
When the rupture between Saul and David had become open and incurable, she was married to another man, Phalti or Phaltiel of Gallim.
After the death of her father and brothers at Gilboa, David compelled her new husband to surrender Michal to him.
How Michal comported herself in the altered circumstances of David’s household we are not told; but it is plain from the subsequent occurrences that something had happened to alter the relations of herself and David, for on the day of David’s greatest triumph, when he brought the ark of Jehovah to Jerusalem, we are told that "she despised him in her heart." All intercourse between her and David ceased from that date.
Her name appears,
as the mother of five of the grandchildren of Saul.
(hidden), a town which is known to us almost solely by its connection with the Philistine war of Saul and Jonathan.
1Sa 13:1 ..., 14:1
... It has been identified with great probability in a village which still bears the name of Mukhmas, about seven miles north of Jerusalem. The place was thus situated in the very middle of the tribe of Benjamin. In the invasion of Sennacherib in the reign of Hezekiah, it is mentioned by Isaiah.
After the captivity the man of the place returned.
Ezr 2:27; Ne 7;31
At a later date it became the residence of Jonathan Maccabaeus and the seat of his government. 1 Macc. 9:73. In the time of Eusebius and Jerome it was "a very large village, retaining its ancient name, and lying near Ramah in the district of AElia (Jerusalem), at ten miles distance therefrom." Immediately below the village the great wady spreads out to a considerable width —perhaps half a mile; and its bed is broken up into an intricate mass of hummocks and mounds, two of which, before the torrents of three thousand winters had reduced and rounded their forms, were probably the two "teeth of cliff" —the Bozes and Seneh of Jonathan’s adventure.
(hiding-place), a place which formed one of the landmarks of the boundary of the territories of Ephraim and Manasseh on the western side of Jordan.
The position of the place must be somewhere on the east of and not far distant from Shechem.
(worthy of price), ancestor of Elah, one of the heads of the fathers of Benjamin.
(golden psalm). This word occurs in the titles of six psalms (16,56-60), all of which are ascribed to David. The marginal reading of our Authorized Version is "a golden psalm," while in the Geneva version it is described as "a certain tune." From the position which it occupies in the title we may infer that michtam is a term applied to these psalms to denote their musical character, but beyond this everything is obscure.
(measures), a city of Judah,
one of the six specified as situated in the district of "the midbar" (Authorized Version "wilderness").
(strife), a son of Abraham and Keturah,
Ge 25:2; 1Ch 1:32
progenitor of the Midianites, or Arabians dwelling principally in the desert north of the peninsula of Arabia. Southward they extended along the eastern shore of the Gulf of Eyleh (Sinus AElaniticus); and northward they stretched along the eastern frontier of Palestine. The "land of Midian," the place to which Moses fled after having killed the Egyptian,
or the portion of it specially referred to, was probably the peninsula of Sinai. The influence of the Midianties on the Israelites was clearly most evil, and directly tended to lead them from the injunctions of Moses. The events at Shittim occasioned the injunction to vex Midian and smite them. After a lapse of some years, the Midianites appear again as the enemies of the Israelites, oppressing them for seven years, but are finally defeated with great slaughter by Gideon. [GIDEON] The Midianites are described as true Arabs, and possessed cattle and flocks and camels as the sand of the seashore for multitude. The spoil taken in the war of both Moses and of Gideon is remarkable.
Nu 31:22; Jud 8:21,24-26
We have here a wealthy Arab nation, living by plunder, delighting in finery; and, where forays were impossible, carrying ont he traffic southward into Arabia, the land of gold —if not naturally, by trade— and across to Chaldea, or into the rich plains of Egypt.
(tower of God), one of the fortified towns of the possession of Naphtali,
only, possibly deriving its name from some ancient tower —the "tower of El," or God.
(tower of Gad), a city of Judah,
in the district of the Shefelah, or maritime lowland.
(tower), the name of one of two places on the eastern frontier of Egypt.
1. A Migdol is mentioned int he account of the exodus,
Ex 14:2; Nu 33:7,8
near the head of the Red Sea.
2. A Migdol is spoken of by Jeremiah and Ezekiel. The latter prophet mentions it as a boundary-town, evidently on the eastern border.
Eze 29:10; 30:6
In the prophecy of Jeremiah the Jews in Egypt are spoken of as dwelling at Migdol.
It seems plain, from its being spoken of with Memphis, and from Jews dwelling there, that this Midgol was an important town.
(precipice), a town or a spot in the neighborhood of Gibeah.
Migron is also mentioned in Sennacherib’s approach to Jerusalem.
(from the right hand).
1. The chief of the sixth of the twenty-four courses of priests established by David.
2. A family of priests who signed the covenant with Nehemiah; probably the descendants of the preceding.
1. One of the sons of Jehiel, the father or prince of Gibeon, by his wife Maachah.
1Ch 8:32; 9:37,38
2. The leader of the second division of David’s army.
(possession of Jehovah), one of the Levites of the second rank, gatekeepers of the ark, appointed by David to play in the temple band "with harps upon Sheminith."
(eloquent), probably a Gershonite Levite of the sons of Asaph, who assisted at the dedication of the walls of Jerusalem.
(queen or counsel).
1. Daughter of Haran and wife of her uncle Nahor, Abraham’s brother, to whom she bore eight children.
Ge 11:29; 22:20,23; 24:15,24,47
2. The fourth daughter of Zelophehad.
Nu 26:33; 27:1; 36:11; Jos 17:3
(great king). [MOLECH]
a Roman measure of length, equal to 1618 English yards —4854 feet, or about nine-tenths of an English mile. It is only once noticed in the Bible,
the usual method of reckoning both in the New Testament and in Josephus being by the stadium. The mile of the Jews is said to have been of two kinds, long or short, dependent on the length of the pace, which varied in different parts, the long pace being double the length of the short one.
less correctly called MILETUM in
It lay on the coast, 36 miles to the south of Ephesus, a day’s sail from Trogyllium.
Moreover, to those who are sailing from the north it is in the direct line for Cos. The site of Miletus has now receded ten miles from the coast, and even in the apostles’ time it must have lost its strictly maritime position. Miletus was far more famous five hundred years before St. Paul’s day than it ever became afterward. In early times it was the most flourishing city of the Ionian Greeks. In the natural order of events it was absorbed in the Persian empire. After a brief period of spirited independence, it received a blow from which it never recovered, in the siege conducted by Alexander when on his eastern campaign. But still it held, even through the Roman period, the rank of a second-rate trading town, and Strabo mentions its four harbors. At this time it was politically in the province of Asia, though Caria was the old ethnological name of the district in which it was situated. All that is left now is a small Turkish village called Melas, near the site of the ancient city.
As an article of diet, milk holds a more important position in eastern countries than with us. It is not a mere adjunct in cookery, or restricted to the use of the young, although it is naturally the characteristic food of childhood, both from its simple and nutritive qualities.
and particularly as contrasted with meat,
1Co 3:2; Heb 5:12
but beyond this it is regarded as substantial food adapted alike to all ages and classes. Not only the milk of cows, but of sheep,
and of goats,
was used; that latter appears to have been most highly prized.
The mills of the ancient Hebrews probably differed but little from those at present in use in the East. These consist of two circular stones, each about eighteen inches or two feet in diameter, the lower of which is fixed, and has its upper surface slightly convex, fitting into a corresponding concavity in the upper stone. In the latter is a hole thorough which the grain passes, immediately above a pivot or shaft which rises from the centre of the lower stone, and about which the upper stone is turned by means of an upright handle fixed near the edge. It is worked by women, sometimes singly and sometimes two together, who are usually seated on the bare ground.
"facing each other; both have hold of the handle by which the upper is turned round on the ‘nether’ millstone. The one whose right hand is disengaged throws in the grain as occasion requires through the hole in the upper stone. It is not correct to say that one pushes it half round and then the other seizes the handle. This would be slow work, and would give a spasmodic motion to the stone. Both retain their hold, and pull to or push from, as men do with the whip or cross-cut saw. The proverb of our Saviour,
is true to life, for women only grind. I cannot recall an instance in which men were at the mill." —Thomson, "The Land and the Book," c.34. So essential were millstones for daily domestic use that they were forbidden to be taken in pledge.
There were also larger mills that could only be turned by cattle or asses. Allusion to one of these is made in
With the movable upper millstone of the hand-mill the woman of Thebez broke Abimelech’s skull.
a kind of grain. A number os species are cultivated in the East. When green it is used as fodder, and for bread when ripe.
It is probable that both the Sorghum vulgare and that Panicum miliaceum were used, and the Hebrew dochan may denote either of these plants.
(a rampart, mound) a place in ancient Jerusalem. Both name and place seem to have been already in existence when the city was taken from the Jebusites by David.
2Sa 5:9; 1Ch 11:8
Its repair or restoration was one of the great works for which Solomon raised his "levy,"
1Ki 9:15,24; 11:27
and it formed a prominent part of the fortifications by which Hezekiah prepared for the approach of the Assyrians.
The last passage seems to show that "the Milo" was part of the "city of David," that is, of Zion. Comp.
Mil’lo, The house of.
1. Apparently a family or clan, mentioned in
only, in connection with the men or lords of Shechem.
2. The spot at which King Joash was murdered by his slaves.
A highly-poetical description given by the author of the book of Job of the operations of mining as known in his day is the only record of the kind which we inherit from the ancient Hebrews.
In the Wady Magharah, "the valley of the cave," are still traces of the Egyptian colony of miners who settled there for the purpose of extracting copper from the freestone rocks, and left their hieroglyphic inscriptions upon the face of the cliff. The ancient furnaces are still to be seen, and on the coast of the Red Sea are found the piers and wharves whence the miners shipped their metal in the harbor of Abu Zelimeh. Three methods were employed for refining gold and silver: (1) by exposing the fused metal to a current of air; (2) by keeping the alloy in a state of fusion and throwing nitre upon it; and (3) by mixing the alloy with lead, exposing the whole to fusion upon a vessel of bone-ashes or earth, and blowing upon it with bellows or other blast. There seems to be reference to the latter in
Ps 12:6; Jer 6:28-30; Eze 22:18-22
The chief supply of silver in the ancient world appears to have been brought from Spain. The Egyptians evidently possessed the art of working bronze in great perfection at a very early time, and much of the knowledge of metals which the Israelites had must have been acquired during their residence among them. Of tin there appears to have been no trace in Palestine. The hills of Palestine are rich in iron, and the mines are still worked there, though in a very simple, rude manner.
(from the right hand).
1. A Levite in the reign of Hezekiah.
2. The same as Miamin 2 and Mijamin 2.
3. One of the priests at the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem.
This term is used in the Authorized Version to describe various officials of a religious and civil character. Its meaning, as distinguished from servant, is a voluntary attendant on another. In the Old Testament it is applied (1) to an attendance upon a person of high rank,
Ex 24:13; Jos 1:1; 2Ki 4:43
(2) to the attaches of a royal court,
1Ki 10:5; 2Ch 22:8
comp. Psal 104:4 (3) to the priests and Levites.
Ezr 8:17; Ne 10:36; Isa 61:6; Eze 44:11; Joe 1:9,13
One term in the New Testament betokens a subordinate public administrator,
Ro 13:6; 15:16; Heb 8:2
one who performs certain gratuitous public services. A second term contains the idea of actual and personal attendance upon a superior, as in
The minister’s duty was to open and close the building, to produce and replace the books employed in the service, and generally to wait on the officiating priest or teacher. A third term, diakonos (from which comes our word deacon), is the one usually employed in relation to the ministry of the gospel: its application is twofold, —in a general sense to indicate ministers of any order, whether superior or inferior, and in a special sense to indicate an order of inferiors ministers. [DEACON]
already noticed as a portion of Armenia. [ARMENIA]
(distribution), a place on the east of the Jordan, named as the point to which Jephthah’s slaughter of the Ammonites extended.
The "wheat of Minnith" is mentioned in
as being supplied by Judah and Israel to Tyre; but there is nothing to indicate that the same place is intended, and indeed the word is believed by some not to be a proper name.
The Hebrew word in
properly signifies a player upon a stringed instruments like the harp or kinnor [HARP], whatever its precise character may have been, on which David played before Saul,
1Sa 16:16; 18:10; 19:9
and which the harlots of the great cities used to carry with them as they walked, to attract notice.
The "minstrels" in
were the flute-players who were employed as professional mourners, to whom frequent allusion is made.
2Ch 35:25; Ec 12:5; Jer 9:17-20
This name occurs only in
and Luke 11:42 as one of those herbs the tithe of which the Jews were most scrupulously exact in paying. The horse mint, M. Sylvestris, and several other species of mint are common in Syria.
(appointed place), The gate, one of the gates of Jerusalem.
It was probably not in the wall of Jerusalem proper, but in that of the city of David, or Zion, and somewhere near to the junction of the two on the north side.
A miracle may be defined to be a plain and manifest exercise by a man, or by God at the call of a man, of those powers which belong only to the Creator and Lord of nature; and this for the declared object of attesting that a divine mission is given to that man. It is not, therefore, the wonder, the exception to common experience, that constitutes the miracle, as is assumed both in the popular use of the word and by most objectors against miracles. No phenomenon in nature, however unusual, no event in the course of God’s providence, however unexpected, is a miracle unless it can be traced to the agency of man (including prayer under the term agency), and unless it be put forth as a proof of divine mission. Prodigies and special providences are not miracles. (A miracle is not a violation of the laws of nature. It is God’s acting upon nature in a degree far beyond our powers, but the same king of act as our wills are continually exerting upon nature. We do not in lifting a stone interfere with any law of nature, but exert a higher force among the laws. Prof. Tyndall says that "science does assert that without a disturbance of natural law quite as serious as the stoppage of an eclipse, or the rolling of the St. Lawrence up the falls of Niagara, no act of humiliation, individual or nation, could call one shower from heaven." And yet men by firing cannon during battle can cause a shower: does that cause such a commotion among the laws of nature? The exertion of a will upon the laws does not make a disturbance of natural law; and a miracle is simply the exertion of God’s will upon nature. —ED.) Again, the term "nature" suggests to many persons the idea of a great system of things endowed with powers and forces of its own —a sort of machine, set a-going originally by a first cause, but continuing its motions of itself. Hence we are apt to imagine that a change in the motion or operation of any part of it by God would produce the same disturbance of the other parts as such a change would be likely to produce in them if made by us or by any other natural agent. But if the motions and operations of material things be produced really by the divine will, then his choosing to change, for a special purpose, the ordinary motion of one part does not necessarily or probably imply his choosing to change the ordinary motions of other parts in a way not at all requisite for the accomplishment of that special purpose. It is as easy for him to continue the ordinary course of the rest, with the change of one part, as of all the phenomena without any change at all. Thus, though the stoppage of the motion of the earth in the ordinary course of nature would be attended with terrible convulsions, the stoppage of the earth miraculously, for a special purpose to be served by that only, would not of itself be followed by any such consequences. (Indeed, by the action of gravitation it could be stopped, as a stone thrown up is stopped, in less than two minutes, and yet so gently as not to stir the smallest feather or mote on its surface. —ED.) From the same conception of nature as a machine, we are apt to think of interferences with the ordinary course of nature as implying some imperfection in it. But it is manifest that this is a false analogy; for the reason why machines are made is to save us trouble; and, therefore, they are more perfect in proportion as they answer this purpose. But no one can seriously imagine that the universe is a machine for the purpose of saving trouble to the Almighty. Again, when miracles are described as "interferences with the law of nature," this description makes them appear improbable to many minds, from their not sufficiently considering that the laws of nature interfere with one another, and that we cannot get rid of "interferences" upon any hypothesis consistent with experience. The circumstances of the Christian miracles are utterly unlike those of any pretended instances of magical wonders. This difference consists in — (1) The greatness, number, completeness and publicity of the miracles. (2) In the character of the miracles. They were all beneficial, helpful, instructive, and worthy of God as their author. (3) The natural beneficial tendency of the doctrine they attested. (4) The connection of them with a whole scheme of revelation extending from the origin of the human race to the time of Christ.
(rebellion), the sister of Moses, was the eldest of that sacred family; and she first appears, probably as a young girl, watching her infant brother’s cradle in the Nile,
and suggesting her mother as a nurse. ver. 7. After the crossing of the Red Sea "Miriam the prophetess" is her acknowledged title. ch.
The prophetic power showed itself in her under the same form as that which it assumed in the days of Samuel and David, —poetry, accompanied with music and processions. ch.
She took the lead, with Aaron, in the complaint against Moses for his marriage with a Cushite,
and for this was attacked with leprosy. This stroke and its removal, which took place at Hazeroth, form the last public event of Miriam’s life. ch.
She died toward the close of the wanderings at Kadesh, and was buried there. ch.
(B.C. about 1452.)
(fraud), a Benjamite, born in the land of Moab.
Ex 38:8; Job 37:18
The Hebrew women on coming out of Egypt probably brought with them mirrors like those which were used by the Egyptians, and were made of a mixed metal, chiefly copper, wrought with admirable skill, and susceptible of a bright lustre.
(height), a place in Moab.
It appears to be mentioned also in
thorough there rendered in the Authorized Version "high fort."
(who is what God is?).
1. One of the sons of Uzziel, the uncle of Aaron and Moses.
when Nadab and Abihu were struck dead for offering strange fire, Mishael and his brother Elzaphan, at the command of Moses, removed their bodies from the sanctuary, and buried them without the camp, their loose-fitting tunics serving for winding-sheets.
2. One of those who stood at Ezra’s left hand when he read the law to the people.
(entreaty), one of the towns in the territory of Asher,
allotted to the Gershonite Levites. ch.
(purification), a Benjamite, son of Elpaal and descendant of Shaharaim.
1. A son of Ishmael and brother of Mibsam.
Ge 25:14; 1Ch 1:30
2. A son of Simeon,
brother of Mibsam.
(fatness), the fourth of the twelve lion-faced Gadites who joined David at Ziklag.
the fourth of the four "families of Kirjath-jearim," i.e. colonies proceeding therefrom and founding towns.
one of those who returned with Zerubbabel and Jeshua from Babylon.
(the flew of waters), a place in northern Palestine. Dr. Thomson treats Misrephoth-maim as identical with a collection of springs called Ain-Musheirifeh, on the seashore close under the Ras en-Nakhura; but this has the disadvantage of being very far from Sidon. May it not rather be the place with which we are familiar in the later history as Zarephat, near Sidon?
a coin current in Palestine in the time of our Lord.
Mr 12:41-44; Lu 21:1-4
It seems in Palestine to have been the smallest piece of money (worth about one-fifth of a cent), being the half of the farthing, which was a coin of very low value. From St. Mark’s explanation, "two mites, which make a farthing," ver. 42, it may perhaps be inferred that the farthing was the commoner coin.
(sweetness), the name of an unknown desert encampment of the Israelites.
the designation of Joshaphat, one of David’s guard in the catalogue of
(given by Mithra).
1. The treasurer of Cyrus king of Persia, to whom the king gave the vessels of the temple.
2. A Persian officer stationed at Samaria.
(something rolled around the head), the turban or headdress of the high priest, made of fine linen cloth, eight yards long, folded around the head. On the front was a gold plate on which was inscribed Holiness to the Lord.
Ex 28:4,37,39; 39:28,30; Le 8:9
(mutilated), the chief town of Lesbos, an island of the AEgean Sea, 7 1/2 miles from the opposite point of Asia Minor. The city is situated on the east coast of the island. Mitylene is the intermediate place where St. Paul stopped for the night between Assos and Chios.
The town itself was celebrated in Roman times for the beauty of its buildings. In St. Paul’s day it had the privileges of a free city. (It is now a place of no importance, called Mitelin. It contains about 1100 houses, Greek and Turkish, with narrow and filthy streets. —ED.)
When the Israelites journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, the first stage of the exodus from Egypt, there were up with them "a mixed multitude."
Ex 12:38; Nu 11:4
They were probably the offspring of marriages contracted between the Israelites and the Egyptians; and the term may also include all those who were not of pure Israelite blood. In Exodus and Numbers it probably denoted the miscellaneous hangers-on of the Hebrew camp, whether they were the issue of spurious marriages with Egyptians or were themselves Egyptians, or belonging to other nations. The same happened on the return from Babylon, and in
(comp. vs Nehe 13:23-30 ) a slight clue is given by which the meaning of the "mixed multitude" may be more definitely ascertained.
(small), The hill, a mountain apparently in the northern part of transjordanic Palestine, from which the author of Psalm 42 utters his pathetic appeal. ver. 6. (It is probably a summit of the eastern ridge of Lebanon, not far from Mahanaim, where David lay after escaping from the rebellion of Absalom. —McClintock and Strong.)
andMiz’peh (a watch-tower), the name of several places in Palestine.
1. The earliest of all, in order of the narrative, is the heap of stones piled up by Jacob and Laban,
on Mount Gilead, ver.
to serve both as a witness to the covenant then entered into and as a landmark of the boundary between them. ver.
On this natural watch-tower did the children of Israel assemble for the choice of a leader to resist the children of Ammon.
There the fatal meeting took place between Jephthah and his daughter on his return from the war. ch.
It seems most probable that the "Mizpeh-gilead" which is mentioned here, and here only, is the same as the "ham-Mizpah" of the other parts of the narrative; and both are probably identical with the Ramath-mizpeh and Ramoth-gilead, so famous in the later history.
2. A second Mizpeh, on the east of Jordan, was the Mizpeh-moab, where the king of that nation was living when David committed his parents to his care.
3. A third was "the land of Mizpeh," or more accurately "of Mizpah," the residence of the Hivites who joined the northern confederacy against Israel, headed by Jabin king of Hazor.
No other mention is found of this district in the Bible, unless it be identical with —
4. The valley of Mizpeh, to which the discomfited hosts of the same confederacy were chased by Joshua,
perhaps identical with the great country of Coele-Syria.
5. Mizpeh, a city of Judah,
in the district of the Shefelah or maritime lowland.
6. Mizpeh, in Joshua and Samuel; elsewhere Mizpah, a "city" of Benjamin, not far from Jerusalem.
Jos 18:26; 1Ki 15:22; 2Ch 16:6; Ne 3:7
It was one of the places fortified by Asa against the incursions of the kings of northern Israel,
1Ki 15:22; 2Ch 16:6; Jer 41:10
and after the destruction of Jerusalem it became the residence of the superintendent appointed by the king of Babylon,
etc., and the scene of his murder and of the romantic incidents connected with the name of Ishmael the son of Nethaniah. It was one of the three holy cities which Samuel visited in turn as judge of the people,
the other two being Bethel and Gilgal. With the conquest of Jerusalem and the establishment there of the ark, the sanctity of Mizpah, or at least its reputation, seems to have declined. From Mizpah the city or the temple was visible. These conditions are satisfied by the position of Scopus, the broad ridge which forms the continuation of the Mount of Olives to the north and cast, from which the traveller gains, like Titus, his first view, and takes his last farewell, of the domes, walls and towers of the holy city.
(number); properlyMispar, the same as MISPERETH.
(the two Egypts; red soil), the usual name of Egypt in the Old Testament the dual of Mazor, which is less frequently employed. Mizraim first occurs in the account of the Hamites in
... In the use of the name Mizraim for Egypt there can be no doubt that the dual indicates the two regions, upper and lower Egypt, into which the country has always been divided by nature as well as by its inhabitants.
(fear), son of Reuel and grandson of Esau.
Ge 36:13,17; 1Ch 1:37
(remembering) is honorably mentioned in Scripture.
It is most likely that his residence at this time was not Caesarea, but Jerusalem. He was a Cyprian by birth, and may have been a friend of Barnabas.
(of his father), Mo’abites. Moab was the son of the Lot’s eldest daughter, the progenitor of the Moabites. Zoar was the cradle of the race of Lot. From this centre the brother tribes spread themselves. The Moabites first inhabited the rich highlands which crown the eastern side of the chasm of the Dead Sea, extending as far north as the mountain of Gilead, from which country they expelled the Emims, the original inhabitants,
but they themselves were afterward driven southward by the warlike Amorites, who had crossed the Jordan, and were confined to the country south of the river Arnon, which formed their northern boundary.
Nu 21:13; Jud 11:18
The territory occupied by Moab at the period of its greatest extent, before the invasion of the Amorites, divided itself naturally into three distinct and independent portions:— (1) The enclosed corner or canton south of the Arnon was the "field of Moab."
etc. (2) The more open rolling country north of the Arnon, opposite Jericho, and up to the hills of Gilead, was the "land of Moab."
De 1:5; 32:49
etc. (3) The sunk district in the tropical depths of the Jordan valley.
etc. The Israelites, in entering the promised land, did not pass through the Moabites,
but conquered the Amorites, who occupied the country from which the Moabites had been so lately expelled. After the conquest of Canaan the relations of Moab with Israel were of a mixed character, sometimes warlike and sometimes peaceable. With the tribe of Benjamin they had at least one severe struggle, in union with their kindred the Ammonites.
The story of Ruth, on the other hand, testifies to the existence of a friendly intercourse between Moab and Bethlehem, one of the towns of Judah. By his descent from Ruth, David may be said to have had Moabite blood in his veins. He committed his parents to the protection of the king of Moab, when hard pressed by Saul.
But here all friendly relations stop forever. The next time the name is mentioned is in the account of David’s war, who made the Moabites tributary.
2Sa 8:2; 1Ch 18:2
At the disruption of the kingdom Moab seems to have fallen to the northern realm. At the death of Ahab the Moabites refused to pay tribute and asserted their independence, making war upon the kingdom of Judah.
... As a natural consequence of the late events, Israel, Judah and Edom united in an attack on Moab, resulting in the complete overthrow of the Moabites. Falling back into their own country, they were followed and their cities and farms destroyed. Finally, shut up within the walls of his own capital, the king, Mesha, in the sight of the thousands who covered the sides of that vast amphitheater, killed and burnt his child as a propitiatory sacrifice to the cruel gods of his country. Isaiah, chs.
predicts the utter annihilation of the Moabites; and they are frequently denounced by the subsequent prophets. For the religion of the Moabites see CHEMOSH; MOLECH; PEOR.
MOLECH -See 8046
PEOR -See 8375
See also Tristram’s "Land of Moab." Present condition. —(Noldeke says that the extinction of the Moabites was about A.D. 200, at the time when the Yemen tribes Galib and Gassara entered the eastern districts of the Jordan. Since A.D. 536 the last trace of the name Moab, which lingered in the town of Kir-moab, has given place to Kerak, its modern name. Over the whole region are scattered many ruins of ancient cities; and while the country is almost bare of larger vegetation, it is still a rich pasture-ground, with occasional fields of grain. The land thus gives evidence of its former wealth and power. —ED.)
Mo’abite Stone, The.
In the year 1868 Rev. F. Klein, of the Church Missionary Society at Jerusalem, found at Dhiban (the biblical Dibon), in Moab, a remarkable stone, since called the Moabite Stone. It was lying on the ground, with the inscription uppermost, and measures about 3 feet 9 inches long, 2 feet 4 inches wide and 1 foot 2 inches thick. It is a very heavy, compact black basalt. An impression was made of the main block, and of certain recovered parts broken off by the Arabs. It was broken by the Arabs, but the fragments were purchased by the French government for 32,000 francs, and are in the Louvre in Paris. The engraved face is about the shape of an ordinary gravestone, rounded at the top. On this stone is the record in the Phoenician characters of the wars of Mesha, king of Moab, with Israel.
It speaks of King Omri and other names of places and persons mentioned in the Bible, and belongs to this exact period of jewish and Moabite history. The names given on the Moabite Stone, engraved by one who knew them in daily life, are, in nearly every case, identical with those found in the Bible itself, and testify to the wonderful integrity with which the Scriptures have been preserved. "The inscription reads like a leaf taken out of a lost book of Chronicles. The expressions are the same; the names of gods, kings and of towns are the same." —(See Rawlinson’s "Historical Illustrations;" American Cyclopedia; and Bibliotheca Sacra, Oct. 20, 1870. —ED.)
a place not mentioned in either the Old or the New Testament, though rendered immortal by its connection with the history of the Jews in the interval between the two. It was the native city of the Maccabaean family, 1 Macc. 13:25, and as a necessary consequence contained their ancestral sepulchre. ch. 2:70; 9:19; 13:25-30. At Modin the Maccabean armies encamped on the eves of two of their most memorable victories —that of Judas over Antiochus Eupator, 2 Macc. 13:14, and that of Simon over Cendebeus. 1 Macc. 16:4. The only indication of the position of the place to be gathered from the above notices is contained in the last, from which we may infer that it was near "the plain," i.e. the great maritime lowland of Philistia. ver. 5. The description of the monuments seems to imply that the spot was so lofty as to be visible from the sea, and so near that even the details of the sculpture were discernible therefrom. All these conditions, excepting the last, are tolerably fulfilled in either of the two sides called Latran and Kubub.
Elsewhere Nehe 12:5 called MAADIAH.
(birth, race), a city of Judah, one of those which lay in the district of "the south."
Jos 15:26; 19:2
In the latter tribe it remained at any rate till the reign of David,
but by the time of the captivity it seems to have come back into the hands of Judah, by whom it was reinhabited after the captivity.
It may be placed at el-Milh, which is about 4 English miles from Tell Arad, 17 or 18 from Hebron, and 9 or 10 due east of Beersheba.
It is probable that the animals mentioned with the tinshemeth in the above passage denote different kinds of lizards; perhaps, therefore, the chameleon is the animal intended.
2. Chephor peroth is rendered "moles" in
(The word means burrowers, hole-diggers, and may designate any of the small animals, as rats and weasels, which burrow among ruins. Many scholars, according to McClintock and Strong’s "Cyclopedia," consider that the Greek aspalax is the animal intended by both the words translated mole. It is not the European mole, but is a kind of blind mole-rat, from 8 to 12 inches long, feeding on vegetables, and burrowing like a mole, but on a larger scale. It is very common in Russia, and Hasselquiest says it is abundant on the plains of Sharon in Palestine. —ED.)
(king). The fire-god Molech was the tutelary deity of the children of Ammon, and essentially identical with the Moabitish Chemosh. Fire-gods appear to have been common to all the Canaanite, Syrian and Arab tribes, who worshipped the destructive element under an outward symbol, with the most inhuman rites. According to Jewish tradition, the image of Molech was of brass, hollow within, and was situated without Jerusalem. "His face was (that) of a calf, and his hands stretched forth like a man who opens his hands to receive (something) of his neighbor. And they kindled it with fire, and the priests took the babe and put it into the hands of Molech, and the babe gave up the ghost." Many instances of human sacrifices are found in ancient writers, which may be compared with the description of the Old Testament of the manner in which Molech was worshipped. Molech was the lord and master of the Ammonites; their country was his possession,
as Moab was the heritage of Chemosh; the princes of the land were the princes of Malcham.
Jer 49:3; Am 1:15
His priests were men of rank,
taking precedence of the princes. The priests of Molech, like those of other idols, were called Chemarim.
2Ki 23:5; Ho 10:5; Zep 1:4
Mahli, the son of Merari. 1 Esdr. 8:47; comp
(begetter), the son of Abishur by his wife Abihail, and descendant of Jerahmeel.
The same as Molech. MOLECH
1. Uncointed money. —It is well known that ancient nations that were without a coinage weighed the precious metals, a practice represented on the Egyptian monuments, on which gold and silver are shown to have been kept in the form of rings. We have no evidence of the use of coined money before the return from the Babylonian captivity; but silver was used for money, in quantities determined by weight, at least as early as the time of Abraham; and its earliest mention is in the generic sense of the price paid for a slave.
The 1000 pieces of silver paid by Abimelech to Abraham,
and the 20 pieces of silver for which Joseph was sold to the Ishmaelites,
were probably rings such as we see on the Egyptian monuments in the act of being weighed. In the first recorded transaction of commerce, the cave of Machpelah is purchased by Abraham for 400 shekels of silver. The shekel weight of silver was the unit of value through the whole age of Hebrew history, down to the Babylonian captivity.
2. Coined money. —After the captivity we have the earliest mention of coined money, in allusion, as might have been expected, to the Persian coinage, the gold daric (Authorized version dram).
Ezr 2:69; 8:27; Ne 7:70,71,72
[DARIC] No native Jewish coinage appears to have existed till Antiochus VII. Sidetes granted Simon Maccabaeus the license to coin money, B.C. 140; and it is now generally agreed that the oldest Jewish silver coins belong to this period. They are shekels and half-shekels, of the weight of 220 and 110 grains. With this silver there was associated a copper coinage. The abundant money of Herod the Great, which is of a thoroughly Greek character, and of copper only, seems to have been a continuation of the copper coinage of the Maccabees, with some adaptation to the Roman standard. In the money of the New Testament we see the native copper coinage side by side with the Graeco-Roman copper, silver and gold. (The first coined money mentioned in the Bible refers to the Persian coinage,
1Ch 29:7; Ezr 2:69
and translated dram. It is the Persian daric, a gold coin worth about $5.50. The coins mentioned by the evangelists, and first those of silver, are the following: The stater,
called piece of money, was a Roman coin equal to four drachmas. It was worth 55 to 60 cents, and is of about the same value as the Jewish stater, or coined shekel. The denarius, or Roman penny, as well as the Greek drachma, then of about the same weight, are spoken of as current coins.
Mt 22:15-21; Lu 20:19-25
They were worth about 15 cents. Of copper coins the farthing and its half, the mite, are spoken of, and these probably formed the chief native currency. (The Roman farthing (quadrans) was a brass coin worth .375 of a cent. The Greek farthing (as or assarion) was worth four Roman farthings, i.e. about one cent and a half. A mite was half a farthing, and therefore was worth about two-tenths of a cent if the half of the Roman farthing, and about 2 cents if the half of the Greek farthing. See table of Jewish weights and measures. —ED.)
Mt 21:12; Mr 11:15; Joh 2:15
every Israelite who had reached or passed the age of twenty must pay into the sacred treasury, whenever the nation was numbered, a half-shekel as an offering to Jehovah. The money-changers whom Christ, for their impiety, avarice and fraudulent dealing, expelled from the temple were the dealers who supplied half-shekels, for such a premium as they might be able to exact, to the Jews from all parts of the world who assembled at Jerusalem during the great festivals, and were required to pay their tribute or ransom money in the Hebrew coin.
From the time of the institution of the Mosaic law downward the religious feasts commencing with the passover depended not simply on the month, but on the moon; the 14th of Abib was coincident with the full moon; and the new moons themselves were the occasions of regular festivals.
Nu 10:10; 28:11-14
The commencement of the month was generally decided by observation of the new moon. The usual number of months in a year was twelve, as implied in
1Ki 4:7; 1Ch 27:1-15
but since twelve lunar months would make but 354 1/2 days, the years would be short twelve days of the short twelve days of the true year, and therefore it follows as a matter of course that an additional month must have been inserted about every third year, which would bring the number up to thirteen. No notice, however, is taken of this month in the Bible. In the modern Jewish calendar the intercalary month is introduced seven times in every nineteen years. The usual method of designating the months was by their numerical order, e.g. "the second month,"
"the fourth month,"
and this was generally retained even when the names were given, e.g. "in the month Zif, which is the second month."
The names of the months belong to two distinct periods. In the first place we have those peculiar to the period of Jewish independence, of which four only, even including Abib, which we hardly regard as a proper name are mentioned, viz.: Abib, in which the passover fell,
Ex 13:4; 23:15; 34:18; De 16:1
and which was established as the first month in commemoration of the exodus,
Zif, the second month,
Bul, the eighth,
and Ethanim, the seventh.
and Ethanim, the seventh.
In the second place we have the names which prevailed subsequent to the Babylonish captivity; of these the following seven appear in the Bible: Nisan, the first, in which the passover was held,
Ne 2:1; Es 3:7
Sivan, the third
Bar. 1:8; Elul, the sixth,
1 Macc. 14:27; Chisleu, the ninth,
Ne 1:1; Zec 7:1
1 Macc. 1:54; Tebeth, the tenth,
Sebat, the eleventh,
1 Macc. 16:14; and Adar, the twelfth.
Es 3:7; 8:1
2 Macc. 15:36. The names of the remaining five occur int he Talmud and other works; they were, Iyar, the second, Targum;
Tammuz, the fourth; Ab, the fifth; Tisri, the seventh; and Marcheshvan, the eighth. The name of the intercalary month was Ve-adar, i.e. the additional Adar. The identification of the jewish months with our own cannot be effected with precision on account of the variations that must inevitably exist between the lunar and the solar month. Nisan (or Abib) answers to March; Zif or Iyar to May; Sivan to June; Tammuz to July; Ab to August; Elul to September; Ethanim or Tisri to October; Bul or Marcheshvan to November; Chisleu to December; Tebeth to January; Sebat to February; and Adar to March.
The moon held an important place in the kingdom of nature, as known to the Hebrews. Conjointly with the sun, it was appointed "for signs and for seasons, and for days and years;" though in this respect it exercised a more important influence, if by the "seasons" we understand the great religious festivals of the Jews, as is particularly stated in
and more at length in Ecclus 43:6,7. The worship of the moon prevailed extensively among the nations of the East, and under a variety of aspects. It was one of the only two deities which commanded the reverence of all the Egyptians. The worship of the heavenly bodies is referred to in
and Moses directly warns the Jews against it.
In the figurative language of Scripture, the moon is frequently noticed as presaging events of the greatest importance through the temporary or permanent withdrawal of its light.
Isa 13:10; Joe 2:31; Mt 24:29; Mr 13:24
NEW MOON -
that is, the native of a place named Moresheth. It occurs twice —
Jer 26:18; Mic 1:1
—each time as the description of the prophet Micah.
(little man, or worshipper or Mars), the deliverer, under divine Providence, of the Jews from the destruction plotted against them by Haman the chief minister of Xerxes; the institutor of the feast of Purim. The incidents of his history are too well known to need to be dwelt upon. [ESTHER] Three things are predicated of Mordecai in the book of Esther:
(1) That he lived in Shushan; (2) That his name was Mordecai, son of Jair, son of Shimei, son of Kish the Benjamite who was taken captive with Jehoiachin; (3) That he brought up Esther.
1. The plain or plains (or, as it should rather be rendered, the oak or oaks) of Moreh. The oak of Moreh was the first recorded halting-place of Abram after his entrance into the land of Canaan.
It was at the "place of Shechem," ch.
close to the mountains of Ebal and Gerizim.
2. The hill of Moreh, at the foot of which the Midianites and Amalekites were encamped before Gideon’s attack upon them.
It lay in the valley of Jezreel, rather on the north side of the valley, and north also of the eminence on which Gideon’s little band of heroes was clustered. These conditions are most accurately fulfilled if we assume Jebel ed-Duhy, the "Little Hermon" of the modern travellers, 1815 feet above the Mediterranean, to be Moreh, the Ain-Jalood to be the spring of Harod, and Gideon’s position to have been on the northeast slope of Jebel Fukua (Mount Gilboa), between the village of Nuris and the last-mentioned spring.
(possession of Gath), a place named by the prophet Micah.
The prophet was himself a native of a place called Moresheth.
(chosen by Jehovah).
1. The land of Moriah —On "one of the mountains" in this district took place the sacrifice of Isaac.
Its position is doubtful, some thinking it to be Mount MOriah, others that Moreh, near Shechem, is meant. [See MOUNT MORIAH]
MOUNT -See 8067
2. Mount Moriah. —The elevation on which Solomon built the temple, where God appeared to David "in the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite." it is the Eastern eminence of Jerusalem, separated from Mount Zion by the Tyropoeon valley. The tope was levelled by Solomon, and immense walls were built around it from the base to enlarge the level surface for the temple area. A tradition which first appears in a definite shape in Josephus, and is now almost universally accepted, asserts that the "Mount Moriah" of the Chronicles is identical with the "mountain" in "the land of Moriah" of Genesis, and that the spot on which Jehovah appeared to David, and on which the temple was built, was the very spot of the sacrifice of Isaac. (Smith, Stanley and Grove are, however, inclined to doubt this tradition.)
"a wide-mouthed vessel in form of an inverted bell, in which substances are pounded or bruised with a pestle." —Webster. The simplest and probably most ancient method of preparing corn for food was by pounding it between two stones. The Israelites in the desert appear to have possessed mortars and handmills among their necessary domestic utensils. When the manna fell they gathered it, and either ground it in the mill or pounded it in the mortar till it was fit for use.
So in the present day stone mortars are used by the Arabs to pound wheat for their national dish kibby. Another word occurring in
probably denotes a mortar of a larger kind in which corn was pounded: "Though thou shouldest bray a fool in a mortar among wheat with a pestle, yet will not his foolishness depart from him." Corn may be separated from its husk and all its good properties preserved by such an operation, but the fool’s folly is so essential a part of himself that no analogous process can remove it from him. Such seems the natural interpretation of this remarkable proverb. The language is intentionally exaggerated, and there is no necessity for supposing an allusion to a mode of punishment by which criminals were put to death by being pounded in a mortar. A custom of this king existed among the Turks, but there is no distinct trace of it among the Hebrews. Such, however, is supposed to be the reference in the proverb by Mr. Roberts, who illustrates it from his Indian experience.
Ge 11:3; Ex 1:14; Le 14:42,45; Isa 41:25; Eze 13:10,11,14,15;
22:28; Ne 3:14
The various compacting substances used in Oriental buildings appear to be —
1. Bitumen, as in the Babylonian structures;
2. Common mud or moistened clay;
3. A very firm cement compounded of sand, ashes and lime, in the proportions respectively of 1,2,3, well pounded, sometimes mixed and sometimes coated with oil, so as to form a surface almost impenetrable to wet or the weather. In Assyrian and also Egyptian brick buildings, stubble or straw, as hair or wool among ourselves, was added to increase the tenacity.
apparently the same as Moseroth,
its plural form, the name of a place near Mount Hor.
(Heb. Mosheh, "drawn," i.e. from the water; in the Coptic it means "saved from the water"), the legislator of the Jewish people, and in a certain sense the founder of the Jewish religion. The immediate pedigree of Moses is as follows: Levi was the father of: Gershon — Kohath — Merari Kohath was the father of: Amram = Jochebed Amram = Jochebed was the father of: Hur = Miriam — Aaron = Elisheba — Moses = Zipporah Aaron = Elisheba was the father of: Nadab — Abihu — Eleazar — Ithamar Eleazar was the father of: Phineas Moses = Zipporah was the father of: Gershom — Eliezer Gershom was the father of: Jonathan The history of Moses naturally divides itself into three periods of 40 years each. Moses was born at Goshen, In Egypt, B.C.
1571. The story of his birth is thoroughly Egyptian in its scene. His mother made extraordinary efforts for his preservation from the general destruction of the male children of Israel. For three months the child was concealed in the house. Then his mother placed him in a small boat or basket of papyrus, closed against the water by bitumen. This was placed among the aquatic vegetation by the side of one of the canals of the Nile. The sister lingered to watch her brother’s fate. The Egyptian princess, who, tradition says, was a childless wife, came down to bathe in the sacred river. Her attendant slaves followed her. She saw the basket in the flags, and despatched divers, who brought it. It was opened, and the cry of the child moved the princess to compassion. She determined to rear it as her own. The sister was at hand to recommend a Hebrew nurse, the child’s own mother. here was the first part of Moses’ training, —a training at home in the true religion, in faith in God, in the promises to his nation, in the life of a saint, —a training which he never forgot, even amid the splendors and gilded sin of Pharaoh’s court. The child was adopted by the princess. From this time for many years Moses must be considered as an Egyptian. In the Pentateuch this period is a blank, but in the New Testament he is represented as "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians," and as "mighty in words and deeds."
this was the second part of Moses’ training. The second period of Moses’ life began when he was forty years old. Seeing the sufferings of his people, Moses determined to go to them as their helper, and made his great life-choice, "choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season; esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt."
Seeing an Israelite suffering the bastinado from an Egyptian, and thinking that they were alone, he slew the Egyptian, and buried the corpse in the sand. But the people soon showed themselves unfitted as yet to obtain their freedom, nor was Moses yet fitted to be their leader. He was compelled to leave Egypt when the slaying of the Egyptian became known, and he fled to the land of Midian, in the southern and southeastern part of the Sinai peninsula. There was a famous well ("the well,")
surrounded by tanks for the watering of the flocks of the Bedouin herdsmen. By this well the fugitive seated himself and watched the gathering of the sheep. There were the Arabian shepherds, and there were also seven maidens, whom the shepherds rudely drove away from the water. The chivalrous spirit which had already broken forth in behalf of his oppressed countrymen broke forth again in behalf of the distressed maidens. They returned unusually soon to their father, Jethro, and told him of their adventure. Moses, who up to this time had been "an Egyptian,"
now became for a time an Arabian. He married Zipporah, daughter of his host, to whom he also became the slave and shepherd.
Ex 2:21; 3:1
Here for forty years Moses communed with God and with nature, escaping from the false ideas taught him in Egypt, and sifting out the truths that were there. This was the third process of his training for his work; and from this training he learned infinitely more than from Egypt. Stanely well says, after enumerating what the Israelites derived from Egypt, that the contrast was always greater than the likeness. This process was completed when God met him on Horeb, appearing in a burning bush, and, communicating with him, appointed him to be the leader and deliverer of his people. Now begins the third period of forty years in Moses’ life. He meets Aaron, his next younger brother, whom God permitted to be the spokesman, and together they return to Goshen in Egypt. From this time the history of Moses is the history of Israel for the next forty years. Aaron spoke and acted for Moses, and was the permanent inheritor of the sacred staff of power. But Moses was the inspiring soul behind. he is incontestably the chief personage of the history, in a sense in which no one else is described before or since. He was led into a closer communion with the invisible world than was vouchsafed to any other in the Old Testament. There are two main characters in which he appears —as a leader and as a prophet. (1) As a leader, his life divides itself into the three epochs —the march to Sinai; the march from Sinai to Kadesh; and the conquest of the transjordanic kingdoms. On approaching Palestine the office of the leader becomes blended with that of the general or the conqueror. By Moses the spies were sent to explore the country. Against his advice took place the first disastrous battle at hormah. To his guidance is ascribed the circuitous route by which the nation approached Palestine from the east, and to his generalship the two successful campaigns in which Sihon and Og were defeated. The narrative is told so briefly that we are in danger of forgetting that at this last stage of his life Moses must have been as much a conqueror and victorious soldier as was Joshua. (2) His character as a prophet is, from the nature of the case, more distinctly brought out. He is the first as he is the greatest example of a prophet in the Old Testament. His brother and sister were both endowed with prophetic gifts. The seventy elders, and Eldad and Medad also, all "prophesied."
But Moses rose high above all these. With him the divine revelations were made "mouth to mouth."
Of the special modes of this more direct communication, four great examples are given, corresponding to four critical epochs in his historical career. (a) The appearance of the divine presence in the flaming acacia tree.
(b) In the giving of the law from Mount Sinai, the outward form of the revelation was a thick darkness as of a thunder-cloud, out of which proceeded a voice.
Ex 19:19; 20:21
on two occasions he is described as having penetrated within the darkness.
Ex 24:18; 34:28
(c) It was nearly at the close of these communications in the mountains of Sinai that an especial revelation of God was made to him personally.
Ex 33:21,22; 34:5,6,7
God passed before him. (d) The fourth mode of divine manifestation was that which is described as beginning at this juncture, and which was maintained with more or less continuity through the rest of his career.
It was the communication with God in the tabernacle from out the pillar of cloud and fire. There is another form of Moses’ prophetic gift, viz., the poetical form of composition which characterizes the Jewish prophecy generally. These poetical utterances are —
1. "The song which Moses and the children of Israel sung" (after the passage of the Red Sea).
2. A fragment of the war-song against Amalek.
3. A fragment of lyrical burst of indignation.
4. The fragments of war-songs, probably from either him or his immediate prophetic followers, in
preserved in the "book of the wars of Jehovah,"
and the address to the well. ch.
and the address to the well. ch.
5. The song of Moses,
setting forth the greatness and the failings of Israel.
6. The blessing of Moses on the tribes,
7. The 90th Psalm, "A prayer of Moses, the man of God." The title, like all the titles of the psalms, is of doubtful authority, and the psalm has often been referred to a later author. Character. —The prophetic office of Moses can only be fully considered in connection with his whole character and appearance.
He was in a sense peculiar to himself the founder and representative of his people; and in accordance with this complete identification of himself with his nation is the only strong personal trait which we are able to gather from his history.
The word "meek" is hardly an adequate reading of the Hebrew term, which should be rather "much enduring." It represents what we should now designate by the word "disinterested." All that is told of him indicates a withdrawal of himself, a preference of the cause of his nation to his own interests, which makes him the most complete example of Jewish patriotism. (He was especially a man of prayer and of faith, of wisdom, courage and patience.) In exact conformity with his life is the account of his end. The book of Deuteronomy describes, and is, the long last farewell of the prophet to his people. This takes place on the first day of the eleventh month of the fortieth year of the wanderings, in the plains of Moab.
Moses is described as 120 years of age, but with his sight and his freshness of strength unabated.
Joshua is appointed his successor. The law is written out and ordered to be deposited in the ark. ch. 31. The song and the blessing of the tribes conclude the farewell. chs. 32,33. And then comes the mysterious close. He is told that he is to see the good land beyond the Jordan, but not to possess it himself. He ascends the mount of Pisgah and stands on Nebo, one of its summits, and surveys the four great masses of Palestine west of the Jordan, so far as it can be discerned from that height. The view has passes into a proverb for all nations. "So Moses the servant of Jehovah died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of Jehovah. And he buried him in a ‘ravine’ in the land of Moab, ‘before’ Beth-peor: but no man knoweth of his sepulchre unto this day... And the children of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days."
This is all that is said in the sacred record. (This burial was thus hidden probably — (1) To preserve his grave from idolatrous worship or superstitious reverence; and (2) Because it may be that God did not intend to leave his body to corruption, but to prepare it, as he did the body of Elijah, so that Moses could in his spiritual body meet Christ, together with Elijah, on the mount of transfiguration.) Moses is spoken of as a likeness of Christ; and as this is a point of view which has been almost lost in the Church, compared with the more familiar comparisons of Christ to Adam, David, Joshua, and yet has as firm a basis in fact as any of them, it may be well to draw it out in detail. (1) Moses is, as it would seem, the only character of the Old Testament to whom Christ expressly likens himself: "Moses wrote of me."
It suggests three main points of likeness: (a) Christ was, like Moses, the great prophet of the people —the last, as Moses was the first. (b) Christ, like Moses, is a lawgiver: "Him shall ye hear." (c) Christ, like Moses, was a prophet out of the midst of the nation, "from their brethren." As Moses was the entire representative of his people, feeling for them more than for himself, absorbed in their interests, hopes and fears, so, with reverence be it said, was Christ. (2) In
Heb 3:1-19; 12:24-29; Ac 7:37
Christ is described, though more obscurely, as the Moses of the new dispensation —as the apostle or messenger or mediator of God to the people —as the controller and leader of the flock or household of God. (3) The details of their lives are sometimes, though not often, compared.
Ac 7:24-28, 35
is an allusion to an altercation between Michael and Satan over the body of Moses. It probably refers to a lost apocryphal book, mentioned by Origen, called the "Ascension" or "Assumption of Moses." Respecting the books of Moses, see PENTATEUCH.
By the Hebrew word we are certainly to understand some species of clothes-moth (tinea). Reference to the destructive habits of the clothes-moth is made in
Job 4:19; 13:28; Ps 39:11
etc. (The moth is a well-known insect which in its caterpillar state is very destructive to woollen clothing, furs, etc. The egg of the moth, being deposited on the fur or cloth, produces a very small shining insect, which immediately forms a house for itself by cuttings from the cloth. It east away the nap, and finally ruins the fabric. There are more than 1500 species of moths. —McClintock and Strong’s Cyclopedia.)
The superiority of the Hebrew over all contemporaneous systems of legislation and of morals is strongly shown in the higher estimation of the mother in the Jewish family, as contrasted with modern Oriental as well as ancient Oriental and classical usage. The king’s mother, as appears in the case of Bath-sheba, was treated with special honor.
Ex 20:12; Le 19:3; De 5:16; 21:18,21; 1Ki 2:29; Pr 10:1;
15:20; 17:25; 29:15; 31:1,30
Isa 29:3; Jer 6:6
The Hebrew word har, like the English "mountain." is employed for both single eminences more or less isolated, such as Sinai. Gerizim, Ebal, Zion and Olivet, and for ranges, such as Lebanon. It is also applied to a mountainous country or district.
Mountain of the Amorites,
comp. Deut 1:44 It seems to be the range which rises abruptly from the plateau of et-Tih, south of Judea, running from a little south of west to north of east, and of which the extremities are the Jebel Araif en-Nakah westward and Jebel el-Mukrah eastward, and from which line the country continues mountainous all the way to Hebron.
One marked feature of Oriental mourning is what may be called its studies publicity and the careful observance of the prescribed ceremonies.
Ge 23:2; Job 1:20; 2:12
1. Among the particular forms observed the following may be mentioned: (a) Rending the clothes.
Ge 37:29,34; 44:13
etc. (b) Dressing in sackcloth.
Ge 37:34; 2Sa 3:31; 21:10
etc. (c) Ashes, dust or earth sprinkled on the person.
2Sa 13:19; 15:32
etc. (d) Black or sad-colored garments.
2Sa 14:2; Jer 8:21
etc. (e) Removal of ornaments or neglect of person.
etc. (f) Shaving the head, plucking out the hair of the head or beard.
Le 10:6; 2Sa 19:24
etc. (g) Laying bare some part of the body.
Isa 20:2; 47:2
etc. (h) Fasting or abstinence in meat and drink.
2Sa 1:12; 3:35; 12:16,22
etc. (i) In the same direction may be mentioned diminution in offerings to God, and prohibition to partake of sacrificial food.
Le 7:20; De 26:14
(k) Covering the "upper lip," i.e. the lower part of the face, and sometimes the head, in token of silence.
Le 13:45; 2Sa 15:30; 19:4
(l) Cutting the flesh,
Jer 16:6,7; 41:5
beating the body.
Eze 21:12; Jer 31:19
(m) Employment of persons hired for the purpose of mourning.
Ec 12:5 Jer 9:17; Am 5:16; Mt 9:23
(n) Akin to the foregoing usage the custom for friends or passers-by to join in the lamentations of bereaved or afflicted persons.
Ge 50:3; Jud 11:40; Job 2:11; 30:25
etc. (o) The sitting or lying posture in silence indicative of grief.
Ge 23:3; Jud 20:26
etc. (p) Mourning feast and cup of consolation.
2. The period of mourning varied. In the case of Jacob it was seventy days,
and Moses, Deut 34:8 thirty. A further period of seven days in Jacob’s case.
Seven days for Saul, which may have been an abridged period in the time of national danger.
With the practices above mentioned, Oriental and other customs, ancient and modern, in great measure agree. Arab men are silent in grief, but the women scream, tear their hair, hands and face, and throw earth or sand on their heads. Both Mohammedans and Christians in Egypt hire wailing-women, and wail at stated times. Burckhardt says the women of Atbara in Nubia shave their heads on the death of their nearest relatives —a custom prevalent also among several of the peasant tribes of upper Egypt. He also mentions wailing-women, and a man in distress besmearing his face with dirt and dust in token of grief. In the "Arabian Nights" are frequent allusions to similar practices. It also mentions ten days and forty days as periods of mourning. Lane, speaking of the modern Egyptians, says, "After death the women of the family raise cries of lamentation called welweleh or wilwal, uttering the most piercing shrieks, and calling upon the name of the deceased, ‘Oh, my master! Oh, my resource! Oh, my misfortune! Oh, my glory!" See
The females of the neighborhood come to join with them in this conclamation: generally, also, the family send for two or more neddabehs or public wailing-women. Each brings a tambourine, and beating them they exclaim, ‘Alas for him!’ The female relatives, domestics and friends, with their hair dishevelled and sometimes with rent clothes, beating their faces, cry in like manner, ‘Alas for him!’ These make no alteration in dress, but women, in some cases, dye their shirts, head-veils and handkerchiefs of a dark-blue color. They visit the tombs at stated periods." —Mod. Eg. iii. 152,171,195.
(the corn-eater). The name of this animal occurs in
Le 11:29; 1Sa 6:4,5; Isa 66:17
The Hebrew word is in all probability generic, and is not intended to denote any particular species of mouse. The original word denotes a field-ravager, and may therefore comprehend any destructive rodent. Tristram found twenty-three species of mice in Palestine. It is probable that in
the expression "the mice that mar the land" includes and more particularly refers to the short-tailed field-mice (Arvicola agrestis, Flem.), which cause great destruction to the corn-lands of Syria.
As the great heat of the climate in Palestine and other similarly situated countries soon dries up the herbage itself, hay-making in our sense of the term is not in use. The "king’s mowings,"
may perhaps refer to some royal right of early pasturage for the use of the cavalry.
1. Son of Caleb the son of Hezron.
2. Son of Zimri and descendant of Saul.
1Ch 8:36,37; 9:42,43
(fountain), one of the cities in the allotment of Benjamin,
only, named between hae-Cephirah and Rekem.
(Heb. becaim). Mention of these is made only in
and 1Chr 14:14 We are quite unable to determine what kind of tree is denoted by the Hebrew word. Some believe pear trees are meant; others the aspen or poplar, whose leaves tremble and rustle with the slightest breeze, even when the breeze is not otherwise perceptible. It may have been to the rustling of these leaves that the "going in the tree tops" refers.
a hybrid animal, the offspring of a horse and an ass. "The mule is smaller than the horse, and is a remarkably hardy, patient, obstinate, sure-footed animal, living, ordinarily, twice as long as a horse." —McClintock and Strong’s Cyclopedia. It was forbidden to the Israelites to breed mules, but sometimes they imported them. It would appear that only kings and great men rode on mules. We do not read of mules at all in the New Testament; perhaps therefore they had ceased to be imported.
(serpent), a Benjamite, and one of the fourteen descendants of Rachael who belonged to the original colony of the sons of Jacob in Egypt.
(B.C. 1706.) In
the name is given as SHUPHAM.
The law of Moses, while it protected the accidental homicide, defined with additional strictness the crime of murder. It prohibited compensation or reprieve of the murderer, or his protection if he took refuge in the refuge city, or even at the altar of Jehovah.
Ex 21:12,14; Le 24:17,21; 1Ki 2:5,6,31
The duty of executing punishment on the murderer is in the law expressly laid on the "revenger of blood;" but the question of guilt was to be previously decided by the Levitical tribunal. In regal times the duty of execution of justice on a murderer seems to have been assumed to some extent by the sovereign, as was also the privilege of pardon.
2Sa 13:39; 14:7,11; 1Ki 2:34
It was lawful to kill a burglar taken at night in the act, but unlawful to do so after sunrise.
(yielding), the son of Merari the son of Kohath.
Ex 6:19; Nu 3:20; 1Ch 6:19,47; 23:21,23; 24:26,30
1. The most ancient music. —The inventor of musical instruments, like the first poet and the first forger of metals, was a Cainite. We learn from
that Jubal the son of Lamech was "the father of all such as handle the harp and organ," that is, of all players upon stringed and wind instruments. The first mentioned of music in the times after the deluge is in the narrative of Laban’s interview with Jacob,
so that, whatever way it was preserved, the practice of music existed in the upland country of Syria, and of the three possible kinds of musical instruments two were known and employed to accompany the song. The three kinds are alluded to in
On the banks of the Red Sea Moses and the children of Israel sang their triumphal song of deliverance from the hosts of Egypt; and Miriam, in celebration of the same event, exercised one of her functions as a prophetess by leading a procession of the women of the camp, chanting in chorus the burden of the song of Moses. The song of Deborah and Barak is cast in a distinctly metrical form, and was probably intended to be sung with a musical accompaniment as one of the people’s songs. The simpler impromptu with which the women from the cities of Israel greeted David after the slaughter of the Philistines was apparently struck off on the spur of the moment, under the influence of the wild joy with which they welcomed their national champion. "the darling of the sons of Israel."
Up to this time we meet with nothing like a systematic cultivation of music among the Hebrews, but the establishment of the schools of the prophets appears to have supplied this want. Whatever the students of these schools may have been taught, music was an essential part of their practice. Professional musicians soon became attached to the court.
2. The golden age of Hebrew music. David seems to have gathered round him "singing men and singing women."
Solomon did the same,
adding to the luxury of his court by his patronage of art, and obtaining a reputation himself as no mean composer.
But the temple was the great school of music, and it was consecrated to its highest service in the worship of Jehovah. Before, however the elaborate arrangements had been made by David for the temple choir, there must have been a considerable body of musicians throughout the country.
(David chose 4000 musicians from the 38,000 Levies in his reign, or one in ten of the whole tribe. Of these musicians 288 were specially trained and skillful.
The whole number was divided into 24 courses, each of which would thus consist of a full band of 154 musicians, presided over by a body of 12 specially-trained leaders, under one of the twenty-four sons of Asaph, Heman or Jeduthun as conductor. The leaders appear to have played on the cymbals, perhaps to make the time.
1Ch 15:19; 16:5
All these joined in a special chant which David taught them, and which went by his name.
Women also took part in the temple choir.
1Ch 13:8; 25:5,6
These great choirs answered one to another in responsive singing; thus the temple music most have been grand and inspiring beyond anything known before that time.
3. Character of Hebrew music.—As in all Oriental nations, the music of the Hebrews was melody rather than harmony, which latter was then unknown. All old and young, men and maidens, singers and instruments, appear to have sung one part only in or in octaves. "The beauty of the music consisted altogether in the melody;" but this, with so many instruments and voices, was so charming that "the whole of antiquity is full of the praises of this music. By its means battles were won, cities conquered, mutinies quelled, diseases cured." —ED.)
4. Uses of music. —In the private as well as in the religions life of the Hebrews music held a prominent place. The kings had their court musicians,
2Ch 35:25; Ec 2:8
and in the luxurious times of the later monarchy the effeminate gallants of Israel amused themselves with devising musical instruments while their nation was perishing ("as Nero fiddled while Rome was burning"). But music was also the legitimate expression of mirth and gladness The bridal processions as they passed through the streets were accompanied with music and song.
The music of the banquets was accompanied with song and dancing.
The triumphal processions which celebrated victory were enlivened by minstrels and singers.
Ex 15:1,20; Jud 5:1; 11:34
There were also religious songs.
Isa 30:29; Jas 5:13
Love songs are alluded to; in
title, and Isai 5:1 There were also the doleful songs of the funeral procession, and the wailing chant of the mourners. The grape-gatherers sang at their work, and the women sang as they toiled at the mill, and on every occasion the land of the Hebrews during their national prosperity was a land of music and melody.
Musical instruments of the Hebrews.
(There has been great obscurity as to the instruments of music in use among the Hebrews, but the discoveries on the monuments of Egypt and Assyria have thrown much light upon the form and nature of these instruments. I. STRINGED INSTRUMENTS.—
1. The harp or lyre. [See illustration]
2. The psaltery, the name of various large instruments of the harp kind.
3. The sackbut, a harp-like instrument of four strings and of triangular form.
4. A kind of lute or guitar (mahalath), in titles to
and Psal 88:1 with a long, flat neck, and a hollow body of wood whose surface was perforated with holes. There were three strings, end the whole instrument was three or four feet long.
5. The gittith, in titles to
Ps 8:1, 81:1, 84:1
a stringed instrument, probably found by David st Gath, whence its name. II. INSTRUMENTS OF PERCUSSION.
1. The timbrel, a form of tambourine, a narrow hoop covered with a tightened skin, and struck with the hand on the Egyptian monuments are three kinds —the circular, the square, and another formed by two squares separated by a bar.
2. The drum (toph). Of this there were many varieties, some of them resembling modern drums. The Egyptians had along drum, of wood or copper, 2 1/2 feet long, resembling the tom-tom of India, and beaten by the hand. Another form was shaped like a cask with bulging centre, and was made of copper. It was of the same length as the other, but larger around, and was beaten with sticks. Another drum was more like our kettledrum; and one of these, the rabbins say, was placed in the temple court to the priests to prayer, and could be heard from Jerusalem to Jericho.
3. Bells (paanton), attached to the high priest’s dress, and rung by striking against the knobs, shaped like pomegranates, which were hung near them.
4. Cymbals. The earliest cymbals were probably finger cymbals -small plates of metal fastened to the thumb and middle finger, and struck together. Afterward there were the large cymbals, played with both hands.
5. Systra (menaanim),
there translated comets. The systrum was a carved bronze or copper frame, with a handle, in all from 8 to 18 inches long, with movable rings and bars. It was shaken with the hand, and the rings and bars made a piercing metallic sound by striking against the bronze frame.
6. The triangle (shalishim),
a musical instrument (machol) used for accompanying the dance, and several times translated dancing.
It was a metallic rim or frame sometimes with a handle and had small bells attached to it, or bars across on which were strung metallic rings or plates. It was held in the hand, and was played by the women at weddings and merry-makings. III. WIND INSTRUMENTS. —
1. The syrinx, pandean pipe or bagpipe (ugab); translated "organ" in
Either like the bagpipe, or a series of pipes from 5 to 23 in number, though usually only 7.
2. The horn,in the form of an animal’s horn even when made of metal but originating in the use of the horns of cattle.
3. The trumpet (shophar) same as horn, 2.
4. The straight trumpet.
5. The flute (halil, meaning "bored through "), a pipe perforated with holes, originally made from reeds, but afterward of wood bone, horn or ivory. It was chiefly consecrated to joy or pleasure.
6. The flute, alluded to in
probably a kind of double flageolet.
7. The dulcimer,
a kind of bagpipe with two shrill reeds. The modern dulcimer is a triangular instrument strung with about 60 brass wires, and played upon with little sticks or metallic rods. It more resembles the ancient psaltery than the dulcimer of
is mentioned in
Mt 13:31; 17:20; Mr 4:31; Lu 13:19; 17:6
It is generally agreed that the mustard tree of Scripture is the black mustard (Sinapis nigru). The objection commonly made against any sinapis being the plant of the parable is that the reed grew into "a tree," in which the fowls of the air are said to come and lodge. As to this objection, it is urged with great truth that the expression is figurative and Oriental, and that in a proverbial simile no literal accuracy is to be expected. It is an error, for which the language of Scripture is not accountable, to assert that the passage implies that birds "built their nests" in the tree: the Greek word has no such meaning; the word merely means "to settle or rest upon" anything for a longer or shorter time; nor is there any occasion to suppose that the expression "fowls of the air" denotes any other than the smaller insessorial kinds—linnets, finches, etc. Hiller’s explanation is probably the correct one,—that the birds came and settled on the mustard-plant for the sake of the seed, of which they are very fond. Dr. Thomson also says he has seen the wild mustard on the rich plain of Akkar as tall as the horse and the rider. If, then, the wild plant on the rich plain of Akkar grows as high as a man on horseback, it might attain to the same or a greater height when in a cultivated garden. The expression "which is indeed-the least of all seeds" is in all probability hyperbolical, to denote a very small seed indeed, as there are many seeds which are smaller than mustard. The Lord in his popular teaching," says Trench ("Notes on Parables", 108), "adhered to the popular language;" and the mustard-seed was used proverbially to denote anything very minute; or may mean that it was the smallest of all garden seeds, which it is in truth.
"To the chief musician upon Muth-labben" is the title of
which has given rise to infinite conjecture. It may be either upon the death (muth) of the fool (labben), as an anagram on Nabal or as Gesenius, "to be chanted by boys with virgins’ voices," i.e. in the soprano.
an important town in Lycia, on the southwest coast of Asia Minor, on the river Andriacus, 21 miles from its mouth referred to in
Myra (named Dembra by the Greeks) Is remarkable still for its remains of various periods of history.
This substance is mentioned in
as one of the ingredients of the "oil of holy ointment:" in
as one of the substances used in the purification of women; in
Ps 45:8, Pr 7:17
and in several passages in Canticles, as a perfume. The Greek occurs in
among the gifts brought by the wise men to the infant Jesus and in
it is said that "wine mingled with myrrh" was offered to but refused by, our Lord on the cross. Myrrh was also used for embalming. See John 19;39 and Herod. ii. 86. The Balsamodendron myrrha, which produces the myrrh of commerce, has a wood and bark which emit a strong odor; the gum which exudes from the bark is at first oily, but becomes hard by exposure to the air. (This myrrh is in small yellowish or white globules or tears. The tree is small, with a stunted trunk, covered with light-gray bark, It is found in Arabia Felix. The myrrh of
was probably ladalzum, a highly-fragrant resin and volatile oil used as a cosmetic, and stimulative as a medicine. It is yielded by the cistus, known in Europe as the rock rose, a shrub with rose-colored flowers, growing in Palestine and along the shores of the Mediterranean. —ED.) For wine mingled with myrrh see GALL.
a plant mentioned in
Ne 8:15; Isa 41:19; 55:13; Zec 1:8,10,11
The modern Jews still adorn with myrtle the booths and sheds at the feast of tabernacles. Formerly, as we learn from Nehemiah,
myrtles grew on the hills about Jerusalem. "On Olivet." says Dean Stanley, "nothing is now to be seen but the olive and the fig tree:" on some of the hills near Jerusalem, however, Hasselquist observed the myrtle. Dr. Hooker says it is not uncommon in Samaria and Galilee. The Myrtus communis is the kind denoted by the Hebrew word. (It is a shrub or low tree sometimes ten feet high, with green shining leaves, and snow-white flowers bordered with purple, "which emit a perfume more exquisite than that of the rose." The seeds of the myrtle, dried before they are ripe, form our allspice. —ED.)
(land of beech trees)
was the region about the frontier of the provinces of Asia and Bithynia. The term is evidently used in an ethnological, not a political, sense.
(pleasantness), one of the sons of Caleb the son of Jephunneh.
(B.C. about 1451-1420.)