A

The first letter in almost all alphabets. In Hebrew, it is called aleph, in Greek, alpha, the last letter in the Greek alphabet being omega. Both the Hebrews and Greeks used their letters as numerals; and hence A (aleph or alpha) denoted one, or the first. So our Lord says, "I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last;" thus declaring his eternity and that he is the cause and end of all things, Re 1:8,11 21:6 22:13 Isa 44:6 48:12 Col 1:15-18.

AARON

The son of Amram and Jochabed, of the tribe of Levi, and brother of Moses and Miriam, Ex 6:20; born about the year B. C. 1574. He was three years older than Moses, Ex 7:7 and was the spokesman and assistant of the latter in bringing Israel out of Egypt, Ex 4:16. His wife was Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab; and his sons, Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. He was 83 years old when God summoned him to join Moses in the desert near Horeb. Cooperating with his brother in the exodus from Egypt, Ex 4:1-16:36, he held up his hands in the battle with Amalek, Ex 17:1-16; and ascended Mount Sinai with him to see the glory of God, Ex 24:1,2,9-11.

Aaronís chief distinction consisted in the choice of him and his male posterity for the priesthood. He was consecrated the first high priest by Godís directions, Ex 28:1-29:46 Le 8:1-36; and was afterwards confirmed in his office by the destruction of Korah and his company, by the staying of the plague at his intercession, and by the budding of his rod, Nu 16:1-17:13. He was faithful and self-sacrificing in the duties of his office, and meekly "held his peace" when his sons Nadab and Abihu were slain, Le 10:1- 3. Yet he fell sometimes into grievous sins: he made the golden calf at Sinai, Ex 32:1-22; he joined Miriam in sedition against Moses, Nu 12:1-16; and with Moses disobeyed God at Kadesh, Nu 20:8-12. God, therefore did not permit him to enter the promised land; but he died on Mount Hor, in Edom, in the fortieth year after leaving Egypt, at the age of about 123 years, Nu 20:22-29 33:39. In De 10:6, he is said to have died at Mosera, which was probably the station in the valley west of Mount Hor, whence he ascended into the mount. The Arabs still pretend to show his tomb on the mount, and highly venerate it. In his office as high priest, Aaron was an eminent type of Christ, being "called of God," and anointed; bearing the names of the tribes on his breast; communicating Godís will by Urim and Thummim; entering the Most Holy place on the Day of Atonement, "not without blood;" and interceding for and blessing the people of God. See PRIEST.

AARONITES

Descendants of Aaron the high priest, so called 1Ch 12:27; 27:17. Thirteen cities were assigned to them, in Judah and Benjamin, Jos 21:13-19; 1Ch 6:57-60.

AB

1. Father, found in many compound Hebrew proper names: as Abner, father of light; Absalom, father of peace.

2. The fifth month of the sacred, and the eleventh of the civil year among the Jews. It began, according to the latest authorities, with the new moon of August. It was a sad month in the Jewish calendar. On its first day, a fast was observed for the death of Aaron, Nu 33:38; and on its ninth, another was held in memory of the divine edicts which excluded so many that came out of Egypt from entering the promised land; and also, of the overthrow of the first and second temple. See MONTH.

ABADDON, or Apollyon

The former name is Hebrew, and the latter Greek, and both signify the destroyer, Re 9:11. He is called the angel of death, or the destroying angel.

ABANA, and Pharpar

Rivers of Damascus, 2Ki 5:12. The Abana, (or, Amana), was undoubtedly the present Barada, the Chrysorrhoas of the Greeks. It is a clear, cold, and swift mountain stream, rising in Anti-Lebanon, north east of Hermon, flowing south east into the plain, and near Damascus turning eastward, skirting the northern wall of the city, and terminating 20 miles east in one of three large lakes. It is a perennial river, and so copious, that though no less than nine or ten branches or canals are drawn off from it to irrigate the plain and supply the city and the villages around it, the stream is a large one to the end.

The only other independent river of any size in the territory of Damascus is the Awaj, which crosses the plain south of Damascus, and enters the southernmost of the three lakes above referred to. This is supposed to be the Pharpar of the Bible. As these rivers of Damascus were never dry, but made the region they watered like the Garden of Eden for fertility and beauty, Naaman might well contrast them with most of "the waters of Israel," which dry up under the summer sun. See AMANA.

ABARIM

Mountains east of the Dead Sea and the lower Jordan, "over against Jericho," within the territory of Moab and the tribe of Reuben. It is impossible to define exactly their extent. The mountains Nebe, Pisgah, and Peor were in the Abarim, Nu 27:12; 33:47,48; De 32:49; 34:1. Ije-abarim, Nu 21:11, seems to denote the southern part of the same chain.

ABBA

A Syriac word signifying father. When the Jews came to speak Greek, this word may have been retained from their ancient language, as being easier to pronounce, especially for children, than the Greek pater. It expressed the peculiar tenderness, familiarity, and confidence of the love between parent and child, Mr 14:36; Ro 8:15; Ga 4:6.

ABEDNEGO

Servant of Nego; a Chaldee name give to Azariah, one of the three captive young princes of Judah, who were Danielís companions at the court of the king of Babylon, Da 1:7. Their virtue, wisdom, and piety secured their promotion at court, Da 1:3-19 2:17,49; and their steadfastness in witnessing for God among idolaters, with their deliverance from the fiery furnace by the Angel-Jehovah, led many to acknowledge the true God, and rendered these pious youth for ever illustrious as monuments of the excellence and safety of faith in Him, Da 3:1-30 Heb 11:34. See FURNACE.

ABEL

1. The second son of Adam and Eve. He became a shepherd, and offered to God a sacrifice from his flocks, at the same time that Cain his brother offered the fruits of the earth. God had respect to Abelís sacrifice, and not to Cainís; hence Cain in anger killed Abel, Ge 4:1-26. It was "by faith" that Abel offered a more acceptable sacrifice than Cain; that is, his heart was right towards God, and he worshipped Him in trustful obedience to the divine directions. His offering, made by the shedding of blood, was that of a penitent sinner confiding in the atonement ordained of God; and it was accepted, "God testifying of his gifts," probably by fire from heaven; "by which he obtained witness that he was righteous," that is, justified, Heb 11:4. "The blood of Abel" called from the ground for vengeance, Ge 4:10; but the blood of Christ claims forgiveness and salvation for his people, Heb 12:24 1Jo 1:7

2. Abel is also a prefix in the names of several towns. In such cases it signifies a grassy place or meadow.

ABELBETHMAACHAH

Meadow of the house of Maachah; a town in the tribe of Naphtali, north of lake Merom. It was besieged in the rebellion of Sheba, 2Sa 20:13-22; eighty years afterwards it was taken by Ben- hadad, 1Ki 15:20, and again, after 200 years, by Tiglathpileser, 2Ki 15:29. It is called Abelmaim in 2Ch 16.4. Compare 1Ki 15:20. Also simply Abel, 2Sa 20:18.

ABELCARMAIM

Meadow of vineyards; a village of the Ammonites, six miles from Rabbath-Ammon; in the history of Jephthah it is called "the plain of the vineyards," Jud 11:33.

ABELMEHOLAH

Or ABEL-MEA, a town of Issachar, near the Jordan, ten miles south of Beth-shean. Near this place Gideon defeated the Midianites, Jud 7:22; and here Elisha was born, 1Ki 19:16.

ABELMIZRAIM

Meadow of the Egyptians; so called from the seven daysí lamentation of Joseph and his company, on bringing up the body of Jacob from Egypt for burial, Ge 50:10,11. It lay in the plain of Jericho, between that city and the Jordan.

ABELSHITTIM

In the plains of Moab, east of the Jordan, and near Mount Peor. It was one of the last encampments of Israel before the death of Moses, Nu 33:49; called also Shittim, Jos 2:1. Here the Israelites were enticed by the women of Moab and Midian into uncleanness and the idolatry of Baal-peor, and 24,000 died of the plague, Nu 25:1- 18.

ABIA

In the New Testament the same as ABIJAH in the Old Testament, which see.

ABIAH

Second son of Samuel, who appointed his brother and him, judges in Israel. Their corruption and injustice were the pretext upon which the people demanded a king, 1Sa 8:1-5.

ABIATHAR

Son of Ahimelech, and tenth high priest of the Jews. When Saul sent his emissaries to Nob, to destroy all the priests there, Abiathar, who was young, fled to David in the wilderness, 1Sa 22:11-23, with whom he continued in the character of priest, 1Sa 23:9 30:7. Being confirmed in the high priesthood on Davidís accession to the throne, he aided in bringing up the ark to Jerusalem, 1Co 15:11,12, and adhered to David during the rebellion of Absalom, 2Sa 15:35, but afterwards was led to follow Adonijah, thus strangely betraying his royal friend in his old age. Solomon succeeding to the throne, degraded him from the priesthood, and sent him to Anathoth, 1Ki 2:26,27; thus fulfilling the prediction made to Eli 150 years before, 1Sa 2:27-36. Saul, it would appear, had transferred the dignity of the high priesthood from the line of Ithamar, to which Eli belonged, to that of Eleazar, by conferring the office upon Zadok. Thus there were, at the same time, two high priests in Israel; Abiathar with David, and Zadok with Saul. This double priesthood continued from the death of Ahimelech till the reign of Solomon, after which the office was held by Zadok and his race alone.

A difficulty arises from the circumstance that, in 1Ki 2:27, Abiathar is said to be deprived of the priestís office by Solomon; while in 2Sa 8:17 1Ch 18:16 24:3,6,31, Ahimelech the son of Abiathar is said to be high priest along with Zadok. The most probable solution is, that both father and son each bore the two names Ahimelech and Abiathar, as was not at all unusual among the Jews. See under ABIGAIL. In this was also we may remove the difficulty arising from Mr 2:26, where Abiathar is said to have given David the showbread, in allusion to 1Sa 21:1-6, where it is Ahimelech.

ABIB

The first month of the ecclesiastical year of the Hebrews; afterwards called Nisan. It answered nearly to our April. Abib signifies green ears of grain, or fresh fruits. It was so named, because grain, particularly barley, was in ear at the time. On the tenth of this month the passover-lamb was set apart; it was killed on the fourteenth towards sunset, and eaten the same evening after the fifteenth day had begun. The seven days from the fifteenth to the twenty-first inclusive, were "the feast of unleavened bread," closing with a solemn convocation, Ex 12:1-13:22.

ABIEZER

Great-grandson of Manasseh, Nu 26:29,30, and founder of the family to which Gideon belonged, Joshua 17.2; Jud 6.34; 8.2. In this last verse, "the vintage of Abiezer" means the first rout of the Midianites by the 300, mostly Abiezrites; and "the gleaning of the grapes of Ephraim," means the capture of Oreb and Zeeb, and other fruits of the victory, gathered by the Ephraimites.

ABIGAIL

1. Formerly the wife of Nabal of Carmel, and afterwards of David. Upon receiving information of Nabalís ingratitude to David, 1Sa 25:14, she loaded several asses with provisions, and attended by some of here domestics went out to meet him. Her manners and conversation gained for her his esteem, and as soon as the days of mourning for Nabalís death, which happened soon afterwards, were over, he made her his wife. The issue of the marriage was, as some critics suppose, two sons, Chileab and Daniel, 2Sa 3:3; 1Ch 3:1; but it is most probable that these names were borne by one person.

2. A sister of David, and mother of Amasa, 1Ch 2:16,17.

ABIHAIL

The wife of Rehoboam, king of Judah, 2Ch 11.18; the "daughter" - that is here, the descendant-of Eliab, Davidís brother.

ABIHU

The second son of Aaron, consecrated to the priesthood with his three brethren, Ex 28:21; but consumed shortly after by fire from the Lord, with Nadab his brother, for burning incense with common fire instead of that kept perpetually on the altar of burnt-offering, Le 10:1-2 16:12 Nu 16:46. As this is immediately followed by the prohibition of wine to the priests when ministering in the tabernacle, it is not improbable that Nadab and Abihu were intoxicated when thus transgressing. Their death is a solemn warning not to presume to worship God except with incense kindled at the one altar which Christ hath sanctified, Heb 10:10-14. It is a dangerous thing, in the service of God, to decline from his own institutions. We have to do with a God who is wise to prescribe his own worship, his to require what he has prescribed, and powerful to avenge what he has not prescribed.

ABIJAH

1. Called, in Lu 1:5, Abia; founder of a family among the posterity of Aaron. When David divided the priests into twenty-four courses, to perform the temple-service, in turn, the eighth class was called after him, 1Ch 24:10. To this class of course Zacharias belonged.

2. Son of Jeroboam, the first king of Israel. He died young, and much beloved and lamented, for in him there was found some good thing towards the Lord, 1Ki 14:1-18

3. Son of Rehoboam, the first king of Judah; called in, 1Ki 22:53, Abijam. He came to the throne A.M. 3046, and reigned only three years. In war with Jeroboam he gained a signal victory, 2Ch 13:1-22; yet he followed the evil example of his father. His mother Maachah, or Michaiah, was probably the granddaughter of Absalom, 1Ki 15:2 2Ch 11:20 13:2

4. The mother of King Hezekiah, 2Ch 29:1.

ABILENE

The name of a district of country on the eastern declivity of Anti-Lebanon, from twelve to twenty miles north-west of Damascus, towards Heliopolis, or Baalbek; so called from the city of ABILA, and also called Abilene of Lysanias, to distinguish it from others. This territory, in the fifteenth year of Tiberius emperor of Rome, was governed as a tetrarchate by a certain Lysanias, Lu 3:1.

ABIMELECH

1. King of Gerar of the Philistines, who took Sarah into his harem; but being warned of God in a dream, he restored her to Abraham, and gave him 1,000 pieces of silver as a "covering of the eyes" for Sarah, that is, as an atoning present, and to be a testimony of her innocence in the eyes of all. He afterwards made a league with Abraham, Ge 20:1-18.

2. Another king of Gerar, probably son of the former, and contemporary with Isaac. He rebuked Isaac for dissimulation in regard to Rebekah, and afterwards made a new league with him at Beersheba, Ge 26:1-35.

3. A son of Gideon by a concubine, made himself king of Shechem after his fatherís death, and slew his fatherís seventy sons on one stone, only Jotham the youngest being left. Jotham reproached the Shechemites for their conduct, in his celebrated fable to the trees. Three years afterwards, they rose against Abimelech; he defeated them, and destroyed their city, but as he was attacking Thebez, a woman threw down a piece of millstone on his head, which so injured him, that he called to his armor bearer to slay him, Jud 9:1- 57.

ABINADAB

The same as Aminadab, b and m is often interchanged in Hebrew.

1. A son of Jesse, one of the three who followed Saul in the war with the Philistines, 1Sa 16:8; 17:13.

2. A son of Saul, slain in the battle at Gilboa, 1Sa 31:2.

3. A Levite of Kirjath-jearim, in whose house the ark of God, when restored by the Philistines, remained seventy years, 1Sa 7:1; 1Ch 13:7.

ABIRAM

A prince of Reuben, who with Korah, Dathan, etc., conspired to overthrow the authority of Moses and Aaron in the wilderness, Nu 16:1-50.

ABISHAG

A beautiful virgin of Shunem, in Issachar, chosen to marry David in his old age and cherish him. After his death, Adonijah sought her hand to promote his treasonable aspirations, and was punished by death, 1Ki 1:1-2:46.

ABISHAI

A son of Zeruiah, Davidís sister, brother of Joab and Asahel, one of the bravest of Davidís mighty men, 1Ch 2:16, and always faithful to his royal uncle. He went with him alone to the tent of Saul, 1Sa 26:7-11; and was a leader in the war with Ish-bosheth, 2Sa 2.18,24, in the war with the Edomites, 1Ch 18:12,13, and with the Syrians and Ammonites, 2Sa 10:10. In a battle with the Philistines, he rescued David, and slew Ishbi-benob the giant, 2Sa 21:16,17. He lifted up his spear against three hundred, and slew them, 2Sa 23:18; and was with David in the affairs of Shimei, Absalom, and Sheb, 2Sa 16:9 18:2 20:6,7.

ABISHUA

Son of Phinehasm and fourth high priest, 1Ch 6:50. He was probably a contemporary of Eglon and Ehud, Jud 3:1-31.

ABNER

The son of Ner, Saulís uncle, and the general of his armies, 1Sa 14:50. For seven years after Saulís death, he supported Ish-bosheth; but being reproved by him for his conduct towards Rizpah, he undertook to unite the whole kingdom under David. He was, however, treacherously slain by Joab, either to revenge the death of Asahel, Joabís brother, who Abner had formerly killed, or more probably from jealousy. David abhorred this perfidious act, and composed an elegy on his death, 2Sa 2:8 3:33. He also charged Solomon to punish the crime of Joab with death, 1Ki 2:5,6.

ABOMINATION

A term applied in Scripture to objects of great detestation. Idols and their worship were so named, because they robbed God of his honor, while the rites themselves were impure and cruel, De 7:25,26 12:31. The term was used respecting the Hebrews in Egypt, Ge 43:32 Ex 8:26, either because they ate and sacrificed animals held sacred by the Egyptians, or because they did not observe those ceremonies in eating which made a part of the religion of Egypt; and in Ge 46:34, because they were "wandering shepherds," a race of whom had grievously oppressed Egypt.

ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION

The ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION foretold by, Da 9:27 denotes, probably, the image of Jupiter, erected in the temple of Jerusalem by command of Antiochus Epiphanes. But by the Abomination of Desolation spoken of by our Lord, Mt 24:15 Mr 13:14, and foretold as about to be seen at Jerusalem during the last siege of that city by the Romans under Titus, is probably meant the Roman army, whose standards had the images of their gods and emperors upon them, and were worshipped in the precincts of the temple when that and the city were taken. Lu 21:20. See ARMOR.

ABRAM

High father, afterwards named Abraham.

ABRAHAM

Father of a multitude, Ge 17:4,5; the great founder of the Jewish nation. He was a son of Terah, a descendant of Shem, and born in Ur, a city of Chaldea, A.M. 2008, B. C. 1996, Ge 11:27,28. Here he lived seventy years, when at the call of God he left his idolatrous kindred, and removed to Haran, in Mesopotamia, Ac 7:2-4, accompanied by his father, his wife Sarai, his brother Nahor, and his nephew Lot. A few years after, having buried his father, he again removed at the call of God, with his wife and nephew, and entered the land of promise as a nomad or wandering shepherd. Sojourning for a time at Shechem, he built here, as was his custom, an alter to the Lord, who appeared to him, and promised that land to his seed. Removing from place to place for convenience of water and pasturage, he was at length driven by a famine into Egypt, where he dissembled in calling his wife his sister, Ge 12:1- 20. Returning to Canaan rich in flocks and herds, he left Lot to dwell in the fertile valley of the lower Jordan, and pitched his own tents in Mamre, Ge 13:1-18. A few years after, he rescued Lot and his friends from captivity, and received the blessing of Melchizedek, Ge 14:1-24. Again God appeared to him, promised that his seed should be like the stars for number, and foretold their oppression in Egypt 400 years, and their return to possess the promised land, Ge 15:1-21. But the promise of a son being yet unfulfilled, Sarai gave him Hagar her maid for a secondary wife, of whom Ishmael was born, Ge 16:1-16. After thirteen years, God again appeared to him, and assured him that the heir of the promise should yet be born of his wife, whose name was then changed to Sarah. He established also the covenant of circumcision, Ge 17:1-27. Here, too, occurred the visit of the three angels, and the memorable intercession with the Angel-Jehovah for the inhabitants of Sodom, Ge 18:1-33. After this, Abraham journeyed south to Gerah, where he again called Sarah his sister. In this region Isaac was born; and soon after, Hagar and Ishmael were driven out to seek a new home, Ge 21:1-34. About twenty-five years after, God put to trial the faith of Abraham, by commanding him to sacrifice Isaac, his son and the heir of the promise, upon Mount Moriah, Ge 22:1-24. Twelve years after, Sarah died, and the cave of Machpelag was bought for a burial- place, Ge 23:1-20. Abraham sent his steward, and obtained a wife for Isaac from his pious kindred in Mesopotamia, Ge 24:1-67. He himself also married Keturah, and had six sons, each one the founder of a distinct people in Arabia. At the age of 175, full of years and honors, he died, and was buried by his sons in the same tomb with Sarah, Ge 25:1-34.

The character of Abraham is one of the most remarkable in Scripture. He was a genuine oriental patriarch, a prince in the land; his property was large, his retinue very numerous, and he commanded the respect of the neighboring people: and yet he was truly a stranger and a pilgrim, the only land he possessed being the burial-place he had purchased. Distinguished by his integrity, generosity, and hospitality, he was most of all remarkable for his simple and unwavering faith, a faith that obeyed without hesitation or delay, and recoiled not from the most fearful trial ever imposed upon man, so that he is justly styled "the father of the faithful," that is, of believers. No name in history is venerated by so large a portion of the human race, Mohammedans as well as Jews and Christians. As the ancestor of Christ, in whom all the nations are blessed, and as the father of all believers, the covenant is abundantly fulfilled to him: his seed are as the stars of heaven and with them he shall inherit the heavenly Canaan.

ABRAHAMíS BOSOM.

In Lu 16:22, Lazarus is said to have been carried to Abrahamís bosom, that is, to the state of bliss in paradise which the father of the faithful was enjoying. This is often represented by a feast, by sitting down to a banquet, Mt 8:11 Lu 13:29. To lie on oneís bosom refers to the oriental mode of reclining at table, Joh 13:23. See EATING.

ABSALOM

Only son of David by Maacah, 2Sa 3:3. He was remarkable for his beauty and for his fine head of hair, 2Sa 14:25, which being cut from time to time when it incommoded him, used to weigh 200 shekels by the kingís standard, that is, probable about thirty ounces, an extraordinary, but not incredible weight. Ammon, another of the kingís sons, having violated his sister Tamar, Absalom caused him to be slain, and then fled to Geshur, where Talmai his grandfather was king. After three years, at the intercession of Joab, David permitted him to return to Jerusalem, and at length received him again into favor, 2Sa 14:1-33. Absalom, however, grossly abused his fatherís kindness; he soon began to play the demagogue, and by many artful devices "stole the hearts of the people," and got himself proclaimed king in Hebron. David retired from Jerusalem; Absalom followed him; and in the battle, which ensued, the troops of the latter were defeated, and he himself, being caught by his head in a tree, was found and slain by Joab. David was much affected by his death, and uttered bitter lamentations over him, 2Sa 18:33.

His history affords instructive lessons to the young against the sins to which they are prone, particularly vanity, ambition, lawless passions, and filial disobedience.

ACCAD

One of the four cities built in the plain of Shinar by Nimrod, founder of the Assyrian empire, Ge 10:10. Its site is identified by some travellers with ruins, which lie from six to nine miles west of Bagdad. There is here a ruinous structure called Tell-i-nimrood, Hill of Nimrod, consisting of a mass of brickwork 400 feet in circumference at the base, and 125 feet high, standing on a mound of rubbish. Most recently, Col. Raw claims that the site of Accad was at a place now called Niffer, amid the marshes of Southern Babylonia.

ACCHO

A city of the tribe of Asher, Jud 1:31. In the New Testament, Accho is called Ptolemais, Ac 21:7; from one of the Ptolemais, who enlarged and beautified it. The crusaders gave it the name of Acre, of St. John of Acre. It is still called Akka by the Turks. It sustained several sieges during the crusades, and was the last fortified place wrested from the Christians by the Turks.

The town is situated on the coast of the Mediterranean sea, thirty miles south of Tyre, on the north angle of a bay to which it gives its name, and which extends in a semicircle of three leagues, as far as the point of Mount Carmel, south-west of Acre. After its memorable siege by Bonaparte, when he was repulsed by Sir Sidney Smith, in 1799, Accho was much improved and strengthened, and its population was estimated at from 18,000 to 20,000. It has since then suffered greatly, having been besieged six months by Ibrahim Pacha, in 1832, and bombarded by an English fleet in 1840. Present population, (1859), 10,000 or 12,000.

Accho and all the seacoast beyond it northwards, was considered as the heathen land of the Jews.

ACELDAMA

Field of blood, a small field south of Jerusalem, which the priest purchased with the thirty pieces of silver that Judas had received as the price of our Saviorís blood, Mt 27:8; Ac 1:19. Pretending that it was not lawful to appropriate this money to sacred uses, because it was the price of blood, they purchased with it the so- called potterís field, to be a burying-place for strangers. Judas is said, Ac 1:8, to have purchased the field, because it was bought with his money. Tradition points out this field on the steep side of the hill of Evil Counsel overhanging the valley of Hinnom on the south. It appears to have been used, since the time of he crusaders, as a sepulchre for pilgrims, and subsequently by the Armenians. At present it is not thus used.

ACHAIA

Is used in the New Testament for the whole region of Greece south of Macedonia, including the Peloponnesus, or Morea, and some territory north of the gulf of Corinth, Ac 18:12; 19:21; 1Co 11:10. Achaia Proper, however, was a province of Greece, of which Corinth was the capital, and embraced the northwestern part of the Pelopennesus. See GREECE.

ACHAN

The son of Carmi, who disobeyed the strict charge of the Lord, and purloined some of the spoils of Jericho which were doomed to destruction. This brought a curse and defeat upon the people. He was discovered by lot, and stoned with all his family in the valley of Achor, north of Jericho, Jos 6:18; 7:1-26. He is called Achar in 1Ch 2:7.

ACHISH

Kin of Gath, a city of the Philistines, to whom David twice fled for protection from Saul. On the first occasion, being recognized by the kingís officers, and thinking his life in danger, he feigned madness, and by this device escaped, 1Sa 21:10. Several years after, he returned with a band of 600 men, and was welcomed by Achish as an enemy of Saul and of Israel. Achish gave him Ziklag for a residence; and being deceived as to the views and operations of David, expected his assistance in a war with Israel, but was persuaded by his officers to send him home to Ziklag, 1Sa 27:1-29:11.

ACHMETHA

Ezr 6:2, supposed to mean Ecbatana, a city of Media, inferior to none in the East but Babylon and Nineveh. It was surrounded by seven walls, of different heights and colors, and was a summer residence of the Persian kings after Cyrus. Travelers identify it with the modern Hamadan, in which many Jews still reside, and where they profess to point out the tomb of Mordecai and Esther.

ACHOR

Trouble, a valley north of Jericho; so called, perhaps, from the troubles occasioned by the sin of Achan, who was here put to death, Jos 7:26. The prophets allude to it with promises of hope and joy in the gospel era, Isa 65:10; Ho 2:15.

ACHSAH

The daughter of Caleb, given in marriage with a large dowry to his nephew Othniel, as a prize for taking the city Debir, Jos 15:15- 17; Jud 1:12,13.

ACHSHAPH

A royal city of the Canaanites, Jos 11:1, conquered by Joshua, and assigned to the tribe of Asher, Jos 12:20; 19:25.

ACHZIB

A city of Asher, from which, however, the Jews were unable to expel the Canaanites, Jud 1:31. It was afterwards called by the Greeks, Ecdippa, and is now named Zib; it lay on the seacoast, ten miles north of Acre.

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES

A canonical book of the New Testament, written by Luke as a sequel to his gospel, and a history in part of the early church. It is not, however, a record of the acts of all the apostles, but chiefly of those of Peter and Paul. In his gospel, Luke described the founding of Christianity in what Christ did, taught, and suffered; in the Acts he illustrates its diffusion, selecting what was best fitted to show how the first followers of Christ in building up his church. Beginning were his gospel indeed, he narrates the ascension of the Savior and the conduct of the disciples thereupon; the outpouring of the Holy Spirit according to Christís promise; the miraculous preaching of the apostles, their amazing success, and the persecutions raised against them; with other events of moment to the church at Jerusalem, till they were scattered abroad. He then shows how Judaism was superseded, and how Peter was led to receive to Christian fellowship converts from the Gentiles. The remainder of the narrative is devoted to the conversion and calling of the apostle Paul, his missionary zeal, labors, and sufferings, and the ends with his two yearsí imprisonment at Rome.

Luke himself witnessed, to a great extent, the events he narrates. His Greek is the most classical in the New Testament; and the view he gives of the spirit of the early church so many of whose members had "been with the Lord," is invaluable. The book was probably written about A. D. 64, that is, soon after the time at which the narration terminates. The place where it was written is not known.

In order to read the Acts of the Apostles with intelligence and profit, it is necessary to have a sufficient acquaintance with geography, with the manners of the times and people referred to, and with the leading historical events. The power of the Romans, with the nature and names of the public offices they established, and the distinctions among them, must be understood, as well as the disposition and political opinions of the unconverted Jewish nation, which were to prevalent among the Christianized Hebrews.

ADAM

1. The progenitor and representative head of our race; formed of the dust of the ground, and made a living soul by the Creatorís breath. He was the last work of the creation, and received dominion over all that the earth contained. That he might not be alone, God provided Eve as a helpmeet for him, and she became his wife. Marriage is thus a divine institution, first in order of time, as well as of importance and blessedness to mankind. Adam was made a perfect man-complete in every physical, mental, and spiritual endowment; and placed in the Garden of Eden on probation, holy and happy, but liable to sin. From this estate he fell by breaking the express command of God, through the temptations of Satan and the compliance of Eve; and thus brought the curse upon himself and all his posterity. Sovereign grace interposed; a Savior was revealed, and the full execution of the curse stayed; but Adam was banished from Eden and its tree of life, and reduced to a life of painful toil. His happiness was farther imbittered by witnessing the fruits of his fall in his posterity. Cain his first born son, and Abel the second, born in the likeness of their fallen parents, were ere long last to them-the one slain, and the other a fugitive. They probably had many other sons and daughters, but the name of Seth alone is given. Adam lived to the age of nine hundred and thirty years, and saw the earth rapidly peopled by his descendants; but "the wickedness of man was great upon the earth." At the time of his death, Lamech, the father of Noah, was fifty-six years of age; and being in the line of those who "walked with God," had probably heard the early history of the race from the lips of the penitent Adam.

The curse pronounced on man includes not only physical labor and toil on a barren and thorny earth, and the physical dissolution of the body, but also the exposure of the soul, the nobler part, to "everlasting death." In that very day he should lose the moral image of his Maker, and become subject not only to physical death, but also to Godís eternal wrath and curse, which is death in the highest sense of the word, and is the doom which has fallen upon all his race. Such is the view of the apostle Paul; who everywhere contrasts the death introduced into the world through Adam, with the life which is procured for our race through Jesus Christ, Ro 5:1-21. This life is spiritual; and the death, in its highest sense, is also spiritual. So far as the penalty is temporal and physical, no man is or can be exempt from it; but to remove the spiritual and eternal punishment, Christ has died; and he who comes to him in penitence and faith will avoid the threatened death, and enter into life eternal, both of the body and the soul.

The Redeemer is called "the second Adam," 1Co 15:45, as being the head of his spiritual seed, and the source of righteousness and life to all believers, as the first Adam was the sorrow of sin and death to all his seed.

2. A city near the Jordan, towards the sea of Tiberias, at some distance from which the waters of the Jordan were heaped up for the passage of the Jews, Jos 3:16.

ADAMANT

A name anciently used for the diamond, the hardest of all minerals. It is used for cutting or writing upon glass and other hard substances, Jer 17:1. It is also employed figuratively, Eze 3:9; Zec 7:12. Others supposed the smiris, or emery, to be meant.

ADAR

The twelfth month of the Hebrew ecclesiastical year, and the sixth of the civil year. In this month occurred the celebrated feast of Purim. It nearly answers to our March. As the lunar year, which the Jews follow, is shorter than the solar year by eleven days, which after three years by eleven days, which, after three years, make about a month, they then insert a thirteenth month, which they call Ve- Adar, or a second Adar. See MONTH.

ADDER

A species of serpent, more commonly called viper. The word adder is used five times in the Bible, as a translation of four different serpents of the venomous sort. In Ge 49:17, it seems to mean the cerastes, or horned viper, of the color of sand, and very deadly bite; accustomed to lie hidden in the tracks in the sand, and dart up on the unwary traveller. In Ps 58:4 91:13, it is probably the asp. In Ps 140:3 perhaps the tarantula, or some serpent that strikes backwards. See SERPANT, VIPER.

ADMAH

One of the four cities in the plain of Siddim, destroyed by fire from heaven and covered by the Dead Sea, Ge 14:2; 19:24,25; Ho 11:8.

ADONIBEZEK

Lord of Bezek, a Canaanite tyrant of Bezek, east of Shechem. Having taken seventy of the neighboring petty chiefs, he disabled them by cutting off their thumbs and great toes, and fed them like dogs. The same barbarous treatment was meted out to him, when defeated at the head of an army of Canaanites and Perizzites, by Judah and Simeon, Jud 1:4-7.

ADONIJAH

The fourth son of David, by Haggith, 2Sa 3:4. After the death of Amnon and Absalom, he aspired to the throne, although it was promised to Solomon, his younger brother. Having gained over Joab and Abiathar and other adherents, he at length openly revolted and claimed the crown while David was yet living. The news of this revolt being brought to the king at once; upon which the friends of Adonijah dispersed, and he took refuge at the horns of the altar. Solomon dismissed him with only an admonition. But soon after the death of David, he applied for the hand of Abishag, thus renewing his pretensions to the throne, for which he was put to death, 1Ki 1:1-2:46.

ADONIZEDEK

A king of Jerusalem who made an alliance with four other kings against Joshua. A great battle was fought at Gibeon, where the Lord aided Israel by a terrific hailstorm, and by miraculously prolonging the day. The five kings were utterly routed, and hid themselves in a cave at Makkedah; but were taken by Joshua, and put to death, Jos 10:1-43.

ADONIRAM

A receiver of tributes under David and Solomon, and director of the thirty thousand men sent to Lebanon to cut timber, 1Ki 5:14. The same person is also called Adoram, by contraction, 2Sa 20:21 1Ki 12:8; and also Hadoram, 2Ch 10:18. He was stoned to death by the revolted ten tribes, having been sent to them by Rehoboam, either to induce them to return, or to test by gathering the taxes.

ADOPTION

Is an act by which a person takes a stranger into his family, acknowledges him for his child, and constitutes him heir of his estate. Jacobís adoption of his two grandsons, Ephraim and Manasseh, Ge 48:5, was a kind of substitution, whereby he intended that these his grandson should have each his lot in Israel, as if they had been his own sons: "Ephraim and Manasseh are mine; as Reuben and Simeon, they shall be mine." As he give no inheritance to their father Joseph, the effect of this adoption was simply the doubling of their inheritance.

But Scripture afford instances of another kind of adoption-that of a father having a daughter only, and adopting her children. Thus, 1Ch 2:21, Machir, grandson of Joseph, and father of Gilead, Nu 26:29, gave his daughter to Hezron, "who took her; and was a son of sixty years," sixty years of age, "and she bare hi Segub; and Segub begat Jair, who had twenty-three cities in the land of Gilead," Jos 13:30 1Ki 4:13. However, as well he as his posterity, instead of being reckoned to the family of Judah, as they would have been by their paternal descent from Hezron, is reckoned as sons of Machir, the father of Gilead. Nay, more, it appears, Nu 32:41, that this Jair, who was in fact the son of Segub, the son of Segub, the son of Hezron, the son of Judah, is expressly called "Jair, the son of Manasseh," because his maternal great-grandfather was Machir to the son of Manasseh. In like manner we read that Mordecai adopted Esther, his niece; he took her to himself to be a daughter, Es 2:7. So the daughter of Pharaoh adopted Moses; and he became her son, Ex 2:10. So we read, Ru 4:17, that Naomi had a son-a son is born to Naomi; when indeed it was the son of Ruth.

At the present day, adoption is not uncommon in the East, where it is made before a public officer with legal forms.

In the New Testament, adoption denotes that act of Godís free grace by which, on being justified through faith, we are received into the family of God, and made heirs of the inheritance of heaven. It is "in Christ," and through his atoning merits, that believers "receive the adoption of sons," Ga 4:4,5. Some of the privileges of this state are, deliverance from a fearful and servile spirit; the special love and care of our heavenly Father; conformity to his image; a filial confidence in him; free access to him at all times; the witness of the Holy Spirit, whereby we cry, "Abba, Father;" and the title to our heavenly home, Ro 8:14-17 Eph 1:4,5.

ADORAIM

A town in the south of Judah, fortified by Rehoboam, 2Ch 11:9. Robinson has identified it with the modern Dura, a large village five miles west by south from Hebron.

ADORAM

See ADONIRAM

ADRAMMELECH

1. Son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria, Isa 37:38; 2Ki 19:37, who, upon returning to Nineveh after his fatal expedition against Hezekiah, was killed by his two sons, Adrammelech and Sharezer, through fear, according to Jewish tradition, of being sacrificed to his idol Nisroch. They then fled to the mountains of Armenia, B. C. 713.

2. One of the gods adored by the inhabitants of Sepharvaim, who settled in Samaria, in the stead of those Israelites who were carried beyond the Euphrates. They made their children pass through fire, in honor of this false deity, and of another called Anammelech, 2Ki 17:31. Some think that Adrammelech represented the sun, and Anammelech the moon.

ADRAMYTTIUM

A maritime town of Mysia, in Asia Minor, opposite to the island of Lesbos, Ac 27:2. It is now called Adramyt.

ADRIA

In Ac 27:27. The Adriatic Sea. This term now denotes only the Gulf of Venice; but in St. Paulís time it included the whole sea lying between Italy and Greece, and extending on the south from Crete to Sicily, within which the island of Malta or Melita lies. So Ptolemy and Strabo.

ADRIEL

A son of Barzillai, married Merab, daughter of Saul, who had been promised to David, 1Sa 18:19. Adriel had five sons by her, who were delivered up to the Gibeonites, to be put to death before the Lord, to avenge the cruelty of Saul their grandfather against the Gibeonites. In 2Sa 21:8, these are said to be the sons of Michal, whom she "brought up" for Adriel; but unless this is a copyistís error, Michal had adopted the children of her sister Merab, who was perhaps dead; or possibly both sisters may have borne the name Michal. Compare under ABIATHAR.

ADULLAM

An ancient city in the plain of Judah, southwest of Jerusalem, Ge 38:1 Jos 15:35. Its king was slain by Joshua, Jos 12:15. It was one of the cities rebuilt and fortified by Rehoboam, 2Ch 11:7 Mic 1:15, and was reoccupied by the Jews after the captivity, Ne 11:30.

When David withdrew from Achish, king of Gath, he retired to the "cave of Adullam," 1Sa 22:1 2Sa 23:13. The location of this cave, however, is uncertain. Tradition places it in the hill country, about six miles south-east of Bethlehem, the city of David; a large and fine cave, visited by many travellers. It is capable of holding thousands.

ADULTERY

Is a criminal connection between persons who are engaged, one or both, to keep themselves wholly to others; and thus it exceeds the guilt of fornication, which is the same intercourse between unmarried persons. As the highest sin of its kind, and son including all other sins of the flesh, it is forbidden in the seventh commandment. Where polygamy was allowed, as among the ancient Jews, illicit intercourse between a married man and a woman who was married, nor betrothed, constituted not adultery, but fornication.

Fornication may be, in some sense, covered by a subsequent marriage of the parties; but adultery cannot be so healed. Hence God often compares himself to a husband jealous of his honor, Jer 31:32; and hence the forsaking of the true God is compared to fornication and adultery of the vilest kind, Jer 3:9; Eze 23:36-49.

By the Law of Moses, both the man and the woman who had committed adultery were punished with death, Le 20:10; 21:9; Joh 8:5. A woman suspected of this crime might, in order to clear herself, drink the "water of jealousy," as prescribed in Nu 5:1-31.

ADUMMIM

A border town of Benjamin and Judah, not far from Jericho of the road to Jerusalem. This road ascends through a desolate and rocky region, "the ascent of Adummim," Jos 15:7; 18:17; it furnished many lurking places for robbers, and was the scene of our Saviorís parable, The Good Samaritan, Lu 10:1-42.

ADVOCATE, or Paraclete

One that pleads the cause of another. In its technical sense, the office was unknown to the Jews till they became subject to the Romans. It is applied to Christ as our intercessor, 1Jo 2:1; compare Ro 8:34 Heb 7:25; and to the Holy Spirit, as our teacher and comforter, Joh 14:16 15:26.

AENON

See ENON.

AFFINITY

1Ki 3:1; Relationship by marriage; as consanguinity is relationship by blood. The degrees within which relatives were forbidden by the Levitical law to intermarry, may be found in Le 18:1-30.

AGABUS

"A prophet" of the early church, perhaps one of "the seventy" disciples of Christ. He foretold the famine, of which Suetonious and others speak, in the days of Claudius, A. D. 44. It was very severe in Judea; and aid was sent to the church at Jerusalem from Antioch, Ac 11:27. Many years after, Agabus predicted the sufferings of Paul at the hands of the Jews, Ac 21:10.

AGAG

1. A general name of the kings of the Amalekites; apparently like Pharaoh for the Egyptian kings, Nu 1:1-36:13 24:7 1Sa 15:8. The last one mentioned in Scripture was "hewed in pieces" by Samuel, before the Lord, because Saul had sinfully spared him and the flocks and herds, when ordered utterly to exterminate them. He seems to have incurred an uncommon punishment by infamous cruelties, 1Sa 15:33

2. Agagite, in Es 3:1,10 8:3,5 is used to mark the nation whence Haman sprung. Josephus explains the word by Amalekite.

AGATE

A precious stone said to take its name from the river Achates in Sicily, where it abounded. Agates, which are several kinds, are likewise procured in India, in various parts of Europe, and at the Cape of Good Hope. They are semi-transparent, and often are beautifully veined and clouded, and present in miniature the picture of many natural objects. The agate was the second stone in the third row of the high priestís breastplate, Ex 28:19; 39:12.

AGRIPPA

See HEROD 3, 4.

AGUR

An inspired Hebrew, author of thirtieth chapter of proverbs, incorporated with those of Solomon.

AHAB

1. The sixth king of Israel, succeeded his father Omri B. C. 918, and reigned twenty-two years. His wife was Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal king of Tyre; an ambitious and passionate idolatress, through whose influence the worship of Baal and Ashtoreth was introduced in Israel. Ahab erected in Samaria a house of Baal, and set up images of Baal and Ashtoreth; idolatry and wickedness became fearfully prevalent, and the king "did more to provoke the Lord to anger than all the kings that were before him." In the midst of this great apostasy, God visited the land with three years of drought and famine; and then, at Mount Carmel, reproved idolatry by fire from heaven, and by the destruction of four hundred and fifty prophets of Baal. About six years later, Ben-hadad, king of Syria, invaded Israel with a great army, but was ignominiously defeated; and still more disastrously the year after, when Ahab took him captive, but soon released him, and thus incurred the displeasure of God. In spite of the warnings and mercies of Providence, Ahab went on in sin; and at length, after the murder of Naboth, his crimes and abominable idolatries were such that God sent Elijah to denounce judgments upon him and his seed. These were in part deferred, however, by his apparent humiliation. Soon after, having gone with Jehoshaphat, king of Judah, to regain Ramoth-gilead from the Syrians, and joined battle with them in defiance of Jehovah, he was slain, and dogs licked up his blood at the pool of Samaria, 1Ki 16:29-22:40.

2. A false prophet, who seduced the Israelites at Babylon, and was denounced by Jeremiah, Jer 29:21,22.

AHASUERUS

A royal title, common to several Median and Persian kings named in Scripture.

1. The father of Dares the Mede, Da 9:1. The most probable opinion is that the name here designates Astyages, the grandfather of Cyrus. See below, and DARIUS I.

2. Mentioned Ezr 4:6, the son and successor of Cyrus; probably Cambyses, who reigned seven and a half years from B. C. 529.

3. The husband of Esther, most probably Xerxes. Commentators have been much divided, and have understood under this name all the Persian kings in succession. But the other kings of Persia are all mentioned in Scripture by their own names, or at least definitely pointed out; while Xerxes is not mentioned, unless under this name. Besides, recent researches show that Hebrew word for Ahasuerus is readily formed from the Persian name of Xerxes, the name Xerxes being only a Greek corruption of the Persian. See ESTHER.

AHAVA

A town in Chaldea, which gave name to the stream on the banks of which exiled Jews assembled their second caravan under Ezra, when returning to Jerusalem, Ezr 8:15,21,31. It may be the modern Hib on the Euphrates, in the latitude of Bagdad.

AHAZ

Son of Jotham, and twelfth king of Judah. He ascended the throne at twenty years of age, and reigned sixteen years, 2Ki 16:1,2,20. B. C. 738. He was distinguished for his idolatry and contempt of the true God; and against him many of the prophecies of Isaiah are directed, Isa 7.1-25. He made his own children pass through the fire to idols; he introduced the Syrian gods into Jerusalem, altered the temple after the Syrian model, and even closed it altogether. Having thus forfeited the aid of Jehovah, he met various repulses in battle with Pekah and Rezin; the Edomites revolted, and the Philistines harassed his borders. He turned yet more away from God in his distress, and sought aid from Pul, king of Assyria. This fatal step made him tributary to Pul, and to Tig-lath-pileser his successor. Ahaz was reduced to great extremities, in buying off the Assyrians; but became more infatuated still in idolatry, and dying in his impiety at the of thirty-six, was refused a burial with the kings his ancestors, 2Ch 28:1-27.

AHAZIAH

1. Son and successor of Ahab, king of Israel, 1Ki 22:51 2Ki 1:1-18. He reigned two years, alone and with his father, who associated him in the kingdom the year before his death, B. C. 894. Ahaziah imitated Ahabís impiety, and worshipped Baal and Astarte, whose rites had been introduced into Israel by Jezebel his mother. During his reign the Moabites revolted. Having joined the king Jehoshaphat in a commercial enterprise on the Red Sea, his impiety blasted the whole. After a fall from the gallery of his house, he sent to consult a god of the Philistines as to his recovery. Elijah the prophet foretold his speedy death-first to the messengers, and again to Ahaziah himself, after two companies of fifty had been consumed by fire from heaven.

2. Otherwise Jehoahaz, or Azariah, king of Judah, son of Jehoram and Athaliah; he succeeded his father B. C. 881, 2Ki 8:25 2Ch 22:2. He was twenty-two years of age when he ascended the throne, and reigned but one year at Jerusalem. He followed the house of Ahab, to which he was allied by his mother, and did evil. He met his death at the hand of Jehu, while in company with Joram, son of Ahab.

AHIAH

Son of Ahitub, and high priest in the reign of Saul, 1Sa 14:3. He was probably the brother of his successor Ahimelech, slain by Saul, 1Sa 22:9.

AHIJAH

A prophet and chronicler of the times of Solomon and Jeroboam, 1Ki 11:29 2Ch 9:29. He is thought to be the person who spoke in Godís name to Solomon while building the temple, 1Ki 6:11; and again after he fell into sin, 1Ki 11:11. He notified Jeroboam of the separation of Israel from Judah, and of the foundation of his house-the ruin of which he afterwards foretold, 1Ki 14:1-14.

AHIKAM

Sent by Josiah to Huldah the prophetess, when the book of the law was found in the temple, 2Ki 22:12. He afterwards nobly befriended the prophet Jeremiah, Jer 26:24; 39:14.

AHIMAAZ

The son and successor of Zadok became high priest in the reign of Solomon. During the reign of David, he revealed to him the counsels of Absalom and his advisers in rebellion, 2Sa 17:15-21; and conveyed to him also the tidings of Absalomís defeat and death, 2Sa 18:1-33.

AHIMELECH

1. Son of Ahitub, and brother of Ahiah, whom he succeeded in the high priesthood. Some think, however, that both names belong to the same person. During his priesthood the tabernacle was at Nob, where Ahimelech dwelt, with many priests. Here he received David when fleeing from Saul, and gave him the showbread and Goliathís sword. This act, as reported by Doeg the Edomite, Saul viewed as treasonous; and by the hand of this idolatrous and malignant foreigner, he put Ahimelech and eighty-five other priests of Jehovah to death, 1Sa 22:1-23óa crime sufficient of itself to forfeit the throne and the favor of God.

2. Also called Abimelech, 1Ch 18:16, probably the same as Abiathar, which see, 1Ch 24:3,6,31.

AHINOAM

1. Daughter of Ahimaaz and wife of Saul, 1Sa 14:50.

2. A woman of Jezreel, wife of David and mother Amnon. She was taken captive by the Amalekites, at Ziklag, 1Sa 30:5; but was recovered by David, and accompanied him to Hebron, 2Sa 2:2; 3:2.

AHIO

A son of Abinadab, who went before the ark of God on its way to Jerusalem from his fatherís house; thus escaping the fate of Uzzah his brother, 2Sa 6:3-7.

AHITHOPHEL

A native of Giloh, originally one of Davidís most intimate and valued friends; but upon the defection and rebellion of Absalom, he espoused the cause of that prince, and became one of Davidís bitterest enemies. Being disappointed that Absalom did not follow his sagacious advice, and foreseeing the issue of the rebellion, he hanged himself, 2Sa 15:12 17:1-29 Ps 55:12-14. Ahithophel seems to have been the grandfather of Bathsheba. 2Sa 23:34, compared with 2Sa 11:3.

AHITUB

1. Grandson of Eli, and son of Phinehas, in whose place he succeeded to the high priesthood on the death of Eli, Phinehas having perished in battle, B. C. 1141, 1Sa 4:11.

2. Son of Amariah, and father of Zadok, 2Sa 8:17; 1Ch 6:8.

AHOLAH and AHOLIBAH

Two symbolical names, adopted by Ezekiel, Eze 23:4, to denote the two kingdoms of Judah and Samaria. They are represented as sisters, and of Egyptian extraction. Aholah stands for Samaria, and Aholibah for Jerusalem. The allegory is a history of the Jewish church.

AI

Called also Hai, Ge 12:8; Aija, Ne 11:31; and Aiath, Isa 10:28. A royal city of the Canaanites, east of Bethel, near which Abraham once sojourned and built an altar, Ge 12:8; 13:3. It is memorable for Joshuaís defeat on account of Achan, and his subsequent victory, Jos 7:2-5; 8:1-29. It was rebuilt, and is mentioned by Isaiah. Its ruins are spoken of by Eusebius and Jerome, but the exact site cannot now be fixed with certainty.

AIN

Fountain, spelt EN in the English Sisle, in compound words, as En- rogel. It is the name of a city of Judah, afterwards assigned to Simeon, Jos 15:32; 1Ch 4:32. Also of a place in the north of Canaan, Nu 34:11.

AIR

1. The air or atmosphere surrounding the earth is often denoted by the word heaven; so "the fowls of heaven" means the birds of the air.

2. To "beat the air," and to "speak in the air," 1Co 9:26 14:9, are modes of expression used in most languages, signifying to speak or act without judgment or understanding, or to no purpose. "The powers of the air," Eph 2:2, probably means devils.

AJALON or Aijalon

1. A town in the tribe of Dan, assigned to the Levites, sons of Kohath, Jos 21:24. It was not far from Timnath, and was taken by the Philistines from Ahaz, 2Ch 28:18. It lay in or near a valley, not far from the valley of Gibeon, and is recognized in the modern village of Yalo. The valley lies towards the north, and is the place where Joshua commanded the sun and moon to stand still, and they obeyed him, Jos 10:12

2. A town in Benjamin, some three miles east of Bethel. It was fortified by Rehoboam, 2Ch 11:10 3. In the tribe of Zebulun, the place of Elonís burial, Jud 2:12.

AKRABBIM

Scorpions, A point in the frontier line of the promised land, Jud 1:36, and in a region infested with serpents and scorpions, De 8:15. It is to be found probably in the mountains near the Dead Sea, on its southwest side. In Jos 15:3, it is translated Maalehakrabbim, the ascent of Akrabbim.

ALABASTER

A sort of stone, of fine texture, either the white gypsum, a sulphate of lime, or the onyx-alabaster, a hard carbonate of lime, having the color of the human nail, and nearly allied to marble. This material being very generally used to fabricate vessels for holding unguents and perfumed liquids, many vessels were called alabaster though made of a different substance, as gold, silver, glass, etc. In Mt 26:6,7, we read that Mary, sister of Lazarus, Joh 12:3, poured as alabaster box of precious ointment on Christís head. Mark says "she brake the box," signifying probably, that the seal upon the box, or upon the neck of the vase of bottle, which kept the perfume from evaporating, had never been removed; it was on this occasion first opened. See SPIKENARD.

ALAMOTH

A musical term, indicating probably music for female voices, Ps 46:1; 1Ch 15:20.

ALEXANDER

1. The Great, the famous son and successor of Philip, king of Macedon. He is alluded to in Da 7:6 8:4-7, under the figures of a leopard with four wings, and a one-horned he-goat, representing the swiftness of his conquests and his great strength. He was appointed by God to destroy the Persian Empire and substitute the Grecian. In the statue seen by Nebuchadnezzar in his dream, Da 2:39, the belly of brass was the emblem of Alexander. He succeeded his father B. C. 336, and within twelve years overran Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, founded Alexandria, conquered the Persians, and penetrated far into the Indies. He died at the age of thirty-two, from the effects of intemperance, and left his vast empire to be divided among his four generals.

2. Son of Simon the Cyrenian, Mr 15:21, apparently one of the more prominent early Christians.

3. One of the council who condemned Peter and John, Ac 4:6

4. A Jew of Ephesus, who sought in vain to quiet the popular commotion respecting Paul, Ac 4:6

5. A coppersmith, and apostate from Christianity, 1Ti 1:20 2Ti 4:14.

ALEXANDRIA

A celebrated city in Lower Egypt, situated between the Mediterranean Sea and the lake Mareotis, not far from the most westerly mouth of the Nile. It was founded by Alexander the Great, B. C. 332, and peopled by colonies of Greeks and Jews. Alexandria rose rapidly to a state of prosperity, becoming the center of commercial intercourse between the East and the West, and in process of time was, in point both magnitude and wealth, second only to Rome itself. The ancient city was about fifteen miles in circuit, peopled by 300,000 free citizens and as many slaves. From the gate of the sea ran one magnificent street, 2,000 feet broad, through the entire length of the city, to the gate of Canopus, affording a view of the shipping in the port, whether north in the Mediterranean, or south in the noble basin of the Mareotic lake. Another street of equal width intersected this at right angles, in a square half a league in circumference.

Upon the death of Alexander, whose body was deposited in this new city, Alexandria became the regal capital of Egypt, under the Ptolemies, and rose to its highest splendor. During the reign of the first three princes of this name, its glory was at the highest. The most celebrated philosophers from the East, as well as from Greece and Rome, resorted thither for instruction; and eminent men, in every department of knowledge, were found within its walls. Ptolemy Soter, the first of that line of kings, formed the museum, the library of 700,000 volumes, and several other splendid works. At the death of Cleopatra, B. C. 26, Alexandria passed into the hands of the Romans; and after having enjoyed the highest fame for upwards of a thousand years, it submitted to the arms of the caliph Pmar, A. D. 646.

The present Alexandria, or according to the pronunciation of the inhabitants, Skanderia, occupies only about the eighth part of the site of the ancient city. The splendid temples have been exchanged for wretched mosques and miserable churches, and the magnificent palaces for mean and ill-built dwellings. The city, which was of old so celebrated for its commerce and navigation, is now merely part of Cairo, a place where ships may touch, and where wares may be exchanged. The modern city is built with the ruins of the ancient. The streets are so narrow, that the inhabitants can lay mats of reeds from one roof to the opposite, to protect them from the scorching sun. The population consists of Turks, Arabs, Copts, Jews, and Armenians. Many Europeans have counting houses here, where the factors exchange European for oriental merchandise.

The Greek or Alexandrine version of the Scriptures was made here by learned Jews, seventy-two in number, and hence it is called the Septuagint, or version of the Seventy. The Jews established themselves in great numbers in this city very soon after it was founded. Josephus says that Alexander himself assigned to them a particular quarter of the city, and allowed them equal rights and privileges with the Greeks. Philo, who himself lived there in the time of Christ, affirms that, of five parts of the city, the Jews inhabit two. According to his statements, also, there dwelt in his time, in Alexandria and the other Egyptian cities, not less than a million Jews; but this would seem exaggerated.

ALGUM

The same as ALMUG, which see.

ALLEGORY

A figurative mode of discourse, which employs terms literally belonging to one thing, in order to express another. It is strictly a prolonged metaphor. Such are Nathanís address to David, 2Sa 12:1- 14; Ps 80:1-19, and our Lordís parable of the sower, Lu 8:5- 15. The expression, "which things are an allegory," Ga 4:24, means that the events in the life of Isaac and Ishmael, mentioned in previous verses, have been allegorically applied.

ALLELUIA

See HALLELUJAH.

ALLON-BACHUTH

Oak of weeping; the spot where Rebekahís nurse was buried, Ge 35:8.

ALMON-DIBLATHAIM

One of the encampments of the Israelites on their way from Mount Hor to the plains of Moab; location unknown, Nu 33:46.

ALMOND-TREE

This tree resembles a peach-tree, but is larger. In Palestine, it blossoms in January, and in March has fruit. Its blossoms are white. Its Hebrew name signifies a watcher, and to this there is an allusion in Jer 1:11. In Ec 12:5, the hoary head is beautifully compared with the almond-tree, both on account of its snowy whiteness and its winter blossoming.

ALMUG

A kind of tree or wood, which Hiram brought from Ophir for the use of Solomon in making pillars for the temple and his own house, and also musical instruments, 1Ki 10:11 2Ch 2:8. The rabbins call it coral; but it could not be this. It was more probably the tree, which furnishes what is now commonly called Brazil wood, which is also a native of the East Indies, Siam, the Molucca islands, and Japan, and has several species. Its wood is very durable, and is used in fine cabinet work. It yields also a dye of a beautiful red color, for which it is much used. Its resemblance in color to coral may have given occasion for the name almug, which in rabbinic still signifies coral; and thus the meaning of the name would be coral-wood.

ALOES

Or more properly, ALOE, and East Indian tree, that grows about eight or ten feet high, and yields a rich perfume, Ps 45:8 Pr 7:17 So 4:14. This tree or wood was called by the Greeks Agallochon, and has been known to moderns by the names of Lign-aloe, aloe-wood, paradise-wood, eagle-wood, etc. Modern botanists distinguish two kinds: the one grows in Cochin China, Siam, and China, is never exported, and is of so great rarity in India, as to be worth its weight in gold. The tree is represented as large, with an erect trunk and lofty branches. The other or more common species is called garo in the East Indies, and is the wood of a tree growing in the Moluccas, the Excoecaria Agallocha of Linnaeus. The leaves are like those of a pear-tree; and it has a milky juice, which, as the tree grows old, hardens into a fragrant resin. The trunk is knotty, crooked, and usually hollow. Aloe-wood is said by Herodotus to have been used by the Egyptians for embalming dead bodies, and Nicodemus brought it, mingled with myrrh, to embalm the body of our Lord, Joh 19:39. This perfume, it will be seen, is something altogether different from the aloes of the apothecaries, which is a bitter resin, extracted from a low herb.

ALPHA

See the letter A.

ALPHAEUS

1. Father of James the Less, Mt 10:3 Lu 6:15, and husband of the Mary usually regarded as sister to the mother of Christ, Joh 19:25. See MARY, 1 and 3. By comparing Joh 19:25 with Lu 24:18 and Mt 10:3, it is evident that Alphaeus is the same as Cleophas; Alphaeus being his Greek name, and Cleophas his Hebrew or Syriac name.

2. Father of Matthew, or Levi, the evangelist, Mr 2:14.

ALTAR

A table-like structure, on which sacrifices and incense were offered, built of various materials, usually of stone, but sometimes of brass, etc. It is evident that sacrifices were offered long before the flood; but the first mention of an altar in Scripture is when Noah left the ark. Mention is made of altars reared by Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Moses. The latter was commanded to build an altar of earth, Ex 20:24. If stone was employed, it must be rough and unhewn, probably lest the practice of sculpture should lead them to violate the second commandment. It was not to be furnished with steps, De 27:2-6.

The altars in the Jewish tabernacle, and in the temple at Jerusalem, were the following: 1. The altar of burnt offerings. 2. The altar of incense. 3. The table of showbread, for which see BREAD.

1. THE ALTAR OF BURNT-OFFERINGS was a kind of coffer of shittim- wood covered with brass plates, about seven feet six inches square, and four feet six inches in height. At the four corners were four horns, or elevations. It was portable, and had rings and staves for bearing in, Ex 27:1-28:43. It was placed in the court before the tabernacle, towards the east. The furniture of the altar was of brass, and consisted of a pan, to receive the ashes that fell through the grating; shovels; basins, to contain the blood with which the altar was sprinkled; and forks, to turn and remove the pieces of flesh upon the coals. The fire was a perpetual one, kindled miraculously, and carefully cherished. Upon this altar the lamb of the daily morning and evening sacrifice was offered, and the other stated and voluntary blood-sacrifices and meat and drink-offerings. To this also certain fugitives were allowed to flee and find protection. The altar in Solomonís temple was larger, being about thirty feet square and fifteen feet high, 2Ch 4:1. It is said to have been covered with thick plates of brass and filled with stones, with an ascent on the east side. It is often called "the brazen altar."

2. THE ALTAR OF INCENSE was a small table of shittim-wood, covered with plates of gold; it was eighteen inches square, and three feet high, Ex 30:1-38 37:25, etc. At the four corners were four horns, and all around its top was a little border or crown. On each side were two rings, into which staves might be inserted for the purpose of carrying it. It stood in the Holy place; not in the Holy of Holies, but before it, between the golden candlestick and the table of showbread, and the priests burned incense upon it every morning and evening. So Zacharias, Lu 1:9,11. See TEMPLE.

3. ALTAR AT ATHENS, inscribed "to the unknown God," Ac 17:23. It is certain. Both from Paulís assertion and the testimony of Greek writers, that altars to an unknown or gods existed at Athens. But the attempt to ascertain definitely whom the Athenians worshipped under this appellation must ever remain fruitless for want of sufficient data. The inscription afforded to Paul a happy occasion of proclaiming the gospel; and those who embraced it found it indeed that the Being whom they had thus ignorantly worshipped was the one only living and true God.

AMALEK

Son of Eliphaz, and grandson of Esau, Ge 36:12. It is not certain that any distinct mention is made in the Bible of his posterity, people called Amalekites being in existence long before, Ge 14:7; Nu 24:20.

AMALEKITES

A powerful people, who dwelt in Arabia Petraea, between the Dead Sea and the Red Sea, perhaps in moving troops. We cannot assign the place of their habitation, except in general it is apparent that they dwelt south of Palestine, between Mount Seir and the border of Egypt; and it does not appear that they possessed many cities, though one is mentioned in 1Sa 15:5. They lived generally in migrating parties, in caves or in tents, like the Bedaween Arabs of the present day. The Israelites had scarcely passed the Red sea, when the Amelikites attacked them in the desert of Rephidim, and slew those who, through fatigue or weakness, lagged behind; and for this unprovoked assault on the people of God, the doom of extermination was passed upon them, Ex 17:8-16. They came again into conflict with a part of the Israelites on the border of the promised land, Nu 14:45; and after 400 years, Saul attacked and destroyed them at the command of the Lord, 1Sa 15:1-35. A remnant, however, escaped and subsided afterwards; David defeated them on several occasions, 1Sa 27:8 30:1 2Sa 8:12; and they were finally blotted out by the Simeonites, in the time of Hezekiah, 1Ch 4:43, thus fulfilling the prediction of Balaam, Nu 24:20. Haman, the last of the race mentioned in Scripture, perished like his fathers, in conflict with the Jews. See the book of Esther.

AMANA

The southern part or summit of Anti-Lebanon, adjacent to and north of Hermon, from which the river Amana or Abana poured down towards Damascus, So 4:8.

AMARIAH

1. Son of Meraioth, a descendant of Aaron in the line of Eleazar. He was the father of Ahitub, (See AHITUB 2.) and grandfather of Zadok, in whose person the high priesthood was restored to that line, 1Ch 6:7

2. High priest at a later period, a son of Azariah, and father of another Ahitub, 1Ch 6:11. In like manner, in the same list there are three persons named Azariah.

AMASA

1. Davidís nephew, the son of Abigail, Davidís sister, and Jether an Ishmaelite. His percentage may have led David to show him less favor than his other nephews, and this may have disposed him to join in the rebellion of Absalom. He was the general of Absalomís army, and was defeated by his cousin Joab, 2Sa 17:1-18:33. David afterwards offered him a pardon and the command of his troops in the place of Joab, whose overbearing conduct he could no longer endure, 2Sa 19:13. But in the confusion of Shebaís rebellion, Amasa was treacherously murdered by his powerful rival, 2Sa 20:4-10. B. C. 1022.

2. A chief of Ephraim, who opposed retaining as bondsmen the men of Judah taken captive in a war with Pekah king of Israel, 2Ch 28:12.

AMASAI

A Levite, who joined David with thirty gallant men, while in the desert flying from Saul, 1Ch 6:25; 12:16-18.

AMAZIAH

1. Eighth king of Judah, son of Joash, began to reign B. C. 835, and reigned twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. He did well in the sight of the Lord, but not with a perfect heart. Having established himself in his throne and slain the murderers of his father, he mustered a host of 300,000 men of Judah, and hired 100,000 men of Israel, for a war upon Edom. These hired forces he reluctantly dismissed at the command of God, who gave him the victory without their aid. But this did not prevent him from carrying home with him the idols of Edom, and setting them up to be his gods. For this defiance of Jehovah, he was threatened with destruction by a prophet of the Lord; and soon after, went headlong into war with Israel, in which he was defeated and humbled. Fifteen years after, he was slain by conspirators, after flying to Lachish to escape them, 2Ki 14:1-20 2Ch 25:1-28

2. A priest of the golden calf at Bethel, who denounced the prophet Amos to Jeroboam, and sought to banish him into Judah for his fidelity, Am 7:10-17.

AMBER

Is a yellow or straw-colored gummy substance, originally a vegetable production, but reckoned in the mineral kingdom. It is found in lumps in the sea and on the shores of Prussia, Sicily, Turkey, etc. Externally it is rough; it is very transparent, and on being rubbed, yields a fragrant odor. It was formerly supposed to be medicinal, but is now employed only in the manufacture of trinkets, ornaments, etc.

The Hebrew word chasmil is translated by the Septuagint and Vulgate electrum, that is, amber, because the Hebrew denotes a very brilliant amber-like metal, composed of silver and gold, which was much prized in antiquity, Eze 1:4,27; 8:2. Others, as Bochart, refer here to the mixture of gold and brass, of which the ancients had several kinds, some of which exhibited a high degree of luster. Something similar to this was probably also the "fine brass," in Ezr 8:27; Re 1:15.

AMEN

Strictly an adjective, signifying firm, and by a metaphor, faithful. So in Re 3:14, our Lord is called "the Amen, the faithful and true Witness," where the last words explain the preceding appellation. In its adverbial use it means certainly, truly, surely. It is used at the beginning of a sentence by way of emphasis, frequently by our Savior, and is there commonly translated Verily. In Johnís gospel alone, it is often used by him in this way double, Verily, verily. At the end of a sentence it is often used, singly or repeated, especially at the end of hymns and prayers; as "Amen and Amen," Ps 41:13 72:19 89:52. The proper signification of it here is, to confirm the words which have preceded, assert the sincerity and invoke the fulfilment of them: so it is, so be it, let it be done. Hence, in oaths, after the priest has repeated the words of the covenant or imprecation, all those who pronounce the Amen, bind themselves by the oath, Nu 5:22 De 27:15 Ne 5:13 8:6 1Ch 16:36. Compare Ps 106:48.

AMETHYST

A precious stone of a violet blue color, verging towards a bluish or reddish white. It is seldom uniform in color, and is generally cloudy and spotted with zigzag stripes. The most beautiful specimens come from Ceylon, the East Indies, Siberia, and Saxony. It is very highly prized, Ex 28:19; Re 21:20.

AMMINADAB

1. A son of Aram, of the tribe of Judah, and father of Naashon. He was one of the ancestors of Christ; and his daughter Elisheba was the wife of Aaron, Ex 6:23 Ru 4:20 Mt 1:4. "The Chariots of Amminadib," So 6:12, were very light and swift, in allusion perhaps to some noted charioteer of that day.

2. A son of Kohath, 1Ch 6:33.

AMMONITES

The descendants of Ammon, or Ben-Ammi, a son of Lot. They destroyed an ancient race of giants called Zamzummim, and seized their country, which lay east of Judea, De 2:19-21. Their territory extended from the Arnon to the Jabbok, and from the Jordan a considerable distance into Arabia. Their capital city was Rabbah, (also called Rabbath Ammon, and afterwards Philadelphia,) which stood on the Jabbok. Yet in the time of Moses they had been driven out of this region, towards the east, by the Amorites, Nu 21:21-35 32:33. Moses was forbidden to assail them, De 2:19. They were gross idolaters; their chief idol being Moloch, supposed to be the same with Saturn, 1Ki 11:5-7 2Ki 23:13. They oppressed Israel in the time of Jephthah, and were defeated by him with great slaughter, Jud 11:1-40. The children of Ammon afterwards, at various times, troubled the Israelites, for which the prophets threatened them with divine judgments, Jer 46:1-6 Eze 25:2-10.

AMMON, or No-Ammon, or No

A city of Egypt. The name of the city is properly No-Ammon, that is, the seat or dwelling of the god Ammon, Na 3:8, in the Hebrew. Similar is its Greek name Diospolis, the city of Jupiter-Ammon. In Eze 30:14-16, it is called simply No; and in Na 3:8 Jer 46:25, the English version has also only No. In the latter passage, "the multitude of No" would be better "Ammon of No." The name designates, beyond all reasonable doubt, the city of Thebes, the ancient and renowned capital of Upper Egypt. Homer describes her as "The worldís great empress on the Egyptian plains, That spreads her conquests oíer a thousand states, And pours her heroes through a hundred gates." The vast ruins of the temples of Luxor and Carnac still proclaim the grandeur and magnificence with which the worship of Jupiter-Ammon was conducted. The ruins of the ancient city of Thebes are the wonder and delight of modern travellers, for their extent, their vastness, and their sad and solitary grandeur. They are covered with ancient hieroglyphics and historical sculptures, among which one interesting scene is thought to record the exploits of Shishak against Jerusalem in the fifth year of Rehoboam, 1Ki 14:25. See Wilkinson, Robinson, and Olin. Also Missionary Herald, 1823, and Shishak.

AMNON

The eldest son of David, by Ahimoam of Jezreel. He is known only by his guilt in violating his sister; for which Absalom, two years after, caused him to be assassinated, 2Sa 13:1-39.

AMON

The fourteenth king of Judah, son of Manasseh, began to reign B. C. 639, at the age of twenty-two, and reigned only two years at Jerusalem. He did evil in the sight of the Lord, as his father Manasseh had done, by forsaking Jehovah and worshipping idols. His servants conspired against him, and slew him in his own house; but the people killed all the conspirators, and established his son Josiah on the throne. He was buried in the garden of Uzzah, 2Ki 21:18-26 2Ch 33:21-25.

AMORITES

A people descended from Emer, the fourth son of Canaan, Ge 10:16. They first peopled the mountains west of the Dead sea, near Hebron; but afterwards extended their limits, and took possession of the finest provinces of Moab and Ammon, on the east between the brooks Jabbok and Arnon, Nu 13:29 21:21-31 Jos 5:1 Jud 11:13. Moses took this country from their king, Sihon. The lands which the Amorites possessed on this side Jordan were given to the tribe of Judah, and those beyond the Jordan to the tribes of Reuben and Gad. The name Amorite is often taken in Scripture for Canaanite in general, Ge 15:16 Am 2:9. See CANAANITES.

By the expression, "Thy father was an Amorite and thy mother a Hittite." Eze 16:3, God reminds the Jews that they were naturally no more worthy of divine favor than the worst of the heathen Canaanites.

AMOS

1. The fourth of the minor prophets, was a herdsman of Tekoah, a small town of Judah, about twelve miles south of Jerusalem. He prophesied, however, concerning Israel, at Bethel, in the days of Uzziah, king of Judah, and Jeroboam II, king of Israel, about B. C. 787, and was thus a contemporary of Hosea, Joel, and Isaiah. The first two chapters contain predictions against the surrounding nations, enemies of the people of God. But the ten tribes of Israel were the chief subjects of his prophecies. Their temporary prosperity under Jeroboam led to gross idolatry, injustice, and corruption; for which sins he denounces the judgments of God upon them: but he closes with cheering words of consolation. His holy boldness in reproving sin drew on him the wrath of the priests, who labored to procure his banishment, Am 7:10-17. In regard to style, Amos takes a high rank among the prophets. He is full of imagery, concise, and yet simple and perspicuous.

2. One of the ancestors of our Lord, Lu 3:25.

AMOZ

The father of Isaiah, 2Ki 19:2; Isa 1:1.

AMPHIPOLIS

A city of Macedonia, situated not far from the mouth of the river Strymon, which flowed "around the city," and thus occasioned its name. The village which now stands upon the site of the ancient city is called Empoli of Yamboli, a corruption of Amphipolis. It was visited by Paul and Silas, Ac 17:1.

AHRAM

The father of Aaron, Miriam, and Moses. He died in Egypt, aged one hundred and thirty-seven, Ex 6:18,20.

AMRAPHEL

King of Shinar in the time of Abraham. With three other petty kings, he made war upon the tribes around the Dead Sea, and the cities of the plain, Ge 14:1.

ANAH

The father of Aholibamah, one of Esauís wives. While feeding his fatherís asses in the desert, he is said to have found the "mules" Ge 36:24. But the Hebrew word is suppose to mean rather "warm springs;" and such springs are found on the eastern coast of the Dead sea, which was not far from the dwellings of the Seirites, to whom Anah belonged. In this region was a place afterwards celebrated among the Greeks and Romans for its warm springs, and called by them Callirrhoe.

ANAK, plural Anakim

Famous giants in Palestine, descended from Arba, founder of the city Hebron. They spread themselves over the south of Judah, the hill country, and several cities of the Philistines. The Hebrew spies were terrified at their sight, Nu 13:33; but in the conquest of Canaan they were destroyed or expelled, Jos 11:22; 15:14; Jud 1:20.

ANAMMELECH

See ADRAMMELECH.

ANANIAS

1. A Jew of Jerusalem, the husband of Sapphira, who attempted to join the Christians, and pretended to give them the entire price of his lands, but died instantly on being convicted of falsehood by Peter, Ac 5:1-10.

2. A Christian of Damascus, who restored the sight of Paul, after his vision of the Savior, Ac 9:10-17; 22:12.

3. A high priest of the Jews, the son of Nebedaeus. He was sent as a prisoner to Rome by Quadratus, the governor of Syria, and Jonathon was appointed in his place; but being discharged by the emperor Claudius, he returned to Palestine, and Jonathon being murdered through the treachery of Felix, Ananias appears to have performed the functions of the high priest as a substitute, until Ishmael was appointed by Agrippa. It was he before whom with the Sanhedrin Paul was summoned, under Felix, and who ordered an attendant to smite Paul on the mouth. The apostleís prophetic denunciation in reply seems to have been fulfilled when, in the commencement of the siege of Jerusalem, the assassins burned the house of Ananias, and afterwards discovered his place of retreat in an aqueduct, and slew him, Ac 23:1; 24:1.

ANATHEMA

That is, a curse, a ban, signifies properly something set apart, separated, devoted. It is understood principally to denote the absolute, irrevocable, and entire separation of a person from the communion of the faithful, or from the number of the living, or from the privileges of society; or the devoting of any man, animal, city or thing, to be extirpated, destroyed, consumed, and, as it were, annihilated, Le 27:1-34. Thus Jericho, Jos 6:17-21, and Achan were accursed, Jos 7:1-25.

Another kind of anathema, very peculiarly expressed, occurs 1Co 16:22: "If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ let him be Anathema, Maranatha." This last word is made up of two Syriac words, signifying, "The Lord cometh," that is, the Lord will surely come, and will execute this curse, by condemning those who love him not. At the same time, the opposite is also implied, that is, the Lord cometh also to reward those who love him. See EXCOMMUNICATION.

ANATHOTH

One of the cities given to the priests, in Benjamin; identified by Robinson in Anata, some four miles north by east of Jerusalem, Jos 21:18; 1Ch 6:60. It was the birthplace of the prophet Jeremiah, Jer 1:1; 32:7. Itís people, however, rejected his words, and sought his life, Jer 11:21.

ANDREW

One of the twelve apostles, was of Bethsaida, and the brother of Peter, Joh 1:40,44. Being a disciple of John the Baptists, he understood the imitations of his master as to the Lamb of God, and was the first of the apostles to follow him, Joh 1:35-40, and come to the knowledge of the Messiah. Compare Jas 4:8. He was afterwards called as an apostle, on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, Mt 4:18; and thenceforth followed Christ to the end, Mr 13:3 Joh 6:7 12:22. Of his later history nothing is known with certainty. It seems probable, however, that after preaching the gospel in Greece, and perhaps Thrace and Scythia, he suffered crucifixion at Patras in Achaia, on a cross of peculiar form, hence commonly known as "St. Andrewís cross."

ANDRONICUS

A Jewish Christian, and fellow-prisoner of Paul, Ro 16:7.

ANER

1. One of Abrahamís allies in the pursuit of Chedorlaomer and the rescue Lot, Ge 14:13.

2. A Levitical city, in Manasseh, 1Ch 6:70.

ANGEL

The original word, both in Hebrew and Greek, means messenger, and is so translated, Mt 11:10 Lu 7:24. It is often applied to an ordinary messenger, Job 1:14 1Sa 11:3 Lu 9:52; to prophets, Isa 42:19 Hag 1:13; to priests, Ec 5:6 Mal 2:7; and even to inanimate objects, Ps 78:49 104:4 2Co 12:7. Under the general sense of messenger, the term, angel is properly applied also to Christ, as the great Angel or Messenger of the covenant, Mal 3:1, and to the ministers of his gospel, the overseers or angels of the churches, Re 2:1,8,12, etc. In 1Co 11:10, the best interpreters understand by the term "angels" the holy angels, who were present in an especial sense in the Christian assemblies; and from reverence to them it was proper that the women should have power (veils, as a sign of their being in subjection to a higher power) on their heads. See under VEIL.

But generally in the Bible the word is applied to a race of intelligent beings, of a higher order than man, who surround the Deity, and whom he employs as his messengers or agents in administering the affairs of the world, and in promoting the welfare of individuals, as well as of the whole human race,

Mt 1:20 22:30 Ac 7:30. Whether pure spirits, or having spiritual bodies, they have no bodily organization like ours, and are not distinguished in sex, Mt 22:30. They were doubtless created long before our present world was made, Job 38:7.

The Bible represents them as exceedingly numerous, Da 7:10 Mt 26:53 Lu 2:13 Heb 12:22,23; as remarkable for strength, Ps 103:20 2Pe 2:11 Re 5:2 18:21 19:17; and for activity, Jud 13:20 Isa 6:2-6 Da 9:21-23 Mt 13:49 26:53 Ac 27:23 Re 8:13. They appear to be of divers orders, Isa 6:2-6 Eze 10:1 Col 1:16 Re 12:7. Their name indicates their agency in the dispensations of Providence towards man, and the Bible abounds in narratives of events in which they have borne a visible part. Yet in this employment they act as the mere instruments of God, and in fulfilment of his commands, Ps 91:11 103:20 Heb 1:14. We are not therefore to put trust in them, pay them adoration, or pray in their name, Re 19:10 22:8,9. Though Scripture does not warrant us to believe that each individual has his particular guardian angel, it teaches very explicitly that the angels minister to every Christian, Mt 18:10 Lu 16:22 Heb 1:14. They are intensely concerned in the salvation of men, Lu 2:10-12 15:7,10 1Pe 1:12; and will share with saints the blessedness of heaven forever, Heb 12:22.

Those angels "who kept not their first estate," but fell and rebelled against God, are called the angels of Satan or the devil, Mt 25:41 Re 12:9. These are represented as being "cast down to hell, and reserved unto judgment," 2Pe 2:4. See SYNAGOGUE, ARCHANGEL.

ANGEL OF THE LORD

The Angel Jehovah, the usual title of Christ in the Old Testament. Compare Ge 16:7-13; 22:11-18; 31:11-13; 32:24-30; Ex 3:2-6,14; 23:20; Jud 2:1-23; 13:16-22; Ac 7:30-38. Christ thus appears in the Patriarchal, the Mosaic, and the Christian dispensation as the same Jehovah, revealing the Father to men, and carrying forward the same great plan for the redemption of his people, Isa 63:9.

ANGER

A violent emotion of a painful nature, sometimes arising spontaneously upon just occasion, but usually characterized in the Bible as a great sin, Mt 5:22 Eph 4:31 Col 3:8. Even when just, our anger should be mitigated by a due consideration of the circumstances of the offence and the state of mind of the offender; of the folly and ill-results of this passion; of the claims of the gospel, and of our own need of forgiveness from others, but especially from God, Mt 6:15. Anger is in Scripture frequently attributed to God, Mt 7:11 28:20; not that he is liable to those violent emotions which this passion produces, but figuratively speaking, that is, after the manner of men; and because he punishes the wicked with severity of a superior provoked to anger.

ANISE

A well-known plant, resembling dill, caraway, etc., but more fragrant. The seeds are kept by apothecaries. The plant mentioned in Mt 23:23 was no doubt the dill, which grows in Palestine, and was tithed by the Jews.

ANNA

A daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher, early married, but left a widow after seven years, and thenceforth devoted to the service of God. She was constant in attendance at the morning and evening sacrifices at the temple; and there, at the age of eighty- four years, was blessed with a sight of the infant Savior, and inspired to announce the coming of the promised Messiah to many who longed to see him, Lu 2:36-38.

ANNAS

A high priest of the Jews, Lu 3:2; Joh 18:13,24; Ac 4:6. He is mentioned in Luke as being high priest along with Caiaphas, his son in-law. He was first appointed to that office by Cyrenius, or Quirinus, proconsul of Syria, about A. D. 7 or 8, but was afterwards deprived of it. After various changes, the office was given to Joseph, also called Caiaphas, the son-in-law of Annas, about A. D. 25, who continued in office until A. D. 35 or 36. In the passages of the New Testament above cited, therefore, it is apparent that Caiaphas was the only actual and proper high priest; but Annas being his father-in-law, and having been formerly himself high priest, and being also perhaps his substitute, had great influence and authority, and could with propriety be still termed high priest along with Caiaphas. It was before him that Christ was first taken on the night of his seizure. He also assisted in presiding over the Sanhedrin which sat in judgment upon Peter and John, Ac 4:6.

ANOINTING

Was a custom in general use among the Hebrews and other oriental nations, and its omission was one sign of mourning, Isa 61:3. They anointed the hair, head, and beard, Ps 104:15 133:2. At their feasts and rejoicings they anointed the whole body; but sometimes only the head or feet, Ps 23:5 Mt 6:17 Joh 12:3. It was a customary mark of respect to guests, Lu 7:38,46. The use of oil upon the skin was thought to be conducive to health. Anointing was then used, and is still, medicinally, Mr 6:13 Jas 5:14; but the miraculous cures thus wrought by the apostles furnish no warrant for the ceremony just before death called "extreme unction." The anointing of dead bodies was also practiced, to preserve them from corruption, Mr 14:8 16:1 Lu 23:56. They anointed kings and high priests at their inauguration, Ex 29:7,29 Le 4:3 Jud 9:8 1Sa 9:16 1Ki 19:15,15, as also the sacred vessels of the tabernacle and temple, Ex 30:26. This anointing of sacred persons and objects signified their being set apart and consecrated to the service of God; and the costly and fragrant mixture appointed for this purpose was forbidden for all others, Ex 30:23-33 Eze 23:41.

The custom of anointing with oil or perfume was also common among the Greeks and Romans; especially the anointing of guests at feasts and other entertainments.

ANSWER

Besides the common use of this word in the sense of to reply, it is very often used in the bible, following the Hebrew and Greek idioms, in the sense of to speak; meaning simply that one begins or resumes his discourse, Zec 3:4; 6:4; Mt 11:25; 12:38; Lu 7:40. It also means, to sing in choruses or responses, 1Sa 18:7; and to give account of oneís self in judgment, Ge 30:33; Job 9:3.

ANT

A small insect, famous for its industry and economy, for its social habits and skill in building. Some species build habitations truly immense compared with themselves, and able to contain a dozen men. Their roofs are impervious to rain, and they contain numerous stories, galleries, etc., the result of skilful and incessant labor. Ants lavish the utmost care and pains upon their young, both in the egg and the chrysalis state. The termites or white ants are large and very destructive. Most varieties of ants are known to choose animal or saccharine food; and no species has yet been found laying up stores of grain for winter use, for while the frost continues they all lie torpid. The language of Solomon, Pr 6:6, commends them for toiling as soon and as long as the season permits and rewards their labor, and bids us make the same diligent use of life and opportunities, Pr 30:24,25. The inferior animals are in many respects wiser than sinful man, Job 12:7,8.

ANTELOPE

See under ROE.

ANTICHRIST

Strictly means one opposed to Christ. In this sense, John says were already in his time many antichrists, many having the spirit of an antichrist; unbelievers, heretics, and persecutors, 1Jo 2:18 4:3. They were characterized by the denial of the Father and the Son, and of Christís coming in the flesh, 1Jo 2:22 4:3. But the apostles and early Christians seem to have looked forward to some one great antichrist, who should precede the second coming of our Lord, and whom Paul calls "the man of sin, the son of perdition," 2Th 2:3. To this passage John alludes, 1Jo 2:18. Able interpreters agree that antichrist denotes an organized body of men, perpetuated from age to age, opposed to Christ, and which he will destroy, Re 11:1-19 13:1-18 17:1-18.

ANTIOCH

The name of two cities mentioned in the New Testament. The first was situated on the river Orontes, twenty miles from its mouth, and was the metropolis of all Syria. It was founded by Seleucus Nicator, and called by him after the name of his father Antiochus. This city is celebrated by Cicero, as being opulent and abounding in men of taste and letters. It was at one time a place of great wealth and refinement, and ranked as the third city in the Roman Empire. Its situation, amid innumerable groves and small streams, midway between Alexandria and Constantinople, rendered it a place of great beauty and salubrity, as well as commercial importance. It was also a place of great resort for the Jews, and afterwards for Christians, to all of whom invitations and encouragements were held by Seleucus Nicator. The distinctive name of "Christians" was here first applied to the followers of Jesus, Ac 11:19,26 13:1 Ga 2:11. Antioch was highly favored by Vespasian and Titus, and became celebrated for luxury and vice. Few cities have suffered greater disasters. Many times it has been nearly ruined by earthquakes, one of which, in 1822, destroyed one-fourth of its population, then about twenty thousand. It is now called Antakia.

The other city, also found by Seleucus Nicator, was called Antioch of Pisidia, because it was attached to that province, although situated in Phrygia, Ac 13:14 14:19,21 2Ti 3:11.

ANTIPAS

1. See HEROD ANTIPAS

2. A faithful martyr, in Pergamos, Re 2:13.

ANTIPATRIS

The name of a city of Palestine, situated seven or eight miles from the coast, in a fertile and well watered plain between Caesarea and Jerusalem, on the site of the former city Caphar-Saba. It was founded by Herod the Great, and called Antipatris, in honor of his father Antipater. This place was visited by Paul, Ac 23:31. An Arab village, called Kefr Saba, now occupies its site.

ANTONIA

A square fortress on the east side of Jerusalem, north of the temple area, with which it had a covered communication. There was a tower at each corner, and it was isolated by high walls and trenches. It was rebuilt by Herod the Great, and named after Mark Antony. Josephus often speaks of it. It was "the castle" from which soldiers came down to rescue Paul from the Jews in the temple; and from its stairs he addressed the multitude, Ac 21:31-40.

APE

An animal rudely resembling the human race. The tribe may be familiarly distinguished as monkeys, apes, and baboons. Solomon imported them from Ophir, 1Ki 10:22 2Ch 9:21. They were at one time worshipped in Egypt; and still are adored in some parts of India, where one traveller describes a magnificent temple dedicated to the monkey. There may be an allusion to large apes or baboons, literally "hairy ones," in Le 17:7 Isa 13:21 34:13.

APHARASACHITES

Ezr 4:9; 5:6; named among the heathen subjects of the king of Assyria, transplanted into Samaria. The Apharsites, also named in Ezr 4:9, are regarded by Luther as Persians.

APHEK

strength

1. A city in Lebanon, assigned to the tribe of Asher, Jos 13:4; 19:30; but not subdued, Jud 1:31. Its site may be still found in Mount Lebanon, called Aphka.

2.A city of the tribe of Issachar, in the valley of Jezreel, noted in the wars with Philistines, 1Sa 4:1; 29:1.

3.A city five miles east of the sea of Galilee, the walls of which fell upon twenty-seven thousand Syrians under Benhadad, after his defeat by the Israelites, 1Ki 20:26-34.

APOCALYPSE

Signifies revelation, but is particularly referred to the revelations which John had in the isle of Patmos, whither he was banished by Domitian. Hence it is another name for the book of Revelation. This book belongs, in its character, to the prophetical writings, and stands in intimate relation with the prophecies of the Old Testament, and more especially with the writings of the later prophets, as Ezekiel, Zechariah, and particularly Daniel, inasmuch as it is almost entirely symbolical. This circumstance has surrounded the interpretation of this book with difficulties, which no interpreter has yet been able fully to overcome. As to the author, the weight of testimony throughout all the history of the church is in favor of John, the beloved apostle. As to the time of its composition, most commentators suppose it to have been written after the destruction of Jerusalem, about A. D. 96; while others assign it an earlier date.

It is an expanded illustration of the first great promise, "The seed of the woman shall bruise the head of the serpent." Its figures and symbols are august and impressive. It is full of prophetic grandeur, and awful in its hieroglyphics and mystic symbols: seven seals opened, seven trumpets sounded, seven vials poured out; mighty antagonists and hostile powers, full of malignity against Christianity, and for a season oppressing it, but at length defeated and annihilated; the darkened heaven, tempestuous sea, and convulsed earth fighting against them, while the issue of the long combat is the universal reign of peace and truth and righteousness-the whole scene being relieved at intervals by a choral burst of praise to God the Creator, and Christ the Redeemer and Governor. Thus its general scope is intelligible to all readers, or it could not yield either hope or comfort. It is also full of Christ. It exhibits his glory as Redeemer and Governor, and describes that deep and universal homage and praise which the "Lamb that was slain" is forever receiving before the throne. Either Christ is God, or the saints and angels are guilty of idolatry.

"To explain this book perfectly," says Bishop Newton, "is not the work of one man, or of one age; probably it never will be clearly understood till it is all fulfilled."

APOCRYPHA

Signifies properly hidden, concealed; and as applied to books, it means those which assume a claim to a sacred character, but are really uninspired, and have not been publicly admitted into the canon. These are of two classes: namely,

1. Those which were in existence in the time of Christ, but were not admitted by the Jews into the canon of the Old Testament, because they had no Hebrew original and were regarded as not divinely inspired. The most important of these are collected in the Apocrypha often bound up with the English Bible; but in the Septuagint and Vulgate they stand as canonical.

These apocryphal writings are ten in number: namely, Baruch, Ecclesiasticus, Wisdom of Solomon, Tobit, Judith, two books of the Maccabees, Song of the Three Children, Susannah, and Bell and the Dragon. Their style proves that they were a part of the Jewish- Greek literature of Alexandria, within three hundred years before Christ; and as the Septuagint Greek version of the Hebrew Bible came from the same quarter, it was often accompanied by these uninspired Greek writings, and they thus gained a general circulation. Josephus and Philo, of the first century, exclude them from the canon. The Talmud contains no trace of them; and from the various lists of the Old Testament Scriptures in the early centuries, it is clear that then as now they formed no part of the Hebrew canon. None of them are quoted or endorsed by Christ or the apostles; they were not acknowledged by the Christian fathers; and their own contents condemn them, abounding with errors and absurdities. Some of them, however, are of value for the historical information they furnish, for their moral and prudential maxims, and for the illustrations they afford of ancient life.

2. Those which were written after the time of Christ, but were not admitted by the churches into the canon of the New Testament, as not being divinely inspired. These are mostly of a legendary character. They have all been collected by Fabricius in his Codex Apoc. New Testament.

APOLLONIA

A city of Macedonia, situated between Amphipolis and Thessalonica, about a dayís journey on foot from the former place, Ac 17:1.

APOLLOS

A Jew of Alexandria, a learned and eloquent man, who through the Scriptures and the ministry of John the Baptist became a Christian. He visited Ephesus about A. D. 54, and publicly proclaimed his faith in Christ; whereupon he was further instructed in gospel truth. Passing thence into Achia, he preached with great power and success, especially among the Jews, Ac 19:1 1Co 3:6. His character was not unlike that of Paul; they were equally grieved at the dissension of the Corinthians, and at those personal partialities which led many away from Christ, 1Co 3:4-22 16:12; and they cooperated to the end in serving him, Tit 3:13. Jerome is of opinion that Apollos afterwards returned to Corinth from Crete.

APOLLYON

See ABADDON, or Apollyon.

APOSTLE

A messenger or envoy. The term is applied to Jesus Christ, who was Godís envoy to save the world, Heb 3:1; though, more commonly, the title is given to persons who were envoys commissioned by the Savior himself.

The apostles of Jesus Christ were his chief disciples, whom he invested with authority, filled with his Spirit, entrusted particularly with his doctrines and services, and chose to raise the edifice of his church. They were twelve in number, answering to the twelve tribes. Mt 19:28, and were plain, unlearned men, chosen from the common people. After their calling and charge, Mt 10:5-42, they attended their divine Master, witnessing his works, imbibing his spirit, and gradually learning the facts and doctrines of the gospel. After his resurrection, he sent them into all the world, commissioned to preach, to baptize, to work miracles, etc. See Joh 15:27 1Co 9:1 15:8 2Co 12:12 1Th 2:13. The names of the twelve are, Simon Peter; Andrew, his brother; James, the son of Zebedee, called also "the greater;" John, his brother; Philip; Bartholomew; Thomas; Matthew, or Levi; Simon the Canaanite; Lebbeus, surnamed Thaddeus, also called Judas or Jude; James, "the less," the son of Alphaeus; and Judas Iscariot, Mt 10:2-4 Mr 3:16 Lu 6:14. The last betrayed his Master, and then hanged himself, and Matthias was chosen in his place, Ac 1:15-26. In the Acts of the Apostles are recorded the self-sacrificing toils and sufferings of these Christlike men, who did that which was "right in the sight of God" from love to their Lord; and gave themselves wholly to their work, with a zeal, love, and faith Christ delighted to honor-teaching us that apostolic graces alone can secure apostolic successes.

APPHIA

Phm 1:2, supposed by some to have been the wife of Philemon.

APPLE-TREES

Mentioned in So 2:3 8:5 Joe 1:12. Many suppose the citron- tree to be here meant. The rich color, fragrant odor and handsome appearance of this tree, both in flower and in fruit, agree well with the above passages. Thoughts of wise men, well expressed, are like "apples of gold in pictures of silver," That is, like ripe and golden fruit in finely wrought silver baskets, Pr 25:11.

APPII-FORUM

Market place of Appius, a village or market town, founded by Appius Claudius on the great road (via Appia) which he constructed from Rome to Capua. It is most probably to be found in the present Casarillo di Santa Maria, situated forty miles from Rome, in the borders of the Pontine marshes, where are the remains of an ancient town. Three Taverns was a village about ten miles nearer Rome, Ac 28:15.

AQUILA

A Jew born in Pontus, a tent-maker by occupation, who with his wife Priscilla joined the Christian church at Rome. When the Jews were banished from that city by the emperor Claudius, Aquilla and his wife retired to Corinth. They afterwards became the companions of Paul in his labors, and are mentioned by him with much commendation, Ac 18:2,3,24-26 Ro 16:3,4 1Co 16:19 2Ti 4:19.

AR

Called also Rabbah and Rabbath-Moab, Nu 21:28 De 2:1-37 Isa 15:1. Its site, still called Rabbah, is found upon a hill some fifteen miles east of the Dead Sea, and south of the Arnon, midway between it and Kir Moab.

ARABIA

Is a country of Western Asia, lying south and east of Judea. It extends 1,500 miles from north to south, and 1,200 from east to west. On the north it is bounded by part of Syria, on the east by the Persian Gulf and the Euphrates, on the south by the Arabian Sea and the straits of Babelmandel, and on the west by the Red sea, Egypt, and Palestine. Arabia is distinguished by geographers into three parts-Deserta, Petraea, and Felix.

ARABIA DESERTA

The desert, a vast steppe, or elevated expanse of sand, with occasional hills and a sparse vegetation. It has the mountains of Gilead on the west, and the river Euphrates on the east, and extends far to the south. It comprehends the country of the Itureans, the Ishmaelites, the people of Kedar, and others, who led a wandering life, having no cities, houses, or fixed habitations, but wholly dwelling in tents; in modern Arabic, such are called Bedawin. When Paul says he "went into Arabia and returned again to Damascus," he meant doubtless the northern part of Arabia Deserta, which lay adjacent to the territories of Damascus, Ga 1:17.

ARABIA PETRAEA

Lies south of the Holy Land, and had Petra for its capital. See SELA. This region contained the southern Edomites, the Amalekites, the Hivites, etc., people at present known under the general name of Arabs. In this country was Kadesh-barnea, Gerar, Beersheba, Paran, Arad, Hasmona, Oboth, Dedan, etc., also the peninsula of Mount Sinai and the land of Midian. This portion of Arabia, though smaller than the others, is rich in historical associations. The patriarch Job was familiar with its scenery. At Horeb, Moses saw the burning bush, and Elijah heard the "still small voice." In this "great and terrible wilderness," from Mount Sinai to the promised land, the Hebrews spent their forty years of wanderings.

ARABIA FELIX

The happy, lies still farther south and east, being bounded east by the Persian Gulf, south by the ocean between Africa and India, and west by the Red Sea. As this region did not immediately adjoin the Holy Land, it is not so frequently mentioned as the former ones. The queen of Sheba, who visited Solomon, 1Ki 10:1, was probably queen of part of Arabia Felix. This country abounded with riches, and particularly with spices, and is now called Hedjaz, Yemen, etc. It is much celebrated in modern times by reason of the cities of Mecca and Medina being situated in it.

There are, according to native historians, two races of Arabs: those who derive their descent from the primitive inhabitants of the land, Joktan, etc., and those who claim Ishmael as their ancestor. Southern Arabia was settled in part by Cush and his sons, descendants of Ham, who also peopled the adjoining coast of Africa, and in part by descendants of Shem, particularly Joktan, Ge 10:25,26. Ishmael, Ge 25:13-15, and the six sons of Abraham by Keturah, Ge 25:2, together with the seed of Esau and of Lot, occupied the parts of Arabia nearer Judea. The changes of forty centuries render it impossible to distinguish either of these parent sources in the numerous Arab tribes descended from them. These tribes have traditions and peculiarities of their own, and incessant feuds; yet as a whole they are but one people, distinct from all others. The only general division is into those who dwell in cities, as in Southern Arabia, and those who live in the fields and deserts. The latter are migratory, dwelling in tents and removing according to the convenience of water and pasturage, and are often robbers. Each tribe is divided up into little communities, of which a sheik or patriarch is the head. Such are the Bedaween.

In ancient times the Arabs were idolaters and star-worshippers. They are now nominally Mohammedans, but then religion sits but lightly on them. Isolated from other nations, and with slight exceptions free from all foreign control the preserve their ancient manners with singular fidelity, and the study of these throws much light upon Bible narratives. Their language also is still spoken with great purity; and as it is near akin to the Hebrew, it furnishes invaluable aid in the study of the Old Testament.

ARAD

A Canaanitish city on the extreme south of Judea, the inhabitants of which drove back the Hebrews as they attempted to enter the promised land from Kadesh, Nu 21:1; it was afterwards subdued, Jos 10:41; 12:14; Jud 1:16. Robinson found its site on a hill about fifteen miles south of Hebron.

ARAM

1. The name of three men in the Bible: a son of Shem, Ge 10:22, a grandson of Nahor, Ge 22:21, and an ancestor of our Lord, Ru 4:19 1Ch 2:10 Mt 1:3 Lu 3:33 2. Nearly synonymous with Syria; the Hebrew name of the whole region northeast of Palestine, extending from the Tigris on the east nearly to the Mediterranean on the west, and to the Taurus range on the north. It was named after Aram the son of Shem. Thus defined, it includes also Mesopotamia, which the Hebrews named Aram-naharaim, Aram of the two rivers, Ge 25:20 48:7. Various cities in the western part of Aram gave their own names to the regions around them: as Damascus, (Aram-Dammesek,) 2Sa 8:6; Maachah, near Bashan, 1Ch 19:6; Geshur, Jos 12:5 2Sa 15:8; Zobah, and Beth-rehob, 2Sa 10:6,8. Several of these were powerful states, and often waged war against Israel. David subdued them and made them tributaries, and Solomon preserved this supremacy. After him it was lost, except perhaps under Jeroboam II. See SYRIA, PADAN-ARAM. The Aramaean language, nearly resembling the Hebrew, gradually supplanted the latter as a spoken language, and was in use in Judea at the time of Christ. It is still used by Syrian Christians around Mosul.

ARARAT

The name of a province in the center of Armenia, between the river Araxes and the lakes Van and Ooroomiah. 2Ki 19:37; Isa 37:38, and sometimes used to denote the whole country, Jer 51:27. On the mountains of Ararat the ark rested, Ge 8:4. In 1831, Messrs. Smith and Dwight, American missionaries, visited Armenia, and traversed the province of Ararat. Mr. Smith describes the mountains as follows:

"We passed very near the base of that noble mountain, which is called by the Armenians Masis, and by Europeans generally Ararat; and for more than twenty days had it constantly in sight, except when obscured by clouds. It consists of two peaks, one considerably higher than the other, and is connected with a chain of mountains running off to the north-west and west, which, though high, are not of sufficient elevation to detract at all from the lonely dignity of this stupendous mass. From Nakchewan, at the distance of at least 100 miles to the southeast, it appeared like an immense isolated cone, of extreme regularity, rising out of the valley of the Araxes. Its height is said to be 16,000 feet. The eternal snows upon its summit occasionally from vast avalanches, which precipitate themselves down its sides with a sound not unlike that of an earthquake. When we saw it, it was white to its very base with snow. And certainly not among the mountains of Ararat or of Armenia generally, nor those of any part of the world where I have been, have I ever seen one whose majesty could plead half so powerfully its claims to the honor of having once been the stepping-stone between the old world and the new. I gave myself up to the feeling, that on its summit were once congregated all the inhabitants of the earth, and that, while in the valley of the Araxes, I was paying a visit to the second cradle of the human race."

Mount Ararat was visited in 1829 by Prof. Parrot, who after several attempts reached the summit, more than 17,200 feet above the level of the sea. It bears traces of volcanic action, and in 1840 was shaken by a disastrous earthquake.

ARAUNAH

A Jebusite, residing on Mount Moriah after the Jebusites were dispossessed by David, 2Sa 5:6 24:18. In 1Co 16:24, he is called ORNAN. The divine choice of his land for the temple site, 2Ch 3:1, and his readiness to give it freely for this purpose, suggest the probability that he was a convert to the true religion.

ARBA

An ancestor of the Anakim, and founder of Hebron, to which he gave its ancient name, Jos 15:13.

ARCHANGEL

This world is only twice used in the Bible, 1Th 4:16 Jude 1:9. In this last passage it is applied to Michael, who, in Da 10:13,21 12:1, is described as having a special charge of the Jewish nation, and in Re 12:7-9 as the leader of an angelic army. So exalted are the position and offices ascribed to Michael, that many think the Messiah is meant.

ARCHELATUS

A son of Herod the Great, by his Samaritan wife Malthace. He was educated with his brother Antipas at Rome, and after his fatherís death was placed over Judea, Idumea, and Samaria, (the cities Gaza, and Hippo excepted,) with the title of ethnarch or tetrarch; whence he is said to reign, Mt 2:22. This passage implies that he inherited the tyrannical and cruel disposition of his father; and history informs us that after enjoying his power for ten years, he was accused before the emperor on account of his cruelties, and banished to Vienne on the Rhone, in Gaul, where he died.

ARCHIPPUS

Saluted by Paul, the Bearís Tail, and denotes a star in the tail of the Great Bear, or constellation Ursa Major. The "sons" of Arcturus are probably the smaller stars adjacent, Job 9:9; 38:32.

AREOPAGUS

The hill of Mars, the seat of the ancient and venerable supreme court of Athens, called the Areopagites, Ac 17:19-34. It was composed entirely of ex-archons, of grave and blameless character, and their wise and just decisions made it famous far beyond the bounds of Greece. Their numbers and authority varied greatly from age to age. They held their sessions by night. They took cognizance of murders, impieties, and immoralities; punished vices of all kinds, idleness included; rewarded or assisted the virtuous; and were peculiarly attentive to blasphemies against the gods, and to the performance of the sacred mysteries. The case of Paul, therefore, would naturally come before them, for he sought to subvert their whole system of idolatry, and establish Christianity in its place. The Bible narrative, however, rather describes an informal popular movement. Having heard Paul discoursing from day to day in the market place, the philosophic and inquisitive Athenians took him one day up into the adjacent hill, for a more full and quiet exposition of his doctrine. The stone seats of the Areopagus lay open to the sky; in the court stood Epicureans, Stoics, etc.; around them spread the city, full of idolaters and their temples; and little south-east rose the steep height of the Acropolis, on whose level summit were crowded more and richer idolatrous structures than on any other equal space in the world. Amid this scene, Paul exhibited the sin and folly of idol-worship with such boldness and power, that none could refute him, and some were converted.

ARETAS

The name of several kings of northwestern Arabia. The only one mentioned in Scripture gave his daughter in marriage to Herod Antipas; but she being repudiated by Herod, Aretas made war upon him and destroyed his army. In consequence of this, the emperor Tiberius directed Vitellius, then proconsul of Syria, to make war upon or dead to Rome. But while Vitellius was in the midst of preparation for the war, he received intelligence of the death of Tiberius, A. D. 37; on which he immediately recalled his troops, dismissed them into winter quarters, and then left the province. Aretas, taking advantage of this supineness, seems to have made an incursion and got possession of Damascus, over which he appointed a governor or ethnarch, who, A. D. 39, at the instigation of the Jews, attempted to put Paul in prison, 2Co 11:32. Compare Ac 9:24,25.

ARGOB

A city in Bashan and Manasseh east of the Jordan; also the region around it. This was very fertile, and contained at one time sixty walled towns, which were taken by Jair the son of Manasseh, and called after him, De 1:4,13,14 1Ki 4:13.

ARIEL

The lion of God, one of Ezraís chief men, Ezr 8:16. This word is used, in 2Sa 24:25; 1Ch 11:22, as a descriptive or perhaps a family name of two lion-like men of Moab. In another sense, Ezekiel applies it to the altar of God, Eze 43:15, and Isaiah to Jerusalem, as the hearth on which both the burnt offerings and the enemies of God should be consumed, Isa 29:1,2,7. See also Ge 49:9.

ARIMATHEA, or Ramah

(Dual, Ramathaim,) A city whence came Joseph the counselor, in whose new tomb the body of Jesus laid, Mt 27:57 Joh 19:38. We learn from Eusebius and Jerome that this city was near Lydia, a town twenty-four miles northwest of Jerusalem. It has generally been located at the modern Ramleh, a town near Lydda, of 3,000 inhabitants, in which the route from Egypt to Syria crosses that from Egypt to Syria crosses that from Jerusalem to Joppa. But its site is rather to be sought a few miles east of Lydda, from Samaria to Judea, which may account for Lukeís calling it "a city of the Jews," Lu 23:51. It has been supposed to be the same place as the Ramah of Mount Ephraim, the birthplace and residence of Samuel. This was called also Ramathaim-Zophim, 1Sa 1:1,19, from which name the from Arimathea is readily derived. See RAMAH.

ARIOCH

1. King of Ellasar, and ally of Chedorlaomer, Ge 14:1.

2. A captain of Nebuchadnezzarís guard, Da 2:14.

ARISTARCHUS

A native of Thessalonica, a faithful fellow-laborer with Paul, Ac 20:4 27:2 Phm 1:24. His life was endangered in the riot at Ephesus, excited by the silversmiths, Ac 19:29; but having escaped, he continued with Paul, and was a prisoner with him at Rome, Col 4:10.

ARK OF NOAH

The vessel in which the family of Noah was preserved during the deluge, when all the rest of our race perished for their sins. The ark is called in Hebrew, in the Septuagint, and by Josephus, a chest; and the same word is used in the history of the infant Moses, Ex 2:3. So far as this name affords any evidence, it goes to show that the ark of Noah was not a regular sailing-vessel, but merely intended to float at large guard it as a large, oblong, floating house, with a roof either flat or only slightly inclined. It was constructed with three stories, and had a door in the side. There is no mention of windows in the side, but "above," probably in the roof, where Noah was commanded to make them of a cubit in height, Ge 5:16 8:13.

The dimensions of the ark, taking the cubit as eighteen inches, were 450 feet in length, 75 in breadth and 45 in height. It was built of gopher-wood, and made water-proof with bitumen, and was no doubt large enough to accommodate the eight persons of Noahís family and the animals to be saved in it-namely, of all birds and clean beasts seven each, and of unclean beasts two each, male and female. Many questions have been raised, and discussed at great length by skeptics and others, respecting the form and dimensions of the ark; the number of animals saved in it-whether including all species then existing in the world, except such as live in water or lie dormant, or only the species living in the parts of world then peopled by man; and as to the possibility of their being all lodged in the ark, and their food during the year, etc. Some of these questions the Bible clearly settles. Others it is vain to discuss, since we have no means of deciding them. Certain it is, that while the Bible eulogizes the faith and obedience of Noah, it shows that his salvation was a miracle of Providence. It was by miracle that he was forewarned, and directed to prepare for the flood; and the same miraculous power accomplished all that Noah was unable to so in designing, building, and filling the ark, and preserving and guiding it through the deluge. It has been commonly supposed that the warning came to Noah 120 years before the flood. Compare Ge 5:32 with Ge 7:6, and Ge 6:3 with 1Pe 3:20. Traditions of the ark are found in most nations all over the globe. See DELUGE.

ARK OF THE COVENANT

The sacred chest or coffer in which the tables of the law were deposited, written by the finger of God, and witnessing to his covenant with his people, Ex 25:22 34:29. It was of shittim-wood, covered within and without with plates of gold, nearly four feet in length, and two feet three inches in width and height. On the top of it, all around, ran a kind of gold crown. It had four rings of gold, two on each side, through which staves were put, by which it was carried. These also were overlaid with the finest gold, and were not to be removed from the rings, Ex 25:10-22. The lid of the ark, all of gold, was called the mercy-seat; and upon its opposite ends were two golden cherubim, fronting each other and the mercy-seat, which they covered with their outspread wings, Ex 37:1-9. Here God especially dwelt, 2Ki 19:15 1Ch 13:6, and shone forth, perhaps by some sensible manifestations, Le 16:2 Ps 80:1. Here he received the homage of his people, and dispensed his living oracles, Nu 7:89. The great yearly sacrifice of expiation was here offered by the high priest, Heb 9:7, in the Holy of Holies. Hence there was no object held more sacred by the Jews than "the ark of God." During their journeys in the wilderness, it was borne by the priests under a purple canopy and with great reverence before the host of Israel, Nu 4:5,6. Before it the Jordan was divided, and behind it the waters flowed on again, Jos 3:1-4:24. The walls of Jericho fell down before it, Jos 6:4-12.

After this, the ark continued some time at Gilgal, whence it was removed to Shiloh, Jos 4:19 10:43 18:1. Hence the Israelites took it to their camp; but when they gave battle to the Philistines, it was taken by the enemy, 1Sa 4:1-22. Th Philistines, oppressed by the hand of God, returned the ark, and it was lodged at Kirjath-jearim, 1Sa 7:1. It was afterwards, in the reign of Saul, at Nob. David conveyed it from Kirjath-jearim to the house of Obed-Edom, and from thence to his palace on Zion, 2Sa 6:1-23; and lastly, Solomon brought it into the temple at Jerusalem,

2Ch 5:2. It remained in the temple, with all suitable respect, till the times of the later idolatrous kings of Judah, who profaned the Most Holy place by their idols, when the priests appear to have removed the ark from the temple. At least, Josiah commanded them to bring it back to the sanctuary, and forbade them to carry it about, as they had hitherto done, 2Ch 35:3. The ark appears to have been destroyed at the captivity, or perhaps concealed by pious Jews in some hiding-place afterwards undiscoverable, as we hear nothing more of it; and the want of it made the second temple less glorious than the first.

Besides the tables of the covenant, placed by Moses in this sacred coffer, God appointed the blossoming rod of Aaron to be lodged there, Nu 17:10 Heb 9:4; a golden vase of manna gathered in the wilderness, Ex 16:33,34, and a copy of the book of the law, De 31:26.

ARKITES

Descendants of Canaan, of the Zidonian branch, who settled a town, called Arka, at the northwest foot of Mount Lebanon, Ge 10:17; 1Ch 1:15. The ruins of Arka have been found by Burckhardt and others about fourteen miles northeast of Tripolis.

ARMAGEDDON

Mountain of Megiddo,

A place mentioned, Re 16:16. Megiddo is a city in the great plain at the foot of Mount Carmel, which had been the scene of much slaughter. Under this character it is referred to in the above text as the place in which God will collect together his enemies for destruction.

ARMENIA

A large country of Asia, having Media on the east, Cappadocia on the west, Colchis and Iberia on the north, Mesopotamia on the south, and the Euphrates and Syria on the southwest. It is an elevated tableland, with a cool and salubrious climate. Lying between the Caucasus and the Taurus range, with Mount Ararat towering in its central province, it gives rise to three notable rivers, the Euphrates, Tigris, and Araxes. It is only named in Scripture as the place of refuge of two Assyrian parricides, 2Ki 19:37. The modern Armenian Church resembles strongly the Greek Church, and is sadly debased and corrupt. See ARARAT, MINNI, and TOGARMAH.

ARMS and ARMOR

The Hebrews used in war offensive arms of the same kinds as were employed by other people of their time and of the East-swords, lances, spears, darts, javelins, bows, arrows, and slings. For defense armor, they used helmets, cuirasses, bucklers, armor for the thighs, etc. See WAR.

In the accompanying engravings are represented specimens of the various weapons anciently used; also of the several parts of the armor for defense, and the manner in which they were worn:

1. The cuirass, or defense of the body-this is called in Scripture the coat of mail, habergeon, and breastplate; it appears to have been made of leather or some pliant material, sometimes covered with metallic scales, and capable of taking the form of the parts of the body it protected;

2. The helmet, usually of metal, with its flowing crest;

3. The shield, target, or buckler, either of wood covered with tough hides, or of metal;

4. The leg-pieces, or greaves, of thick leather or brass: also the bow and arrow; the battleaxe; the spear, dart, and javelin or short spear; and the sword with its sheath, the ancient sword being short, straight, and two-edged.

Each Jewish tribe had its own banner. Under Abomination is a cut representing the ensigns of the Roman legions, which the Jews regarded as idolatrous, not only because they had been consecrated to idols, and by heathen priests, but as they had images on them, and were objects of adoration. Ex 20:4.

ARNON

A river rising in the mountains east of the Dead Sea, into which it flows. It is now called Wady Modjeb, and anciently divided the territories of the Moabites in turn from those of the Ammonites, Amorites, and Reubenites, Nu 21:13; Jos 13:16. It flows in a deep and wild ravine of the same name. Burckhardt, after reaching the ruins of Aroer, which stand on the edge of the precipice at the foot of which the Arnon flows, says, "From hence a footpath leads down to the river. The view which the Modjeb presents is very striking. From the bottom, where the river runs through a narrow stripe of verdant level about forty yards across, the steep and barren banks arise to a great height, covered with immense blocks of stone which have rolled down from the upper strata; so that, when viewed from above, the valley looks like a deep chasm, formed by some tremendous convulsion of the earth, into which there seems to be no possibility of descending to the bottom. The distance from the edge of one precipice to that of the opposite one, is about two miles in a straight line."

He was thirty-five minutes in descending to the riverbed. Here the heat of midsummer is extreme, and the river becomes almost dried up; but in the rainy season there is an impetuous torrent.

AROER

1. An ancient city on the north side of the Arnon, in the southern border of the tribe of Reuben, De 2:36 4:48 Jos 13:9. It was in the territory of the Amorites, Jos 12:2, but seems to have fallen at a later day into the hands of Moab, Jer 48:19. See ARNON.

2. A town in the tribe of God, probably east of Rabbath-Ammon, Jos 13:25, and perhaps on the Jabbok, 2Sa 24:5. It is mentioned in Jud 11:33

3. A town of Judah, to which David sent presents, 1Sa 30:28 1Ch 11:44. Robinson found traces of it about sixteen miles south by west from Hebron.

ARPAD

A Syrian city, associated with Hamath, 2Ki 18:34; 19:1-37; Isa 10:9; 36:19 and with Damascus, Jer 49:23. Its site is unknown.

ARPHAXAD

A son of Shem, two years after the flood, Ge 10:22; 11:10. Seven generations followed him before Abraham, while he lived till after the settlement of Abraham in the land of promise and the rescue of Lot from the four kings. He died A. M. 2096, aged four hundred and thirty-eight.

ARROW

Used by the Jews both in hunting and in war; sometimes merely a sharpened reed, sometimes feathered, barbed, and even poisoned, Job 6:4. The bow was of various forms and materials, and many could be used only by the strongest men, Ps 18:34. Arrows were used to convey fire to an enemyís house, and for divination, Eze 21:21. The word is applied symbolically to children, Ps 127:4,5; to the lightning, Ps 18:14 Hab 3:11; to sudden calamities, Job 6:4 Ps 38:2 91:5 Eze 5:15; and to the deceitful and bitter words of an evil tongue, Ps 64:3 120:4.

ARTAXERXES

Great king, the name or title of several kings of Persia.

1. It is given in Ezr 4:7-24, to Smerdis the Magian, who usurped the throne after the death of Cambyses, B. C. 522, pretending to be Smerdis, the son of Cyrus, whom Cambyses had put to death. His usurped power was used, at the rebuilding of the temple. He was murdered, after a reign of eight months, and was succeeded by Darius son of Hystaspes.

2. The king of this name mentioned in Ezr 7:1-28, is most probably Artaxerxes Longimanus, the son and successor of Xerxes, who ascended the throne B. C. 425, after a mild reign of thirty-nine years. In the seventh year of his reign, Ezra led a second company of the Jewish exiles back to Jerusalem. In the twentieth year of Artaxerxes Longimanus, Nehemiah was sent to Jerusalem as governor, Ne 2:1; 5:14.

ARTEMAS

Apparently a faithful minister, cooperating with Paul, Ti 3:12, who thought him worthy to take the place of Titus at Crete, while the latter spent the winter with the apostle at Nicopolis.

ARVAD

A Phoenician city, on a small rocky island at the mouth of the river Eleutherus, twenty-two miles north of Tripolis. It is now called Ruad, and is but a ruin. The Arvadites also occupied the adjacent coast. They were descendants of Canaan, Ge 10:18; 1Ch 1:16; and were noted mariners, Eze 27:8,11.

ASA

The third king of Judah after Solomon, son and successor of Abijam, 1Ki 15:8. He began to reign B. C. 951, and reigned forty-one years at Jerusalem. The first part of his reign was comparatively peaceful and prosperous. He restored the pure worship of God; expelled those who, from sacrilegious superstition, prostituted themselves in honor of their false gods; purified Jerusalem from the infamous practices attending the worship of idols; and deprived his mother of her office and dignity of queen, because she erected an idol to Astarte. In the eleventh year of his reign, God gave him the victory over the vast army of the Cushite king Zerah; and the prophet Azariah encouraged him to go on in his work of reform. And yet, when Baasha king of Israel opposed this very work, he sought aid not from God, but from heathen Syria. In the latter part of his life, he became diseased in his feet; and Scripture reproaches him with having had recourse to the physicians, rather than to the Lord, 2Ch 16:12. Yet his reign was, on the whole, one of the happiest which Judah enjoyed, and the Bible repeatedly commends his piety as an example. 1Ki 22:43 2Ch 20:32 21:12. His funeral rites were celebrated with special magnificence. There was ill-will and strife between Asa and Baasha all their days, as between Rehoboam and Israel, 1Ki 15:6,16.

ASAHEL

Son of Davidís sister Zeruiah, and brother of Joab; one of Davidís thirty heroes, and extremely swift of foot; killed by Abner, at the battle of Gibeon, 2Sa 2:18,23.

ASAPH

1. Assembler, a celebrated musician in Davidís time, and one of the leaders of the temple music. 1Ch 16:5 25:1,2. This service appears to have been hereditary in his family, Ne 7:44 11:22. He is also called a seer, 2Ch 29:30; and his name is prefixed to twelve Psalms, (Ps 50:1-23 73:1-83:18) but whether they were written by him, or for him or his family to sing, is unknown. See MUSIC.

2. A recorder of King Hezekiah, 2Ki 18:18 Isa 36:3

3. Keeper of forests under Artaxerxes, Ne 2:8.

ASCENSION

The visible ascent of Christ to heaven. When our Savior had repeatedly conversed with his apostles during forty days, after his resurrection, and afforded them infallible proofs of its reality, he led them out to the Mount of Olives, and was raised up to heaven in their sight, there to continue till he shall come again at the last day to judge the quick and the dead, Ac 1:9,11. The ascension was demonstrated by the descent of the Holy Ghost,

Joh 16:7-14 Ac 2:1-47. It was Christís real human nature that ascended; and he thus triumphed gloriously over death and hell, as head of his body the church. While he blessed his disciples he was parted from them and multitudes of the angelic hosts accompanied and welcomed him, Ps 24:9 68:17. The consequences resulting from his ascension are: the fulfilment of types and prophecies concerning it; his appearance as a priest in the presence of God for us; his more open and full assumption of his kingly office; his receiving gifts for men; his opening the way to heaven for his people. Heb 10:19,20; and assuring his saints of their ascension to heaven after the resurrection of the dead, Joh 14:1,2.

ASENATH

Daughter of Potipherag, priest or prince of On; given in marriage by Pharaoh to Joseph, as adding honor and strength to his high office. She was the mother of Iphraim and Manasseh, Ge 41:45; 46:20.

ASHDOD

One of the five chief cities of the Philistines, assigned to the tribe of Judah, but never conquered by them, Jos 13:3; 15:47; 1Sa 5:1; 6:17; Ne 4:7. Here stood the temple of Dagon; and hither the ark was first brought, after the fatal battle at Ebenezer, 1Sa 5:1. It was called by the Greeks Azotus. And belonged to Judea in the time of Christ. Here Philip preached the gospel, Ac 8:40. At the present day, it is a miserable village, still called Esdud.

ASHER

The eighth son of Jacob and second of Zilpah, Ge 30:13 35:26. On entering Canaan his tribe was the fifth in order, numbering fifty-three thousand four hundred. The portion of Asher lay along the seaboard, having Levanon and Zidon on the north, Carmel and the tribe of Issachar on the south, and Zebulun and Naphtali on the east. It was fruitful in grain, wine, oil, and minerals, Ge 49:20 De 33:24,25. How much of the Phoenician coast was included is uncertain, Jos 19:25,28; but the Asherites were unable to expel the Canaanites, and dwelt in part among them, Jud 1:31,32. They are honorably mentioned in the history of David, 1Ch 12:36, and of Hezekiah, 2Ch 30:11.

ASHES

To repent in sackcloth and ashes, or to lie down among ashes, was an external sign of self-affliction for sin, or of grief under misfortune. We find it adopted by Job, Job 2:8; by many Jews when in great fear, Es 4:3; and by the king of Nineveh, Jon 3:6. The ashes of a red heifer were used in ceremonial purification, Nu 19:1-22.

ASHIMA

A deity adored by the men of Hamath, who were settled in Samaria, 2Ki 17:30.

ASHKENAZ

A son of Gomer and grandson of Japheth, Ge 10:3. The region people by his descendants is named in Jer 51:27 with Minni and Ararat, provinces of Armenia. It probably lay towards the Black Sea.

ASHPENAZ

Chief of the eunuchs of king Nebuchadnezzar, who had the charge of Daniel and his young companions, and was led to show them favor at his own peril, Da 1:3-18.

ASHTORETH, plural ASHíTAROTH

Called by the Greeks Astarte, was a goddess of the Phoenicians, 2Ki 23:13, whose worship was also introduced among the Israelites and Philistines, 1Ki 11:5,33 1Sa 7:3 31:10. She is commonly named in connection with Baal, Jud 2:13 10:6 1Sa 7:4 12:10. Another Hebrew name for the same goddess is Aherah, the happy, the fortunate; or more simply, fortune. This last name is commonly rendered in the English version "grove;" but eminent Hebrew scholars think this meaning is unsupported either by the etymology or the context. Both these Hebrew names of Astarte, when used in the plural, often signify images or statues of Astarte; which are said to be set up, broken down, destroyed, etc. In connection with the worship of Atari there was much of dissolute licentiousness; and the public prostitutes of both sexes were regarded as consecrated to her. See 2Ki 23:7. Compare Le 19:29 De 23:18.

As Baal or Bel denotes, in the astrological mythology of the East, the male star of fortune, the planet Jupiter; so Ashtoreth signifies the female star of fortune, the planet Venus. As to the opinion that Baal designates the sun, and Ashtoreth the moon, see under BAAL. Compare Jer 7:18 11:13 44:17,18 Eze 16:1-63.

ASHTAROTH-KARNAIM

Two-horned Astartes, Ge 14:5, or simply Ashtaroth, De 1:4, a city of Og, king of Ashan, beyond Jordan. The name is doubtless derived from the goddess Ashtoreth or Astarte, whose images were adored there under the figure of a female with a crescent, or horns. It was in the limits of the half tribe of Manasseh, Jos 13:31; and was a Levitical city, 1Ch 6:71. It is also called Beeshterah, Jos 21:27.

ASIA

One of the great divisions of the eastern continent, lying east of Europe. The Asia spoken of in the Bible is Asia Minor, a peninsula which lies between the Euxine or Black sea and the eastern part of the Mediterranean, and which formerly included the provinces of Phrygia, Cilicia, Pamphylia, Caria, Lycia, Lydia, Mysia, Bithynia, Paphlagonia, Cappadocia, Galatia, Lycaonia, and Pisidia. On the western coast were anciently the countries of Eolia, Ionia, and Doris, the names of which were afterwards retained, although the countries were included in the provinces of Mysia, Lydia, and Caria. Many Jews were scattered over these regions, as appears from the history in Acts, and from Josephus, the writers of the New Testament comprehend, under the name of Asia, either (1) the whole of Asia Minor, Ac 19:26,27; 20:4,16,18; or (2) only proconsular Asia, that is, the region of Ionia, of which Ephesus was the capital, and which Strabo also calls Asia, Ac 2:9; 6:9; 16:6; 19:10,22. Cicero speaks of proconsular Asia as containing the provinces of Phrygia, Mysia, Caria, and Lydia.

ASKELON

A city in the land of the Philistines, between Ashdod and Gaza, on the coast of the Mediterranean. After the death of Joshua, the tribe of Judah took Askelon; but it subsequently became one of the five governments belonging to the Philistines, Jud 1:18; 1Sa 6:17. Dr. Richardson thus describes its present state: "Askelon was one of the proudest satrapies of the Philistines; now there is not an inhabitant within its walls; and the prophecy of Zechariah is fulfilled: ĎThe king shall perish from Gaza, and Askelon shall not be inhabitedí" Zec 9:5.

ASNAPPER

The Assyrian king or satrap, under whose direction the territory of the ten tribes was peopled by emigrants from beyond the Euphrates, 2Ki 17:24; Ezr 4:10. Some identify him with Esar-haddon, and some with Shalmaneser. Ezra styles him "great and noble;" but no other trace of him is left.

ASP

Hebrew Pethen, a kind of serpent, whose poison is of such rapid operation, that it kills almost the instant it penetrates, without a possibility of remedy. It is said to be very small, not more than a foot in length. Forskal supposes it to be the Baetan, or Coluber Lebetina of Linaeus; but the true asp of the ancients seems to be unknown. It is frequently mentioned by ancient writers; but in such an indefinite manner, that it is impossible to ascertain the species with precision. It is mentioned in De 32:33 Job 20:14,16 Ps 58:4 91:13 Isa 11:8 Jer 8:17 Ro 8:13. A traveler in the desert south of Judah describes it as still infested with serpents; and adds as an instance, "One day we saw in our path an asp. A foot long. Coiled up in the attitude of springing. Our Arabs killed it, saying it was exceedingly venomous."

ASS

An animal well known for domestic uses; and frequently mentioned in Scripture. People of the first quality in Palestine rode on asses. Deborah, in her song, describes the nobles of the land as those who "ride on white asses," Jud 5:10. Compare Jud 10:4; 12:14. The oriental asses are not to be compared with those of northern countries; but are far more stately, active, and lively. Indeed, they were anciently, as still, highly prized; and were also preferred for riding, especially the she-asses, on account of their sure- footedness. Hence we so often find mention of she-asses alone.

The Wild Ass is a well-known oriental animal, often mentioned in Scripture, and is a much handsomer and more dignified animal than the common ass. These animals were anciently found in Palestine, Syria, Arabia Deserta, Mesopatamia, Phrygia, and Lycaonia; but they rarely occur in those regions at the present time, and seem to be almost entirely confined to Tartary, some parts of Persia, and India, and Africa. Their manners greatly resemble those of the wild horse. They assemble in troops under the conduct of a leader or sentinel, and are extremely shy and vigilant. They will, however, stop in the midst of their course, and even suffer the approach of man for an instant, and then dart off with the utmost rapidity. They have been at all times celebrated for their swiftness. Their voice resembles that of the common ass, but is shriller. Mr. Morier says, "We gave chase to two wild asses, which had so much more speed than our horses, that when they had got at some distance, they stood still and looked behind at us, snorting with their noses in the air, as if in contempt of our endeavors to catch them."

ASSOS

A seaport in Mysia, opposite to the island of Lesbos on the north. Here Paul took ship for Mitylene, Ac 20:13. It is now a poor village, called Beiram.

ASSYRIA

A celebrated country and empire, had its name from Ahur, or Assur, the second son of Shem, who settled in that region, Ge 10:22. In the Bible the name Assyria is employed in three different significations: namely, 1. Assyria ancient and proper lay east of the Tigris, between Armenia, Susiana, and Media, and appears to have comprehended the six provinces attributed to it by Ptolemy, namely, Arrapachis, Adiabene, Arbelis, (now Erbil,) Calachene, (Heb. Halah? 2Ki 17:6,) Apollonias, and Sittacne. It is the region which mostly comprises the modern Kurdistan and the pashalik of Mosul. Of these provinces, Adiabene was the most fertile and important; in it was situated Nineveh the capital; and the term Assyria, in its most narrow sense, seems sometimes to have meant only this province. 2. Most generally, Assyria means the Kingdom of Assyria, including Babylonia and Mesopotamia, and extending to the Euphrates, which is therefore used by Isaiah as an image of this empire, Isa 7:20; 8:7. In one instance, the idea of the empire predominates so as to exclude that of Assyria proper, namely, Ge 2:14, where the Hiddekel or Tigris is said to flow eastward of Assyria. 3. After the overthrow of the Assyrian state, the name continued to be applied to those countries which had been formerly under its dominion, namely, (a) To Babylonia, 2Ki 23:29; Jer 2:18. (b) To Persia, Ezr 6:22, where Darius is also called king of Assyria.

The early history of Assyria is involved in obscurity. We know from the sacred narrative that it was a powerful nation. Israel was subjugated by one of its monarchs in the period of the Judges, and during the reign of the kings the Assyrian power was an object of perpetual dread. Pul, king of Assyria, invaded Israel in the reign of Menahem. Tiglath-pileser assisted Ahaz against a confederate army formed of the Syrian forces in league with those of the ten tribes. Shalmanezer invaded Israel, conquered Hoshea, and made him a vassal, bound to pay a yearly tribute. Hoshea wishing however to throw off the yoke, attempted to form a league with Egypt, and refused the tribute. On ascertaining this secret design of the Israelitish prince, Shalmanezer again invaded Israel, reduced Samaria, loaded its king with fetters, and transported the people of the land into Media, and put an end to the separate kingdom of the ten tribes. The three tribes located east of Jordan had already been deported into Media by Tiglath-pileser, when he ravaged Israel to save Ahaz, and the kingdom of Judah. Sennacherib of Assyria come into Judah with a powerful army in the reign of Hezekiah, but was miraculously defeated. Esarhaddon, his son and successor, ravaged Judah in the days of Manasseh, and carried the conquered sovereign in chains to Babylon. After this period the empire of Assyria suddenly waned, and its last monarch was the effeminate Sardanapalus, Nu 24:22. Its capital was one of the most renowned of the eastern world. See NINEVEH. But the kingdom fell at length into the hands of the Medes, the monarchy was divided between them and the Babylonians, and the very name of Assyria was thenceforth forgotten.

ASTROLOGERS

Men who pretended to foretell future events by means of astronomical observations. It was fancied that the stars and planets had an influence, for good or for evil, on human affairs, and that certain aspects and relative positions of the heavenly bodies were full of meaning to those who had skill to interpret them, Da 2:2. These superstitions were prevalent among the Chaldeans, Assyrians, Egyptians, Phoenicians, and Arabians, and were closely connected with the worship of the sun, moon, and stars, De 4:19 17:3 2Ki 23:5,12 Jer 19:13 Eze 8:16 Zep 1:5. They were thus idolatrous in their spirit, robbed God of his glory, and were highly offensive in his sight.

ASTRONOMY

The science, which treats of the heavenly bodies, was much studied in Asia in ancient times. The Chaldeans excelled in it. The Hebrews do not appear to have made great proficiency in it, though their climate and mode of life invited to the contemplation of the heavens. Revelation had taught them who created and governed all the world, Ge 1:1,1-31, and the infinite presence of the one living and true God filled the universe, to their minks, with a glory unknown to others, Ps 19.1-14; Isa 40:26; Am 5:8. The Bible does not aim to teach the science of astronomy, but speaks of the sun, moon, and stars in the familiar language of mankind in all ages. The following heavenly bodies are alluded to particularly in Scripture: Venus, the morning star, Isa 14:12 Re 2:28; Orion, and the Pleiades, Job 9:9 38:31 Am 5:8; the Great Bear, called "Arcturus," Job 9:9 38:32; Draco, "the crooked serpent" Job 26:13; and Gemini, "the twins," 2Ki 23:5 Ac 28:11. The planets Jupiter and Venus were worshipped under various names, as Baal and Ahtoreth, Gad and Meni, Isa 65:11. Mercury is named as Nebo; in Isa 46:1; Saturn as Chiun, in Am 5:26; and Mars as Nergal, in 2Ki 17:30. See IDOLATRY and STARS.

ASUPPIM

Collections. The "house of Asuppim" was probably a storehouse in connection with the temple, 1Ch 26:15.

ATAD

A Canaanite, at whose threshing-floor a solemn mourning was held over the remains of Jacob, on their way from Egypt to Hebron, Ge 50:10,11. See ABEL-MIZRAIM.

ATAROTH

Several places of this name occur in Scripture: one in the tribe of Judah, 1Ch 2:54; one or two in Ephraim, Jos 16:2,5,7; 18:13; and one or two in Gad, Nu 32:3,34,35. Robinson found traces of one of those in Ephraim, on a high hill about six miles north by west from Bethel.

ATHALIAH

A granddaughter of Omri, 2Ch 22:2, and daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, 2Ki 11:1. Strangely enough, she was chosen as the wife of Jehoram, son of the pious Jehoshaphat king of Judah. Her pernicious influence drew into idolatry and crime both her husband and her son Ahaziah, 2Ch 21:6 22:3. After their premature death, she usurped the throne, and sought to secure herself in it by the murder of all the seed royal. Only Joash her grandson, then an infant, was saved by his aunt Jehosheba. Six years afterwards he was brought from his place of refuge, and crowned by the bold and faithful high priest Jehoiada, who at the same time caused the blood-stained Athaliah to be put to death, 2Ki 11:1-21 2Ch 23:1-21.

ATHENS

The city of Minerva, the chief city of Attica in Greece, situated on the Saronic Gulf, forty-six miles east of Corinth, and about five miles from the coast. The city was in a plain extending to the sea on the southwest, where it had three ports, the passage to which was defended by long and broad walls. Several rocky hills rose in the plain, the largest of which was the citadel, or Acropolis. Around this the city was built, most of the buildings spreading towards the sea. The summit of the hill was nearly level, about eight hundred feet long and four hundred wide. The only way to the Acropolis was through the Propylea, a magnificent gateway on the western side, adorned with two temples decorated with the finest pieces of sculpture and painting. These splendid portals crowned an ascent by marble steps to the summit of the hill, on which were erected the temples of the guardian divinities of Athens. On the left was the temple of Pallas Athene, (Minerva,) regarded as the protectress of the city. Under the same roof was the temple of Neptune. In the area, on a high pedestal, stood a bronze statue of Minerva seventy feet high. On the right arose the Parthenon, the glory of Athens, the noblest triumph of Grecian architecture. From whatever quarter the traveller arrived, the first thing he saw was the Parthenon rearing its lofty head above the city and the citadel. Its ruins, still sublime in decay, are the first object that attracts the eye of a stranger. It was of the Doric order of architecture, built of beautiful white marble, and was about one hundred feet wide, two hundred and twenty-six feet deep, and seventy feet high. There was a double portico of columns at the two fronts, and a single row along each side. There was an architrave, or frieze, along the exterior of the nave, beautifully sculptured, with the representation of a procession in honor of Minerva. Within the temple was a statue of Minerva, by Phidias, celebrated for its exquisite beauty. It was make of gold and ivory, and was nearly forty feet high. The goddess was represented erect, covered with her aegis, holding in one had a lance, and in the other a figure of victory. At the foot of the Acropolis, on one side was the Odeum, or music hall, and the theatre of Bacchus: on the other side was the Prytaneum, where the chief magistrates and most meritorious citizens were entertained at a table furnished at the public expense. A small valley lay between the Acropolis and the hill on which the Areopagus held its session; it also separated the Areopagus from the Pnyx, a small rocky hill on which the general assemblies of the people were held. Here the spot is yet pointed out from which the eminent orators addressed the people. It is cut in the natural rock. In this vicinity also was the agora, or marketplace, Ac 17:17, an open square surrounded by beautiful structures; while on every side altars, shrines, and temples were seen, some of them exceedingly magnificent. This beautiful city was also celebrated for the military talents and the learning, eloquence, and politeness of its inhabitants. It was the very flower of ancient civilization; its schools of philosophy were the most illustrious in the world, and its painters, sculptors, and architects have never been surpassed. Yet no city was so "wholly given to idolatry." The apostle Paul visited it about the year A. D. 52, and though alone among its proud philosophers, preached Jesus and the resurrection to them with fidelity and success, Ac 17:15- 34. See AREOPAGUS. At present Athens is comparatively in ruins, and has a population of about 28,000 addicted to the superstitions of the Greek Church.

ATONEMENT

The satisfaction offered to divine justice for the sins of mankind by the death of Jesus Christ; by virtue of which all true penitents believing in Christ are reconciled to God, are freed from the penalty of their sins, and entitled to eternal life. The atonement by Jesus Christ is the great distinguishing peculiarity of the gospel, and is presented in a great variety of terms and illustrations in both the Old Testament and the New. See REDEMPTION, SACRIFICES.

The English word atonement originally denoted the reconciliation of parties previously at variance. It is used in the Old Testament to translate a Hebrew word which means a covering; implying that by a Divine propitiation the sinner is covered from the just anger of God. This is actually effected by the death of Christ; while the ceremonial offerings of the Jewish church only secured from impending temporal judgments, and typified the blood of Jesus Christ which "cleanseth us from all sin."

ATONEMENT, DAY OF.

See EXPIATION.

ATTALIA

A seaport in Pamphylia, at the mouth of the river Catarrhactes, visited by Paul and Barnabas on their way from Perga to Antioch, Ac 14:25. There is still a village there of a similar name, with extensive ruins in the vicinity.

AUGUSTUS

Venerable, the first peacefully acknowledged emperor of Rome, began to reign B. C. 19. Augustus was the emperor who appointed the enrolment, Lu 2:1, which obliged Joseph and the Virgin to go to Bethlehem, the place where the Messiah was to be born. He died A. D. 14.

AVEN

See HELIOPOLIS.

AVENGER of Blood.

See BLOOD, REFUGE, CITIES OF.

AVIM, or AVITES

Descendants of Canaan, Ge 10:17, who occupied a portion of the coast of Palestine from Gaza towards the river of Egypt, but were expelled and almost destroyed by invading Philistines or Caphtorim, before the time of Moses, De 2:23. Some yet remained in the time of Joshua, Jos 13:3. They are conjectured to have been the same people with the Hivites, of whom traces were found in various parts of Canaan, Ge 34:2 Jos 9:7 11:3.

AZARIAH

A king of Judah, 2Ki 15:1-7. In 2Ch 26:1-23, and elsewhere, he is called Uzziah. He began to reign at sixteen years of age, B. C. 806. The first part of his reign was prosperous and happy; but afterwards, presuming to offer incense in the temple, he was smitten with leprosy, and continued a leper till his death, 2Ch 26:16- 23. This name was very common among the Jews, and was borne by many briefly referred to in Scripture.

AZEKAH

A town in the tribe of Judah, about fifteen miles south-west of Jerusalem; mentioned in the narratives of Joshua and Saul, Jos 10:10; 1Sa 17:1; taken by Nebuchadnezzar, Jer 34:7, but afterwards repeopled by the Jews, Ne 11:30.

AZOTUS

See ASHDOD.

AZZAH

The same as GAZA.