(horse’s mane), a son of Cush and father of the Cushite Sheba and Dedan.
(B.C. after 2513.) The tribe of Raamah became afterward renowned as traders.
They were settled on the Persian Gulf.
(thunder of Jehovah), one of the chiefs who returned with Zerubbabel.
he is called REELAIAH. (B.C. 445.)
1. A very strong place on the east of the Jordan, and the chief city of the Ammonites. In five passages —
De 3:11; 2Sa 12:26; 17:27; Jer 49:2; Eze 21:20
—it is styled at length Rabbath of the Ammonites, or the children of Ammon; but elsewhere,
Jos 13:25; 2Sa 11:1; 12:27,29; 1Ch 20:1; Jer 49:3
simply Rabbah. When first named it is mentioned as containing the bed or sarcophagus of the giant Og.
David sent Joab to besiege Rabbah.
etc. Joab succeeded in capturing a portion of the place —the "city of waters," that is, the lower town so called from its containing the perennial stream which rises in and still flows through it. The citadel still remained to be taken, but this was secured shortly after David’s arrival.
Long after, at the date of the invasion of Nebuchadnezzar,
it had walls and palaces. It is named in such terms as to imply that it was of equal importance with Jerusalem.
From Ptolemy Philadelphus (B.C. 285-247) it received the name of Philadelphia. It was one of the cities of the Decapolis, and became the seat of a Christian bishop. Its ruins, which are considerable are found at Ammon about 22 miles from the Jordan. It lies in a valley which is a branch, or perhaps the main course, of the Wady Zerka usually identified with the Jabbok. The public buildings are said to be Roman, except the citadel, which is described as of large square stones put together without cement, and which is probably more ancient than the rest.
2. A city of Judah named with Kirjath-jearim in
only. No trace of its existence has yet been discovered.
Rab’bath of the Children of Ammon,
andRabbath of the Ammonites, [See RABBATH]
a title of respect signifying master, teacher, given by the Jews to their doctors and teachers, and often addressed to our Lord.
Mt 23:7,8; 26:25,49; Mr 9:6; 11:21; 14:45; Joh 1:38,49;
3:2,26; 4:31; 6:25; 9:2; 11:8
Another form of the title was Rabboni.
The titles were used with different degrees of honor; the lowest being rab, master then rabbi, my master; next rabban, our master; and greatest of all, Rabboni, my great master.
(multitude) a town in the territory, perhaps on the boundary, of Issachar.
a title borne by Nergal-sharezer, probably identical with the king called by the Greeks Neriglissar. [NERGAL-SHAREZER] (it probably means chief of the magi; at all events it was "an office of great power and dignity at the Babylonian court, and probably gave its possessor special facilities for gaining the throne.")
(chief of the eunuchs).
1. An officer of the king of Assyria sent up with Tartan and Rabshakeh against Jerusalem in the time of Hezekiah.
2. One of the princes of Nebuchadnezzar, who was present at the capture of Jerusalem, B.C. 588.
Rabsaris is probably rather the name of an office than of an individual.
2Ki 18:1..., 19:1 ...; Isa 36:1 ..., 37:1
... one of the officers of the king of Assyria sent against Jerusalem in the reign of Hezekiah. [HEZEKIAH] (B.C. 713.) The English version takes Rabshakeh as the name of a person; but it is more probably the name of the office which he held at the court, that of chief cupbearer.
a term of reproach derived from the Chaldee reka, worthless. ("Raca denotes a certain looseness of life and manners, while ‘fool,’ in the same passage, means a downright wicked and reprobate person.")
Rahab the harlot.
a town in the southern part of the tribe of Judah, one of the towns to which David sent presents out of the spoil of the Amalekites.
(ewe, or sheep), the younger of the daughters of Laban, the wife of Jacob (B.C. 1753) and mother of Joseph and Benjamin. The incidents of her life may be found in Gene 29-33, 35. The story of Jacob and Rachel has always had a peculiar interest. The beauty of Rachel, Jacob’s deep love and long servitude for her, their marriage, and Rachel’s death on giving birth to Benjamin, with Jacob’s grief at her loss,
makes a touching tale. Yet from what is related to us concerning her character there does not seem much to claim any high degree of admiration and esteem. She appears to have shared all the duplicity and falsehood of her family. See, for instance, Rachel’s stealing her father’s images, and the ready dexterity and presence of mind with which she concealed her theft.
... "Rachel died and was buried on the way to Ephrath, which is Bethlehem. (B.C. 1729.) And Jacob set a pillar upon her grave; that is the pillar of Rachel’s grave unto this day."
The site of Rachel’s tomb, "on the way to Bethlehem," "a little way to come to Ephrath," "in the border of Benjamin," never been questioned. It Is about two miles south of Jerusalem and one mile north of Bethlehem.
(trampling), one of David’s brothers, fifth son of Jesse.
one of the ancestors of our Lord, son of Peleg.
He is the same person with Reu, son of Peleg.
an important city in northeastern Media, where that country bordered its ruins, still known by the name of Rhey, lie about five miles southeast of Teheran.
(friend of God).
1. Probably the same as Jethro. [JETHRO; HOBAB] (B.C. 1490.)
HOBAB -See 7003
2. A pious Jew of "Ecbatane, a of Media," father of Sara, the wife of Tobias. Tob. 3:7,17, etc.
(wide), a celebrated woman of Jericho who received the spies sent by Joshua to spy out the land, hid them in her house from the pursuit of her countrymen, was saved with all her family when the Israelites sacked the city, and became the wife of Salmon and the ancestress of the Messiah.
Jos 2:1; Mt 1:5
(B.C. 1450.) She was a "harlot", and probably combined the trade of lodging-keeper for wayfaring men. Her reception of the spies, the artifice by which she concealed them from the king: their escape, and the saving of Rahab and her family at the capture of the city in accordance with their promise, are fold in the narrative of
... As regards Rahab herself, she probably repented, and we learn from
that she became the wife of Salmon the son of Naasson, and the mother of Boaz, Jesse’s grandfather. The author of the Epistle to the Hebrews tells us that "by faith the harlot Rahab perished not with them that believed not, when she had received the spies with peace,"
and St. James fortifies his doctrine of justification by works by asking, "Was not Rahab the harlot justified by works, when she had received the messengers, and had sent them out another way?"
a poetical name of Egypt,
Ps 89:10; Isa 51:9
signifying "fierceness, insolence, pride." Rahab, as a name of Egypt, occurs once only without reference to the exodus: this is in
the name is alluded to.
(belly). In the genealogy of the descendants of Caleb the son of Hezron,
Raham is described as the son of Shema and father of Jorkoam.
the original form in our Authorized Version of the now familiar Rachel.
In the Bible "early rain" signifies the rain of the autumn,
and "latter rain" the rain of spring.
For six months in the year, from May to October, no rain falls, the whole land becomes dry, parched and brown. The autumnal rains are eagerly looked for, to prepare the earth for the reception of the seed. These, the early rains, commence about the latter end of October continuing through November and December. January and February are the coldest months, and snow falls, sometimes to the depth of a foot or more, at Jerusalem, but it does not lie long; it is very seldom seen along the coast and in the low plains. Rain continues to fall more or less during the month of March it is very rare in April. Robinson observes that there are not, at the present day, "any particular periods of rain or succession of showers which might be regarded as distinct rainy seasons. The whole period from October to March now constitutes only one continued season of rain, without any regularly-intervening term of prolonged fine weather. Unless therefore, there has been some change in the climate, the early and the latter rains, for which the husbandman waited with longing, seem rather to hare implied the first showers of autumn—which revived the parched and thirsty soil and prepared it for the seed —and the later showers of spring, which continued to refresh and forward both the ripening crops and the vernal products of the fields."
Jas 5:7; Pr 16:15
the token of the covenant which God made with Noah when he came forth from the ark that the waters should no more become a flood to destroy all flesh. The right interpretation of
seems to be that God took the rainbow, which had hitherto been but a beautiful object shining in the heavens when the sun’s rays fell on falling rain, and consecrated it as the sign of his love and the witness of his promise. Ecclus. 43:11. The rainbow is a symbol of God’s faithfulness and mercy. In the "rainbow around the throne,"
is seen the symbol of hope and the bright emblem of mercy and love, all the more true as a symbol because it is reflected from the storm itself.
(flower garden), a descendant of Machir the son of Manasseh.
(B.C. before 1451.)
(shore), a fortified city in the tribe of Naphtali.
It was on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, not far from the warm baths of Tiberias.
(the temple) (of the head), a well-watered place in the inheritance of Dan, not fur from Joppa.
1. A son of Hezron and the father of Ammin-adab, born in Egypt after Jacob’s migration there.
(B.C. 1706.) In
and Luke 3:33 he is called ARAM in the Authorized Version, but RAM in the Revised Version of
and ARNI in the Revised Version of
2. The first-born of Jerahmeel, and therefore nephew of the preceding.
(B.C. after 1706.)
3. One of the kindred of Elihu.
Ewald identified this Ram with ARAM in
It is the Greek form of Ramah.
(a hill). This is the name of several places in the holy land.
1. One of the cities of the allotment of Benjamin.
Its site is at er-Ram, about five miles from Jerusalem, and near to Gibeah.
Jud 4:5; 19:13; 1Sa 22:6
Its people returned after the captivity.
Ezr 2:26; Ne 7:30
2. The home of Elkanah, Samuel’s father,
1Sa 1:19; 2:11
the birthplace of Samuel himself, his home and official residence, the site of his altar ch.
1Sa 7:17; 8:4; 15:34; 16:13 19:18
and finally his burial-place, ch.
1Sa 25:1; 28:3
It is a contracted form of Ramathaim-zophim. All that is directly said as to its situation is that it was in Mount Ephraim,
a district without defined boundaries, The position of Ramah is a much-disputed question. Tradition, however places the residence of Samuel on the lofty and remarkable eminence of Neby Samwil which rises four miles to the northwest of Jerusalem. Since the days of Arcult the tradition appears to have been continuous. Here, then, we are inclined in the present state of the evidence, to place the Ramah of Samuel.
3. One of the nineteen fortified places of Naphtali.
Dr. Robinson has discovered a Rameh northwest of the Sea of Galilee, about 8 miles east-south-east of Safed.
4. One of the landmarks on the boundary of Asher,
apparently between Tyre and Zidon. Some place it 3 miles east of Tyre, others 10 miles off and east-southeast of the same city.
5. By this name in
and 2Chr 22:6 only, is designated Ramoth-gilead.
6. A place mentioned in the catalogue of those reinhabited by the Benjamites after their return from the captivity.
(hill of the jawbone, or hill of Lehi), the name bestowed by Samson on the scene of his slaughter of the thousand Philistines with the jaw bone,
a place by the rock Elam, in western Judah of the Philistines.
(high place of the watch-tower). [RAMOTH-GILEAD]
Ra’math of the south,
one of the towns at the extreme south limit of Simeon.
It is in all probability the same place as south Ramoth.
(the two heights of the watchers). [RAMAH, 2]
Shimei the Ramathite, i.e. a native of Ramah, had charge of the royal vineyards of King David.
(child of the sun), a city and district of lower Egypt.
Ge 47:11; Ex 12:37; Nu 33:3,5
This land of Rameses either corresponds to the land of Goshen or was a district of it, more probably the former. The city was one of the two store-cities built for the Pharaoh who first oppressed the children of Israel.
(It was probably the capital of Goshen and situated in the valley of the Pelusiac mouth of the Nile. McClintock and Strong say that its location is indicated by the present Tell Ramsis, a quadrangular mound near Belbeis. Dr. Brugsch thinks that it was at Zoan-Tanis, the modern San, on the Tanitic branch of the Nile, and that it was built or enlarged by Rameses II and made his capital. —ED.)
one who had taken "a strange wife."
(heights of Gilead), one of the great fastnesses on the east of jordan, and the key to an important district.
It was the city of refuge for the tribe of Gad,
De 4:43; Jos 20:8; 21:38
and the residence of one of Solomon’s commissariat officers.
During the invasion related in
or some subsequent incursion, this important place had seized by Ben-hadad I., king of Syria. The incidents of Ahab’s expedition are well known. [AHAB] Later it was taken by Israel, and held in spite of all the efforts of Hazael who was now on the throne of Damascus, to regain it.
Henceforward Ramoth-gilead disappears from our view. Eusebius and Jerome specify the position of Ramoth as 15 miles from Philadelphia (Amman). It may correspond to the site bearing the name of Jel’ad, exactly identical with the ancient Hebrew Gilead, which is four or five miles north of es-Salt, 25 miles east of the Jordan and 13 miles south of the brook Jabbok.
JUBILEE -See 7507
1. Son of Binea, among the descendants of Saul.
2. One of Benjamin’s descendants.
(the divine healer). According to Jewish tradition, Raphael was one of the four angels which stood round the throne of God —Michael, Uriel, Gabriel, Raphael.
a city of Gilead, 1 Macc. 15:37 perhaps identical with Raphana, which is mentioned by Pliny as one of the cities of the Decapolis.
the father of Palti, the Benjamite spy.
(B.C. before 1490.)
(black). The Hebrew oreb is applied to the several species of the crow family, a number of which are found in Palestine. The raven belongs to the order Insessores, family Corvidae. (It resembles the crow, but is larger weighing three pounds; its black color is more iridescent, and it is gifted with greater sagacity. "There is something weird and shrewd in the expression of the raven’s countenance, a union of cunning and malignity which may have contributed to give it among widely-revered nations a reputation for preternatural knowledge." One writer says that the smell of death is so grateful to them that when in passing over sheep a tainted smell is perceptible, they cry and croak vehemently. It may be that in passing over a human habitation, if a sickly or cadaverous smell arises, they should make it known by their cries, and so has arisen the idea that the croaking of a raven is the premonition of death.—ED.) A raven was sent out by Noah from the ark.
This bird was not allowed as food by the Mosaic law.
Elijah was cared for by ravens.
They are expressly mentioned as instances of God’s protecting love and goodness.
Job 38:41; Lu 12:24
The raven’s carnivorous habits, and especially his readiness to attack the eye, are alluded to in
To the fact of the raven being a common bird in Palestine, and to its habit of flying restlessly about in constant search for food to satisfy its voracious appetite, may perhaps be traced the reason for its being selected by our Lord and the inspired writers as the especial object of God’s providing care.
Besides other usages, the practice of shaving the head after the completion of a vow must have created among the Jews a necessity for the special trade of a barber.
Le 14:8; Nu 6:9,18; 8:7; Jud 13:5; Isa 7:20; Eze 5:1; Ac
The instruments of his work were probably, as in modern times, the razor, the basin, the mirror, and perhaps also the scissors. See
Like the Levites, the Egyptian priests were accustomed to shave their whole bodies.
a Reubenite, son of Micah, and apparently prince of his tribe.
The name is identical with Reai’ah.
(seen of Jehovah).
1. A descendant of Shubal the son of Judah.
2. The children of Reaiah were a family of Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel.
Ezr 2:47; Ne 7:50
(B.C. before 536.)
(four), one of the five kings of the Midianites slain by the children of Israel when Balaam fell.
Nu 31:8; Jos 13:21
(ensnarer), daughter of Bethuel,
and sister of Laban, married to Isaac. She is first presented to us in
... where the beautiful story of her marriage is related. (B.C. 1857.) For nineteen years she was childless: then Esau and Jacob were born, the younger being the mother’s companion and favorite.
Rebekah suggested the deceit that was practiced by Jacob on his blind father. She directed and aided him in carrying it out, foresaw the probable consequence of Esau’s anger, and prevented it by moving Isaac to send Jacob away to Padan-aram,
... to her own kindred.
Rebekah’s beauty became at one time a source of danger to her husband.
It has been conjectured that she died during Jacob’s sojourn in Padan-aram.
1. One of the two "captains of bands" whom Ish-bosheth took into his service, and who conspired to murder him.
2. The father of Malchiah, ruler of part of Beth-haccerem.
(B.C. before 446.)
3. The father or ancestor of Jehonadab.
2Ki 10:15,33; 1Ch 2:65; Jer 35:6-19
(B.C.before 882.) It was from this Rechab that the tribe of the Rechabites derived their name. In
the house of Rechab is identified with a section of the Kenites, a Midianitish tribe who came into Canaan with the Israelites, and retained their nomadic habits. The real founder of the tribe was Jehonadab. [JEHONADAB] He and his people had all along been worshippers of Jehovah, circumcised, though not looked upon as belonging to Israel and probably therefore not considering themselves bound by the Mosaic law and ritual. The worship of Baal was offensive to them. Jonadab inaugurated a reformation and compelled a more rigid adherence than ever to the old Arab life. They were neither to drink wine, nor build houses, nor sow seed, nor plant nor have any vineyard. All their days they were to dwell in tents.
This was to be the condition of their retaining a distinct tribal existence. For two centuries and a half they adhered faithfully to this rule. The invasion of Judah by Nebuchadnezzar, in B.C. 607, drove the Rechabites from their tents to Jerusalem, where they stood proof against temptation, and were specially blessed.
There is much of interest in relation to the present condition of these people. Dr. Wolf reports that the Jews of Jerusalem and Yemen told him that he would find the Rechabites of Jere 35 living near Mecca, in the mountainous country northeast of Medina. When he came near Senaa he came in contact with a tribe, the Beni-Khabir, who identified themselves with the sons of Jehonadab. They claimed to number 60,000, to adhere to the old rules, and to be a fulfillment of the promise made to Jehonadab.
(uttermost part), probably a place in Judah—a village, Rashiah, three miles south of Jerusalem.
an officer of high rank in the Jewish state, exercising the functions, not simply of an annalist, but of chancellor or president of the privy council. In David’s court the recorder appeal’s among the high officers of his household.
2Sa 8:16; 20:24; 1Ch 18:15
In Solomon’s he is coupled with the three secretaries.
comp. 2Kin 18:18,37; 2Chr 34:8
1. Name. —The sea known to us as the Red Sea was by the Israelites called "the sea,"
Ex 14:2,9,16,21,28; 15:1,4,8,10,19; Jos 24:6,7
and many other passages, and specially "the sea of Suph."
Ex 10:19; 13:18; 15:4,22; 23:31; Nu 14:25
etc. This word signifies a sea-weed resembling wool, and such sea-weed is thrown up abundantly on the shores of the Red Sea; hence Brugsch calls it the sea of reeds or weeds. The color of the water is not red. Ebers says that it is of a lovely blue-green color, and named Red either from its red banks or from the Erythraeans, who were called the red people.
2. Physical description. —In extreme length the Red Sea stretches from the straits of Bab el-Mendeb (or rather Ras Bab el-Mendeb), 18 miles wide. in lat. 12 degrees 40’ N., to the modern head of the Gulf of Suez, lat. 30 degrees N., a distance of 1450 miles. Its greatest width may be stated at about 210 miles. At Ras Mohammed, on the north, the Red Sea is split by the granitic peninsula of Sinai into two gulfs; the westernmost, or Gulf of Suez, is now about 150 miles in length, with an average width of about 20, though it contracts to less than 10 miles; the easternmost or Gulf of el-’Akabeh, is about 100 miles long, from the Straits of Tiran to the ‘Akabeh, and 15 miles wide. The average depth of the Red Sea is from 2500 to 3500 feet, though in places it is 6000 feet deep. Journeying southward from Suez, on our left is the peninsula of Sinai; on the right is the desert coast of Egypt, of limestone formation like the greater part of the Nile valley in Egypt, the cliff’s on the sea margin stretching landward in a great rocky plateau while more inland a chain of volcanic mountains, beginning about lat. 28 degrees 4’ and running south, rear their lofty peaks at intervals above the limestone, generally about 15 miles distant.
3. Ancient limits. —The most important change in the Red Sea has been the drying up of its northern extremity, "the tongue of the Egyptian Sea." about the head of the gulf has risen and that near the Mediterranean become depressed. The head of the gulf has consequently retired gradually since the Christian era. Thus the prophecy of Isaiah has been fulfilled,
Isa 11:15; 10:5
the tongue of the Red Sea has dried up for a distance of at least 50 miles from its ancient head. An ancient canal conveyed the waters of the Nile to the Red Sea, flowing through the Wadi-t Tumeylat and irrigating with its system of water-channels a large extent of country. It was 62 Roman miles long, 54 feet wide and 7 feet deep. The drying up of the head of the gulf appears to have been one of the chief causes of the neglect and ruin of this canal. The country, for the distance above indicated, is now a desert of gravelly sand, with wide patches about the old sea-bottom, of rank marsh land, now called the "Bitter Lakes." At the northern extremity of this salt waste is a small lake, sometimes called the Lake of Heropolis; the lake is now Birket-et-Timsah "the lake of the crocodile," and is supposed to mark the ancient head of the gulf. The canal that connected this with the Nile was of Pharaonic origin. It was anciently known as the "Fossa Regum" and the "canal of Hero." The time at which the canal was extended, after the drying up of the head of the gulf, to the present head is uncertain, but it must have been late, and probably since the Mohammedan conquest. Traces of the ancient channel throughout its entire length to the vicinity of Bubastis exist at intervals in the present day. The land north of the ancient gulf is a plain of heavy sand, merging into marsh-land near the Mediterranean coast, and extending to Palestine. This region, including Wadi-t-Tumeylat, was probably the frontier land occupied in pact by the Israelites, and open to the incursions of the wild tribes of the Arabian desert.
4. Navigation. —The sea, from its dangers and sterile shores, is entirely destitute of boats. The coral of the Red Sea is remarkably abundant, and beautifully colored and variegated; but it forms so many reefs and islands along the shores that navigation is very dangerous, and the shores are chiefly barren rock and sand, and therefore very sparsely inhabited so that there are but three cities along the whole 1450 miles of its west coast —Suez, at the head, a city of 14,000 inhabitants; Sanakin, belonging to Soudan, of 10,000; and Massau, in Albyssinia, of 5000. Only two ports, Elath and Ezion-geber, are mentioned in the Bible. The earliest navigation of the Red Sea (passing by the pre-historical Phoenicians) is mentioned by Herodotus: —"Seostris (Rameses II.) was the first who passing the Arabian Gulf in a fleet of long vessels, reduced under his authority the inhabitants of the coast bordering the Erythrean Sea." Three centuries later, Solomon’s navy was built "in Ezion-geber, which is beside Eloth, on the shore of the Red Sea (Yam Suph), in the land of Edom."
The kingdom of Solomon extended as far as the Red Sea, upon which he possessed the harbors of Elath and Ezion-geber. [ELATH; EZION-GEBER] It is possible that the sea has retired here as at Suez, and that Ezion-geber is now dry land. Jehoshaphat also "made ships of Tharshish to go to Ophir for gold; but they went not; for the ships were broken at Ezion-geber."
EZIONGEBER -See 6500
The scene of this wreck has been supposed to be Edh-Dhahab. The fleets appear to have sailed about the autumnal equinox, and returned in December or the middle of January. The Red Sea, as it possessed for many centuries the most important sea-trade of the East contained ports of celebrity. The Heroopolite Gulf (Gulf of Suez) is of the chief interest; it was near to Goshen, it was the scene of the passage of the Red Sea, and it was the "tongue of the Egyptian Sea." It was also the seat of the Egyptian trade in this sea and to the Indian Ocean.
5. Passage of the Red Sea. —The passage of the Red Sea was the crisis of the exodus. It is usual to suppose that the most northern place at which the Red Sea could have been crossed is the present head of the Gulf of Suez. This supposition depends upon the erroneous idea that in the time of Moses the gulf did not extend farther to the northward then at present. An examination of the country north of Suez has shown, however, that the sea has receded many miles. The old bed is indicated by the Birket-et Timsah, or "lake of the crocodile," and the more southern Bitter Lakes, the northernmost part of the former probably corresponding to the head of it the at the time of the exodus. It is necessary to endeavor to ascertain the route of the Israelites before we can attempt to discover where they crossed the sea. The point from which they started was Rameses, a place certain in the land of Goshen, which we identified with the Wadi-t-Tumeylat. They encamped at Succoth. At the end of the second day’s journey the camping place was at Etham, "in the edge of the wilderness."
Ex 13:20; Nu 33:6
Here the Wadi-t-Tumeylat was probably left, as it is cultivable and terminates in the desert. At the end of the third day’s march for each camping place seems to mark the close of a day’s journey the Israelites encamped by the sea, place of this last encampment and that of the passage would be not very far from the Persepolitan monument at Pihahiroth. It appears that Migdol was behind Pi-hahiroth and on the other hand Baalzephon and the sea. From Pi-hahiroth the Israelites crossed the sea. This was not far from halfway between the Bitter Lakes and the Gulf of Suez, where now it is dry land. The Muslims suppose Memphis to have been the city at which the Pharaoh of the exodus resided before that event occurred. From opposite Memphis a broad valley leads to the Red Sea. It is in part called the Wadi-t-Teeh, or "Valley of the Wandering." From it the traveller reaches the sea beneath the lofty Gebel-et-Takah, which rises in the north and shuts off all escape in that direction excepting by a narrow way along the seashore, which Pharaoh might have occupied. The sea here is broad and deep, as the narrative is generally held to imply. All the local features seem suited for a great event. The only points bearing on geography in the account of this event are that the sea was divided by an east wind. Whence we may reasonably infer that it was crossed from west to east, and that the whole Egyptian army perished, which shows that it must have been some miles broad. On the whole we may reasonably suppose about twelve miles as the smallest breadth of the sea. The narrative distinctly states that a path was made through the sea, and that the waters were a wall on either hand. The term "wall" does not appear to oblige us to suppose, as many have done, that the sea stood up like a cliff on either side, but should rather be considered to mean a barrier, as the former idea implies a seemingly needless addition to the miracle, while the latter seems to be not discordant with the language of the narrative. It was during the night that the Israelites crossed, and the Egyptians followed. In the morning watch, the last third or fourth of the night, or the period before sunrise Pharaoh’s army was in full pursuit in the divided sea, and was there miraculously troubled, so that the Egyptians sought to flee.
Then was Moses commanded again to stretch out his hand and the sea returned to its strength, and overwhelmed the Egyptians, of whom not one remained alive, Ibid. 26-28. (But on the whole it is becoming more probable that the place where the Israelites crossed "was near the town of Suez, on extensive shoals which run toward the southeast, in the direction of Ayim Musa (the Wells of Moses). The distance is about three miles at high tide. This is the most probable thee Near here Napoleon, deceived by the tidal wave, attempted to cross in 1799, and nearly met the fate of Pharaoh. But an army of 600,000 could of course never have crossed it without a miracle."—Schaff’s Through Bible Lands. Several routes and places of crossing advocated by learned Egyptologists can be clearly seen by the accompanying maps. The latest theory is that which Brugsch-bey has lately revived that the word translated Red Sea is "Sea of Reeds or Weeds," and refers to the Serbonian bog in the northeastern part of Egypt, and that the Israelites crossed here instead of the Red Sea. "A gulf profound, as that Serbonian bog . . . where armies whole have sunk." —Milton. And among these armies that of Artarerxes, king of Persia, B.C. 350. But it is very difficult to make this agree with the Bible narrative, and if is the least satisfactory of all the theories. —ED.)
Under this name may be noticed the following Hebrew words:
1. Agmon occurs in
Job 40:12,16; Isa 9:14
(Authorized Version "rush"). There can be no doubt that it denotes some aquatic reed-like plant, probably the Phragmitis communis, which, if it does not occur in Palestine and Egypt, is represented by a very closely-allied species, viz., the Arundo isiaca of Delisle. The drooping panicle of this plant will answer well to the "bowing down the head" of which Isaiah speaks.
2. Gnome, translated "rush" and "bulrush" by the Authorized Version, without doubt denotes the celebrated paper-reed of the ancients, Papyrus antiquorum, which formerly was common in some parts of Egypt. The papyrus reed is not now found in Egypt; it grows however, in Syria. Dr. Hooker saw it on the banks of Lake Tiberias, a few miles north of the town. The papyrus plant has an angular stem from 3 to 6 feet high, though occasionally it grows to the height of 14 feet it has no leaves; the flowers are in very small spikelets, which grow on the thread-like flowering branchlets which form a bushy crown to each stem; (It was used for making paper, shoes, sails, ropes, mattresses, etc. The Greek name is Biblos, from which came our word Bible—book—because books were made of the papyrus paper. This paper was always expensive among the Greeks, being worth a dollar a sheet. —ED.)
3. Kaneh, a reed of any kind. Thus there are in general four kinds of reeds named in the Bible: (1) The water reed; No, 1 above. (2) A stronger reed, Arundo donax, the true reed of Egypt and Palestine, which grows 8 or 10 feet high, and is thicker than a man’s thumb. It has a jointed stalk like the bamboo, and is very abundant on the Nile. (3) The writing reed, Arundo scriptoria, was used for making pens. (4) The papyrus; No. 2.
(bearer of Jehovah), one who went up with Zerubbabel.
he is called RAAMIAH. (B.C. 445.)
The refiner’s art was essential to the working of the precious metals. It consisted in the separation of the dress from the pure ore, which was effected by reducing the metal to a fluid state by the application of heat, and by the aid of solvents, such as alkali,
or lead, Jere 6:29 which, amalgamating with the dress, permitted the extraction of the unadulterated metal. The instruments required by the refiner were a crucible of furnace and a bellows or blow-pipe. The workman sat at his work,
he was thus better enabled to watch the process, and let the metal run off at the proper moment.
Refuges Cities of,
[CITIES OF REFUGE]
CITIES OF REFUGE -
(friend) a son of Jahdai.
(friend of the king). The names of Sherezer and Regem-melech occur in an obscure passage of Zechariah.
They were sent on behalf of some of the captivity to make inquiries at the temple concerning fasting (B.C. 617.)
(enlarged by Jehovah), the only son of Eliezer the son of Moses.
1Ch 23:17; 24:21; 26:25
(B.C. about 1455.)
1. The father of Hadadezer king of Zobah, whom David smote at the Euphrates.
(B.C. before 1043.)
2. A Levite or family of Levites who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah.
3. The northern limit of the exploration of the spies.
Robinson fixes the position of Rehob as not far from Tell el-Kady and Banias.
4. One of the towns allotted to Asher.
5. Asher contained another Rehob,
but the situation of these towns is unknown.
(enlarger of the people), son of Solomon by the Ammonite princess Naamah,
and his successor.
Rehoboam selected Shechem as the place of his coronation (B.C. 975), probably as an act of concession to the Ephraimites. The people demanded a remission of the severe burdens imposed by Solomon, and Rehoboam, rejecting the advice of his father’s counsellors, followed that of his young courtiers, and returned an insulting answer, which led to an open rebellion among the tribes, and he was compelled to fly to Jerusalem, Judah and Benjamin alone remaining true to him. Jeroboam was made king of the northern tribes. [JEROBOAM] An expedition to reconquer Israel was forbidden by the prophet Shemaiah,
still during Rehoboam’s lifetime peaceful relations between Israel and Judah were never restored.
2Ch 12:15; 1Ki 14:30
In the fifth year of Rehoboam’s reign the country was invaded by a host of Egyptians and other African nations under Shishak. Jerusalem itself was taken and Rehoboam had to purchase an ignominious peace by delivering up the treasures with which Solomon had adorned the temple and palace. The rest of Rehoboam’s life was unmarked by any events of importance. He died B.C. 958, after a reign of 17 years, having ascended the throne B.C. 975, at the age of 41.
1Ki 14:21; 2Ch 12:13
He had 18 wives, 60 concubines, 28 sons and 60 daughters.
(wide places, i.e. streets).
1. The third of the series of wells dug by Isaac,
in the Philistines’ territory, lately identified as er-Ruheibeh, 16 miles south of Beersheba.
2. One of the four cities built by Asshur, or by Nimrod in Asshur, according as this difficult passage is translated.
Nothing certain is known of its position.
3. The city of a certain Saul or Shaul, one of the early kings of the Edomites.
Ge 36:37; 1Ch 1:48
The affix "by the river" fixes the situation of Rehoboth as on the Euphrates.
1. One who went up from Babylon with Zerubbabel.
2. "Rehum the chancellor."
He was perhaps a kind of lieutenant-governor of the province under the king of Persia. (B.C. 535.)
3. A Levite of the family of Bani, who assisted in rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem.
4. One of the chief of the people, who signed the covenant with Nehemiah.
5. A priestly family, or the head of a priestly house, who went up with Zerubbabel.
(friendly), a person mentioned (in
only) as having remained firm to David’s cause when Adonijah rebelled. (B.C. 1015.)
(i.e. kidneys). In the ancient system of physiology the kidneys were believed to be the seat of desire and longing, which accounts for their often being coupled with the heart.
Ps 7:9; 26:2; Jer 11:20; 17:10
1. One of the five kings or chieftains of Midian slain by the Israelites.
Nu 31:8; Jos 13:21
2. One of the four sons of Hebron, and father of Shammai.
one of the towns of the allotment of Benjamin.
Its existing site is unknown.
(protected by Jehovah). The father of Pekah, captain of Pekahiah; king of Israel, who slew his master and usurped his throne.
2Ki 15:25-37; 16:1,5; 2Ch 28:6; Isa 7:1-9; 8:6
(height), one of the towns of Issachar.
It is probably though not certainly, a distinct place from the RAMOTH of
(pomegranate), a town in the allotment of Simeon,
elsewhere accurately given in the Authorized Version as Rimmon.
a place which formed one of the landmarks of Zebulun.
only. Methoar does not really form a part of the name, but should be translated (as in the margin of the Authorized Version) "Remmon which reaches to Neah." Dr. Robinson and Mr. Van de Velde place Rummaneh on the south border of the plain of Buttauf, three miles north-northeast of Seffurieh.
have been supposed to be names of an idol worshipped secretly by the Israelites in the wilderness, difficulty has been occasioned by this corresponding occurrence of two names so wholly different in sound. The most reasonable opinion seems to be that Chiun was a Hebrew or Semitic name, and Remphan an Egyptian equivalent substituted by the LXX. This idol corresponded probably to Saturn or Molech. The mention of Chiun or Remphan as worshipped in the desert shows that this idolatry was, in part at least that of foreigners, and no doubt of those settled in lower Egypt.
(healed of God), son of Shemaiah, the first-born of Obed-edom.
(B.C. about 1015.)
a son of Ephraim, and ancestor of Joshua.
(healed of Jehovah).
1. The sons of Rephaiah appear among the descendants of Zerubbabel in
2. A Simeonite chieftain in the reign of Hezekiah.
3. Son of Tola the son of Issachar.
4. Son of Binea, and descendant of Saul.
5. The son of Hur, and ruler of a portion of Jerusalem.
Reph’a-im, The valley of,
1Sa 5:18,22; 23:13; 1Ch 11:15; 14:9; Isa 17:5
and Josh 18:16 it is translated in the Authorized Version "the valley of the giants," a spot which was the scene of some of David’s most remarkable adventures. He twice encountered and defeated the Philistines there.
2Sa 5:17-25; 23:13
etc. Since the latter part of the sixteenth century the name has been attached to the upland plain which stretches south of Jerusalem and is crossed by the road to Bethlehem —the el Buk’ah of the modern Arabs. (This valley begins near the valley of Hinnom, southwest of Jerusalem extending toward Bethlehem. It is about a mile long, with hills on either side. This agrees with Josephus and is the generally-accepted location of this valley. —ED.) Tobler, however, in his last investigations conclusively adopts the Wady Der Jasin, on the northwest of Jerusalem. The valley appears to derive its name from the ancient nation of the Rephaim. [GIANTS]
the reading, in the Revised Version, for Remphan,
Ex 17:1,8; 19:2
The name means rests or stays, i.e. resting places. The place lies in the march of the Israelites from Egypt to Sinai. Its site is not certain, but it is perhaps Wady Feiran, a rather broad valley about 25 miles from Jebel Musa (Mount Sinai). Others place it in Wady es Sheikh, an eastern continuation of Feiran, and about 12 miles from Sinai. Here the Israelites fought their first battle and gained their first victory after leaving Egypt, the Amalekites having attacked them; here also the people murmured from thirst, and Moses brought water for them out of the rock. From this murmuring the place was called "Massah" and "Meribah."
one of the cities built by Asshur, "between Nineveh and Calah." Assyrian remains of some considerable extent are found near the modern village of Selamiyeh, and it is perhaps the most probable conjecture that these represent Resen.
(flame), a son of Ephraim.
(friend), son of Peleg, in the line of Abraham’s ancestors.
Ge 11:18,19,20,21; 1Ch 1:25
(B.C. about 2213.)
(behold a son), Jacob’s firstborn Child,
the son of Leah. (B.C. 1753.) The notices of the patriarch Reuben give, on the whole a favorable view of his disposition. To him and him alone the preservation of Joseph’s life appears to have been due and afterward he becomes responsible for his safety.
Ge 37:18-30; 42:37
Of the repulsive crime which mars his history, and which turned the blessing of his dying father into a curse —his adulterous connection with Bilhah— we know from the Scriptures only the fact.
He was of an ardent, impetuous, unbalanced but not ungenerous nature; not crafty and cruel, as were Simeon and Levi, but rather, to use the metaphor of the dying patriarch, boiling up like a vessel of water over a rapid wood fire, and as quickly subsiding when the fuel was withdrawn. At the time of the migration into Egypt, Reuben’s sons were four.
Ge 46:9; 1Ch 5:3
The census at Mount Sinai,
Nu 1:20,21; 2:11
shows that at the exodus the men of the tribe above twenty years of age and fit for active warlike service numbered 46,600. The Reubenites maintained the ancient calling of their forefathers. Their cattle accompanied them in their flight from Egypt.
Territory of the tribe. —The portion of the promised land selected by Reuben had the special name of "the Mishor," with reference possibly to its evenness. Under its modern name of the Belka it is still esteemed beyond all others by the Arab sheep-masters. It was a fine pasture-land east of the Jordan, lying between the river Arnon on the south and Gilead on the north. Though the Israelites all aided the Reubenites in conquering the land, and they in return helped their brothers to secure their own possessions, still there was always afterward a bar, a difference in feeling and habits, between the eastern and western tribes. The pile of stones which they erected on the west bank of the Jordan to mark their boundary was erected in accordance with the unalterable habits of Bedouin tribes both before and since. This act was completely misunderstood and was construed into an attempt to set up a rival altar to that of the sacred tent. No Judge, no prophet, no hero of the tribe of Reuben is handed down to us. The Reubenites disliked war clinging to their fields and pastures even when their brethren were in great distress. Being remote from the seat of the national government and of the national religion, it is not to be wondered at that the Reubenites relinquished the faith of Jehovah. The last historical notice which we possess of them, while it records this fact, records also as its natural consequence that they and the Gadites and the half-tribe Manasseh were carried off by Pul and Tiglath-pileser.
(friend of God) One of the sons of Esau, by his wife Bashemath, sister of Ishmael.
Ge 36:4,10,13,17; 1Ch 1:36,37
(B.C. about 1790.)
2. One of the names of Moses’ father-in-law.
3. Father of Eliasaph, the leader of the tribe of Gad at the time of the census at Sinai.
4. A Benjamite, ancestor of Elah.
(elevated), the concubine of Nahor, Abraham’s brother.
(B.C. about 1870.)
Revela’tion of St. John,
the last book of the New Testament. It is often called the Apocalypse, which is its title in Greek, signifying "Revelation,"
1. Canonical authority and authorship. —The inquiry as to the canonical authority of the Revelation resolves itself into a question of authorship. Was St. John the apostle and evangelist the writer of the Revelation? The evidence adduced in support of his being the author consists of (1) the assertions of the author and (2) historical tradition. (1) The author’s description of himself in the 1st and 22d chapters is certainly equivalent to an assertion that he is the apostle. He names himself simply John, without prefix or addition. is also described as a servant of Christ, one who had borne testimony as an eye-witness of the word of God and of the testimony of Christ. He is in Patmos for the word of God and the testimony of Jesus Christ. He is also a fellow sufferer with those whom he addresses, and the authorized channel of the most direct and important communication that was ever made to the Seven Churches of Asia, of which churches John the apostle was at that time the spiritual governor and teacher. Lastly, the writer was a fellow servant of angels and a brother of prophets. All these marks are found united in the apostle John, and in him alone of all historical persons. (2) A long series of writers testify to St. John’s authorship: Justin Martyr (cir. 150 A.D.), Eusebius, Irenaeus (A.D. 195), Clement of Alexandria (about 200), Tertullian (207), Origen (233). All the foregoing writers, testifying that the book came from an apostle, believed that it was a part of Holy Scripture. The book was admitted into the list of the Third Council of Carthage, A.D. 397.
2. Time and place of writing. —The date of the Revelation is given by the great majority of critics as A.D. 95-97. Irenaeus says: "It (i.e. the Revelation) was seen no very long time ago, but almost in our own generation, at the close of Domitian’s reign. Eusebius also records that, in the persecution under Domitian, John the apostle and evangelist was banished to the Island Patmos for his testimony of the divine word. There is no mention in any writer of the first three centuries of any other time or place, and the style in which the messages to the Seven Churches are delivered rather suggests the notion that the book was written in Patmos.
3. Interpretation. —Modern interpreters are generally placed in three great divisions: (a) The Historical or Continuous exposition, in whose opinion the Revelation is a progressive history of the fortunes of the Church from the first century to the end of time. (b) The Praeterist expositors, who are of opinion that the Revelation has been almost or altogether fulfilled in the time which has passed since it was written; that it refers principally to the triumph of Christianity over Judaism and Paganism, signalized in the downfall of Jerusalem and of Rome. (c) The Futurist expositors, whose views show a strong reaction against some extravagances of the two preceding schools. They believe that the whole book, excepting perhaps the first three chapters, refers principally, if not exclusively, to events which are yet-to come. Dr.Arnold in his sermons "On the Interpretation of Prophecy" suggests that we should bear in mind that predictions have a lower historical sense as well as a higher spiritual sense; that there may be one or more than one typical, imperfect, historical fulfillment of the prophecy, in each of which the higher spiritual fulfillment is shadowed forth more or less distinctly.
(a hot stone), one of the places which Sennacherib mentions, in his taunting message to Hezekiah, as having been destroyed by his predecessor.
2Ki 19:12; Isa 37:12
(delight), an Asherite, of the sons of Ulla.
1. King of Damascus. He attacked Jotham during the latter part of his reign,
but his chief war was with Ahaz, whose territories he invaded, in conjunction with Pekah about B.C. 741. Though unsuccessful is his siege of Jerusalem,
2Ki 16:5; Isa 7:1
he "recovered Elath to Syria."
Soon after this he was attacked defeated and slain by Tiglath-pileser II, king of Assyria.
2. One of the families of the Nethinim.
Ezr 2:48; Ne 7:50
(B.C. before 536.)
(prince), son of Eliadah, a Syrian, who when David defeated Hadadezer king of Zobah, put himself at the head of a band of freebooters and set up a petty kingdom at Damascus.
He harassed the kingdom of Solomon during his whole reign. (B.C. 1043-975.)
(breach), an Italian town situated on the Bruttian coast, just at the southern entrance of the Straits of Messina. The name occurs in the account of St. Paul’s voyage from Syracuse to Puteoli, after the shipwreck at Malta.
By a curious coincidence, the figures on its coin are the very "twin brothers" which gave the name to St. Paul’s ship. It was originally a Greek colony; it was miserably destroyed by Dionysius of Syracuse. From Augustus it received advantages which combined with its geographical position in making it important throughout the duration of the Roman empire. The modern Reggio is a town of 10,000 inhabitants. Its distance across the straits from Messina is only about six miles.
(head), son of Zorobabel in the genealogy of Christ.
It is conjectured that Rhesa is no person, but merely a title.
(rose), the name of a maid who announced Peter’s arrival at the door of Mary’s house after his miraculous release from prison.
(rosy), a celebrated island in the Mediterranean Sea. (It is triangular in form, 60 miles long from north to south, and about 18 wide. It is noted now, as in ancient times, for its delightful climate and the fertility of its soil. The city of Rhodes, its capital, was famous for its huge brazen statue of Apollo called the Colossus of Rhodes. It stood at the entrance of the harbor, and was so large that ships in full sail could pass between its legs. ED.) Rhodes is immediately opposite the high Carian and Lycian headlands at the southwest extremity of the peninsula of Asia Minor. Its position had much to do with its history. Its real eminence began about 400 B.C. with the founding of the city of Rhodes, at the northeast extremity of the island, which still continues to be the capital. After Alexander’s death it entered on a glorious period, its material prosperity being largely developed, and its institutions deserving and obtaining general esteem. We have notice of the Jewish residents in Rhodes in 1 Macc. 15:23. The Romans, after the defeat of Antiochus, assigned, during some time, to Rhodes certain districts on the mainland. Its Byzantine, history is again eminent. Under Constantine If was the metropolis of the "Province of the Islands," It was the last place where the Christians of the East held out against the advancing Seracens; and subsequently it was once more famous as the home and fortress of the Knights of St. John. (It is now reduced to abject poverty. There are two cities —Rhodes the capital and Lindus —and forty or fifty villages. The population, according to Turner is 20,000, of whom 6000 are Turks and the rest Greeks, together with a few Jews.)
(pleader with Jehovah), the father of Ittai the Benjamite, of Gibeah.
2Sa 23:29; 1Ch 11:31
(B.C. before 1020.)
(fertility), One of the landmarks on the eastern boundary of the land of Israel, as specified by Moses.
It seems hardly possible, without entirely disarranging the specification or the boundary, that the Riblah in question can be the same with the following.
2. Riblah in the land of Hamath, a place on the great road between Palestine and Babylonia, at which the kings of Babylonia were accustomed to remain while directing the operations of their armies in Palestine and Phoenicia. Here Nebuchadnezzer waited while the sieges of Jerusalem and of Tyre were being conducted by his lieutenants.
Jer 39:5,6; 62:9,10,26,27; 2Ki 25:6,20,21
In like manner Pharaoh-necho after his victory over the Babylonians at Carchemish, returned to Riblah and summoned Jehoahaz from Jerusalem before him.
This Riblah still retains its ancient name, on the right (east) bank of the el-Asy (Orontes) upon the great road which connects Baalbek and Hums, about 36 miles northeast of the former end 20 miles southwest of the latter place.
It is known that all ancient nations, and especially Orientals, were fond of riddles. The riddles which the queen of Sheba came to ask of Solomon,
1Ki 10:1; 2Ch 9:1
were rather "hard questions" referring to profound inquiries. Solomon is said, however, to have been very fond of riddles. Riddles were generally proposed in verse, like the celebrated riddle of Samson.
(pomegranate) the name of several towns.
1. A city of Zebulun
1Ch 6:77; Ne 11:29
a Levitical city, the present Rummaneh, six miles north of Nazareth.
2. A town in the southern portion of Judah,
allotted to Simeon,
Jos 19:7; 1Ch 4:32
probably 13 miles southwest of Hebron.
3. Rimmon-parez (pomegranate of the breach), the name of a march-station in the wilderness.
No place now known has been identified with it.
4. Rimmon the Rock, a cliff or inaccessible natural fastness, in which the six hundred Benjamites who escaped the slaughter of Gibeah took refuge.
Jud 20:45,47; 21:13
In the wild country which lies on the east of the central highlands of Benjamin the name is still found attached to a village perched on the summit of a conical chalky hill, visible in all directions, and commanding the whole country.
5. A Benjamite of Beeroth, the father of Rechab and Baanah, the murderers of Ish-bosheth.
a deity worshipped by the Syrians of Damascus, where there was a temple or house of Rimmon.
Rimmon is perhaps the abbreviated form of Hadad-rimmon, Hadad being the sun-god of the Syrians. Combining this with the pomegranate which was his symbol, Hadad-rimmon would then he the sun-god of the late summer, who ripens the pomegranate and other fruits.
The ring was regarded as an indispensable article of a Hebrew’s attire, inasmuch as it contained his signet. It was hence the symbol of authority.
Ge 41:42; Es 3:10
Rings were worn not only by men, but by women.
We may conclude from
that the rings contained a stone engraven with a device or with the owner’s name. The custom appears also to have prevailed among the Jews of the apostolic age.
(a shout), one of the descendants of Judah.
(spoken), the second son of Gomer.
The name may be identified with the Rhipaean mountains, i.e. the Carpathian range in the northeast of Dacia.
(a ruin), a march-station in the wilderness.
(heath), a march-station in the wilderness,
Probably northeast of Hazeroth.
In the sense in which we employ the word viz. for a perennial stream of considerable size, a river is a much rarer object in the East than in the West. With the exception of the Jordan and the Litany, the streams of the holy land are either entirely dried up in the summer months converted into hot lanes of glaring stones, or else reduced to very small streamlets, deeply sunk in a narrow bed, and concealed from view by a dense growth of shrubs. The perennial river is called nahar by the Hebrews. With the definite article, "the river," it signifies invariably the Euphrates.
Ge 31:21; Ex 23:31; Nu 24:6; 2Sa 10:16
etc. It is never applied to the fleeting fugitive torrents of Palestine. The term for these is nachal, for which our translators have used promiscuously, and sometimes almost alternately, "valley" "brook" and "river." No one of these words expresses the thing intended; but the term "brook" is peculiarly unhappy. Many of the wadys of Palestine are deep, abrupt chasms or rents in the solid rock of-the hills, and have a savage, gloomy aspect, far removed from that of an English brook. Unfortunately our language does not contain any single word which has both the meanings of the Hebrew nachal and its Arabic equivalent wady which can be used at once for a dry valley and for the stream which occasionally flows through it.
River of Egypt.
1. The Nile.
2. A desert stream on the border of Egypt, still occasionally flowing in the valley called Wadi-l-’Areesh. The centre of the valley is occupied by the bed of this torrent, which only flows after rains, as is usual in the desert valleys. This stream is first mentioned as the point where the southern border of the promised land touched the Mediterranean, which formed its western border.
In the latter history we find Solomon’s kingdom extending from the "entering in of Hamath unto the river of Egypt,"
and Egypt limited in the same manner where the loss of the eastern provinces is mentioned.
concubine to King Saul, and mother of his two sons Armoni and Mephibosheth. (B.C. 1080.) The tragic story of the love and endurance with which she watched over the bodies of her two sons, who were killed by the Gibeonites,
has made Rizpah one of the most familiar objects in the whole Bible.
This word occurs but once in the Authorized Version of the Bible, viz. in
where it is used in the sense of "raid" or "inroad." Where a travelled road is meant "path" or "way" is used, since the eastern roads are more like our paths.
Robbery has ever been one of the principal employments of the nomad tribes of the East. From the time of Ishmael to the present day the Bedouin has been a "wild man," and a robber by trade.
The Mosaic law on the subject of theft is contained in
There seems no reason to suppose that the law underwent any alteration in Solomon’s time. Man-stealing was punishable with death.
Ex 21:16; De 24:7
Invasion of right in land was strictly forbidden.
De 27:17; Isa 5:8; Mic 2:2
The Hebrew words thus translated denote some species of antelope, probably the Gazella arabica of Syria and Arabia. The gazelle was allowed as food,
etc.; it is mentioned as very fleet of foot,
2Sa 2:18; 1Ch 12:8
it was hunted,
Isa 13:14; Pr 6:5
it was celebrated for its loveliness.
So 2:9,17; 8:14
(fullers) the residence of Barzillai the Gileadite,
2Sa 17:27; 19:31
in the highlands east of the Jordan.
(clamor), an Asherite, of the sons of Shamer.
(B.C. about 1490.)
A book in ancient times consisted of a single long strip of paper or parchment, which was usually kept rolled upon a stick, and was unrolled when a person wished to read it. The roll was usually written on one side only, and hence the particular notice of one that was "written within and without."
The writing was arranged in columns.
one of the fourteen sons of Heman.
(B.C. about 1014.)
1. The first historic mention of Rome in the Bible is in 1 Macc. 1:10, about the year 161 B.C. in the year 65 B.C., when Syria was made a Roman province by Pompey, the Jews were still governed by one of the Asmonaean princes. The next year Pompey himself marched an army into Judea and took Jerusalem. From this time the Jews were practically under the government of Rome. Finally, Antipater’s son Herod the Great was made king by Antony’s interest, B.C. 40, and confirmed in the kingdom by Augustus, B.C. 30. The Jews, however, were all this time tributaries of Rome, and their princes in reality were Roman procurators, On the banishment of Archelaus, A.D. 6, Judea became a mere appendage of the province of Syria, and was governed by a Roman procurator, who resided at Caesarea. Such were the relations of the Jewish people to the Roman government at the time when the New Testament history begins.
2. Extent of the empire. —Cicero’s description of the Greek states and colonies as a "fringe on the skirts of barbarism" has been well applied to the Roman dominions before the conquests of Pompey and Caesar. The Roman empire was still confined to a narrow strip encircling the Mediterranean Sea. Pompey added Asia Minor and Syria. Caesar added Gaul. The generals of Augustus overran the northwest Portion of Spain and the country between the Alps and the Danube. The boundaries of the empire were now the Atlantic on the west, the Euphrates on the east, the deserts of Africa, the cataracts of the Nile and the Arabian deserts on the south, the British Channel, the Rhine, the Danube and the Black Sea on the north. The only subsequent conquests of importance were those of Britain by Claudius and of Dacia by Trajan. The only independent powers of importance were the Parthians on the east and the Germans on the north. The population of the empire in the time of Augustus has been calculated at 85,000,000.
3. The provinces. —The usual fate of a country conquered by Rome was to be come a subject province, governed directly from Rome by officers sent out for that purpose. Sometimes, however, petty sovereigns were left in possession of a nominal independence on the borders or within the natural limits of the province. Augustus divided the provinces into two classes — (1) Imperial; (2) Senatorial; retaining in his own hands, for obvious reasons, those provinces where the presence of a large military force was necessary, and committing the peaceful and unarmed provinces to the senate. The New Testament writers invariably designate the governors of senatorial provinces by the correct title anthupatoi, proconsuls.
Ac 13:7; 18:12; 19:38
For the governor of an imperial province, properly styled "legatus Caesaris," the word hegemon (governor) is used in the New Testament. The provinces were heavily taxed for the benefit of Rome and her citizens. They are said to have been better governed under the empire than under the commonwealth, and those of the emperor better than those of the senate.
4. The condition of the Roman empire at the time when Christianity appeared has often been dwelt upon as affording obvious illustrations of St. Paul’s expression that the "fullness of time had come."
The general peace within the limits of the empire the formation of military roads, the suppression of piracy, the march of the legions, the voyages of the corn fleets, the general in crease of traffic, the spread of the Latin language in the West as Greek had already spread in the East, the external unity of the empire, offered facilities hitherto unknown for the spread of a world-wide religion. The tendency, too, of despotism like that of the Roman empire to reduce all its subjects to a dead level was a powerful instrument in breaking down the pride of privileged races and national religious, and familiarizing men with the truth that "God had made of one blood all nations on the face of the earth."
Put still more striking than this outward preparation for the diffusion of the gospel was the appearance of a deep and wide-spread corruption, which seemed to defy any human remedy.
Romans, Epistle to the.
1. The date of this epistle is fixed at the time of the visit recorded in Acts 20:3 during the winter and spring following the apostle’s long residence at Ephesus A.D. 58. On this visit he remained in Greece three months.
2. The place of writing was Corinth.
3. The occasion which prompted it,,and the circumstances attending its writing, were as follows:—St. Paul had long purposed visiting Rome, and still retained this purpose, wishing also to extend his journey to Spain. Etom. 1:9-13; 15:22-29. For the time, however, he was prevented from carrying out his design, as he was bound for Jerusalem with the alms of the Gentile Christians, and meanwhile he addressed this letter to the Romans, to supply the lack of his personal teaching. Phoebe, a deaconess of the neighboring church of Cenchreae, was on the point of starting for Rome, ch.
and probably conveyed the letter. The body of the epistle was written at the apostle’s dictation by Tertius, ch.
but perhaps we may infer, from the abruptness of the final doxology, that it was added by the apostle himself.
4. The origin of the Roman church is involved in obscurity. If it had been founded by St. Peter according to a later tradition, the absence of any allusion to him both in this epistle and in the letters written by St. Paul from Rome would admit of no explanation. It is equally clear that no other apostle was like founder. The statement in the Clementines —that the first tidings of the gospel reached Rome during the lifetime of our Lord is evidently a fiction for the purposes of the romance. On the other hand, it is clear that the foundation of this church dates very far back. It may be that some of these Romans, "both Jews and proselytes," present. On the day of Pentecost
carried back the earliest tidings of the new doctrine; or the gospel may have first reached the imperial city through those who were scattered abroad to escape the persecution which followed on the death of Stephen.
Ac 8:4; 11:10
At first we may suppose that the gospel had preached there in a confused and imperfect form, scarcely more than a phase of Judaism, as in the case of Apollos at Corinth,
or the disciples at Ephesus.
As time advanced and better-instructed teachers arrived the clouds would gradually clear away, fill at length the presence of the great apostle himself at Rome dispersed the mists of Judaism which still hung about the Roman church.
5. A question next arises as to the composition of the Roman church at the time when St. Paul wrote. It is more probable that St. Paul addressed a mixed church of Jews and Gentiles, the latter perhaps being the more numerous. These Gentile converts, however, were not for the most part native Romans. Strange as the: paradox appears, nothing is more certain than that the church of Rome was at this time a Greek and not a Latin church. All the literature of the early Roman church was written in the Greek tongue.
6. The heterogeneous composition of this church explains the general character of the Epistle to the Romans. In an assemblage so various we should expect to find, not the exclusive predominance of a single form of error, but the coincidence of different and opposing forms. It was: therefore the business of the Christian teacher to reconcile the opposing difficulties and to hold out a meeting-point in the gospel. This is exactly what St. Paul does in the Epistle to the Romans.
7. In describing the purport of this epistle we may start from St. Paul’s own words, which, standing at the beginning of the doctrinal portion, may be taken as giving a summary of the contents. ch.
Accordingly the epistle has been described as comprising "the religious philosophy of the world’s history "The atonement of Christ is the centre of religious history. The epistle, from its general character, lends itself more readily to an analysis than is often the case with St. Paul’s epistles. While this epistle contains the fullest and most systematic exposition of the apostle’s teaching, it is at the same time a very striking expression of his character. Nowhere do his earnest and affectionate nature and his tact and delicacy in handling unwelcome topics appear more strongly than when he is dealing with the rejection of his fellow country men the Jews. Internal evidence is so strongly in favor of the genuineness of the Epistle to the Romans that it has never been seriously questioned.
the famous capital of the ancient world, is situated on the Tiber at a distance of about 15 miles from its mouth. The "seven hills,"
which formed the nucleus of the ancient city stand on the left bank. On the opposite side of the river rises the far higher side of the Janiculum. Here from very early times was a fortress with a suburb beneath it extending to the river. Modern Rome lies to the north of the ancient city, covering with its principal portion the plain to the north of the seven hills, once known as the Campus Martius, and on the opposite bank extending over the low ground beneath the Vatican to the north of the ancient Janiculum. Rome is not mentioned in the Bible except in the books of Maccabees and in three books of the New Testament, viz., the Acts, the Epistle to the Romans and the Second Epistle to Timothy.
1. Jewish inhabitants. the conquests of Pompey seem to have given rise to the first settlement of Jews at Rome. The Jewish king Aristobulus and his son formed part of Pompey’s triumph, and many Jewish captives and immigrants were brought to Rome at that time. A special district was assigned to them, not on the site of the modern Ghetto, between the Capitol and the island of the Tiber, but across the Tiber. Many of these Jews were made freedmen. Julius Caesar showed them some kindness; they were favored also by Augustus, and by Tiberius during the latter part of his reign. It is chiefly in connection with St. Paul’s history that Rome comes before us in the Bible. In illustration of that history it may be useful to give some account of Rome in the time of Nero, the "Caesar" to whom St. Paul appealed, and in whose reign he suffered martyrdom.
2. The city in Paul’s time. —The city at that time must be imagined as a large and irregular mass of buildings unprotected by an outer wall. It had long outgrown the old Servian wall; but the limits of the suburbs cannot be exactly defined. Neither the nature of the buildings nor the configuration of the ground was such as to give a striking appearance to the city viewed from without. "Ancient Rome had neither cupola nor camyanile," and the hills, never lofty or imposing, would present, when covered with the buildings and streets of a huge city, a confused appearance like the hills of modern London, to which they have sometimes been compared. The visit of St. Paul lies between two famous epochs in the history of the city, viz, its restoration by Augustus and its restoration by Nero. The boast of Augustus is well known, "that he found the city of brick, and left it of marble." Some parts of the city, especially the Forum and Campus Martius, must have presented a magnificent appearance, of which Niebur’s "Lectures on Roman History," ii. 177, will give a general idea; but many of the principal buildings which attract the attention of modern travellers in ancient Rome were not yet built. The streets were generally narrow and winding, flanked by densely crowded lodging-houses (insulae) of enormous height. Augustus found it necessary to limit their height to 70 feet. St, Paul’s first visit to Rome took place before the Neronian conflagration but even after the restoration of the city which followed upon that event, many of the old evils continued. The population of the city has been variously estimated. Probably Gibbon’s estimate of 1,200,000 is nearest to the truth. One half of the population consisted, in all probability, of slaves. The larger part of the remainder consisted of pauper citizens supported in idleness by the miserable system of public gratuities. There appears to have been no middle class, and no free industrial population. Side by side with the wretched classes just mentioned was the comparatively small body of the wealthy nobility, of whose luxury and profligacy we learn so much from the heathen writers of the time, Such was the population which St. Paul would find at Rome at the time of his visit. We learn from the Acts of the Apostles that he was detained at Rome for "two whole years," "dwelling in his own hired house with a soldier that kept him,"
Ac 28:16, 30
to whom apparently, according to Roman custom, he was hound with a chain.
Ac 28:20; Eph 6:20; Phm 1:13
Here he preached to all that came to him, no man forbidding him.
It is generally believed that on his "appeal to Caesar" he was acquitted, and after some time spent in freedom, was a second time imprisoned at Rome. Five of his epistles, viz., those to the Colossians, Ephesians, Philippians, that to Philemon, and the Second Epistle to Timothy, were in all probability written from Rome, the latter shortly before his death
the others during his first imprisonment. It is universally believed that he suffered martyrdom at Rome.
3. The localities in and about Rome especially connected with the life of Paul are— (1) The Appian Way, by which he approached Rome.
(2) "The palace," Or "Caesar’s court" (praetorium,)
This may mean either the great camp of the Praetorian guards which Tiberius established outside the walls on the northeast of the city, or, as seems more probable, a barrack attached to the imperial residence on the Palatine. There is no sufficient proof that the word "praetorium" was ever used to designate the emperors palace, though it is used for the official residence of a Roman governor.
Joh 18:28; Ac 23:35
the mention of "Caesar’s household,"
confirms the notion that St. Paul’s residence was in the immediate neighborhood of the emperor’s house on the Palatine. (3) The connection of other localities at home with St. Paul’s name rests only on traditions of more or less probability. We may mention especially— (4) The Mamertine prison, of Tullianum, built by Ancus Martius near the Forum. It still exists beneath the church of St. Giuseppe dei Falegnami. It is said that St. Peter and St. Paul were fellow prisoners here for nine months. This is not the place to discuss the question whether St. Peter was ever at Rome. It may be sufficient to state that though there is no evidence of such a visit in the New Testament, unless Babylon in
is a mystical name for Rome yet early testimony and the universal belief of the early Church seems sufficient to establish the fact of his having suffered martyrdom there. [PETER] The story, however, of the imprisonment in the Mamertine prison seems inconsistent with
(5) The chapel on the Ostian road which marks the spot where the two apostles are said to, have separated on their way to martyrdom. (6)The supposed scene of St. Paul’s martyrdom, viz., the church of St. Paolo alle tre fontane on the Ostian road. To these may be added — (7) The supposed scene of St. Peter’s martyrdom, viz., the church of St. Pietro in Montorio, on the Janiculum. (8) The chapel Domine que Vadis, on the Aypian road,the scene of the beautiful legend of our Lord’s appearance to St. Peter as he was escaping from martyrdom. (9) The places where the bodies of the two apostles, after having been deposited first in the catacombs, are supposed to have been finally buried —that of St. Paul by the Ostian road, that of St. Peter beneath the dome of the famous Basilica which bears his name. We may add, as sites unquestionably connected with the Roman Christians of the apostolic age— (10) The gardens of Nero in the Vatican. Not far from the spot where St. Peter’s now stands. Here Christians, wrapped in the skins of beasts, were torn to pieces by dogs, or, clothed in inflammable robes, were burnt to serve as torches during the midnight games. Others were crucified. (11) The Catacombs. These subterranean galleries, commonly from 8 to 10 feet in height and from 4 to 6 in width, and extending for miles, especially in the neighborhood of the old Appian and Nomentan Ways, were unquestionably used as places of refuge, of worship and of burial by the early Christians. The earliest dated inscription in the catacombs is A.D. 71. Nothing is known of the first founder of the Christian Church at Rome. Christianity may, perhaps, have been introduced into the city not long after the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost by the "strangers of Rome, who were then at Jerusalem,
It is clear that there were many Christians at Rome before St. Paul visited the city.
Ro 1:8,13,15; 15:20
The names of twenty-four Christians at Rome are given in the salutations at the end of the Epistle to the Romans. Linus, who is mentioned
and Clement, Phil 4:3 are supposed to have succeeded St. Peter as bishops of Rome.
The references to "room" in
Mt 23:6; Mr 12:39; Lu 14:7,8; 20:46
signify the highest place on the highest couch round the dinner or supper table —the "uppermost seat", as it is more accurately rendered in
occurs twice only, viz. in
So 2:1; Isa 35:1
There is much difference of opinion as to what particular flower is here denoted; but it appears to us most probable that the narcissus is intended. Chateaubriand mentions the narcissus as growing in the Plain of Sharon. Roses are greatly prized in the East, more especially for the sake of the rose-water, which is much request. Dr. Hooker observed seven species of wild roses in Syria.
(head). In the genealogy of
Rosh is reckoned among the sons of Benjamin.
Eze 38:2,3; 39:1
probably a proper name, referring to the first of the three great Scythian tribes of which Magog was the head.
Properly "naphtha," as it is both in the LXX. and the Vulgate, as well as in the Peshito-Syriac. Pliny mentions naphtha as a product of Babylonia, similar in appearance to liquid bitumen, and having a remarkable affinity to fire.
Concerning the meaning of the Hebrew words translated "rubies" there is much difference of opinion.
see also Prov 3:15; 8:11; 31:10 Some suppose "coral" to be in tended; others "pearl," supposing that the original word signifies merely "bright in color," or "color of a reddish tinge." (The real ruby is a red sapphire, next in value to the diamond. The finest rubies are brought chiefly from Ceylon and Burmah.)
occurs only in
The rue here spoken of is doubtless the common Ruta graveolens a shrubby plant about two feet high, of strong medicinal virtues. It is a native of the Mediterranean coasts, and has been found by Hasselquist on Mount Tabor. The Talmud enumerates rue amongst kitchen herbs, and regards it as free of tithe as being a plant not cultivated in gardens. In our Lord’s time however rue was doubtless a garden plant, and therefore tithable.
(red) is mentioned in
as a son of Simon the Cyrenian.
(A.D. 29.) Again, in
the apostle Paul salutes a Rufus whom he designates as "elect in the Lord." This Rufus was probably identical with the one to whom Mark refers.
(having obtained mercy).
The name if name it be, is symbolical, and is addressed to the DAUGHTERS of the people, to denote that they were still the objects of love and tender compassion.
(high), mentioned once only —
It has been conjectured to be the same place as Arumah.
which was apparently near Shechem. It is more probable that it is identical with Dumah.
(a female friend) a Moabitish woman, the wife, first of Mahlon, second of Boaz, the ancestress of David and Christ,and one of the four women who are named by St. Matthew in the genealogy of Christ. A severe famine in the land of Judah induced Elimelech, a native of Bethlehem —ephratah, to emigrate into the land of Moab, with his wife Naomi, and his two sons, Mahlon and Chilion. This was probably about the time of Gideon, B.C. 1250. At the end of ten years Naomi now left a widow and childless, having heard that there was plenty again in Judah, resolved to return to Bethlehem, and her daughter-in-law Ruth returned with her. They arrived at Bethlehem just at the beginning of barley harvest, and Ruth, going out to glean, chanced to go into the field of wheat, a wealthy man and a near kinsman of her father-in-law, Elimelech. Upon learning who the stranger was, Boaz treated her with the utmost kindness and respect, and sent her home laden with corn which she had gleaned. Encouraged by this incident, Naomi instructed Ruth to claim at the hand of Boaz that he should perform the part of her husband’s near kinsman, by purchasing the inheritance of Elimelech and taking her to be his wife. With all due solemnity, Boaz took Ruth to be his wife, amidst the blessings and congratulations of their neighbors. Their son, Obed, was ‘the father of Jesse, who was the father of David.
Ruth, Book of,
contains the history of Ruth, as narrated in the preceding article. The main object of the writer is evidently to give an account of David’s ancestors; and the book was avowedly composed long after the time of the heroine. See
Ru 1:1; 4:7,17
Its date and author are quite uncertain. Tradition is in favor of Samuel. It is probable that the books of Judges, Ruth, Samuel and Kings originally formed but one work. The book of Ruth clearly forms part of the books of Samuel, supplying as it does the essential point of David’s genealogy and early family history, and is no less clearly connected with the book of Judges by its opening verse and the epoch to which the whole book relates.
(Heb. cussemeth) occurs in
Ex 9:32; Isa 28:25
in the latter the margin reads "spelt." In
the text has "fitches" and the margin "rie." It is probable that by cussemeth "spelt" is intended. Spelt (Triticum spelta) is grown in some parts of the south of Germany; it differs but slightly from our common wheat (T. vulgare).