THE GREAT PYRAMID tractMorton Edgar
EGYPT, says the prophet, is the land in which the great Jehovah, mighty in work, has set "Signs and Wonders, even unto this day" (Jer 32:20). "In that day," the prophet Isaiah foretold, there would be "an altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt, even a pillar at the border thereof," which would serve for a Sign and for a Witness to the Lord of Hosts. This Pillar of Witness, spoken of by Isaiah, is identified as the Great Pyramid (Isa 19:19, 20).
The testimony of the Great Pyramid, furnished by means of its symbolism, measures and angles, is that: "Known unto God are all His works from the beginning of the world": that all things are working to a glorious consummation (Ac 15:18).
The Great Pyramid is the largest edifice ever erected in stone. In bulk it is more than 90 million cubic feet. Its height is nearly 500 feet; and two-thirds of a mile the circuit of its square base. The levelness, and straightness, of the base-lines of this monument are marvelously accurate; the workmanship and finish are beautiful.
Stones in it weighing over 16 tons, with joint surfaces of 35 square feet, are held tenaciously together with a film-like layer of cement no thicker than a hair. Scientists are at a loss to understand how the ancient workmen made these fine cemented joints.
The Tabernacle, and Temple, were made to "pattern" as commanded (See Heb 8:5; 1Ch 28:11, 19); so, the evidence shows, the builders of the Pyramid followed all the intention of the great Designer, as communicated to the inspired architect who was of God’s chosen people, but preceding Abraham.
The Original Appearance of the Great Pyramid
While the Great Pyramid is now somewhat dilapidated in appearance, it must in its original state have been grandly beautiful. Its smoothly polished outer casing, radiating in the intense sunlight of Egypt, rendered the outline of the building almost invisible when viewed from a distance.
The head corner-stone was at the first rejected by the builders who did not understand its purpose; but this stone was afterwards exalted to its rightful place (Ps 118:22, 23).
In this, its first truthful and perfect condition, the Great Pyramid symbolized the Christ; that is it represented Jesus Christ the Head, and the Church His body-members. For the chief corner-stone, the apex head-stone, is expressly declared in Scriptures to be a figure of our Lord; and the other stones, fitly joined to the head-stone and to each other, illustrated the individual "living stones" spoken of by the Apostle Peter (Mt 21:42; Ac 4:10-12; 1Pe 2:4-8).
The glorious spiritual topstone, the exalted Jesus Christ, is in heaven, and is therefore become the foundation toward which the other spiritual "living stones" are attracted; "Other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ."
This head corner-stone, a perfect pyramid in itself, governs the shape of each stone which is built in alignment with it; even as every footstep follower of the Lord must be conformed to His likeness and image; as we read: "In whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord."
The Great Pyramid is built up in horizontal layers of masonry; and it is estimated that 144,000 linear cubits of casing-stones covered the monument. By this method, characteristic of the Great Pyramid, the 144,000 followers of the Lamb referred to in Revelation are indicated, even as the head corner-stone pictures the Lamb of God Himself. The fine cement that binds together all the stones aptly symbolizes that Divine love which unites Jesus Christ and His joint-heirs, making them one.
The Symbolism of the Great Pyramid
Besides the many scientific truths now known to be embodied in the Great Pyramid, to some of which we shall call attention presently, still other truths are taught by this "Miracle in Stone." Symbolically, each passage and chamber in the monument represents some essential feature in the Lord’s Plan of the Ages:—
Descending Passage:The course of the "Present Evil World" to destruction.
Subterranean Chamber, of Pit:The Destruction which terminates the present evil systems. The "Bottomless Pit."
First Ascending Passage:The Law Age, during which the nation of Israel endeavored to gain life by the works of the Law.
Grand Gallery:The Gospel Age, during which the High-Calling to membership in the Body of Christ is offered to the faithful.
Ante-Chamber:The "Holy" of the Tabernacle; the "School of Christ"; the spirit-begotten condition of those who have presented their bodies a living sacrifice to God.
King’s Chamber:The "Most Holy" of the Tabernacle; the "Sanctuary"; the Divine spirit nature of Christ and His body-members; the Kingdom of Christ.
Queen’s Chamber:The condition of Human Perfection, as possessed by Adam before his fall; and by the "Man Christ Jesus" at His first advent when He came to lay down His life as the Savior of Mankind, and the Redeemer of Israel; and which will again be the possession of the human race when Restitution is complete (Ac 3:19-21).
Horizontal Passageleading to the Queen’s Chamber: The complete period of the world’s history from the time of Adam to the end of Christ’s Millennial reign, when all will have attained perfect human life, the condition symbolized by the Queen’s Chamber to which the passage leads. Also: The New (Law) Covenant, made operative when Israel’s "blindness in part" is turned away from them.
Granite Plug,blocking the way up the First Ascending Passage: The perfect Divine Law of God, rendering the "way which was ordained to life" impassable.
Well-shaft:The Ransom-sacrifice of Jesus Christ, thus providing a "way of escape" from the death-doomed conditions of the world represented by the Descending Passage. As the central theme of the Bible is the sacrificial death, and the resurrection, of Jesus Christ, so the Well-shaft in the Great Pyramid is the "key" which opens the true teaching of the building’s entire passage and chamber system. As a Bible without the doctrine of the Ransom-sacrifice of Christ would be useless to a world in need of a Savior (Ro 4:25; 2Co 5:14, 15), so the Pyramid without its Well-shaft would be meaningless. The Well-shaft, therefore, is an important part of the original design of the building; as, indeed, is proved by the arrangement of the Grand Gallery’s masonry in the region of the shaft’s upper mouth.
The Plane of Human Perfection:Represented in the Great Pyramid by the produced level of the floor-line of the Queen’s Chamber.
Biblical Times and Seasons:The absolute agreement of the inch-lengths of the various passage-ways in the Great Pyramid with the years of the chronological periods, both sacred and secular, is one of the Pyramid’s most remarkable features.
Scientific Features of the Great Pyramid
The Unit of Measureused in the Pyramid is the inch, an even 500,000,000 of which is the true length of Earth’s polar axis of rotation, according to Sir John Herschel and Sir Robert Stawell Ball. This inch is almost the same length as the British inch, being only half a hair’s breadth longer (1000 British inches= 999 Pyramid inches) as is shown by all the actual dimensions of the building.
Though so small this all-important unit of length, the inch, was monumentalized by the Pyramid’s designer; for in the Ante-Chamber, on the northern face of the "Granite-Leaf," he caused to be sculptured in bas-relief a boss one inch in thickness.
As the length of Israel’s Sacred Cubit, made clear by the historical researches of Sir Isaac Newton and Professor C. Piazzi Smyth, is an even 25 of these inches. There is little doubt that this standard unit of linear measure has been handed down practically unaltered through the centuries. The cubit-length was also, like the inch, memorialized by the architect; for in the east wall of the Queen’s Chamber he arranged a large upright Niche, the vertical center of which is one cubit south of the chamber’s vertical center.
The Mathematical Ratio "pi"is built into the very structure of the Pyramid. As the figures of the decimal fraction of this ratio continue indefinitely (it has been worked out to over 700 places of decimals correctly), it is suggested that "pi" is a symbol of the infinite.
The principal indication of "pi"is in the vertical height, and base-side length, of the building. For as the radius of a circle is to its circumference, so the height of the Pyramid is to the sum of its four base-sides.
The Day-value of the Solar Tropical Year:The perimeter of the Pyramid’s square base, produced at the level of the floor of its deepest rock-cut corner Socket (the south-east corner Socket), contains as many times an even 100 Pyramid inches, and fraction of 100 inches, as there are days and the fraction of a day in the year, namely, 365.2422 days. Indeed the whole edifice is erected to this precise numerical value, for numerous calculations connected with its interior dimensions show the year-length. The number of days in the synodic month is also indicated exactly.
The Sun-distance:The base-measure of the Pyramid, by its agreement with the solar year-length, may be regarded as denoting the orbit of the earth around the sun, the sun itself being represented by the building’s topstone. By an outstanding proportion, peculiar to the Great Pyramid, the mean distance separating the sun and the earth is shown by the distance of the topstone above the base. This proportion is 10 to the 9th power; that is, when we multiply the vertical height of the Pyramid by an even 1000 millions, we get the mean distance of the sun from the earth, close on 91,850,000 miles, as estimated by the astronomer R.A. Proctor.
The Precession of the Equinoxes,poetically called the grand chronological dial of the celestial heavens, is the period that must elapse before the pole of the earth can complete one revolution round the celestial pole. This cycle is stated by Sir Robert Stawell Ball to be 25,694.8 years. The Pyramid’s measurements yield this number many times with accuracy.
Orientation:Both Professors C. Piazzi Smyth and Flinders Petrie agree that, originally, the Pyramid’s four sides ran true north, south, east, and west. Owing to the exceedingly slow, but perceptibly constant movement of the earth’s surgace, the orientation of the Pyramid is now not absolute, being a little more than 5’ (five minutes) of arc therefrom. In other words, the Great Pyramid actually proves that the crust of the earth is gradually shifting.
The Mean Temperature,and barometric air pressure, best suited for mankind, are found in the King’s Chamber; for in this ideal masonry-protected apartment are all the scientific advantages of a cave deep down in the earth, that is, stability, and little variation in temperature, but at the same time the correct elevation above sea-level to give the desired air pressure of 30 inches.
The Mean Density of the Earthis furnished by the Pyramid. 5.7 cubic Pyramid inches of pure water, at the temperature of 68 degrees Fahrenheit, and 30 inches barometric air pressure, is equal in weight to one cubic Pyramid inch of earth’s mean density material.
Scientists have not yet determined the precise mean density of the earth; but the most carefully conducted experiment, namely, of Professor J. H. Poynting in 1878, published by the Royal Society of London, practically confirms the Pyramid’s figures, being 5.69.
The Earth’s Weight,and the weight of the Pyramid, are known to be proportionately related to one another; while the earth’s cubical bulk as distinct from its weight, and the cubical bulk of the Pyramid, as similarly related. And the surface area of the earth is symmetrically agreeable to the dimensions of the Pyramid.
Prominent Dates Marked in the Great Pyramid
The passage-ways of the Great Pyramid represent various phases during the course of history; and the definite points in them mark prominent dates.
The Descending Passagelength, from the vertical line of the roof-commencement down to the "Pit," agrees in inches with the duration of the Dispensation named by the Bible the "Present Evil World," which began at the flood of Noah, and ended when the great prophetic period known as the "Seven Times of the Gentiles" terminated in the World War in 1914 A.D.
The First Ascending Passagelength agrees in inches with the duration of the Law Age. The first feature of the Law was the ordinance of the Passover, which began at the date of the Exodus. The Law ended 1647 years later when Jesus Christ, the great antitypical Passover Lamb "nailed" it to His cross.
As already mentioned, the Law itself is particularly represented by the Granite Plug. Therefore in this time-measurement both the exact location of the Plug in the passage, and its precise length, are consistently taken account of in the following manner:—
To the floor-length of the passage, measuring upward from the lower end of the Granite Plug, add the length of the Granite Plug itself. The total number of inches is found to agree with the above-noted years in the Law Age.
The Grand Gallerylength agrees in inches with the duration of the Gospel Age, which began with the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ in Spring of 33 A.D. This date is marked by the lower commencement of the Grand Gallery.
The precise length of the Grand Gallery, 1881.5985+ Pyramid inches, is confirmed by accurate mathematical and scientific proportions, thus proving by the corresponding time-measurement of 1881 1/2 years that Spring 33 A.D. and Autumn 1914 A.D. are the primary dates marked by the Gallery’s lower and upper terminals respectively.
More particularly, measuring from the Gallery’s lower end as indicating the hours on 1st April, 33 A.D.(gregorian Calendar), when our Lord hung on the cross (Mark 15:25-34), the Gallery’s upper virtual floor-end marks 5th November 1914, when Great Britain declared war against the Turks and began to expel these age-long oppressors from the Land of Promise.
Thus the Gallery’s upper, south, terminal marks 1914 as the year when the world-wide trouble was due to begin; and this fact was recognized and published in the first volume of GREAT PYRAMID PASSAGES in 1910, four years previously (See the last page). That the "Gentile Times" would end in 1914, however, was recognized by students of the Bible and was published by them in 1879, or 35 years previously.
The 33 1/2 Years of our Lord’s Earthly Life,from Autumn 2 B.C. to Spring 33 A.D., are convincingly corroborated at the upper end of the First Ascending Passage. For the final section of the floor-line of this passage which runs between the "Plane of Human Perfection" (the Queen’s Chamber floor-level produced-See the diagram), and the Grand Gallery floor-beginning, is 33 1/2 inches in length.
The Shortening of the TimeThe "great time of trouble" pointedly referred to by our Lord Jesus, and foretold by Daniel the prophet (See Da 12:1; Mt 24:21), began chronologically to run its course with the beginning of the World War in 1914. Jesus said, additionally, "And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved; but for the elect’s sake those days shall be shortened."
The Pyramid’s method of indicating this shortening is by a time-measurement commencing at the vertical line of the Grand Gallery’s south wall, which is already proved to mark 1914. Measuring from here horizontally southward through the low passages and Ante-Chamber to the King’s Chamber, each inch in this instance represents the shortened period of the Biblical month of 30 days (Ge 7:11, 24).
Such shortening of the days can be regarded as Scriptural, not only because of our Lord’s express statement, but also because the 30-day month is frequently mentioned in Scriptures in connection with times and seasons. The 1260 days of Revelation are spoken of as 42 months (See Re 11:2, 3).
The World War so far as Great Britain was concerned lasted 1560 days, or 52 30-day months; from midnight of the 4th of August 1914, to 11th November 1918.
The length of the first low passage leading from the Grand Gallery to the Ante-Chamber is 52 Pyramid inches (51.979+, confirmed by our recent careful measuring). This passage, going onward beyond the lofty Grand Gallery, is exceedingly low in the roof, and narrow, and one passing through it must bow down considerably and cannot deviate to right or left. So it well symbolizes not only the duration of the greatest war the world has experienced, but the terribly cramped condition and grinding misery of the nations unable to escape in any direction while the war raged.
As the end of the first low passage marks, by the above method of shortening the number of days to each inch, the date of the signing of the Armistice, 11th November 1918, it is natural to suggest that this inch-month time-measurement should be continued to the commencement of the second low passage.
With the standard length of 116.26 Pyramid inches for the Ante-Chamber, its further wall, where the second low passage begins, marks the date 30th May 1928 (See Note at foot of page 8).
This second low passage, as cramped in bore as the first, but with walls, floor and roof of granite, whereas the first passage is all constructed of limestone, represents the final troublous period upon the people of God. The symbolical significance of this part of the Pyramid is in keeping with the present phase of the great time of trouble-mainly spiritual, mental, economic-and none can escape from it. It is a phase of the trouble that is even more binding than was the great World War. But as granite denotes that which is spiritual, the Divine Presence, so the "heirs of salvation" shall be encompassed with the Lord’s protection. For the "Messenger of the Covenant" has visited His people in the last days (Mal 3:1-6); and He shall gather out of His Kingdom all things that offend, and them that do iniquity, before the righteous shall shine forth as the sun in the Kingdom of their Father. "Who hath ears to hear, let him hear" (Mt 13:40-43).
The destructive trouble that consumes the "Present Evil World," that is, the evil systems that oppress the people, is graphically pictured by the Subterranean Chamber with its rough symbolical floor (See 2 Peter 3:7-13). The crisis of the world-wide trouble looms ahead, as all thinking men see.
Further Facts about the Great Pyramid
The Date of Erection:By astronomical pointings, calculated by the eminent astronomers Richard A. Proctor and C. Piazzi Smyth, as well as by a definite time-measurement, the Pyramid indicates 2140 B.C. as the date of its erection.
In this year, at midnight of the autumnal equinox, the polar star of that period, Alpha Draconis, or the Dragon star, shone down the Pyramid’s Descending Passage, while at that moment Alcyone of the renowned group of seven stars called the Pleiades (See Job 38:31, margin), was crossing the meridian of the Pyramid to the south. Such celestial coincidence cannot again occur till the long precessional period of 25, 694-5 years shall have run its course.
In the time-measurement referred to, a pair of scored lines on the walls of the Descending Passage, drawn by the ancient workmen, mark the same date, 2140 B.C.The Geographical Position of the Great Pyramid is one of its most significant features. Its location at the southern apex of the delta of Lower Egypt enables it to fulfil the unique requirements of the Altar and Pillar in Egypt spoken of by Isaiah (Isa 19:19); for the Pyramid, while it stands at the border of the cultivated land of Lower Egypt, and at the fringe of the desert, marks also the geometric, or practical governing, center of Lower Egypt’s sectorial fan-shaped land.
Even more wonderful is the Great Pyramid’s angular connection with Bethlehem, the City of David, where the Man Christ Jesus was born. This angle, 26 degrees 18’ 9.7" (see map above), has been confirmed many times by competent authorities. Also the actual distance between the Pyramid and Bethlehem agrees, by a recognized proportion (namely, the ratio "pi"), with the period between the erecting-date of the Pyramid and the date of Jesus’ birth, 2138 years. (From Autumn 2140 B.C., to Autumn 2 B.C., is a period of 2138 years; and each year is represented by an even, round, 1000 Pyramid cubits in these time-measurements.)
By a connected line this distance also agrees with the 1915 years between Jesus’ birth in 2 B.C., and the end of the Gentile Times in 1914 A.D. (See the map above, which is explained in the volumes of GREAT PYRAMID PASSAGES noted on page 8).
The Significance of the British Measures
There is this fact which must not be lost sight of: Had it not been that the British and American peoples had preserved their inherited measures, especially the inch or 25th part of the Sacred Cubit, the world to-day would not have known that the Great Pyramid, by its dimensions exterior and interior, corroborates the ancient chronological record of Israel with the many prophetic times and seasons based upon it.
The French Metric system of weights and measures, wrongly believed to be scientific, could never have unlocked the treasures now known to be built into the Lord’s stone Sign and Witness in Egypt; and possibly the "beast that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit" at the French Revolution, spoken of in Revelation 11:7, and which for a specified time "killed" the "two witnesses" (destroyed for a season the testimony of the Old and New Testaments of the Lord’s Holy Word), was aware of this when he caused the scientists to invent, and France to adopt, and to direct persistent efforts to compel the British and American nations to adopt, this erroneous metrological system.
The French scientists recognized that, to be scientific in the highest degree necessitated their basing their metric standard upon the size of the earth; but they neither adopted the correct method of doing this, nor did they rightly estimate the dimensions of the earth. It is because this is so well understood, that Sir John Herschel and Professor C. Piazzi Smyth, and other competent authorities have, and do, oppose the adoption into Britain and the United States of America, and all their colonies and possessions, of the French Metric system. It is not because these authorities object to the decimal arrangement, which has much to commend it, but to the faulty methods and values of the entire French Metrology. As the basic number of the Great Pyramid is 10, the whole system of measures in, and connected with, the Great Pyramid is intrinsically a decimal one.
We here quote from the speech addressed to the Boston Society of Engineers by Mr. Charles Latimer, Chief Engineer of the railways in Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.-"It is true indeed that our weights and measures in the present day require some remodelling; but how shall it be done? Not by uprooting all our traditions, cutting ourselves loose from the past. No, we must come back to the perfection of olden sacred history, and of that religion which proves that our race is not the result of a spontaneous natural development [not by the processes of natural Evolution], but that man came from his Maker a living soul.
"But where shall we find such perfection? I answer, in the Great Pyramid of Gizeh. For within that grand primeval pillar of stone have been found the standards of weights and measures, so earth and heaven commensurable, and so assimilated to our ancient and hereditary system, that it does seem as if the Almighty Himself had given to us an inheritance, to be kept precisely for the emergency of the present day and hour...Shall we indeed find our units, as well as standards, of weights and measures there? I can confidently answer that they are there. The inch is there, the yard is there; our Sabbath is there; Christ is there; our past, our present, yea, perhaps our future."
"The Great Pyramid," said C.T. Russell, "proves to be a storehouse of important truth-scientific, historic, and prophetic-and its testimony is found to be in perfect accord with the Bible, expressing the prominent features of its truths in beautiful and fitting symbols." ..."The Great Pyramid has also its own way of indicating the most correct standard of all weights and measures, based upon the size and weight of the earth."
Thus informed opinion, steadily growing, is in favor of the Sacred and Scientific nature of the Great Pyramid, as first propounded by John Taylor over seventy years ago.
John Taylor demonstrated that the granite Coffer in the King’s Chamber, in addition to its symbolical significance, was intended by the Divine Architect of the Pyramid to be the world’s standard for Capacity Measure. The inside capacity of this rectangular stone chest is equal to four British "Quarters" of wheat.
The Coffer is a "Blind" Sarcophagus
As the first low passage leading from the Grand Gallery to the Ante-Chamber symbolizes the distress of the great World War, so the second low passage leading to the King’s Chamber represents the troublous conditions during the "battle of that great day of God Almighty" (See Revelation 16:13-16). The prophet Jeremiah declares: "Alas! For that day is great, so that none is like it: it is even the time of Jacob’s trouble; but he shall be saved out of it" (See Jeremiah 30:4-11).
The elect people of the Lord are not to be fearful, but, as Jesus declared, when they see these things begin to come to pass they are to look up, and lift up their heads, knowing that their "redemption draweth nigh" (See Luke 21:28). This hope of redemption is particularly symbolized by the open Coffer in the King’s Chamber, for the Coffer represents the empty grave.
As the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead was demonstrated by the angel, when he directed the sorrowing women’s attention to the empty grave, saying: "Fear not ye: for I know that ye seek Jesus, which was crucified. He is not here: for He is risen, as he said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay. And go quickly, and tell His disciples that He is risen from the dead" (Mt 28:5-7), so the Coffer in the King’s Chamber, which is like a vacated coffin in a sepulchral tomb, illustrates the resurrection from the death-state, the hope of the world.
The empty Coffer, as a material symbol, confirms that great and comforting spiritual truth which caused the inspired Apostle to exult and exclaim: "Death is swallowed up in victory. O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where is thy victory? The sting of death is sin; and the strength of sin is the law. But thanks be to God, which giveth us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ. Therefore, my beloved brethren, be ye steadfast, unmoveable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, forasmuch as ye know that your labour is not in vain in the Lord" (1Co 15:55-58).
Thus in proportion to our understanding of the ultimate purpose of the Great Pyramid, the less do we think it necessary to defend it against the advocates of the "tombic" theory (except in so far that there is no evidence that the building was so used). We believe that the Monument and its Coffer symbolise a tomb and sarcophagus not merely to hide for a time its Divine Authorship, but to corroborate in its grand architectural way the Scriptural declaration that: through death Christ destroyed him that has the power of death, that is, the Devil (Heb 2:14).
Prominent amongst the few who have thoroughly investigated the Great Pyramid are Professor John Edgar and Morton Edgar, whose Volumes I and II of GREAT PYRAMID PASSAGES (now revised and brought up to date) contain many photographs and explanatory diagrams:
GREAT PYRAMID PASSAGES, Vols. I and II, Bound in cloth, 8/6 ($2.00) each volume.
Morton Edgar had revisited the Great Pyramid, continuing his investigations over an extended period (1925 to 1931), during which time the Antiquities Service Department of the Egyptian Government, at his suggestion, conducted extensive excavations-clearing away many tons of the debris which had for centuries obstructed the interior passage-ways and chambers, as well as the exterior base-lines of the monument.
In response to the demand for small comprehensive and accurate works on the Great Pyramid the following three books have been prepared:—
THE GREAT PYRAMID:
1. Its Spiritual Symbolism, 2/3 (55 cents)
2. Its Scientific Features, 2/3 (55 cents) 3. Its Time Features, 2/3 (55 cents) You can get the set of three books for 6/- ($1.50). 8/6 ($2.00) if bound together in stiff cloth covers.
Mail your orders to:—Morton Edgar, 27 Aytoun Road, Glasgow, Scotland.
You may probably desire to help to spread this grand message of our Lord’s stone "Sign" and "Witness." If so, quantities of this Folder will be supplied to you free. Write to Morton Edgar at the above address, saying how many of the Folders you can use.
Please note that letters from U.S.A. to Scotland now require a five-cent stamp, and postcards a three-cent stamp.
Do you want to help defray the cost of postage on the Folders? If so, we shall be glad of your aid; but if not, it will still be a pleasure to supply you with as many Folders as you can use, free of all cost.
This Folder can be supplied in the ESPERANTO language.
NOTE-This Folder was first issued at the beginning of 1925, and very many copies were distributed all over the world before the date 1928.