John and Morton Edgar


This is a reproduction of the second edition of Pyramid Passages written by John and Morton Edgar.

The first edition of Pyramid Passages was published in 1912 and 1913. John and Morton were co-authors. John died on June 9, 1910. Morton revisited the Pyramid and continued his studies. In 1924 he re-issued their Pyramid Passages, Vol. 1 and 2 and added a third-"It’s Scientific Features." Morton died February 6, 1950. The second edition is somewhat more extensive in some parts, due to the benefit of subsequent trips to the pyramid; but otherwise the format of the second edition is the same and mostly identical. The letters section in the 1912 edition were addressed to the Edgar’s natural sister, Minna, and carried the date, personal greetings, and signatures. They also reflected the sights, sounds, and smells peculiar to the Middle East. Those characteristics were dropped in the second edition reprinted here, and observations from a second trip were added to enhance the benefit to all readers. Throughout the second edition, British measurements are referenced in Pyramid inch equivalents as well as additional measurements from later trips.

The original page numbering has been maintained and a scriptural index added where the letter notation ‘a’ indicated a page of Vol. 1, Spiritual Symbolism; ‘b,’ Vol. 2, its time features; and ‘c,’ Vol. 3, its scientific features.

A discourse given by Morton in 1929 precedes these three sections. It is the latest thoughts we have from him, and will be found most interesting.

We commend these works to all as a corroboration of the Divine Plan of the Ages. While some parts will appeal more to those of a mathematical mind, other facts will be a blessing to all desiring to see God’s foreknowledge, wisdom, justice, love and power confirmed. But we recommend that the reader be well grounded in the six volumes of ‘Studies in the Scriptures’ to fully appreciate the depth of this witness in the ‘midst of and at the border of Egypt." Isa 19:19 The Publishers, 1976 1st printing 1976 2nd printing 1988

Portland Area Bible Students P.O. Box 23232 Tigard, Oregon 97223

8:00 P.M.-Brother Wilson in the chair: Probably, during the last year, no subject has been under more discussion that the Great Pyramid in Egypt.

I think it is providential that we have one with us this evening, one who has made a thorough study of that ‘Stone Witness," who himself has made repeated personal visits and measured the Great Pyramid.

It gives me great pleasure to present to you our Brother Morton Edgar, of Glasgow, Scotland, who will speak upon:

THE GREAT PYRAMID Why Was It Built? Who Built It?

Address by Morton Edgar, of Glasgow, Scotland

SEVENTY years ago an earnest Christian, John Taylor, of London, wrote a book entitled: ‘The Great Pyramid: Why Was It Built? Who Built It?" Prominent amongst those who have investigated the Pyramid and given their answers to these questions is the late Charles T. Russell, the founder and first President of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. His answer to who built the Great Pyramid was: ‘God was the great architect"; and that the purpose of its being built was to confirm the faith of His people at the end of the Gospel Age. As you know, Brother Russell had great confidence in the Pyramid’s testimony, and constantly referred to it as ‘God’s Stone Witness in the Land of Egypt." In one of the first of his publications, a little book entitled, ‘Food For Thinking Christians," issued in 1881, he uses the form of the pyramid to illustrate important features in God’s Great Plan of the Ages. The same illustrations were afterwards incorporated in Vol. I of ‘Studies in the Scriptures." Also, just one month before he died at the end of October, 1916, he wrote a new preface to his third volume of ‘Studies in the Scriptures," reiterating him implicit faith in the Great Pyramid as God’s Sign and Witness.

But now, within the last year, twelve years after the death of Brother Russell, an entirely new view regarding the Great Pyramid is being pushed forward. The one who is responsible for this contrary view is the second, and present, president of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society.

His answers to the questions propounded by John Taylor is that-The Devil is the Author of the Great Pyramid, and, the purpose of this monument is to overthrow and destroy the faith of God’s children at the end of the Gospel Age. This is a diametrically opposed opinion to that held by our beloved Brother Russell. Who is right? Is the original founder of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society correct? or is the present president correct? I make bold to say that, all who have given this matter any straightforward and honest investigation will agree with me that the view of Brother Russell is correct.

In our class in Glasgow, Scotland, a group of the brethren devoted five weeks to a close study of an Anti-Pyramid article which appeared in the 1928 ‘Watch Tower" (15th November); and we came to the conclusion that not one argument in that article, directed against the inspired testimony of the Pyramid, can stand either the test of Scriptures, or reliable history. We are glad to note that many of the brethren everywhere have come to the same conclusion and many of them have pointed to the significance of that statement made by Brother Russell in his 3rd volume of ‘Studies," page 319, first paragraph, which reads: ‘This ancient structure being thus repeatedly referred to in the Scriptures, we cannot doubt that, if questioned, this ‘Witness’ of the Lord in the land of Egypt will bear such testimony as will honor Jehovah, and fully correspond with his written Word. We thus introduce this ‘Witness’ because the inspiration of its testimony will doubtless be as much disputed as that of the Scriptures, by the prince of darkness, the god of this world, and those whom he blinds to the truth."

Satan could not have been the designer of the Great Pyramid, for this monument contains many features corroborative of the Biblical plan of salvation, which could not have been known to the great adversary when the Pyramid was built over forty centuries ago. Very little investigation can easily prove this. For instance, when our Lord was asked by his disciples when the Kingdom of Israel would be restored, he replied: ‘It is not for you to know the times or the seasons, which the Father hath put in his own power" (Ac 1:7); and on a previous occasion he had declared: ‘Of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are in Heaven, neither the Son, but the Father." (Mr 13:32).

Now, when we investigate the time-measurements of the Great Pyramid, we find that not only is the ‘Day of the Lord" indicated by them, but all the time-features or prophetic ‘days" mentioned by Daniel the Prophet are accurately marked. Daniel saw his visions, and wrote regarding these ‘Days," about five and a half centuries before our Lord’s first advent, and about sixteen hundred years after the Great Pyramid was built; and he was commanded to ‘shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of end." (Da 12:4). None would understand these matters until the ‘Time of the End"-that is, until the end of the Gospel Age. And yet we find that the Great Pyramid contains these time-features of Daniel, corroborating them by accurate measurements. If God did not reveal these features to Daniel until sixteen hundred years after the Pyramid was built, and if none were to know how to interpret them until many centuries afterwards, and even then only by those who are declared to be ‘wise" (that is wise in the knowledge of the Lord), how could it be possible for Satan, ‘that wicked one," to have known of them at the time the Pyramid was built? It is quite manifestly unscriptural to make any such claim, seeing the heavenly Father had retained in his own power the times and seasons.

There are many other things, now seen to be incorporated in the symbolisms and dimensions of the Great Pyramid, which Satan could not possibly have known about when the building was erected, and about which he probably does not even yet know. For it is only those who have the spirit of the Lord who are taught of God-none others have the privilege of understanding the deep things of God. Just at this point I would like to repeat what Brother Russell says about the Pyramid’s testimony: ‘The Great Pyramid proves to be a storehouse of important truth-scientific, historic and prophetic-and its testimony is found to be in perfect accord with the Bible, expressing the prominent features of its truth in beautiful and fitting symbols. It is by no means an addition to the written revelation: that revelation is complete and perfect, and needs no addition. But it is a strong corroborative witness to God’s plan; and few students can carefully examine it, marking the harmony of its testimony with that of the written Word, without feeling impressed that its construction was planned and directed by the same divine wisdom, and that it is the pillar of witness referred to by the prophet in the above quotation."-Isa 19:19, 20. (See pp. 314, 315, Vol. III ‘Studies.")

We agree with Brother Russell in what he here says; and we think it is true that the symbolisms and measurements of this wonderful building corroborate the Scriptural plan in every particular. We do not go to the Pyramid for first-hand information, so far as the Lord’s plan is concerned, but rely upon the written Word for our instruction. If we but observe this rule, we will be guarded against placing reliance upon, say, any dates for future important events (such as the date for the glorification of the last member of the spirit-begotten Church of Christ), which may be claimed to be indicated by time-measurements in the Pyramid, but for which Scriptural proof cannot be cited. I think it is safe for us to say: The Bible first, and the Pyramid’s corroborative evidence second. Had this rule been observed as I think you will agree, so much credence would not have been placed on such dates as 1925 for the resurrection of the Ancient Worthies, or in 1928 for the resurrection of the last member of the church. The Scriptures did not warrant these dates for such important events; and, incidentally, neither did the Pyramid indicate them as was claimed, and as we warned the brethren at the time.

In 1924, in our booklet entitled: ‘The Great Pyramid; Its Time Features," and also in our free pamphlet on the Pyramid (of which over a million copies were distributed), we drew attention to the fact that, not only is 1914 A.D. marked in the Pyramid, but also the date 1918, when the Great World War ended at the Armistice. These two dates, and the duration of the World War between them, are marked by the low passage leading from the Grand Gallery to the Ante-Chamber, its length in Pyramid inches agreeing with the length of the World War in months. (For in this time-measurement each inch represents the shorter period of the month, instead of the year. The inch also represents the still shorter period of the day in many of the scientific features of the Pyramid.) Because of this indication of the World War it is natural to suggest that the South Wall of the Ante-Chamber, where the second low passage to the King’s Chamber begins, should mark the end of May, 1928 (the precise date is 30th May, 1928); for the continued measurement through the length of the Ante-Chamber, at the inch-month scale, gives that date for the South wall (and not 27th May, 1928, as erroneously published by a young man, who ran off with the idea that the last member of the church would then be glorified). As the first low passage represented the great trouble caused by the World War, it was suggested by us that the second low passage would represent the final troublous periods upon the people of God, leading up to Autumn of the year 1936. Has this last troublous period started? The trouble is spiritual, of the mind, being trouble upon God’s spirit-begotten children. It was soon after the end of May, 1928, that the inspired testimony of God’s stone ‘Witness," named appropriately ‘The Stone Bible," began to be ‘officially" attacked; for the 15th Nov., 1928, ‘Watch Tower" article was not the beginning of the attack, neither was the pronouncement against the divine testimony of the Pyramid, as given by the Society’s president at the Detroit convention of Bible Students in 1928, the beginning. It began very soon after May, 1928, in the ‘Headquarters" of the Society in Brooklyn. The declamation in Detroit convention against the Lord’s stone ‘Witness" and its inspired testimony, and therefore against the Lord’s people who uphold this divine testimony, and the subsequent attack in the 15th Nov. ‘Watch Tower" article, were only the outcome of the previous Brooklyn ‘Headquarter’s" attack. This, of course, can only bring trouble upon the Lord’s ‘little ones." The recent exaltation of the Pope in Rome to Kingship is still another evidence that the Lord’s people, his spirit-begotten children, have entered their final troublous periods. Time will show.

The most prominent teaching of the Pyramid is the symbolism of the Top Stone. This Top Stone is clearly referred to in the Scriptures as a representation of the Son of God, Jesus Christ. He is that ‘Stone" referred to in the Holy Bible which builders rejected, but which afterwards became the ‘Head of the Corner," or ‘Chief Corner Stone." Our Lord himself applied the words of the Psalmist (Ps 118:22) to himself when he said: ‘Did ye never read in the scriptures, ‘The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner: this is the Lord’s doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes’? Therefore say I unto you, The Kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and given to a nation bringeth forth the fruits thereof. And whosoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken; but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder." (Mt 21:42-44).

Jesus was here clearly implying that he was the ‘stone" which was being rejected by the chief priests and Pharisees, but that afterwards God would make him the chief cornerstone; also he was intimating that if any stumbled over him, they would be bruised, but that afterwards when he became the head of the corner if he should fall on them they would be blotted out. The chief priests and Pharisees evidently perceived the meaning of our Lord, for they sought to lay hands on him.

Later, the Apostle Peter made the same application of Ps 118:22 when addressing the rulers of the people of Israel, and pointedly referred to our Lord Jesus as being ‘the stone" which was rejected by them (Ac 4:11). In one of his epistles, also, Peter again refers to our Lord Jesus Christ as being a ‘precious stone," disallowed or rejected of men, but chosen of God (1Pe 2:1-8).

To us who believe, the Apostle explains, that heavenly top-stone is precious; for we can see its absolute necessity in God’s great plan of salvation-that without this headstone the whole plan of God would be incomplete. We are, therefore, gladly built up into him, recognizing him as our head.

But to all others who are disobedient and who oppose the Lord’s Plan of the Ages, Jesus Christ is only a ‘stone of stumbling, and a rock of offense." They cannot understand the necessity for our Lord’s part in the Plan of God, and, therefore, they reject him, just as the builders of old are said to have rejected the head cornerstone of the Pyramid while it was being built.

It is remarkable that, the present opposition to the inspired testimony of God’s stone ‘Witness" began when a prominent ‘official" of the ‘Society" rejected the clear teaching of the Scriptures regarding the Top Stone of the Pyramid, namely, that it represents our Lord Jesus Christ.

Why should anyone reject this beautiful symbol? It is manifest that there is no building in the world except the Pyramid that can possible fit the language of the Psalmist, our Lord, and the Apostle Peter. The ‘corner stone" of any other forms of building is not distinctive in itself, even though it may have been laid with great ceremony, for hundreds of other stones in the same building are like it. But when we come to the pyramid form of building we find in it one stone which is preeminently the cornerstone, the ‘chief" or ‘head" cornerstone, quite unlike any other stone of the building, being in itself a perfect pyramid. Very little reflection will show that this stone cannot possibly occupy any position except the head of the building, because of its peculiar shape. Neither can any other stone take its place. Is this not true of our Lord Jesus Christ? He cannot take a lower position than that to which God has exalted him. For we read that he has been given a name above every name both in Heaven and earth, and that at his name every knee shall bow and every tongue shall confess to the glory of God the Father. Neither can any other take his place, for none except Jesus Christ are fitted to this end. The Lord Jesus Christ has preeminence over all.

We repeat, Why should any desire to reject this beautiful symbol of the headstone of the Pyramid, in its representation of the exalted preeminence of our Lord Jesus Christ? What is at the back of their opposition? Can it be that, if they once admit the truth of the application of the top-stone of the Pyramid to our Lord Jesus Christ, they will then be compelled to admit that the Scriptures do, after all, make some reference to the pyramid form of building and, therefore, to the possibility of the detail of God’s Plan of the Ages being depicted by the passage and chamber system of the Great Pyramid? In their desire to get away from the idea of the Great Pyramid being God’s ‘sign" and ‘witness" in the land of Egypt, corroborating the Biblical plan of salvation, they overstep the mark and reject the top-stone, as did the chief priests and Pharisees of old.

One of the first things that John Taylor of seventy years ago saw clearly symbolized by the Great Pyramid is this very thing to which we have drawn attention, namely: that Jesus Christ is referred to in the scriptures as the ‘Head Cornerstone of the Pyramid." He also saw the application of the first seven verses of Job 38 to the Great Pyramid in Egypt. In these verses the earth is spoken of in the first instance, but the language quickly changes and can only refer to a building of the pyramid form, especially when reading the marginal rendering of verse six. Reference is here made to ‘foundation sockets" made to ‘sink," and to a ‘cornerstone" at the laying of which the morning stars are said to have sang together, and all the sons of God to have shouted for joy.

John Taylor perceived that there is one distinctive feature of the Great Pyramid which differentiates it from all other pyramids of Egypt, namely: its four corner foundation stones are made to sink into corresponding sockets in the rock. This structural fact caused him to study the Great Pyramid, for he reasoned that the Scriptures would not make such a pointed reference to the foundation sockets made to sink without a definite purpose, and he rightly judged that the purpose is to point to the Great Pyramid particularly, and not to any of the other pyramids. In other words, the Lord desired to draw the attention of his children to the Great Pyramid of Gizeh as the one that is worthy of their consideration; and sure enough, as many earnest Bible students of the past two generations have seen, this Great Pyramid of Gizeh well repays all their careful consideration, for it corroborates God’s great plan of salvation in a wonderful way, and with an accuracy that cannot be gainsaid. As investigation continues, new beauties are seen to be built in to this marvelous structure. In this respect it is much like the Bible, for the more we study the Bible the more its truth opens to us. So also with the Great Pyramid, the further we investigate it, the more we see how it corroborates the Bible in its every detail. Our faith is therefore much strengthened, and the knowledge thus gained enables us to withstand many of the wiles of the Adversary.

Descending Passage

Just let us recall some of those things of the Word of God that are corroborated by the Great Pyramid Passage-System. Briefly stated: we know that the Descending Passage from the entrance represents the downward course of mankind, laboring under sin and degradation toward death, which at present is the heritage of every man as we read, ‘by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin" (Ro 5:12). That death, to which mankind is hastening, is symbolized by the subterranean chamber or ‘Pit." All the world have been born on the downward way. The height of this Descending Passage is only four feet and, therefore, a man of average stature must bow down very low while traversing it. Its floor also is very steep and slippery, thus representing the slippery, downward way to death.

First Ascending Passage

The Apostle tells us that ‘death reigned from Adam to Moses" (Ro 5:14), a period of over 2,500 years. Then an opportunity to escape death was granted to the people of Israel, the descendants of Jacob. God gave them the Law through Moses, and intimated that those who did the things of the Law would live in them. The people of Israel thought it an easy matter to observe the things of the Law and readily promised to do them, but they very quickly realized how powerless they were to observe this Law of God. For the Law is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good (Ro 7:12), while they were sinful, born under condemnation to death. They found that they could not keep that perfect law of God inviolate. Thus the commandment which was ordained to life was found to be unto death (Ro 7:10). None could pass the perfect requirements of the Law and gain life.

The First Ascending Passage represents this opportunity to escape the downward way to death and go on an upward way to life. But just as, in reality, the people of Israel could not ascend to life by their Law, so it is found to be impossible to take advantage of the First Ascending Passage. It is blocked at the lower end by a Granite Plug. As Brother Russell clearly proves, granite in the Great Pyramid represents that which gold in the tabernacle and temple represents, namely, divine, spiritual things.

Granite Plug

The Granite Plug blocking the lower end of the First Ascending Passage thus very well symbolizes the divine Law of God blocking the way of life. The apostle declares that ‘the Law is spiritual," but that we are carnal, sold under sin (Ro 7:14). Thus we find that the Great Pyramid corroborates the declaration of the Scriptures: ‘There is none righteous, no, not one." ‘For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God" (Ro 3:10, 23). Both the people of Israel and the Gentiles are alike condemned to death, and none of them can by any means redeem his brother, nor give to God a ransom for him (Ps 49:7). In the Great Pyramid all are represented as hastening down the Descending Passage toward the Pit, symbolical of death.

But God, who is full of mercy and loving kindness, and who had foreseen that no one could escape death by his own efforts-neither the Jew with the Law, nor the Gentile without the law-had already provided a way of escape. We read that Jesus Christ is the ‘Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world," and that he was ‘foreordained before the foundation of the world" (Joh 1:29; 1Pe 1:19, 20). God had provided in his great Plan of the Ages that His Son should come and die for all mankind, and that he should rise again and become Lord both of the living and the dead.

Thus we read that: ‘In due time Christ died for the ungodly" (Ro 5:6), and: ‘When the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son" (Ga 4:4). He was ‘delivered for our offenses, and was raised again for our justification" (Ro 4:25). This great scriptural truth is symbolized in the stone ‘Sign" and ‘Witness" by the Well-Shaft.

Key to the Pyramid

The peculiar Well-Shaft is in truth the ‘key" to the entire symbolism of the Great Pyramid.

Just as the ransom-sacrifice of the Lord Jesus Christ is the central theme of the whole Plan of God, and is the key that unlocks the teaching of the Bible, so the understanding of the Well-Shaft in the Great Pyramid opens up the true meaning of all the passages and chambers in the building.

Well Shaft

From the structural standpoint the Well-Shaft is entirely without meaning. It can serve no useful purpose so far as the building itself is concerned. That is why some investigators, such as Professor Flinders Petrie, are of the opinion that the Well-Shaft was an after-thought on the part of the builders-that they cut it through the rock and masonry after the Pyramid had been erected. Close investigation of the masonry and rock, however, demonstrates beyond question that the Well-Shaft was not an afterthought, but was part of the original design of the whole building. We ourselves gave particular attention to this part of the building during our visits to the Pyramid, and we have no hesitancy in saying that the Well-Shaft is indeed an integral part of the monument’s original design. In our Volume I of ‘Great Pyramid Passages," to which special attention was drawn by Brother Russell in the ‘Watch Tower" of 1st August, 1910, we go into this matter at some length, presenting diagrams to illustrate the important architectural features at the upper end of the Well-Shaft; for we have always considered that a correct understanding of this part of the Pyramid is essential.

Let us repeat: Structurally speaking the Well-Shaft is meaningless, but symbolically it is absolutely necessary-it is the key that unlocks the meaning of all the other parts of the building. As anyone can see, by a contemplation of the accompanying chart, it is not possible for one to reach the upper passages and chambers except by the Well-Shaft, because the First Ascending Passage is rendered impassable by the obstructing Granite Plug. In symbolical language this means that neither the spiritual nor human conditions of life (represented by the two chambers high up in the masonry of the building) can be gained by the works of the Law (represented by the First Ascending Passage); but it is possible to gain them through faith in the ransom-sacrifice of Jesus Christ (represented by the open Well-Shaft).

Queen’s Chamber

When our Lord came into this world he was not born in degradation and sin, for we read that, ‘In him was no sin." He was ‘holy, harmless, undefiled and separate from sinners." The ‘Man Christ Jesus" was born on the plane of human perfection, which in the Great Pyramid is represented by the Queen’s Chamber level, for this limestone chamber symbolizes perfect human life. It is the level of the floor of the Queen’s Chamber which represents the plane of human perfection.

When the line of the floor of the Queen’s Chamber is produced northward, it intersects the floor of the First Ascending Passage 33-1/2 inches from its upper end. That is to say, this produced floor-line of the Queen’s Chamber intersects the floor-line of the First Ascending Passage at that exact point, which is 33-1/2 inches short of the upper terminal of the inclined floor, where the Grand Gallery begins; and these 33-1/2 inches represent the thirty-three and one-half years of our Lord’s life on earth. (The inches used in these time-measurements are not British inches, but Pyramid inches; and the length of the Pyramid inch is based upon the dimensions of the earth, exactly five hundred millions of them being the length of the polar axis of the earth.) Thus we see how the Biblical statements that Jesus was ‘made of a woman," and ‘made under the law" (See Ga 4:4), are corroborated by this feature of the Great Pyramid-for, as we say, the level of the floor of the Queen’s Chamber represents the plane of human perfection on which Jesus was born, or ‘made," and the First Ascending Passage represents the Law to which Jesus was subject from his birth, and which he ‘nailed" to his cross at thirty-three and one-half years of age.

Grand Gallery

The death of Christ ended the Law, and the resurrection of Christ the third day after inaugurated the dispensation of grace, known to us as the Gospel Age. Just as the First Ascending Passage symbolizes the Law Age, so the Grand Gallery to which it leads symbolizes the Gospel Age.

Although both passages rise at the same steep angle, and although their floors are equally slippery, yet there is great difference between them in two important respects. In the first place, the Grand Gallery is far higher in the roof, and there is no necessity for one to stoop as when coming up the First Ascending Passage. This illustrates a manifest difference between the two Ages. The exacting requirements of the law was a burden to the Jew and bowed him down; but Christ became an end of the law for righteousness to everyone who believed; and those receiving the Gospel message experienced the glorious liberty wherewith Christ makes free. They passed, as it were, from the low, confined First Ascending Passage into the greater freedom of the Grand Gallery.

The other difference between the two passages is that, should one slip when ascending the Grand Gallery, he can cling to the side Ramps and steady himself until he regains his footing; but in the First Ascending Passage there is nothing to lay hold of should one feel his feet sliding. This again illustrates an important contrast between the two Ages; for although the followers of the Lord in the Gospel Age occasionally slip from their steadfastness through temporary lack of faith or from other causes, yet they have the ‘exceeding great and precious promises" of the Lord’s Word to sustain and reinstate them on the upward way. They have promises that the Lord will never forsake them; that if they confess their sins he is faithful and just to forgive them their sins and to cleanse them from all unrighteousness; that the Lord’s strength is made perfect in weakness. By these and many other precious promises, all who have taken up their cross and followed the Lord are enabled to overcome and ultimately ‘become partakers of the Divine nature."

During the Jewish Age, on the contrary, those who sought to gain life by the law had no promise of aid should they slip even in one of the commandments, as the Apostle James declares: ‘For whosoever shall keep the whole law [in an endeavor to merit life thereby], and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all," and is therefore under the curse of the law (Jas 2:10).

Had Jesus not laid down his life in sacrifice he would have remained alone on the plane of human perfection; for, as we have seen, none of the human race, whether of the people of Israel or of the Gentiles, could escape the downward-road to death. But our Lord came to this earth for the very purpose of sacrificing his human life on behalf of the world. We read, therefore, that ‘He poured out his soul unto death," and that ‘He gave his life a ransom for all." He gave his flesh for the life of the world.

We may picture our Lord as standing on the level of the Queen’s Chamber floor, a perfect man in whom was no sin, holy, harmless, and undefiled and separate from sinners, as far above the condemned human race as the horizontal line of the Queen’s Chamber floor stands above the downward line of the Descending Passage. Then at the due time he, by the grace of God, tasted death for every man. He laid down his life in sacrifice; and this sacrificial death, as we have said, is represented in the Pyramid by the Well-Shaft.

Mouth of Well

The Scriptures declare that it was not possible that he, the Holy One, the Prince of Life, could be ‘holden of death," but that God burst the bond of death and raised his beloved Son the third day, no longer a human being, however, but a spirit being on the highest plane. So the Well-Shaft symbolizes the resurrection of Jesus Christ, who is no longer represented as standing on the plane of the Queen’s Chamber, but high above in the King’s Chamber condition of spirit life. We know that the Scriptures declare that Jesus was made perfect as a New Creature and High Priest; and when he rose from the dead the third day all power in heaven and earth was given unto him, as he declared to his disciples. Here, then, we see the great significance of the Well-Shaft. Briefly.stated, it represents the ransom-sacrifice of our Lord Jesus Christ, belief in which alone can enable men to pass from death unto life.

Jesus declared that the hour was coming in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, and shall come forth. He also declared that, if he was lifted up from the earth he would draw all men unto him (Joh 5:28, 29; 12:32). Also the apostle Paul declares that, as in Adam all die, even so shall all in Christ be made alive (1Co 15:22). Adam brought righteousness and an opportunity for life to every man (Ro 5:18-22). The Descending Passage very well symbolizes the condemnation through Adam, while the Well-Shaft symbolizes the only ‘way of escape" from that condemnation.

Grand Gallery

While it is true that none of the people of Israel could gain life by means of the Law, yet God dealt with that nation for nearly sixteen and one-half centuries from the time of Moses. The apostle declares that the Law was ‘our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ" (Ga 3:24). Therefore, from this standpoint, the First Ascending Passage in the Great Pyramid represents the Law ‘schoolmaster" leading the people of Israel to Christ. (In this picture we ignore for the time being the Granite Plug, which in reality prevents anyone from going up this passage.) The Apostle John declares that, Jesus Christ ‘came unto his own, and his own received him not. But as many as received him, to them gave he power [the right or privilege] to become the Sons of God, even to them that believe on his name: which were born [begotten], not of blood nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God" (Joh 1:11-13). Those who received our Lord are thus declared to have been begotten of the New Nature, which is in no sense of the word fleshly, but spiritual.

The few who received our Lord became new creatures in Christ Jesus (See 2Co 5:17). They passed from Moses into Christ. In the Great Pyramid they are depicted as passing from the low First Ascending Passage into the lofty Grand Gallery. As joint-heirs with Jesus Christ we can see them ascending with him the floor of the Grand Gallery to the King’s Chamber, representative of the spiritual Kingdom of God.

All the remainder of the Nation of Israel are declared to have been blinded, that they might not see this great privilege which the few faithful ones received. As we read: ‘Israel hath not obtained that which he seeketh for; but the election hath obtained it, and the rest were blinded" (Ro 11:7). We also read regarding those who did not receive our Lord at his first advent: ‘Let their eyes be darkened, that they may not see, and bow down their back alway" (Ro 11:10). They are still represented as standing in the First Ascending Passage with bowed backs and blinded eyes, waiting until they are released by their returned Lord, when God will make with them a new covenant.

In the meantime the Gentiles, ‘who sometimes were far off," and who were ‘made nigh by the blood of Christ" (See Eph 2:13), are represented as passing upward from the Descending-Passage condemnation through the Well-Shaft to the Grand-Gallery privileges. The Apostle Paul declares that ‘Blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles be come in" (Ro 11:25). We understand this to mean that, the Gentiles are called by God to joint-heirship with Jesus Christ during the period when Natural Israel is blinded, and then when the full number is selected from the Gentiles, this blindness of Israel will be taken away from them, and so ‘all Israel shall be saved."

But while all Israel shall indeed be saved, when once their blindness passes away, they will have missed the chief blessing of membership in the Body of Christ. Instead, God will make with.them that new covenant of which he spake in times past by the mouth of Jeremiah-"Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah: Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they brake, although I was an husband unto them, saith the Lord: but this shall be the covenant that I will make with the House of Israel; after those days, saith the Lord, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people. And they shall teach no more every man his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, Know the Lord; for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them saith the Lord; for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more" (Jer 31:31-34). The people of Israel, when their blindness is removed, will pass from under the curse of the ‘Old Covenant" of Moses unto the opportunities of a ‘New Covenant" under Christ. They will, as it were, pass from the First Ascending Passage unto the Horizontal Passage that leads to the Queen’s Chamber. The Ascending Passage represents the Old Law Covenant, and the Horizontal Passage the New (Law) Covenant.

Horizontal Passage

During the Gospel Age it was impossible for any to attain to perfect human life by means of the New Covenant, for this way of life was not then open. This fact is symbolized in the Great Pyramid by a remarkable structural feature. If you will glance at the chart, you will see that the Horizontal Passage to the Queen’s Chamber branches southward below the Grand Gallery, and that the beginning of this Horizontal Passage is situated at the lower end of the Grand Gallery. These two passages, the Grand Gallery and the Horizontal Passage, are directly one above the other, on the same vertical plane. Therefore, the lower part of the floor of the Grand Gallery is necessarily removed to make way for the entrance of the Horizontal Passage. If this part of the floor of the Grand Gallery were restored, we would not be aware of the existence of the Horizontal Passage.

The markings on the masonry of the side-walls of the Grand Gallery at this part indicate that the inclined floor of the Gallery was originally intact, proceeding upward from the lower north wall in an unbroken line. And while this inclined floor thus stood intact none were aware of the Horizontal Passage, or the Queen’s Chamber. Afterwards, when the floor of the Grand Gallery at its lower end was broken away, the Horizontal Passage to the Queen’s Chamber was revealed. It is obvious, however, that the way up the Grand Gallery was closed, because of the breaking away of this large portion of its floor.

Old and New Law Covenants

This feature of the Pyramid obviously teaches that, while the Gospel Age (Grand Gallery) opportunity for joint-heirship with Jesus Christ in the spiritual kingdom (the King’s Chamber condition) is open, the New Covenant (Horizontal Passage) opportunity for perfect human life (the Queen’s Chamber condition) is not accessible, and that its existence, indeed, is not known. So, on the other hand, when the Gospel Age favors are ended, the New Covenant favors then become evident, and may be taken advantage of. It is worth our while to think over this remarkable symbolical feature of the Great Pyramid. We are quite sure that the Devil knew nothing about it, and could not have built it into the Pyramid, as we know you will agree.

The distinction between the Old and New (law) Covenants is well illustrated by the difference between the First Ascending and Horizontal Passages. Should one slip in the Ascending Passage he cannot prevent himself from falling; and as the angle of the floor is very steep he immediately begins to slide backward. He will then realize, as did the Jews born under the Old Covenant, that this upward way although ‘ordained to life" is after all a way to death (Ro 7:10).

Gathering impetus on that slippery inclined floor, he will fall with terrible impact against the upper end of the Granite Plug. When the Jews slipped and fell they were condemned to death by the perfect law of God, which, as we have seen, is particularly symbolized by the Granite Plug. Thus we see that the Pyramid corroborates the declaration of the Scriptures, that there was no hope of the people of Israel attaining life by means of the Old Law Covenant.

How different it is in the case of the Horizontal Passage, however, for although one walking here requires to stoop as in the First Ascending Passage, showing that he is under law, yet a slip and fall need not prove fatal. The passage being horizontal he will not slide backward. He may be bruised, but raising himself to his feet, he can continue on his way to the Queen’s Chamber. There is hope under the New Covenant, if one allows himself to be rightly exercised by the discipline of the righteous Judge. Profiting by the lesson of his fall, and henceforth taking more heed to his steps, he can progress toward the condition of human perfection symbolized by the Queen’s Chamber.

To the Jews first will this opportunity be given. They will pass, as we have said, directly from under the Old Law Covenant (for they are still under this Covenant, for Christ became the ‘end of the law for righteousness" only to those who believed-Ro 10:4) into the New Law Covenant. After the Jewish nation, all the Gentiles will be brought in under the New Covenant arrangement, that they also may attain human perfection. By the power that Christ will exert the Gentiles shall, figuratively, by raised from the Descending-Passage condition of death, up through the Well-Shaft to the Horizontal-Passage condition of the New Covenant; for through the ransom-sacrifice of Christ all mankind shall be redeemed and placed upon that ‘highway of holiness" (Ho 13:14).

The prophet Isaiah said: ‘No lion shall be there, nor any ravenous beast shall go up thereon . . . but the redeemed shall walk there" (Isa 35:8-10). Satan, the ‘roaring lion" (1Pe 5:8), will not be allowed to deceive man during the time of the New Covenant, for he is to be bound and cast into the ‘bottomless Pit," symbolized in the Pyramid by the Subterranean Chamber (Re 20:1-2); and all ‘ravenous beasts" represented by the evil institutions of the ‘Present Evil World," will be destroyed in the Pit. These evil systems shall not rise, but Satan is to be loosed for a little season at the end of the thousand years of Christ’s reign.

Air Channels

There is one distinction between the Great Pyramid and all other pyramids to which I desire to call attention, although it is well known to you. The Great Pyramid of Gizeh is provided with ‘air-channels," and this, incidentally, is proof that this monument at all events was not intended for a tomb. The dead do not breathe! When I was at the Pyramid in 1928 I got permission from the Egyptian government to clear the debris from these channels. During my first visit in 1909, the South Air-Channel of the King’s Chamber was quite open and a good breeze constantly passed through it, but the North Air-Channel of this chamber was entirely stopped up with stones and hardened dust. My object during this last visit was to clear out this obstruction from the North Channel. The South Channel had also during the past twenty years become blocked with debris.

However, I found it a comparatively easy matter to remove the debris from the South Channel, but work on the North Channel was much more difficult. I employed several Arab workers to push down a long boring rod from the outside of the Pyramid on the north side. At the end of this rod.was a scoop of metal by which they were able to extract the debris a little at a time. As the North Air-Channel is over 200 feet in length, and only 9 inches square in bore, it was an arduous task to remove all the hardened debris. My men worked on it for six weeks continuously. I am glad to say that their labors were entirely successful, every particle of debris being removed; and now, seeing that both South and North Air-Channels of the King’s Chamber are quite open, there is a constant cool air-current passing through the Pyramid.

In order to prevent these channels again becoming stopped up with debris, I directed my men to construct certain masonry work at their outer ends. This masonry is arranged in such a way that it will be impossible for dust or stones to again be washed into the channels by rain.

Regarding the Air-Channels of the Queen’s Chamber: As you know these were discovered only recently, comparatively speaking, namely, in 1872 by an English engineer, Waynman Dixon.

But he did not ascertain if these channels extend from the chamber to the outside of the Pyramid; and since his day no other investigator has tried to find the outer ends of these two channels.

Indeed, it has been the opinion of some, as for instance, Prof. George Reisner of Harvard College, Boston, who has conducted excavating operations for over a quarter of a century in Egypt, that these two air-channels of the Queen’s Chamber were only dummies, or make-believe air-channels.

In their opinion the channels did not extend more than a few feet upward into the masonry from the chamber; and some diagrams of the Great Pyramid depict the channels in this way.

I determined to find out for myself the truth, or otherwise, of this opinion. I ordered several long steel rods from an engineering firm in Cairo. The length of these rods varied from thirteen to sixteen feet, and I had them threaded at each end and had screw-couplers made so that the rods might be coupled together in one continuous length. At the end of one of these rods I had a ball of wood fastened. This was to prevent the end of the rod sticking in any joint or rough pieces of masonry. The ball glided over all inequalities. I began by probing the North Air-Channel of the Queen’s Chamber, pushing in the rod with the wooden ball at the end of it first, and then coupling another rod to it and pushing that inward, then a third rod coupled to the other two-and so on, one rod after another. I found that all the rods that I had provided myself with in the first instance, passed up the channel without hindrance, and I had, therefore, to get a further supply of rods. These rods were of flexible steel, because the channel on the north side of the Queen’s Chamber does not proceed directly upward in a straight line, but curves around toward the west to avoid the intervening masonry of the Grand Gallery. The rods, therefore, had to bend around this curved part.

The North Air-Channel of the King’s Chamber is also bent around the intervening masonry of the Grand Gallery on the west side.

I managed to push the rods up the Queen’s Chamber north channel to a distance of 175 feet, and then, unfortunately, the rods broke. The strain of passing around the westward bend proved too much for them. About a week later with some fresh rods I made another attempt to probe the length of this North Channel, but again my rods broke after I had pushed them upward for 175 feet. I was a little more successful in probing the length of the South Channel, for beyond the bend at the lower end this channel is straight. (The channel goes through the wall from the chamber in a straight horizontal line for eight feet, and then bends upward at a steep angle and in a direct line toward the outside surface of the Pyramid.) I managed to push the rods up the South Air Channel to a distance of 208 feet, and then they struck against some obstruction beyond which I could not go. About a week later I again probed this South Channel and could not get beyond 208 feet. So far as I can judge this is about twenty feet short of the outside of the Pyramid on the south side. I made a search for the outer end of this South Channel, spending several days on the south flank of the building, but could not detect any opening. Probably some future investigation may prove more successful. At all events, I have proved now that the two air-channels of the Queen’s Chamber were constructed by the ancient builders to almost their entire length. For a long stretch these two channels of the Queen’s Chamber run parallel with the channels of the King’s Chamber. The builder must, therefore, have had a definite purpose in so constructing them. As you know, in the symbolism of the Great Pyramid, these air-channels represent life-that is, ‘the breath of life." I may mention that, in probing the length of these two air-channels of the Queen’s Chamber very little debris came down, proving that they are entirely open as far as they go. Like the two channels of the King’s Chamber, these Queen’s Chamber channels are also 9 inches square in bore.

Recent Excavations

While talking about work at the Great Pyramid I may mention that some very important excavating work was conducted there during 1925 and 1926. I requested permission from the Egyptian government to clear away some of the debris from the base of the Great Pyramid, and after waiting for some little time they granted this. The Acting Director General of Antiquities (who, by the way is a Scotsman like myself, and, peculiarly enough, has the same surname, Edgar) told me to write out my requirements regarding the work at the Great Pyramid. He suggested that I should number them in their order. So I wrote out the following list: (1) Permission to clear away debris from the north base of the Great Pyramid at the western end for a distance of about 200 feet from the northwest corner. (This was in order to complete the clearing of this base-line, work on which had already begun the previous year.) (2) To clear away all the obstructing debris from the four corner ‘Sockets." (My desire was to have these four Sockets clearly revealed, and to do this it was necessary to clear away a great many tons of debris, right back from the corners to the core masonry of the building.) (3) To clear out all the debris from the Subterranean Chamber.

(Although I had already cleared out much of this debris on previous occasions, a great deal still remained, covering up all the floor, and thus making it impossible to visualize the chamber as it was when originally cut in the rock, four thousand years ago.) (4) To clear out the Air-Channels of the King’s Chamber, and make a search for the outer ends of the Queen’s Chamber Air Channels.

I handed this list to Mr. Edgar, the Acting Director General of Antiquities, and he told me to wait a few minutes until he had consulted the head of his department, M. Lacau. He was not gone many minutes when he returned with the information that the work would be carried out in accordance with my request. To my surprise he intimated that the Egyptian government would defray the necessary expenses, but that I would have the privilege of directing operations. This was certainly more than I had hoped for, for I did not think the Antiquities Department would have gone to this expense.

At the beginning of December, 1925, the work was commenced. My nephew, Wm. R. MacDonald, who is also a brother in the Lord, aided me in the work of directing the men. After all the debris was removed from the Subterranean Chamber. I made a further request of the government, namely, that the men should be instructed to clear away much loose debris lying in the Queen’s Chamber. This work was also carried out; and now the entire inside of the Pyramid is clear of all obstructing debris.

While the men were there I directed them to shift the large block of granite that lay on the floor of the Descending Passage below the junction of the Ascending Passage. This stone more than half way blocked the height of the Descending Passage. (I show it in my diagrams of the Passage System.) I got it removed from its former position to a point further up towards the Entrance of the passage, where it now lies out of harm’s way and easily accessible to any who desire to examine it.

Professor Flinders Petrie mentions about this block in his Pyramid work, but he makes one mistake in regard to it. In his description he says there is one hole bored through it four inches in diameter.

But my examination revealed no less than three holes, all in a row, and none of them more than three inches in diameter. They are bored clean through the 21-inch thickness of the block. The other granite blocks which lay on the floor of the Descending Passage I removed into the Subterranean Chamber, where they now lie and can be examined by all who enter this chamber. there is nothing now throughout the entire length of the Descending Passage to obstruct continuous end-to-end measuring of it. This part of the Pyramid is certainly now in a very much better condition that it was when my late brother, Dr. John Edgar, and myself first visited it in 1909, twenty years ago.

The workmen were now directed to clear the debris from the 200-foot length of the North Base-Line. As this debris lay along the western section of the North Base, its depth was nowhere more than about eight feet. The workmen cleared a width of about twelve feet through it, along the line of the base of the building right to the Northwest Corner Socket. With the completion of this work the entire North Base-Line of about 760 feet stands clear of all debris. For the first time for many centuries it is possible to measure the length of the base from Socket to Socket, right along the original leveled rock and masonry.

In the central part of this North Base there is a long stretch of the original ‘Platform" of the building. The line of the Casing-Stones is clearly marked on the top surface of this Platform. There is a large section of the Casing-Stones still in position, resting directly on the Platform; and eastward beyond this remnant of Casing the Platform extends for a long distance, the line of the Casing, as we say, being still clearly marked upon it. The whole line is most marvelously straight, not deviating by so much, even, as one-fiftieth part of an inch. Our later investigations of the other three Base-Lines of the building reveal that they also are absolutely straight. The Platform on which the Casing-Stones rest is almost absolutely level. The ancient workmen were certainly very accurate, and it is doubtful if present-day experts could equal them, even with all modern appliances.

While the workmen were engaged clearing the debris from the North Base, I made still another request of the Egyptian government, namely, that they should remove all the remaining debris from the north side of the Pyramid. For, so far, merely the Base-Line. So long as this debris lay there, it was hardly possible to judge the true height of the Pyramid, when looking at it from some little distance off. Well, this work was also carried out. The debris being removed gradually in trucks which ran on rails to the edge of the plateau on which the Pyramid is built and tipped over into the plain below. Many thousands of tons of debris were thus removed, over a hundred men laboring at it for quite a long time. There is no debris now anywhere on the north side of the Pyramid.

This clearing work revealed a very interesting architectural feature, namely, the foundation of a great thick wall, which originally ran the entire length of the north side of the Pyramid, enclosing the building on that side. The pavement reaches from the bottom edge of the Casting Stones, or, rather, from the front edge of the Platform (which is a distinct piece of masonry not to be confounded with the pavement) to the inner side of this stone wall. The pavement is about 33 feet wide, and is beautifully constructed with wonderfully close joints. The probability is that this stone wall continued on all four sides of the building, entirely isolating the Pyramid from its surroundings. The rock foundation shows that this wall must have been about thirteen feet thick at the base. It was probably between 20 and 25 feet high. Some of its rounded coping-stones were discovered.

After the four corner Sockets were cleared of debris, I made yet one more request of the government, this time asking them to clear the Southern Base-Line of the Pyramid. This was agreed to; but the season ended (1926) for such excavating-work before much more than half of this Southern Base-Line was cleared. The eastern half still remains to be done. As the result of this clearing of the western half of the Southern Base, a long row of Casing-Stones was uncovered.

They are much weathered as to their lower edges, but well preserved along their upper surfaces.

This row of Casing-Stones, which is much longer than the row on the north side of the building, is perfectly straight, and the top surface absolutely level.

This clearing-work of the Pyramid’s Base-Lines has served one good purpose, namely, it has forever dispelled an erroneous theory much advertised in late years that the Base-Lines of the Great Pyramid were hollowed in. On the contrary, they are absolutely straight; and the author who is responsible for the ‘holling-in" theory is now seen to have made a great mistake. Incidentally, also, all his theories built upon this idea of the hollowing-in of the Base-Line of the Pyramid are likewise now seen to be erroneous.

It is my hope that ultimately all the remaining Base-Lines of the Great Pyramid will be cleared of debris.


There is one thing that I would like to draw attention to, as I think it is most important. The Time-Measurements of the Great Pyramid corroborate the Bible chronology as presented by Brother Russell in his Volume of ‘Studies in the Scriptures." These Time-Measurements do not corroborate any other scheme of Chronology. We know that Brother Russell constantly drew attention to the date 1914 A.D. as marking the end of the ‘Times of the Gentiles." He believed that the end of these ‘Times" would be signalized by the great ‘Time of Trouble" spoken of by the Prophet Daniel, and by our Lord Himself. In the year 1904, ten years previously, in the first July ‘Watch Tower" in an article entitled, ‘Universal Anarchy-Just Before or After October, 1914 A.D.," Brother Russell says that he had changed his conviction respecting the time when universal anarchy might be expected. He wrote: ‘We now expect the anarchistic culmination of the great ‘Time of Trouble’ which will precede the Millennial blessings, will be after October 1914 A.D." He then goes on to examine the various lines of prophecy pointing to our day.

Some of the brethren got the idea that Brother Russell was changing his dates. One of them wrote to Brother Russell as follows: ‘Since you have changed your views respecting Gentile Times let me suggest the possibility of still another error. You count the seventy years Babylonian captivity of the Jews as beginning with the overthrow of Zedekiah, Judah’s last king, but I notice that ‘Bishop Usher’s Chronology,’ given in the margins of our Common Version Bibles and based on ‘Ptolemy’s Canon,’ begins that seventy year [captivity] period nineteen years earlier-namely, in the first year of Nebuchadnezzar, when he took captive Daniel and other prominent Jews and laid the Jews’ country under tribute. Now if this, the common reckoning, be correct, it would make the.Times of the Gentiles to begin nineteen years later than you estimate, namely, in B.C. 587, instead of B.C. 606-and this in turn would make those times end nineteen years later than you have reckoned-in October A.D. 1933, instead of October, 1914. What do you say to this? Are you humble enough to acknowledge that I have struck some new light, and that you and all DAWN readers have been ‘all wrong,’ walking in darkness?"

In his reply Brother Russell says: ‘The brother errs in supposing that we have changed our view of ‘Gentile Times.’ Those ‘times’ or years are 2520, with a definite beginning in B.C. 606, and a definite ending, A.D. 1914. We know of no reason for changing a figure: to do so would spoil the harmonies and parallels so conspicuous between the Jewish and Gospel Ages . . .

‘In Millennial Dawn, Vol. II, pp. 36, 37, we were careful to note the unreliability of all ancient histories, and, after quoting various authorities conceding this, we added, last paragraph-’The Bible, our God-provided history of the first three thousand years, is the only work in the world which-beginning with Adam, the first man mentioned in history, monument or inscription, whose name, the time of whose creation and death, are recorded, and from whom his descendants can be traced by name and age in successive links for nearly four thousand years-furnishes us a clear and connected history down to a period where secular history is well authenticated. As we shall see, the Bible record extends to the first year of Cyrus, B.C. 536, a well-established and generally accepted date. There the thread of Bible chronology is dropped-at a point where secular history if reliable.

God has thus provided for his children a clear and connected record down to the present time . . . The Bible, therefore, is the chart of all history. Without it, as has been truly said, history would be like rivers flowing from unknown sources to unknown seas.’ ‘On page 52 of the same volume we said: ‘Usher dates the seventy years’ desolation eighteen years earlier than is shown above-that is, before the dethronement of Zedekiah, Judah’s last king-because the king of Babylon took many of the people captive at that time (2Ch 36:9, 10, 21; 2Ki 24:8-16). He evidently makes the not uncommon mistake of regarding those seventy years as the period of captivity, whereas the Lord expressly declares them to be seventy years of desolation of the land, that the land should lie ‘desolate, without an inhabitant’ (Da 9:2; Jer 26:9).

‘From the foregoing it is evident that at the time of writing DAWN II we were fully aware that ‘Ptolemy’s Canon’ and ‘Usher’s Chronology’ cut short the ‘seventy years’ ‘desolation of the land,’ and counted them as but fifty-one years, Usher endeavoring to make the Bible account agree with ‘Ptolemy’s Canon.’ We, however, have followed the Bible record exactly and persistently, and took secular history only where the Bible history ended. We cannot make seventy years’ desolation of the land into fifty-one years’ desolation for the sake of harmony with Ptolemy. (Da 9:2; 2Ch 36:21). Indeed we reject all of Ptolemy’s Canon back of the first year of Cyrus, 536 A.D.-the farther back it goes, the greater its errors."

The above letter and Brother Russell’s reply to it are contained in the ‘Watch Tower" of October 1st, 1904.

When the great World War of 1914 broke out, Brother Russell regarded it as the fulfillment of his expectation. In the October 15th, 1914, ‘Watch Tower" he says: ‘For forty years we have been proclaiming this very war and its glorious outcome, by sermons, oral and printed, and in our books on Bible study in twenty languages." In other articles he speaks of the ‘Gentile Times" as having ended in 1914. This date, 1914, is very prominently marked in the Great Pyramid by numerous independent time-measurements. (These time-measurements are explained in Vol. II of ‘Great Pyramid Passages," which volume was particularly called attention to by Brother Russell in the October 15th, 1913, ‘Watch Tower.").ptolemy In reference to the ‘Astronomical Canon of Ptolemy," to which Brother Russell makes reference, there is one strange point about which I would like to speak: In Ptolemy’s list of kings, two kings are mentioned whose names are much alike, namely Nabopolassar and Nabokolassar.

These two kings are said to be father and son, and the latter one, Nabokolassar, is identified with Nebuchadnezzar of the Bible.

It is quite possible that Ptolemy has mixed up these two names. Nabo-po-lassar, the father, is very likely mixed up with Nabo-ko-lassar, the son. It may be, of course, that not Ptolemy but later historians made a mistake here, both names applying to one king only, and not to two.

There is nothing improbable in this, for such mistakes are not by any means infrequent. For instance, it is through a mistake of this very king that Ptolemy (or an historian who followed and copied him) made another well-known mistake in his list of kings, namely by mixing up the names of the two kings called Xerxes and Artaxerxes. Ptolemy’s Canon makes a mistake of ten years in the reign of Xerxes, saying that he reigned for twenty-one years, whereas reliable history proves conclusively that Xerxes reigned for eleven years only.

This is important to notice; for if Xerxes did reign twenty-one years, and not only eleven, then the twentieth year of his successor, that is, Artaxerxes, would be ten years later than we understand it to be. And if Artaxerxes’ twentieth year is ten years later, then Daniel’s prophecy of the seventy weeks (at the end of sixty-nine of which weeks Messiah was to come), would not have been fulfilled. But Ptolemy made a mistake here; and reliable history, quite apart from the Scriptural requirement, proves that Ptolemy was mistaken to the extent of ten years in the reign of Xerxes, and hence, also, ten years in the reign of Artaxerxes. This is really more than one, or even two, mistakes of Ptolemy, for not only are his stated years for the reigns of two kings ten years wrong each, but the date for the death of the first (Xerxes), and the date for the accession of the second (Artaxerxes), are also necessarily wrong. In other words, Ptolemy made a bad blunder in his history of this period.

Now, if Ptolemy made a mistake in his dates of the reigns of two kings who lived during the fifth century B.C. (he himself lived during the second century A.D., or several hundred years later), it is certainly not unreasonable to claim that he made a mistake in his history of the time of Nebuchadnezzar, a century and a half further back. But, as I say, it is not improbable that the interpreters of Ptolemy made this mistake, and not, in this case, Ptolemy himself. The interpreters, as likely as not, have mixed up Nabo-po-lassar and Nabo-ko-lassar, just as many historians mix up Xerxes and Artaxerxes.

According to Ptolemy’s Canon, or list of kings, Nabo-po-lassar began his reign in 625 B.C., and the 19th year after this is 606 B.C., the very date required for the beginning of the great ‘Seven Times of the Gentiles," ending in autumn, 1914 A.D. Probably, therefore, Nabo-po-lassar and not Nabo-ko-lassar, should be identified with Nebuchadnezzar; or else, as we have suggested, Nabo-po- lassar and Nabo-ko-lassar are one and the same. You may have noticed that Nebuchadnezzar is sometimes also called Nebuchadrezzar, just as Nabo-ko-lassar may also have been known as Nabo-po- lassar. Note the spelling in, say, Eze 26:7; 29:18; 30:10, and contrast it with that in Da 4:1, 4; 5:1, 11. But Jeremiah spells this name both ways, sometimes Nebuchadnezzar, and sometimes Nebuchadrezzar (Jer 24:1; 25:1; 29:1, 3; 39:1, 5). Why this peculiar change of letters?

I desire to repeat: The Great Pyramid, by its accurate time-measurements, upholds the Bible chronology as presented to us by Brother Russell, together with all the prophetic periods and dates based upon this chronology. These time-measurements are at the rate of an inch to a year, and this.inch is the earth-commensurable ‘Pyramid" inch. It is important to note this distinction, for the British inch, though very nearly the same length of the ‘Pyramid" inch, is nevertheless too short.

For instance, the measured length of the Grand Gallery in the Great Pyramid is 1883-1/2 British inches, but in ‘Pyramid" inches the length of the Gallery is slightly over 1881-1/2 (1881.5985 ‘Pyramid" inches).

Not only does actual, practical, measuring in the Grand Gallery prove that its length is slightly over 1881-1/2 ‘Pyramid" inches, but many distinct scientific proportions corroborate this figure. We need, therefore, have no doubt whatever regarding this length. It corresponds with the years (an inch for a year) between the date of our Lord’s death and resurrection, Spring of 33 A.D., and end of the Gentile Times, Autumn of 1914 A.D.

In the November 1st, 1914 ‘Watch Tower," in the article entitled: ‘Making Ready for the Reign of Righteousness," Brother Russell speaks at some length regarding the date 1914 as marking the end of the Gentile Times. He quotes the words of our Lord in Lu 21:24-"Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled." Commenting upon these words, Brother Russell writes: ‘We think it reasonable for us to hold that if there are Gentile Times to be fulfilled, they must have been foretold; and if they have been foretold, then they must have been foreordained, or planned of God, who knew beforehand how long those Gentile Times would be and when they would be fulfilled."

Brother Russell then goes on to show that these foretold Gentile Times began to run their course in the year 606 B.C., when Zedekiah, the last king of Judah, was dethroned. And as these Times of the Gentiles are seven ‘Times" in all, and as a ‘Time" is 360 years in fulfillment, ‘So then," Brother Russell continues, ‘this period of Seven Times must mean 7 x 360 years, or 2520 years."

Continuing the discussion of the Gentile Times, Brother Russell says: ‘Studying God’s Word, we have measured the 2520 years, the Seven symbolic Times, from the year 606 B.C. and have found that it reached down to October, 1914, as nearly as we are able to reckon."

‘Now the question comes," adds Brother Russell, ‘Have the Gentile Times ended or not?

Some may be inclined to say, ‘No; they have not ended.’ Others would say, ‘When the Gentile Times shall have ended, we would expect that the Gentiles would be entirely ousted from all power and control, and that Christ’s Kingdom would be established. Were there not a great many things that we expected would take place when the Gentile Times would end?"

Brother Russell answers: ‘But are we in any sense of the word to expect such a sudden transition-that going to bed on the night of September 20, we would find on the morning of September 21, all the kingdoms of the world destroyed and the Kingdom of Christ set up, the saints in glory, etc. Such would be a lightning change! We do not think that any would have been justified in so thinking. If any had such expectation it was unwarranted."

Brother Russell then goes on to point to the ending of other prophetic time-periods, showing how the events foretold were fulfilled gradually, though the set times for the beginnings of these events were definite dates. Continuing his argument, Brother Russell says: ‘If the harvest work of Our Lord’s presence (parousia) has been a gradual work for forty years, leading up to the present time [that is, 1914], and if the Time of the End is a slow period, how long would this period [of the Time of Trouble] be, in which present institutions will be ousted, and the present order of things be condemned and done away with to make way for the Reign of Righteousness? We answer that according to such pictures we might expect the transition to run on a good many years."

Further on in this same article in November 1st, 1914, ‘Watch Tower," Brother Russell writes: ‘Someone may say, We do not see the Jews back in Jerusalem yet. Is Jerusalem still trodden down of the Gentiles? In reply, we ask, What do you think our Lord meant when he said that Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles until the Times of the Gentiles be fulfilled? . . . Jerusalem represents the Jewish polity, government, institution, people. The Jews had already been trodden down for centuries before Our Lord’s remark-in fact they were under the heel of the Romans at the time Jesus uttered these words; and they would continue to be under the domination of those Gentile governments ‘until the Times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.’ ‘The treading down of the Jews has stopped,’" declared Brother Russell. All over the world the Jews are now free-even in Russia. On September 5 [1914], the Czar of Russia issued a proclamation to all the Jews of the Russian empire; and this was before the Times of the Gentiles had expired . . . Where are the Jews being trodden down now? . . . We believe that the treading down of Jerusalem has ceased, because the time for the Gentiles to tread down Israel has ended."

Brother Russell then remarks: ‘When we have the opportunity, we intend to call the attention of our Jewish friends to the fact that the time of their disfavor and the Times of the Gentiles have expired, and that they may re-establish their kingdom in Palestine; for there is nothing now that intervenes. Some years ago [in 1910] we called attention to the fact that the Gentile times were fast closing; and the Message, by the way, went all over the various countries of the world where Jews live, it having been printed in the Yiddish and the German languages. That Message has carried peace to them, telling about their restoration, and pointing out to them this very time. Now we are able to tell them that the Gentile Times have expired, and that they may go up and take possession of the land. We do not know how soon them will take possession.

According to their faith it will be unto them."

Since Brother Russell wrote these words the old Turkish oppressors have been driven out of the land of Palestine, and the Jews, under the famous ‘Balfour Declaration," have been given a national home in their ancient land of promise. The recent trouble between the Arabs and the Jews, while distressing, is but an indication that the Jews have been gaining a steady hold upon the land, thus arousing the jealousy of the Arabs. The Pope in Rome has closely followed events in Palestine; and in the ‘Chicago Tribune" of August 28th, 1929, a message from the Vatican in Rome appears, in which the Jewish and Arab situation in Palestine is commented upon: ‘Regarding the Wailing Wall matter, the prelate is said to have advised [to the British Government] that that is only a pretext, and the real cause of the trouble was economic, the Jews having deprived the Arabs of jobs, and otherwise disturbed economic conditions."

As you know, much can be said regarding the Great Pyramid’s corroboration of the Lord’s Plan of Salvation, and the time-features, but these have already been set forth in the second volume of ‘Great Pyramid Passages" which Brother Russell recommended to all his readers. You will have noticed already, I am sure, that, in a way, the Grand Gallery indicates the 2520-year period of the Seven Times of the Gentiles. For if we regard the upward floor-line of this Grand Gallery as being the hypotenuse of a right-angle triangle, the precise upward angle of the passage is such that the sum of the lengths of the base line and perpendicular of this triangle closely approximates 2520 inches (This sum is 2520.549 ‘Pyramid" inches, or about half an inch more than the exact 2520).

The subterranean chamber, also, marks the end of another time-measurement of 2520 ‘Pyramid" inches.

Reason for Visiting Pyramid

I think it right to draw your attention particularly to the measured length of the Descending Passage, from the junction of the First Ascending Passage down to the Subterranean Chamber.

There had been some doubt as to the precise length of this rock-cut passage, and it was for this reason that my brother, Doctor Edgar, and I visited the Great Pyramid in 1909. We desired to ascertain once for all the true length of this passage.

You may have noted that, in his early editions of Vol. III of ‘Studies in the Scriptures," in the Pyramid chapter, Brother Russell states that the length of the Descending Passage, from the junction of the Ascending Passage down to the Subterranean Chamber, is 3416 inches. But in all later editions of his third volume, since 1905, the length of this passage has been altered to the extent of 41 inches, the length now being said to be 3457 inches. Formerly the north wall of the Subterranean Chamber was said to mark the date 1874 A.D., but with the new measure of 3457 inches this date was shifted forward 41 years to 1915 A.D. No explanation is given for this change.

(See, however, the short article, ‘The Great Pyramid Measurements," on page 326 of 1st Nov., 1904, ‘Watch Tower.") We measured this passage in 1909, having first removed from it all obstructing debris, we found that neither the earlier published length of 3416 inches, nor the later published length of 3457 inches, was correct. The true length was found to be more nearly 3385 ‘Pyramid" inches. (The exact length if 3384.904 ‘Pyramid" inches.) As will be seen, this is 31 inches less than the first of Brother Russell’s figures, and 72 inches less than his later one.

We, of course, immediately communicated with Brother Russell the true length of the Descending Passage. At first sight it appeared as if we would require to abandon the time-measurements of this lower part of the Pyramid’s passage system, the true length being so different from what we had previously understood it to be. Yet, strange to say, instead of abandoning the time-measurements, we found that the true length of the passage established these time-measurements all the more thoroughly. Both dates, 1874 and 1914, are now seen to be indicated by the end of this Descending Passage. This indication is very exact and convincing, and goes far to establish our faith in the Great Pyramid as indeed a building of God.

The End of the Present Evil World

Some may naturally wonder how, with the length of the Descending Passage being 3385, and neither 3416 or 3457 inches, it is possible for the dates at the Subterranean Chamber still to be found correct. The explanation is, after all, quite simple, namely-the date marked by the upper end of the First Descending Passage (the starting-point for this particular time-measurement-See pages 341-342 in Vol. III, ‘Studies") is not 2 B.C. the date of our Lord’s birth, but more properly 33 A.D., the date of his death and resurrection. Also, the true length of the First Ascending Passage is more nearly 1543-1/2 ‘Pyramid" inches, and not 1542 as stated in Vol. III ‘Studies." This makes all the difference in the time-measurements-the terminal of the floor-line of the small Horizontal Passage in the ‘Pit," or Subterranean Chamber, is now found to mark the date 1874 (Brother Russell’s first interpretation was correct here, even though he did not base it upon the correct measurements). The 1914 date is marked by that particular point that is directly, vertically, below the terminal of the Small Horizontal Passage, and in line with the produced floor line of the inclined portion of the Descending Passage. That is, if the Descending Passage had continued directly downward at the same steep angle to the ‘Pit," instead of ending in the Small Horizontal Passage, the termination of.this downward measurement would mark the date 1914 A.D. The point where the Small Horizontal Passage branches off from the inclined floor of the Descending Passage, marks the date 1521 A.D., when Martin Luther began the great Protestant Reformation movement. The north wall of the small ‘Recess" in the west wall of the Small Horizontal Passage marks the date 1789 A.D., the year of the French Revolution. The upper, south, end-wall of the Grand Gallery marks 1914 A.D., just as does the terminal of the produced floor-line of the Descending Passage. These two points are in vertical alignment with each other.

Several ‘Pyramid"-inch time-measurements demonstrate that the vertical line of the roof-commencement of the Descending Passage marks the date of the flood of Noah. The full length of the Descending Passage from this ‘flood-line" commencement down to the terminal of the Small Horizontal Passage in the ‘Pit," correspond in inch-years with the complete duration of the second Dispensation, named in the Scriptures, ‘The Present Evil World," from 2472 B.C. to 1874 A.D., or 1914 A.D., if the measurements is continued down to the end of the produced floor-line of the downward passage.

The Complete Period of Salvation

Because of God’s foreknowledge in the obedience of His dear Son Christ Jesus, that he would willingly give his life a ransom-sacrifice for mankind, God at the very beginning subjected the whole human family in hope that there would ultimately be a reversal of the death-sentence-See Ro 8:20. Christ’s death was foreordained from the foundation of the world, as we read in 1Pe 1:18-20.

This ‘hopeful" condition of mankind is illustrated by the Horizontal Passage leading to the Queen’s Chamber; for this passage, in addition to symbolizing the New Covenant opportunity for life on the human plane, which God will make with Israel and afterwards with the whole world, also represents from this other standpoint the complete 7,000 years of mankind’s preparation for the Queen’s Chamber condition of perfect human life. The final one-seventh of this Horizontal Passage represents the final 1000-year period of the world’s history, the first six-sevenths representing the first 6000 years from the fall of Adam. Because of the 21-inch drop in the floor of the Queen’s Chamber end of the passage, this final section has that extra height between floor and roof; and this enables a man of average stature to walk along here upright, till he enters the Queen’s Chamber.

The first six-sevenths of the length of the passage is only four feet in height, and illustrates the bowed condition of the human race under sin and degradation during the first six 1000-year periods; whereas the greater head room of the last one-seventh of the passage illustrates the comparatively greater freedom of the Millennial Age under the beneficent rule of the Christ. Then, after the final ‘little season" when Satan is ‘let loose" from his restraint in the ‘Bottomless Pit," and the final test of love and obedience is brought upon restored humanity, and the finally incorrigible are blotted out with Satan in the ‘Second Death," the whole human family will be ushered into the ‘glorious liberty of the children of God" (Ro 8:21), as symbolized by the seven-sided Queen’s Chamber.

The bitter experience with sin, degradation, and death experienced by the human race for the past six thousand years, is part of man’s training, making him acquainted with the exceeding sinfulness of sin, that he may appreciate and enjoy the glorious condition of human perfection as symbolized by the Queen’s Chamber. And the one thousand years of Christ’s reign will give experience of righteousness, that all may know good as well as evil, and thus be prepared to choose good and live. So, although the world is pictured as stumbling down the Descending-Passage, under condemnation to death, this ‘cursed" condition was altered by the ransom-sacrifice of Jesus Christ, so that death is changed to ‘sleep," as Jesus said: ‘Lazarus sleepeth; but I go that I may awake him out of sleep . . . Then said Jesus unto them plainly, Lazarus is dead" (Joh 11:11-14).

The whole world now ‘sleep in Jesus," and shall be awakened in due time and be given an opportunity for life everlasting; but the Scriptures declare, that everyone who will not hear or obey that Prophet, Jesus Christ, shall be ‘destroyed from among the people" (Ac 3:23). Nevertheless, while some will be destroyed with Satan after the end of the Millennial reign of Christ, the vast majority will go on into life everlasting; for we read that, ‘He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many; for he shall bear their iniquities" (Isa 53:11). It will be noticed that the Well-Shaft, symbolical of Christ’s ransom-sacrifice, leads upward from the Descending Passage directly to the commencement of the Horizontal Passage. This represents how the ‘Lamb of God," Jesus Christ, was slain from the foundation of the world, illustrating, therefore, the hopeful condition of the world from the very beginning, even though weeping has endured for so long. The wrath of God will soon be overpast.

What think you? Shall we give the Devil the credit of having designed the Great Pyramid with all its convincing and beautiful teaching? I am quite sure that no one who has given this subject any real consideration would ever think of ascribing the existence of this monument to the great adversary of God and man. The Pyramid nowhere magnifies the Devil, but it everywhere magnifies the heavenly Father and our Lord Jesus Christ, and the glorious Scriptural Plan of Salvation. Praise ye the Lord!

(Time would not permit Bro. Edgar taking up the multitude of other interesting and corroborative features of the Great Pyramid, but these can be studied at leisure in his publications, to which references is made at the close of this Report.)


The evening service was then concluded with the first and last verse of Hymn 100 Closing prayer by Brother Edgar.

Although the first day of the Convention had come to a close, the friends were in no hurry to disperse, but remained a long time in fellowship.