A Hebrew measure, the sixth part of a seah, and the eighteenth part of an ephah. A cab contained three pints and one third, of our wine measure, or two pints and five sixths, of our corn measure, 2Ki 6:25.


Probably meaning displeasing,

1. A name given by Hiram king of Tyre to a district in Northern Galilee containing twenty cities, which Solomon gave him for his help in building the temple, 1Ki 9:13; the term implying his dissatisfaction with the gift.

2. A city of Asher, Jos 19:27.


Originally the surname of the Julian family at Rome. After being dignified in the person of Julias Caesar, it became the usual appellation of those of his family who ascended the throne. The last of these was Nero, but the name was still retained by his successors as a sort of title belonging to the imperial dignity. The emperors alluded to by this title in the New Testament, are Augustus, Lu 2:1; Tiberius, Lu 3:1 20:22; Claudius, Ac 11:28; and Nero, Ac 25:8 Php 4:22. Caligula, who succeeded Tiberius, is not mentioned.


Often called Caesarea of Palestine, situated on the coast of the Mediterranean sea, between Joppa and Tyre. It was anciently a small place, called the Tower of Strato, but was rebuilt with great splendor, and strongly fortified by Herod the Great, who formed a harbor by constructing a vast breakwater, adorned the city with many stately buildings, and named it Caesarea, in honor of Augustus. It was inhabited chiefly by Greeks, and Herod established in it quinquennial games in honor of the emperor. This city was the capital of Judea during the reign of Herod the Great and of Herod Agrippa I., and was also the seat of the Roman power while Judea was governed as a province of the empire. It was subject to frequent commotion between the Greeks, Romans, and Jews, so that on one occasion 20,000 persons are said to have fallen in one day.

It is noted in gospel history as the residence of Philip the evangelist, Ac 8:40 21:8; and of Cornelius the centurion, the first fruits from the Gentiles, Ac 10:1-48 11:1-18 Here Herod Agrippa was smitten by the angel of God, Ac 12:20-23. Paul several times visited it, Ac 9:30 18:22 21:8,16; here he appeared before Felix, who trembled under his appeals,

Ac 23:23 24:1-27; here he was imprisoned for two years; and after pleading before Festus and Agrippa, he sailed hence for imperial Rome, Ac 25:26 27:1. It is now a heap of ruins.


A city three or four miles east of Dan, near the eastern source of the Jordan; anciently called Paneas, now Banias, from an adjacent grotto dedicated to Pan, from which one of the sources of the Jordan flowed. It stood where the mountains south-west of Hermon join the plain above lake Huleh, on an elevated plateau surrounded by ravines and water-courses; and its walls were thick and strong. It was enlarged and embellished by Philip the tetrarch of Trachonitis, and called Caesarea in honor of Tiberius Caesar; and the name Philippi was added to distinguish it from Caesarea on the Mediterranean. Our Savior visited this place shortly before his transfiguration, Mt 16:13-28 Mr 8:27-38 Lu 9:18,27. After the destruction of Jerusalem, Titus here made the captive Jews fight and kill each other in gladiatorial shows. In the time of the crusades it underwent many changes, and is now a paltry village amid extensive ruins.


High priest of the Jews, A. D. 27 to 36. He was a Sadducee, and a bitter enemy of Christ. At his palace the priests, etc., met after the resurrection of Lazarus, to plot the death of the Savior, lest all the people should believe on him. On one of these occasions, Joh 11:47-54, he counseled the death of Christ for the political salvation of the nation; and his words were, unconsciously to him, an inspired prediction of the salvation of a lost world. These plots against Christ, Mt 26:1-5 Mr 14:1 Lu 22:2, led to his seizure, and he was brought first before Annas, formerly high priest, who sent him to Caiaphas his son-in-law. See ANNAS. Caiaphas examined Christ before the assembling of the Sanhedrin, after which the trial went on, and Christ was condemned, mocked, and transferred to Pilate for sentence and execution, Mt 26:57-68 Mr 14:53-72 Lu 22:54-71 Joh 18:13-27. Not content with procuring the death of the Savior, Caiaphas and his friends violently persecuted his followers, Ac 4:1-6 5:17,33. But a few years after the ascension of Christ, and soon after the degradation of Pilate, Caiaphas also was deposed from office by the Roman proconsul Vitellius. Like Balaam of the Old Testament, he is a melancholy instance of light resisted, privilege, station, and opportunity abused, and prophetic words concerning Christ joined with a life of infidelity and crime and a fearful death.


The first-born of the human race, Ge 4:1, and the first murderer. See ABEL. His crime was committed against the warnings of God, and he despised the call of God to confession and penitence, Ge 4:6-9. The punishment inflicted upon him included an increase of physical wants and hardships, distress of conscience, banishment from society, and loss of Godís manifested presence and favor, Ge 4:16. But God mingled mercy with judgment; and appointed for Cain some sign that he should not suffer the death penalty he had incurred at the hand of man, thus signifying that God only was his judge. He withdrew into the land of Nod, east of Eden, and built a city that he named Enoch, after one of his sons.


1. Son of Enos, and father of Mahalaleel, Ge 5:9; 1Ch 1:2.

2. Son of Arphaxad and father of Salah, Lu 3:36. This Cainan, however, is not named in the three Old Testament genealogies, Ge 10:24; 11:12; 1Ch 1:24, nor in any ancient version. The name occurs in two places in the Septuagint, an early Greek version; and some suppose that copyists of Lukeís gospel inserted the name, in order to agree with the Septuagint.


A city of Assyria, built by Ashur or by Nimrod, Ge 10:11,12. It was at some distance from Nineveh, and Resen lay between them. It is thought to have been near the river Lycus, the great Zab, which empties into the Tigris.




1. Son of Jephunneh, of the tribe of Judah, who was sent, with one man from each of the other tribes, to search out the promised land, Nu 13:1-14:45. Of all the twelve, Caleb and Joshua acted the part of true and faithful men; and they only, of all the grown men of Israel, were permitted to enter Canaan, Nu 14:6-24,38 26:65. He was one of the princes appointed to divide the conquered territory among the tribes, Nu 34:19. Hebron was given to him as a reward of his fidelity, according to the promise of God, De 1:36 Jos 14:1-15. Though eighty-five years old, he still retained his vigor, and soon drove out the Anakim from his inheritance. He gave a portion also with his daughter Achsah to Othniel his nephew, who had earned the reward by his valor in the capture of Debir, Jos 15:13-19 21:12. This region was for some time called by his name, 1Sa 30:14.

2. Son of Hor, whose children people the country about Bethlehem, etc., 1Ch 2:50-55.


The young of the cow, a clean animal much used in sacrifice; hence the expression, "So will we render the calves of our lips," Ho 14:2, meaning, we will offer as sacrifices the prayers and praises of our lips, Heb 13:15. The fatted calf was considered the choicest animal food, Ge 18:7 Am 6:4 Lu 15:23.

In Jer 34:18, "they cut the calf in twain, and passed between the parts thereof," there is an allusion to an ancient mode of ratifying a covenant; the parties thus signifying their willingness to be themselves cut in pieces if unfaithful, Ge 15:9-18.

THE GOLDEN CALF worshipped by the Jews at mount Sinai, while Moses was absent in the mount, was cast by Aaron from the earrings of the people. Its worship was attended with degrading obscenities, and was punished by the death of three thousand men.

The golden calves of Jeroboam were erected by him, one at each extreme of his kingdom, that the ten tribes might be prevented from resorting to Jerusalem to worship, and thus coalescing with the men of Judah, 1Ki 12:26-29. Thus the people "forgot God their Savior," and sank into gross idolatry. Jeroboam is scarcely ever mentioned in Scripture without the brand upon him, "who made Israel to sin," 2Ki 17:21. The prophet Hosea frequently alludes to the calf at Bethel, to the folly and guilt of its worshippers, and to the day when both idol and people should be broken in pieces by the Assyrians.


Called Calno, Isa 10:9 and Canneh, Eze 27:23, one of Nimrodís cities, Ge 10:10, and afterwards called Ctesiphon; it lay on the east bank of the Tigris opposite Seleucia, twenty miles below Bagdad. Ctesiphon was a winter residence of the Parthian kings. Nothing now remains but the ruins of a palace and mounds of rubbish.


Or GOLGOTHA, the latter being the Hebrew term, place of a skull, the place where our Savior was crucified, near by Jerusalem, Joh 19:20, but outside of its walls, Mt 27:37 Mr 15:22 Joh 19:17 Heb 13:12. In the same place was a private garden, and a tomb in which the body of Christ lay until the resurrection, Joh 19:41,42. The expression, "Mount Calvary," has no evidence to support it beyond what is implied in the name Golgotha which might well be given to a slight elevation shaped like the top of a skull, and the probability that such a place would be chosen for the crucifixion. It is very doubtful whether the true localities of Calvary and the tomb are those covered by the present "Church of the Holy Sepulchre," a vast structure north of mount Zion and within the modern city, built on the site which was fixed under the empress Helena, A. D. 335, by tradition and a pretended miracle. Some biblical geographers adhere to this location; but Robinson and many others strongly oppose it, on the ground of the weakness of the tradition, and the difficulty of supposing that this place lay outside of the ancient walls. See JERUSALEM. Dr. Fisk, while visiting the spot under the natural desire to identify the scene of the crucifixion; that the rock shown column he saw, half concealed by iron-work, might have been that to which our Lord was bound when scourged; that the small fragment of rude stone seen by the light of a small taper, through a kind of iron filigree, might have been the place of our Lordís burial and resurrection: but when he saw the neat juxtaposition of all these things, and knew that in order to provide for the structure of the church the site had to be cut down and leveled; when he reflected that on the very spot a heathen temple had stood, till removed by the empress Helena, to make room for this church; and, moreover, when he considered the superstitious purpose all these things were to serve, and the spirit of that church which thus paraded these objects of curiosity, he could not bring himself to feel they were what they professed to be.

Let us be thankful that though the exact scene of Christís death is now unknown, there can be no doubt as to the fact. "He died, and was buried, and the third day rose again, according to the Scriptures." Then the old ritual passed away, Satan was despoiled, man was redeemed, God reconciled, and heaven opened to all believers.


Carrier, A beast of burden very common in the East, where it is called "the land-ship," and "the carrier of the desert." It is six or seven feet high, and is exceedingly strong, tough, and enduring of labor. The feet are constructed with a tough elastic sole, which prevents the animal from sinking in the sand; and on all sorts of ground it is very sure-footed. The Arabian species, most commonly referred to in Scripture, has but one hump on the back; while the Bactrian camel, found in central Asia, has two. While the animal is well fed, these humps swell with accumulated fat, which is gradually absorbed under scarcity and toil, to supply the lack of food. The dromedary is a lighter and swifter variety, otherwise not distinguishable from the common camel, Jer 2:23. Within the cavity of the stomach is a sort of paunch, provided with membranous cells to contain an extra provision of water: the supply with which this is filled will last for many days while he traverses the desert. His food is coarse leaves, twigs, thistles, which he prefers to the tenderest grass, and on which he performs the longest journeys. But generally, on a march, about a pound weight of dates, beans, or barley, will serve for twenty-four hours. The camel kneels to receive its load, which varies from 500 to 1,000 or 1,200 pounds. Meanwhile it is wont to utter loud cries or growls of anger and impatience. It is often obstinate and stupid, and at times ferocious; the young are as dull and ungainly as the old. Its average rate of travel is about two and one third miles an hour; and it jogs on with a sullen pertinacity hour after hour without fatigue, seeming as fresh at night as in the morning. No other animal could endure the severe and continual hardships of the camel, his rough usage, and his coarse and scanty food. The Arabians well say of him, "Jobís beast is a monument of Godís mercy."

This useful animal has been much employed in the East, from a very early period. The merchants of those sultry climes have found it the only means of exchanging the products of different lands, and from time immemorial long caravans have traversed year after year the almost pathless deserts, Ge 37:25. The number of oneís camels was a token of his wealth. Job had 3,000, and the Midianitesí camels were like the sand of the sea,

Jud 7:12; 1Ch 5:21; Job 1:3. Rebekah came to Isaac riding upon a camel, Ge 24:64; the queen of Sheba brought them to Solomon, and Hazael to Elisha, laden with the choicest gifts, 1Ki 10:2; 2Ki 8:9; and they were even made serviceable in war, 1Sa 30:17. The camel was to the Hebrews an unclean animal, Le 11:4; yet its milk has ever been to the Arabs an important article of food, and is highly prized as a cooling and healthy drink. Indeed, no animal is more useful to the Arabs, while living or after death. Out of its skin they make for corn. Of its skin they make huge water bottles and leather sacks, also sandals, ropes, and thongs. Its dung, dried in the sun, serves them for fuel.

CAMELSí HAIR was woven into cloth in the East, some of it exceedingly fine and soft, but usually coarse and rough, used for making the coats of shepherds and camel-drivers, and for covering tents. It was this that John the Baptist wore, and not "soft raiment," Mt 11:8. Modern dervishes wear garments of this kind and this appears to be meant in 2Ki 1:8.

The expression, "It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle," etc., Mt 19:24, was a proverb to describe an impossibility. The same phrase occurs in the Koran; and a similar one in the Talmud, respecting an elephantís going through a needleís eye. See also the proverb in Mt 23:24, which illustrates the hypocrisy of the Pharisees by the custom of passing wine through a strainer. The old versions of the New Testament, instead of, "strain at" a gnat, have, "strain out," which conveys the true meaning.


These terms usually refer to the movements of the Israelites between Egypt and Canaan; and many passages of the Levitical law relate to things done "within" or "without the camp." The whole body of the people consisted of six hundred thousand fighting men, besides women and children, Nu 1:2; and was disposed into four battalions, so arranged as to enclose the tabernacle in a square, and each under one general standard, Nu 2:3. The mode in which this vast mass of people was arranged, with the most perfect order and subordination, must excite general surprise. Balaam, standing on the heights of Moab, viewed the imposing spectacle with admiration and awe: "How godly are thy tents, O Jacob! the Lord his God is with him," Nu 23:1-24:25.

The order appointed for the removal of the hosts of Israel from one encampment to another is detailed in Nu 9:1-10:36. The names of forty-one encampments are given in Nu 33:1-56; from the first in Rameses, in the month April, B. C. 1491, to the last on the brink of the Jordan forty years later. See EXODUS, and WANDERINGS.

Travellers in the desert were wont to pitch their tents in the center of a circle formed by their camels and baggage, which served as a barrier against an assault. A similar mode of encamping was practiced by large caravans, and by armies, 1Sa 26:5.


In So 1:14 4:13, is not the gum Camphor of our apothecaries, but the Cyprus-flower, as it is sometimes called, the Athena of the Arabs, a whitish fragrant flower, hanging in clusters like grapes. Oriental ladies make use of the dried and powdered leaves to give their nails, feet, and hands a reddish orange tinge. The nails of Egyptian mummies are found thus dyed. See EYELIDS. The flowers of the Alhenna are fragrant; and being disposed in clusters, the females of Egypt are fond of carrying it in their bosoms.


The birthplace of Nathanael, the city in which our Lord performed his first miracle, and from which he soon after sent a miraculous healing to the noblemanís son at Capernaum, eighteen miles off, Joh 2:1-11; 4:46-54; 21:2. It was called Cana of Galilee, now Kana-el-Jelil, and lay seven miles north of Nazareth. This is Robinsonís view. The commonly received site is nearer Nazareth. Cana is now in ruins.


1. The son of Ham, and grandson of Noah, Ge 9:18. His numerous posterity seem to have occupied Zidon first, and thence spread into Syria and Canaan, Ge 10:15-19 1Ch 1:13-16. The Jews believe that he was implicated with his father in the dishonor done to Noah, Ge 9:20-27, which was the occasion of the curse under which he and his posterity suffered, Jos 9:23,27 2Ch 8:7,8 2. The land peopled by Canaan and his posterity, and afterwards given to the Hebrews. This country has at different periods been called by various names, either from its inhabitants or some circumstances connected with its history. (1.) "The land of Canaan," from Canaan, the son of Ham, who divided it among his sons, each of whom became the head of a numerous tribe, and ultimately of a distinct people, Ge 10:15-20 11:31. This did not at first include any land east of the Jordan. (2.) "The land of Promise," Heb 11:9, from the promise given to Abraham, that his posterity should possess it, Ge 12:7 13:15. These being termed Hebrews, Ge 40:15; and (4.) "The land of Israel," from the Israelites, or posterity of Jacob, having settled there. This name is of frequent occurrence in the Old Testament. It comprehends all that tract of ground on each side of the Jordan, which God gave for an inheritance to the Hebrews. At a later age, this term was often restricted to the territory of the ten tribes, Eze 27:17. (5.) "The land of Judah." This at first comprised only the region which was allotted to the tribe of Judah. After the separation of the ten tribes, the land which belonged to Judah and Benjamin, who formed a separate kingdom, was distinguished by the appellation of "the land of Judah," or Judea; which latter name the whole country retained during the existence of the second temple, and under the dominion of the Romans. (6.) "The Holy Land." This name appears to have been used by the Hebrews after the Babylonish captivity, Zec 2:13. (7.) "Palestine," Ex 15:14, a name derived from the Philistines, who migrated from Egypt, and having expelled the aboriginal inhabitants, settled on the borders of the Mediterranean. Their name was subsequently given to the whole country, though they in fact possessed only a small part of it. By heathen writers, the Holy Land has been variously termed Palestine, Syria, and Phoenicia.

Canaan was bounded on the west by the Mediterranean Sea, north by mount Lebanon and Syria, east by Arabia Deserta; and south by Edom and the desert of Zin and Paran. Its extreme length was about one hundred and eighty miles, and its average width about sixty-five. Its general form and dimensions Coleman has well compared to those of the state of New Hampshire. At the period of David, vast tributary regions were for a time annexed to the Holy Land. These included the bordering nations on the east, far into Arabia Deserta; thence north to Tipsah on the Euphrates, with all Syria between Lebanon and the Euphrates. On the south it included Edom, and reached the Red sea at Ezion-geber.

The land of Canaan has been variously divided. Under Joshua it was apportioned out to the twelve tribes. Under Rehoboam it was divided into the two kingdoms of Israel and Judah. It afterwards fell into the hands of the Babylonians, the Greeks, the Syrians, and the Romans. During the time of our Savior, it was under the dominion of the last-mentioned people, and was divided into five provinces: Galilee, Samaria, Judea, Peraea, and Idumaea. Peraea was again divided into seven cantons; Abilene, Trachonitis, Iturea, Gaulonitis, Batanaea, Peraea, and Decapolis. At present, Palestine is subject to the sultan of Turkey, under whom the pashas of Acre and Gaza govern the seacoast and the pasha of Damascus the interior of the country.

The surface of the land of Canaan is beautifully diversified with mountains and plains, rivers and valleys. The principal mountains are Lebanon, Carmel, Tabor, Gilead, Herman, the mount of Olives, etc. The plain of the Mediterranean, of Esdraelon, and of Jericho, are celebrated as the scenes of many important events. The chief streams are the Jordan, the Arnon, the Sihor, the Jabbok, and the Kishon. The lake of Tiberias or Sea of Galilee, and lake Merom. These are elsewhere described, each in its own place.

The general features of the country may here be briefly described. The northern boundary is at the lofty mountains of Lebanon and Hermon, some peaks of which are ten thousand feet high. Around the base of mount Hermon are the various sources of the Jordan. This river, passing through lake Merom and the sea of Galilee, flows south with innumerable windings into the Dead sea. Its valley is deeply sunk, and from its source to the Dead sea it has a descent of two thousand feet. The country between the Jordan valley and the Mediterranean Sea is in general an elevated tableland, broken up by many hills and by numerous deep valleys through which the wintry torrents flow into Jordan and the sea. The tableland of Galilee may be nine hundred or one thousand feet above the Mediterranean. In lower Galilee we find the great and beautiful plain of Esdraelon, extending from mount Carmel and Acre on the west to Tabor and Gilboa, and even to the Jordan on the east. From this plain the land again rises towards the south; mount Gerizim being 2,300 feet, Jerusalem 2,400, and Hebron 2,600 above the sea. On the seacoast, below mount Carmel, a fertile plain is found; towards the south it becomes gradually wider, and expands at last into the great dessert of Paran. From this plain of the seacoast the ascent to the high land of the interior is by a succession of natural terraces; while the descent to the Jordan, the Dead Sea, and Edom, is abrupt and precipitous. The country beyond the Jordan is mountainous; a rich grazing land, with many fertile valleys. Still farther east is the high and desolate plateau of Arabia Deserta.

The soil and climate of Canaan were highly favorable. The heat was not extreme in the deep riverbeds, and on the seacoast; and the climate was in general mild and healthful. The variations of sunshine, clouds, and rain, which with us extend throughout the year, are in Palestine confined chiefly to the winter or rainy season. The autumnal rains usually commence in the latter part of October, and soon after the first showers wheat and barley are sowed. Rain falls more heavily in December; and continues, though with less frequency, until April. From May to October no rain falls. The cold of winter is not severe, and the ground does not freeze. Snows a foot or more deep sometimes occur, and there are frequent hailstorms in winter. The barley harvest is about a fortnight earlier than the wheat, and both are earlier than the wheat, and both are earlier in the plains than on the high land; altogether the grain harvest extends from April to June. In this month and October the heat is great; the ground becomes dry up; and all nature, animate and inanimate, looks forward with longing for the return of the rainy season.

The soil of Canaan was highly productive. The prevailing rock is a chalky limestone, abounding in caverns. It readily formed, and was covered with, a rich mould, which produced, in the various elevations and climates so remarkably grouped together in that small region of the world, an unequalled variety of the fruits of the ground. Olives, figs, vines, and pomegranates grew in abundance; the hills were clothed with flocks and herds, and the valleys were covered with corn. The land of promise was currently described as "flowing with milk and honey." Yet the glowing description given by Moses, De 8:7-9, and the statements of history as to the vast population formerly occupying it, are in striking contrast with its present aspect of barrenness and desolation. The curse brought down by the unbelief of the Jews still blights their unhappy land. Long ages of warfare and misrule have despoiled and depopulated it. Its hills, once terraced to the summit, and covered with luxuriant grain, vines, olives, and figs, are now bare rocks. Its early and latter rains, once preserved in reservoirs, and conducted by winding channels to water the ground in the season of drought, now flow off unheeded to the sea. The land, stripped of its forests, lies open to the sun-which now scorches where it once fertilized. And yet some parts of Palestine still show an astonishing fertility; and wherever the soil is cultivated, it yields a hundred fold. Indian corn grows there eleven feet high, and grapes are still produced that almost rival the clusters of Eshcol. Intelligent travellers agree in confirming the statements of Scripture as to its ancient fertility. See HEBREWS, JUDEA.

CONQUEST OF CANAAN. Various arguments have been adduced to justify the conquest of Canaan, and the extermination of its inhabitants by the Israelites; as, that the land had been allotted to Shem and his sons after the flood, and the sons of Ham were usurpers; that they first assaulted to the Jews; that Abraham had taken possession of the land ages before; that the Canaanites were akin to the Egyptians, and implicated in their guilt and punishment as oppressors of the Hebrews. Whatever justice there may be in any of these reasons, they are not those which the Bible assigns. The only true warrant of the Jews was, the special command of the Lord of all. They were impressively taught that the wickedness of those nations was the reason of their punishment, which the forbearance of God had long delayed, and which was designed as a warning to them and all mankind against idolatry and its kindred sins. It was these sins the Jews were to abhor and exterminate; they were to act as agents of Godís justice, and not for the gratification of their own avarice, anger, or lust, the spoil and the captives being all devoted to destruction. The narrative of the conquest is given in Nu 1:1-4:49 Jos 1:1-24:33 Jud 1:1-36. The Canaanites were not wholly destroyed. Many of them escaped to other lands; and fragments of almost all the nations remained in Judea, subject to the Israelites, but snares to their feet and thorns in their sides. It must be observed also, that full notice was previously given them to quit their forfeited possessions; a solemn writ of ejectment had been issued by the great Proprietor, and if they resisted, they incurred the consequences.


The descendants of Canaan. Their first habitation was in the land of Canaan, where they multiplied extremely, and by trade and war acquired great riches, and sent out colonies all over the islands and coasts of the Mediterranean. When the measure of their idolatries and abominations was completed, God delivered their country into the hands of the Israelites, who conquered it under Joshua. See the previous article. The following are the principal tribes mentioned.

1. The HIVITES dwelt in the northern part of the country, at the foot of mount Hermon, or Anti-Lebanon, according to Jos 11:3, where it is related that they, along with the united forces of northern Canaan, were defeated by Joshua. They were not, however, entirely driven out of their possessions, Jud 3:3 2Sa 24:7 1Ki 9:20. There were also Hivites in middle Palestine, Ge 34:2 Jos 19:1,7 11:19.

2. The CANAANITES, in a restricted sense, inhabited partly the plains on the coast of the Mediterranean sea, Nu 13:29 Jos 11:3.

3. The GIRGASHITES dwelt between the Canaanites and the Jebusites; as may be inferred from the order in which they are mentioned in Jos 24:11.

4. The JEBUSITES had possession of the hill country around Jerusalem, and of that city itself, of which the ancient name was Jebus, Jos 15:8,63 18:28. The Benjamites, to whom this region was allotted, did not drive out the Jebusites, Jud 1:21. David first captured the citadel of Jebus, 2Sa 5:6.

5. The AMORITES inhabited, in Abrahamís time, the region south of Jerusalem, on the western side of the Dead sea, Ge 14:7. At a later period, they spread themselves out over all the mountainous country which forms the southeastern part of Canaan, and which was called from them the "mountain of the Amorites," and afterwards the "mountain of Judea,"

De 1:19,20 Nu 13:29 Jos 11:3. On the east side of the Jordan also they had, before the time of Moses, founded two kingdoms, that of Bashan in the north, and another, bounded at first by the Jabbok, in the south. But under Sihon they crossed the Jabbok, and took from the Ammonites and Moabites all the country between the Jabbok and the Arnon; so that this latter stream now became the southern boundary of the Amorites, Nu 21:13,14,16,26 32:33,39 De 4:46,47 31:4. This last tract the Israelites took possession of after their victory over Sihon. See AMORITES.

6. The HITTITES, or children of Heth, according to the report of the spies, Nu 1:29, dwelt among the Amorites in the mountainous district of the south, afterwards called the "mountain of Judah." In the time of Abraham they possessed Hebron; and the patriarch purchased from them the cave of Machpelah as a sepulchre, Ge 23:1-20 25:9,10. After the Israelites entered Canaan, the Hittites seem to have moved farther northward. The country around Bethel is called "the land of the Hittites," Jud 1:26. See HITTITES.

7. The PERIZZITES were found in various parts of Canaan. The name signifies inhabitants of the plains, from their original abode. According to Ge 13:7, they dwelt with the Canaanites, between Bethel and Ai; and according to Ge 34:30, in the vicinity of Shechem. See PERIZZITES.

Besides these seven tribes, there were several others of the same parentage, dwelling north of Canaan. These were the Arkites, Arvadites, Hamathites, and Zemarites. There were also several other tribes of diverse origin within the bounds of Canaan, destroyed by the Israelites; such as the Anakim, the Amalekites, and the Rephaim of giants.


The name of an Ethiopian queen, whose high treasurer was converted to Christianity under the preaching of Philip the evangelist, Ac 8:27. The Ethiopia over which she ruled was not Abyssinia, but that region of Upper Nubia called by the Greeks Meroe; and is supposed to correspond with the present province of Atbara, lying between thirteen and eighteen degrees north latitude. Extensive ruins found in this neighborhood, and along the upper valley of the Nile, indicate high civilization among the ancient Ethiopians. Pliny and Strabo inform us that for some time before and after the Christian era, Ethiopia Proper was under the government of female sovereigns, who all bore the appellation of Candace. Irenaeus and Eusebius ascribe to Candaceís minister her own conversion to Christianity, and the promulgation of the gospel through her kingdom.


In the tabernacle, the golden candlestick stood on the left hand of one entering the Holy Place, opposite the table of showbread. It consisted of a pedestal; an upright shaft; six arms, three on one side and three on the opposite side of the shaft; and seven lamps surmounting the shaft and arms. The arms were adorned with three kinds of carved ornaments, called cups, globes, and blossoms. Its lamps were supplied with pure olive oil, and lighted every evening, Ex 25:31-40 30:7,8 37:17-24 Le 24:1-3 1Sa 3:3 2Ch 13:11. In the first temple there were ten candelabra of pure gold, half of them standing on the north, and half on the south side, within the Holy Place, 1Ki 7:49,50 2Ch 4:7 Jer 52:19. In the second temple there was but one, resembling that of the tabernacle. This was carried to Rome, on the destruction of Jerusalem; it was lodged in Vespasianís temple to Peace, and copied on the triumphal arch of Titus, where its mutilated image is yet to be seen. See the beautiful and significant visions of the candlestick by Zechariah and John, Zec 4:2-12 Re 1:12,20.


Or CALAMUS, SWEET, So 4:14, an aromatic reed mentioned among the drugs of which the sacred perfumes were compounded, Ex 30:23. The true odoriferous calamus or grass came from India; and the prophets speak of it as a foreign commodity of great value, Isa 43:24 Jer 6:20 Eze 27:19.


In our English Bible, put where the Hebrew means a species of locust, Joe 1:4 Na 3:15,16.


The Greek word denotes, primarily, a straight rod; hence a rule or standard, by a reference to which the rectitude of opinions or actions may be decided. In the latter sense it is used in Ga 6:16 Php 3:16. In the same sense it was used by the Greek fathers. As the standard to which they sought to appeal on all questions was the will of God contained in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, they came naturally to apply this term to the collective body of those writings, and to speak of them as the canon or rule. Canon is also equivalent to a list of catalogue, in which are inserted those books which contain the inspired rule of faith.

In order to establish the canon of Scripture, it must be shown that all the books are of divine authority; that they are entire and incorrupt; that it is complete without addition from any foreign source; and that the whole of the books for which divine authority can be proved are included. See BIBLE.


A chief city of Galilee in the time of Christ, not mentioned before the captivity in Babylon. It lay on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee, about five miles from the Jordan and on the frequented route from Damascus to the Mediterranean. This seems to have been the residence of Christ, during the three years of his ministry, more than any other place. The brothers Andrew and Peter dwelt there; Christ often taught in the synagogue, and wrought mighty works there. Mt 17:23 Mr 1:21-35 Joh 6:17,59; and it is called "his own city," Mt 4:12-16 9:1 Mr 2:1. Its inhabitants were thus "exalted unto heaven;" but their unbelief and impenitence cast them down to destruction, Mt 11:20-24. The very name and site of Capernaum have been lost. Dr. Robinson, however, finds them at Khan Minyeh, on the northern border of the fine plain of Gennesareth, where ruins of some extent still remain, and a copious fountain not far from the sea.


Descendants of Mizraim, and kindred to the Casluhim, near whom they were probably located on the northeast coast of Africa. These last two people are both named as ancestors of the Philistines, Ge 10:14 De 2:23 Am 9:7; and it is probable that a colony made up from both drove out the Avim from the country on the south-east coast of the Mediterranean, and occupied it under the name of Philistines, which it is generally agreed means strangers. But whether they came from Cyprus, Crete, or Cappadocia, is not agreed.


The largest ancient province of Asia Minor; having Pontus on the north, mount Taurus, separating it from Cilicia and Syria, on the south, Galatia on the west, and the Euphrates and Armenia on the east. It was watered by the river Halys, and was noted for its fine pastures and its excellent breed of horses, asses, and sheep. There were many Jews residing in it, Ac 2:9. Christianity was early introduced there, 1Pe 1:1, among a people proverbial for dullness, faithlessness, and vice. See CRETE. Several celebrated Christian fathers flourished in this province, as Basil and the three Gregories; and their churches may be traced as late as the tenth century.


Taken in war, seem anciently to have been looked upon as justly liable to death, and hence to any treatment less dreadful than death. Their necks were trodden upon, Jos 10:24, in token of abject subjection, which illustrates Ps 110:1. They were sold into servitude, like Joseph. They were mutilated, like Samson, or Adonizedek. They were stripped of all clothing, and driven in crowds to adorn the victorís triumph. Large numbers of them were selected, often by a measuring line, 2Sa 8:2, and slain, 2Ch 25:12. This was sometimes done with designed cruelty, 2Sa 12:31 1Ch 20:3. The Romans in some cases bound a living captive to a dead body, and left them to perish together; a practice which may be applied to illustrate the apostleís cry, "O wretched man that I am! Who shall deliver me from the body of this death?" Ro 7:24.


God often punished the sins of the Jews be captivities or servitudes, according to his threatenings, De 28:1-68. Their first captivity, however, from which Moses delivered them, should be considered rather as a permission of Providence, than as a punishment for sin. There were six subjugations of the twelve tribes during the period of the judges. But the most remarkable captivities, or rather expatriations of the Hebrews, were whose of Israel and Judah under the regal government. Israel was first carried away in part about B. C. 740, by Tiglath-pileser, 2Ki 15:29. The tribes east of the Jordan, with parts of Zebulun and Naphtali, Isa 9:1, were the first sufferers. Twenty years later, Shalmanezer carried away the remainder, 2Ki 17:6-24. Aside from certain prophecies, Isa 11:12,13 Jer 31:7-9,16-20 49:2 Eze 37:16 Ho 11:11 Am 9:14 Ob 1:18,19, etc., which are variously interpreter to mean a past or a future return, a physical or a spiritual restoration, there is no evidence that the ten tribes as a body ever returned to Palestine.

To Judah are generally reckoned three captivities: 1. Under Jehoiakim, in his third year, B. C. 606, when Daniel and others were carried to Babylon, 2Ki 24:1,2 Da 1:1 2. In the last year of Jehoiakim, when Nebuchadnezzar carried 3,023 Jews to Babylon; or rather, under Jehoiachin, when this prince also was sent to Babylon, that is, in the seventh and eighth years of Nebuchadnezzar, B. C. 598, 2Ki 24:2,12 2Ch 36:8,10 Jer 52:34 3. Under Zedekiah, B. C. 588, when Jerusalem and the temple were destroyed, and most that was valuable among the people and their treasures was carried to Babylon, 2Ki 25:1-30 2Ch 36:1-23. The seventy years during which they were to remain in captivity, Jer 25:11 29:10, are reckoned probably from the date of the first captivity, B. C. 606. While at Babylon the Jews had judges and elders who governed them, and decided matters in dispute juridically according to their laws. The book of Daniel shows us a Jew in a high position at court, and the book of Esther celebrates their numbers and power in the Persian empire. The prophets labored, not in vain, to keep alive the flame of the true religion.

At length the seventy years were fulfilled, and Cyrus, in the first year of his reign at Babylon, B. C. 536, made a proclamation throughout his empire permitting the people of God to return to their country, and rebuild the temple, Ezr 1:11. Nearly 50,000 accepted the invitation, Ezr 2:2 Ne 7:7. This company laid the foundation of the second temple, which was completed in the sixth year of Darius, B. C. 516. Fifty-eight years after, Ezra led a small company of 7,000 from Babylon to Judea. He was succeeded as governor by Nehemiah, who labored faithfully and successfully to reform the people, and many of the good fruits of his labors remained until the time of Christ.

Probably none among the posterity of Jacob can now prove from which of his twelve sons they are descended. Both Judah and Israel being removed from "the lot of their inheritance" in Canaan, and dispersed among strangers, the various tribes would naturally amalgamate with each other, the envy of Judah and Ephraim would depart, and the memory of Abraham, Moses, and David would revive, Ezr 6:16,17 8:35 Eze 37:26-28.

The last captivity of the Jews, A. D. 71, after they had filled up the measure of their iniquity by rejecting Christ and the gospel, was a terrible one. According to Josephus, 1,100,000 perished at the siege of Jerusalem by Titus, and nearly 100,000 captives were scattered among the provinces to perish in gladiatorial shows, doomed to toil as public slaves, or sold into private bondage. The cut represents the medal of the emperor Vespasian, A. D. 71, in memory of the capture of Jerusalem. Under the emperor Hadrian, A. D. 133, a similar crushing blow fell on the Jews who had again assembled in Judea; and at this day they are scattered all over the world, yet distinct from the people among whom they dwell, suffering under the woe which unbelief has brought upon their fathers and themselves, and awaiting the time when Christ "shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob," Ro 11:25,26.


A precious stone, like a large ruby or garnet, of a dark, deep red color, said to glitter even in the dark, and to sparkle more than the ruby. The word is put to represent two different Hebrew words, one of which, Ex 28:17; Eze 28:13, is commonly thought to mean the emerald; and the other, Isa 54:12, may mean a brilliant species of ruby.


Probably the same with Circesium or Circusium, a fortified city on the west of the Euphrates, where the river Chaboras enters it. In Isa 10:9, it appears as taken by some king of Assyria. It was attacked by Pharaohnecho king of Egypt, near the close of king Josiahís reign, 2Ch 35:20. Five years afterwards Necho was signally defeated by Nebuchadnezzar, Jer 46:1-12. In later times was held as a frontier post of the Roman empire on the east.


A fruitful field,

1. A city of Judah, on a mountain of the same name, eight miles south by east of Hebron, Jos 15:55. On this mountain Saul, returning from his expedition against Amalek, erected a trophy; and here Nabal the Carmelite, Abigailís husband, dwelt, 1Sa 15:12,25. Its ruins indicate that it was a large place.

2. A celebrated range of hills running northwest from the Plain of Esdraelon, and ending in the promontory which forms the bay of Acre. Its greatest height is about 1,500 feet; at its northeastern foot runs the brook Kishon, and a little farther north, the river Belus. On its northern point stands a convent of the Carmelite friars, an order established in the twelfth century, and having at the present day various branches in Europe. The foot of the northern part approaches the water, so that, seen from the hills north-east of Acre, mount Carmel appears as if "dipping his feet in the western sea;" farther south it retires more inland, so that between the mountain and the sea there is an extensive plain covered with fields and olive-trees. Mariti describes it as a delightful region, and says the good quality of its soil is apparent from the fact that so many odoriferous plants and flowers, as hyacinths, jonquilles, tazettos, anemones, etc., grow wild upon the mountain. Von Richter says, "Mount Camel is entirely covered with green; on its summit are pines and oaks, and farther down olive and laurel trees. It gives rise to a multitude of crystal brooks, the largest of which issues from the so-called Ďfountain of Elijah;í and they all hurry along, between banks thickly overgrown with bushes, to the Kishon. Every species of tillage succeeds admirably under this mild and cheerful sky. The prospect from the summit of the mountain out over the gulf of Acre and its fertile shores, to the blue heights of Lebanon and to the White cape, is enchanting." Mr. Carne also ascended the mountain, and traversed the whole summit, which occupied several hours. He says, "It is the finest and most beautiful mountain in Palestine, of great length, and in many parts covered with trees and flowers. On reaching, at last, the opposite summit, and coming out of a wood, we saw the celebrated plain of Esdraelon beneath, with the river Kishon flowing through it; mounts Tabor and Little Hermon were in front, (east); and on the right, (south,) the prospect was bounded by the hills of Samaria." From the southeast side of this ridge, a range of low wooded hills on the south spreads and rises into the high lands of Samaria. Those who visit mount Carmel in the last part of the dry season, find every thing parched and brown; yet enough remains to show how just were the allusions of ancient writers to its exceeding beauty, Isa 35:2, its verdure of drapery and grace of outline, So 7:5, and its rich pastures, Isa 33:9 Jer 50:19 Am 1:2. The rock of the mountain is a hard limestone, abounding in natural caves, Am 9:3. These have in many cases been enlarged, and otherwise fitted for human habitation; and the mountain has been in various ages a favorite residence for devotees. It is memorable for frequent visits of the prophets Elijah and Elisha, 2Ki 2:25 4:25, and especially for the destruction of the priests of Baal upon it, 1Ki 18:1-46.


A disciple and friend of Paul, who lived in Troas, 2Ti 4:13.


In the Bible, usually means the baggage which formed the burden of a man of beast, Ac 21:15. Once it seems to indicate a circular trench or rampart of baggage, etc., around a camp, /1Sa 17:20.


Or wagons were used in Palestine formerly, though now almost unknown. The roads are generally impassable by any wheeled vehicle; and the chief use of the cart was on a limited scale for agricultural purposes, such as forcing the ripe grain out of the ear, bruising the straw, removing the produce of the fields, etc., Isa 5:18; 28:27,28. Wagons were used to carry Israel into Egypt, and for the conveyance of the ark, Ge 45:27; Nu 7:3-9. They were often drawn by heifers, etc., 1Sa 6:7, and were usually low, and on solid wooden wheels, sometimes iron-shod.


The home of many of the exiled Jews, was probably in the vicinity of the Caspian sea, Ezr 8:17.


Descendants of Mizraim. See CAPHTORIM.


The bark of an odoriferous tree, from which came one ingredient of the holy oil or ointment, Ex 30:24; Ps 45:8; Eze 27:19.


Twin sons of Jupiter, and guardians of seamen, according to heathen mythology. Ships often bore their images on the prow, and were distinguished by their names, Ac 28:11.


Some locust-like insect, now undistinguishable, De 28:38 1Ki 8:37 Ps 78:46 105:34 Isa 33:4. See LOCUST.


This term is Greek, signifying universal or general. The church of Christ is called catholic, because it extends throughout the world, and during all time. In modern times the church of Rome has usurped this title, improperly applying it exclusively to itself.

The "Catholic epistles" are seven, so called because they were addressed to the church or Christians in general, and not to any particular church. They are, one epistle of James, two of Peter, three of John, and one of Jude.


The geological structure of Judea is highly favorable to the formation of caves; and the whole region abounds with subterranean caverns of various dimensions, often giving rise to small rivulets. These were used as dwellings, places of refuge, and tombs. It was in a cave that Lot resided after the destruction of Sodom, Ge 19:30. Petra, in Idumea, was a city of caves, Nu 24:21 So 2:14 Jer 49:16 Ob 1:3. In the vicinity of Hebron, the poor still live in caves while pasturing their flocks. Natural cavities were sometimes enlarged, and artificial ones made for refuge and defense, Jud 6:2 1Sa 13:6 Isa 2:19 Jer 41:9. The caves of Machpelah, of Adullam, of Engedi, of Carmel and of Arbela, still exist. See SEPULCHRE.


A noble evergreen-tree greatly celebrated in the Scriptures, Ps 92:12 Eze 31:3-6. These trees are remarkably thick and tall; some among them are from thirty-five to forty feet in girth, and ninety feet in height. The cedar-tree shoots out branches at ten of twelve feet from the ground, large and almost horizontal; its leaves are an inch long, slender and straight, growing in tufts. The tree bears a small cone, like that of the pine. This celebrated tree is not peculiar to mount Lebanon, but grows also upon mounts Amanus and Taurus in Asia Minor, and in other parts of the Levant, but does not elsewhere reach the size and height of those on Lebanon. It has also been cultivated in the gardens of Europe; two venerable individuals of this species exist at Chiswick in England; and there is a very beautiful one in the Jardin des Plantes in Paris. The beauty of the cedar consists in the proportion and symmetry of its wide-spreading branches and cone-like top. The gum, which exudes both from the trunk and the cones or fruits, is soft like balsam of Mecca. Every thing about this tree has a strong balsamic odor; and hence the whole grove is so pleasant and fragrant, that it is delightful to walk in it, So 4:11 Ho 14:6. The wood is peculiarly adapted to building, because it is not subject to decay, nor to be eaten of worms; hence it was much used for rafters, and for boards with which to cover houses and form the floors and ceilings of rooms. It was of a red color, beautiful, solid, and free from knots. The palace of Persepolis, the temple at Jerusalem, and Solomonís palace, were all in this way built with cedar; and "the house of the forest of Lebanon," was perhaps so called from the quantity of this wood used in its construction, 1Ki 7:2 10:17.

Of the forests of cedars which once covered Lebanon, comparatively few are now left, Isa 2:13 10:19; though there are still many scattered trees in various parts, resembling the genuine cedar. The largest and most ancient trees, generally thought to be the only ones, are found in a grove, lying a little off from the road which crosses mount Lebanon from Baalbek to Tripole, at some distance below the summit of the mountain on the western side, at the foot indeed of the highest summit or ridge of Lebanon. This grove consists of a few very old trees, perhaps as old as the time of Christ, intermingled with 400 or 500 younger ones. See LEBANON.

Besides the true cedar of Lebanon, the word cedar in the Bible appears to mean sometimes the juniper and sometimes the pine.




The ancients took great pains to ornament the ceilings of their best apartments; making them sometimes of a sort of wainscoting, in squares or complicated figures; and sometimes of a fine plaster with beautiful moldings, tinted and relieved by gilding, small mirrors, etc., 1Ki 6:15 2Ch 3:5 Jer 22:14.


A port of Corinth, now called Kikries, whence Paul sailed for Ephesus, Ac 18:18. It was a place of some commercial note, and the seat of an early church, Ro 16:1. It was situated on the eastern side of the isthmus, eight or nine miles east of the city. The other port, on the western side of the isthmus, was Lechaeum.


A vessel in which fire and incense were carried, in certain parts of the Hebrew worship. Little is known of its form. The censer for the daily offering was at first made of copper, Nu 16:39. That used on the great Day of Atonement, (and perhaps others also,) was made of pure gold, 1Ki 7:50 Heb 9:4. In the daily offering, the censer was filled with coals from the perpetual fire, and placed on the altar of incense, where the incense was thrown upon the coals, Ex 30:1,7-10. On the day of atonement, in the Holy of Holies, the censer must have been held in the hand, and probably by a handle, Le 16:12,13.

There are two Hebrew words, which are translated censer in our English Bibles. The one signifies strictly fire-pan. The other signifies incense-pan, a vessel for burning incense; but we do not know its exact shape.

The censers of the Egyptians had long handles, like a human arm and hand, upon the palm of which the incense-cup stood. Those of the Greeks and Romans had chains, by which they were carried, like those now used in the Romish service.

In the New Testament, where the twenty-four elders are said to have golden "vials" full of odors, Re 5:8, the meaning is vessels of incense, censers, not vials in the present sense of the word.


A Roman officer commanding a hundred soldiers; similar to "captain" in modern times. Several centurions are mentioned with honor in the New Testament, Mr 15:39; Lu 7:1-10; and the first fruits to Christ from the Gentiles was the generous and devout Cornelius, Ac 10:1-48.


A rock, a Syriac or later Hebrew name given to Peter by Christ, Joh 1:42. The Greek Petros and the Latin Petrus have the same meaning. See PETER.




A precious stone, resembling the agate; of various colors, but often a light brown or blue, Re 21:19. It is found in most parts of the world, though named after Chalcedon in Bithynia opposite Constantinople; and is much used as a material for cups, vases, and other articles of taste. Carnelian is said to be one of its varieties.


A country in Asia, the capital of which, in its widest extent, was Babylon. It was originally of small extent; but the empire being afterwards very much enlarged, the name is generally taken in a more extensive sense, and includes Babylonia, which see.


This name is taken, 1. For the people of Chaldea, and the subjects of that empire generally; 2. For philosophers, naturalists, or soothsayers, whose principal employment was the study of mathematics and astrology, by which they pretended to foretell the destiny of men born under certain constellations.

The Chaldeans were originally a warlike people, who at first inhabited the Carduchian or Koordish mountains north of Assyria and Mesopotamia, Jer 50:17. As the Assyrian monarchs extended their conquests towards the north and west, the Chaldeans also came under their dominion; and this rough and energetic people appear to have assumed, under the sway of their conquerors, a new character, and to have been transformed from a rude horde into a civilized people. A very vivid and graphic description of the Chaldean warriors is given by the prophet Habakkuk, who probably lived about the time when they first made incursions into Palestine or the adjacent regions, Hab 1:6-11. Of the date of their location in Babylonia nothing is now known. In the reign of king Hezekiah, B. C. 713, a king of Babylon is mentioned, the first of whom we read after Nimrod and Amraphel. About one hundred years later we find the Chaldeans in possession of the kingdom of Babylon. The first sovereign in the new line appearing in history was Nabopolassar. His son Nebuchadnezzar invaded Palestine, as foretold by Jeremiah and Habakkuk, Ezr 5:12 Jer 39:5. He was succeeded by his son Evil-merodach, 2Ki 25:27 Jer 52:31. After him came, in quick succession, Neriglissar, Laborosoarchod, and Nabonnidus or Belshazzar, under whom this empire was absorbed in the Medo-Persian. The Chaldeo-babylonian dynasty continued probably not more than one hundred years.




2Ki 23:11, An officer who had charge of a kingís lodgings and wardrobe. In eastern courts eunuchs were generally employed in this office, Es 1:1-22,10,12,15. This title in Ro 16:23 probably denotes the steward or treasurer of the city.


Le 11:30, a kind of lizard. Its body is about six inches long: its feet have five toes each, arranged like two thumbs opposite to three fingers: its eyes turn backwards or forwards independently of each other. It feeds upon files, which it catches by darting out its long, viscous tongue. It has the faculty of inflating itself at pleasure with air; and of changing its color, from its ordinary gray to green, purple, and even black when enraged.


Not the well-known mountain goat of southern Europe, but probably a variety of wild sheep, resembling a goat, and still found in Arabia Petraea, De 14:5.


Merchants, 2Ch 9:14.




A large, shallow dish, Nu 7:13; Mt 14:8.


Scripture speaks of two sorts of these: one for princes and generals to ride in, Ge 41:43; the other to break the enemyís battalions, by rushing in among them, being "chariots of iron," that is, armed with iron scythes or hooks, projecting from the ends of the axle-trees. These made terrible havoc. The Canaanites, whom Joshua engaged at the waters of Meron, had horsemen, and a multitude of chariots, Jos 11:4 Jud 1:19. Sisera, general of Jabin king of Hazor, had nine hundred chariots of iron, Jud 4:3. See LITTER.


Ps 58:4,5; Ec 10:11; Jer 8:17, persons very common throughout India and Egypt, who claim to have the faculty of catching, taming, and controlling serpents, even the most venomous.


A river which rises in the northern part of Mesopotamia, and flows first southeast, then south and southwest, into the Euphrates. It was called Chaboras by the Greeks; now Khabour. On its fertile banks Nebuchadnezzar located a part of the captive Jews, and here the sublime visions of Ezekiel took place, Eze 1:3; 3:15; 10:15; 43:3.


King of Elam, in Persia, in the time of Abraham. He made the cities in the region of the Dead Sea his tributaries; and on their rebelling, he came with four allied kings and overran the whole country south and east of the Jordan. Lot was among his captives, but was rescued by Abraham; who promptly raised a force from his captives, but was rescued by Abraham; who promptly raised a force from his own dependents and his neighbors, pursued the enemy, and surprised and defeated them, Ge 14:1-24. Compare Ps 110:1- 7.


Several times alluded to in Scripture, and still an important article of food in the East, 1Sa 17:18; 2Sa 17:29. It is usually white and very salt; soft, when hew, but soon becoming hard and dry. The cheese was like a small saucer in size, Job 10:10.


Occurring once only in the English version, Zep 1:4, but frequently in the Hebrew, translated "idolatrous priests," 2Ki 23:5 Ho 10:5. The word is supposed to be derived from a root signifying to burn, and may perhaps denote fire-priests, worshippers of the sun.


The national god of the Moabites, and of the Ammonites, worshipped also under Solomon at Jerusalem, Nu 21:29; Jud 11:24; 1Ki 11:7; 2Ki 23:13; Jer 48:7. Some erroneously identify Chemosh with Ammon.


1. A portion of the Philistines, supposed by many to have originated in Crete, 1Sa 30:14 Eze 25:16 Zep 2:5

2. A portion of Davidís bodyguard, always mentioned with the Pelethites, 2Sa 8:18 15:18 20:7 1Ch 18:17. Some suppose that they were foreigners, whom David took into his service while among the Philistines. The Gittites mentioned with them in 2Sa 15:18, were plainly such. Others think they had their name from their office-executioners and runners. See PELETHITES.


A small brook flowing into the Jordan, to which Elijah once withdrew, and where ravens brought him supplies of bread and flesh, 1Ki 17:3-5. Robinson suggests that it may be the present Wady Kelt, which drains the hills west of Jericho, and flows near that town on its way to the Jordan. This brook is dry in summer.


Plural CHERUBIM, an order of celestial beings or symbolical representations often referred to in the Old Testament and in the book of Revelation. The cherubim are variously represented as living creatures, Eze 1:1-28 Re 4:1-11; or as images wrought in tapestry, gold, or wood, Ex 36:35 37:7 Eze 41:25; as having one, two, or four faces, Ex 25:20 Eze 10:14 41:18; as having two, four, or six wings, 1Ki 6:27 Eze 1:6 Re 4:8; in the simplest form, as in the golden figures above the ark of the covenant; or in the most complex and sublime form, as in Ezekielís wonderful visions of the glory of God-discerning and ruling all things, and executing irresistibly and with the speed of thought all his wise and just decrees, Eze 1:1-28 10:1-22. The fullest of these descriptions represents the cherub as a winged figure, like a man in form, full of eyes, and with a fourfold head-of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle-with wheels turning every way, and speed like the lightning; presenting the highest earthly forms and powers of creation in harmonious and perfect union, Eze 1:1-28 10:1-22 Re 1:4-11. Usually also the cherubim stand in a special nearness to God; they are engaged in the loftiest adoration and service, moving in instant accordance with his will, Ps 18:10 Eze 1:26 10:20 Re 4:1-11; they are seen in the temple inseparably associated with the mercy-seat-made of the same mass of pure gold, Ex 25:19, bending reverently over the place of Godís presence, Ps 99:1, where he met his people, Nu 7:89, accepted the blood of atonement, Le 16:14-16, and shone forth as their Savior, Ps 80:1.


Ge 30:37, called by the Septuagint and Vulgate the plane tree, with which most modern expositors agree. The plane tree has a tall and stately trunk, with smooth bark, and branches spreading in every direction, covered with a profusion of glossy green leaves. It is nowhere more abundant and noble than in the plains of Assyria, Eze 31:8.


Or CHISLOTH-TABOR, a town on the border of Zebulun and Issachar, about four miles west of mount marks its site, together with numerous excavated tombs, Jos 19:12,18,22 1Ch 6:62.


A numerous offspring was regarded as a signal blessing, Ps 127:3-5, and childless wives sought various means to escape the reproach of barrenness, which was deprecated in the blessing given to a newly married couple, Ru 4:11. The pangs of childbirth, in their suddenness and sharpness, are often alluded to in Scripture. The apostle Paul speaks of them as fruits and evidences of the fall; but assures those who abide in faith, that, amid all the suffering that reminds them that woman was first in the transgression, Ge 3:16, they may yet look trustfully to God for acceptance and salvation, 1Ti 2:15.

A newborn child was washed, rubbed with salt, and wrapped in swaddling clothes, Eze 16:4 Lu 2:7-11. On the eighth day he was circumcised and named. At his weaning a feast was often made, Ge 21:34. The nurse of a female child often attended her through life, Ge 24:59 35:8. Children were to be instructed with great diligence and care, De 6:20-23. They were required to honor and obey their parents, and were subject to the fatherís control in all things, Ge 22:21 Nu 30:5; they were even liable to be sold into temporary bondage for his debts, Le 25:39-41 2Ki 4:1 Mt 18:25.

The first-born son received, besides other privileges, (see BIRTHRIGHT,) two portions of his fatherís estate; the other sons, one portion each. The sons of concubines received presents, and sometimes an equal portion with the others, Ge 21:8-21 25:1-6 49:1-27 Jud 11:1-7. The daughters received no portion, except in cases provided for in Nu 27:1-11.

The term child or children, by a Hebrew idiom, is used to express a great variety of relations: the good are called children of God, of light, of the kingdom, etc.; the bad are named children of the devil, of wrath, of disobedience, etc. A strong man is called a son of strength; an impious man, a son of Belial; an arrow, the son of a bow, and a branch the son of a tree. The posterity of a man is his "sons," for many generations.


Probably a son a Barzillai, 2Sa 19:36; 1Ki 2:7. He may have received from David the place near Bethlehem called Chimham, Jer 41:17.


Or CINNEROTH, a town on the west shore of the sea of Galilee, Nu 34:11 De 3:17 Jos 11:2 19:35 1Ki 15:20. It was a "fenced city" of Naphtali, and gave its name to the lake on which it stood. Tiberias is supposed by Jerome to have afterwards occupied its site.


An island in the Archipelago, between Lesbos and Samos, on the coast of Asia Minor, now called Scio. It is thirty miles long and ten wide. Paul passed this way as he sailed southward from Mitylene to Samos, Ac 20:15.


The ninth month of the Hebrews, beginning with the new moon of December, Ne 1:1; Zec 7:1.


Or KITTIM, descendants of Javan, son of Japheth; and the land settled by them, Ge 10:4. Chittim seems to denote primarily the island Cyprus, and also to be employed, in a wider sense, to designate other islands and countries adjacent to the Mediterranean, as for instance, Macedonia, Da 11:30, and Rome, Nu 24:24.


The name of an idol worshipped by the Israelites in the desert, Am 5:26 Ac 7:43. It was most probably the planet Saturn, worshipped by eastern nations as an evil spirit to be propitiated by sacrifices. See REMPHAN.


A town in Galilee, near to Capernaum and Bethsaida, on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee. Jerome says it was two miles from Capernaum. No traces of its name remain; but Robinson with strong probability locates it at the modern Tell-hum, on the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee, three miles northeast of Capernaum. It was upbraided by Christ for its impenitence, Mt 11:21; Lu 10:13.


Anointed, a Greek word, answering to the Hebrew MESSIAH, the consecrated or anointed one, and given preeminently to our blessed Lord and Savior. See MESSIAH and JESUS.

The ancient Hebrews, being instructed by the prophets, had clear notions of the Messiah; but these became gradually depraved, so that when Jesus appeared in Judea, the Jews entertained a false conception of the Messiah, expecting a temporal monarch and conqueror, who should remove the Roman yoke and subject the whole world. Hence they were scandalized at the outward appearance, the humility, and seeming weakness of our Savior. The modern Jews, including still greater mistakes, form to themselves ideas of the Messiah utterly unknown to their forefathers.

The ancient prophets had foretold that the Messiah should be God, and man; exalted, and abased; master, and servant; priest, and victim; prince, and subject; involved in death, yet victor over death; rich, and poor; a king, a conqueror, glorious-and a man of grief, exposed to infirmities, unknown, in a state of abjection and humiliation. All these contrarieties were to be reconciled in the person of the Messiah; as they really were in the person of Jesus.

It is not recorded that Christ ever received any external official unction. The unction that the prophets and the apostles speak of is the spiritual and internal unction of grace and of the Holy Ghost, of which kings, priests, and prophets were anciently anointed, was but the figure and symbol.

The name CHRIST is the official title of the Redeemer; and is not to be regarded as a mere appellative, to distinguish our Lord from other persons named Jesus. The force of many passages of Scripture is greatly weakened by overlooking this. We may get the true sense of such passages by substituting for "Christ," "the Anointed," and where Jews were addressed, "THE MESSIAH." Thus in Mt 2:4, Herod "demanded of them," the priests and scribes, "where Christ should be born," that is, the Old Testament Messiah. Peter confessed, "thou art the Messiah," Mt 16:16. The devils did the same, Lu 4:41. In later times the name JESUS was comparatively disused; and CHRIST, as a proper name, was used instead of JESUS.

When we consider the relation of Christís person, as God and man, to his official work as our Prophet, Priest, and King, and to his states of humiliation and glory; when we consider how God is in and with him-how all the perfections of God are displayed, and all the truths of God exemplified in him; when we consider his various relations to the purposes, covenants, word, and ordinances of God, and to the privileges, duties, and services of saints, in time and to eternity, we have a delightful view of him as ALL and IN ALL, Col 3:11.


Our Savior predicted that many pretended Messiahs would come, Mt 24:24 and his word has been abundantly fulfilled. One of them named Coziba lived within followers, and occasioned the death of more than half a million of Jews. Others have continued to appear, even down to modern times.


A name given at Antioch to those who believed Jesus to be the Messiah, A. D. 42, Ac 11:26. It seems to have been given to them by the men of Antioch as a term of convenience rather than of ridicule, to designate the new sect more perfectly than any other word could do. They generally called each other "brethren," "the faithful," "saints," "believers;" and were named by the Gentiles, Nazarenes and Galileans. He only is a real Christian who heartily accepts Christ as his teacher, guide, and master, the source of his highest life, strength, and joy, his only Redeemer from sin and hell, his Lord and his God. They who rightly bear Christís name and partake of his nature, and they only, shall finally share in his glory.


The name of two historical books of the Old Testament, the author of which is not known, though the general opinion ascribes them to Ezra, B. C. 457. In writing them the inspired penman made use, not only of the earlier books of Scripture, but of numerous other public annals, now lost, 2Ch 9:29 16:11 20:32. The first book contains a recapitulation of sacred history, by genealogies, from the beginning of the world to the death of David. The second book contains the history of the kings of Judah, without those of Israel, from the beginning of the reign of Solomon only, to the return from the captivity of Babylon. In this respect it differs from the books of Kings, which give the history of the kings of both Judah and Israel. In many places, where the history of the same kings is related, the narrative in Chronicles is almost a copy of that in Kings; in other places, the one serves as a supplement to the other. In the Septuagint, these books are called Paraleipomena, that is, things omitted. The two books of Chronicles dwell more on ecclesiastical matters than the books of Kings; they enlarge upon the ordinances of public worship; and detail minutely the preparation of David for the building of the temple, and its erection and dedication by Solomon; the histories of the other kings also are specially full in respect to their religious character and acts, 1Ch 13:8-11 2Ch 11:13 19:8-11 26:16-19, etc. The Chronicles should be read in connection with the books of Samuel and the Kings; treating of the same periods, they illustrate each other, and form a continuous and instructive history, showing that religion is the main source of national prosperity, and ungodliness of adversity, Pr 14:34. The details of these books may be studied with interest, in view of their bearing upon the coming and the kingdom of our Lord Jesus Christ. The whole period treated of in the Chronicles is about 3,500 years.


A transparent precious stone, having the color of gold with a mixture of green, and a fine luster, Re 21:20. Many suppose it to be the topaz of the moderns.


The tenth of those precious stones which adorned the foundation of the heavenly Jerusalem, as seen by John the Evangelist. Its color was green, inclining to gold, as its name imports, Re 21:20.


Elsewhere called BEROTHAH, BEROTHAI, which see.


The Greek word translated church signifies generally an assembly, either common or religious; and it is sometimes so translated, as in Ac 19:32,39. In the New Testament it usually means a congregation of religious worshippers, either Jewish, as Ac 7:38, or Christians, as Mt 16:18 1Co 6:4. The latter sense is the more common one; and it is thus used in a twofold manner, denoting,

1. The universal Christian church: either the invisible church, consisting of those whose names are written in heaven, whom God knows, but whom we cannot infallibly know, Heb 12:23; or the visible church, made up of the professed followers of Christ on earth, Col 1:24 1Ti 3:5,15

2. A particular church or body of professing believers, who meet and worship together in one place; as the churches of Rome, Corinth, Ephesus, Philippi, etc., to which Paul addressed epistles.


Pr 30:33. See BUTTER.


A king of Mesopotamia, who oppressed the Israelites eight years, but was defeated by Othniel, Calebís nephew, Jud 3:8-10.




The south-eastern province of Asia Minor, bounded north by the Taurus range, separating it from Cappadocia, Lycaonia, and Isauria, south by the Mediterranean, east by Syria, and west by Pamphylia. The western part had the appellation of Aspera, or rough; while the eastern was called Campestris, or level. This country was the province of Cicero when proconsul; and its chief town, Tarsus, was the birthplace of the apostle Paul, Ac 6:9. Many Jews dwelt in Cilicia, and maintained frequent intercourse with Jerusalem, where they joined the other Jews in opposing the progress of Christianity. Paul himself may have taken part in the public discussion with Stephen, Ac 6:9 7:58. After his conversion he visited his native province, Ac 9:30 Ga 1:21, and established churches, which were addressed in the letter of the council at Jerusalem, Ac 15:23. The apostle once afterwards made a missionary tour among these churches, his heart yearning to behold and to increase their prosperity, Ac 15:36,41.


One of the ingredients in the perfumed oil with which the tabernacle and its vessels were anointed, Ex 30:23 Pr 7:17 So 4:14. It is the inner bark of a tree growing about twenty feet high, and being peeled off in thin strips curls as it is found in market. It is of a dark red color, of a poignant taste, aromatic, and very agreeable. That of the finest quality comes from Ceylon, Re 18:13.


A cutting around, because in this rite the foreskin was cut away. God commanded Abraham to use circumcision, as a sign of his covenant; and in obedience to this order, the patriarch, at ninety-nine years of age, was circumcised, as also his son Ishmael, and all the male of his household, Ge 17:10-12. God repeated the precept to Moses, and ordered that all who intended to partake of the paschal sacrifice should receive circumcision; and that this rite should be performed on children on the eighth day after their birth, Ex 12:44 Le 12:3 Joh 7:22. The Jews have always been very exact in observing this ceremony, and it appears that they did not neglect it when in Egypt, Jos 5:1-9.

All the other nations sprung from Abraham besides the Hebrews, as the Ishmaelites, the Arabians, etc., also retained the practice of circumcision. At the present day it is an essential rite of the Mohammedan religion, and though not enjoined in the Koran, prevails wherever this religion is found. It is also practiced in some form among the Abyssinians, and various tribes of South Africa, as it was by the ancient Egyptians. But there is no proof that it was practiced upon infants, or became a general, national, or religious custom, before God enjoined it upon Abraham.

The Jews esteemed uncircumcision as a very great impurity; and the greatest offence they could receive was to be called "uncircumcised." Paul frequently mentions the Gentiles under this term, not opprobriously, Ro 2.26, in opposition to the Jews, whom he names "the circumcision," etc.

Disputes as to the observances of this rite by the converts from heathenism to Christianity occasioned much trouble in the early church, Ac 15:1-41; and it was long before it was well understood that "in Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but a new creature," Ga 5:2,3 6:15.

The true circumcision is that of the heart; and those are "uncircumcised in heart and ears," who will not obey the law of God nor embrace the gospel of Christ.


And reservoirs were very common in Palestine, both in the country and in cities. During half the year no rain falls, and never- failing streams and springs are rare indeed. The main dependence of a large portion of the population was upon the water which fell in the rainy season and was preserved in cisterns, 2Sa 17:18. Dr. Robinson alludes to immense reservoirs within and under the area of the temple, supplied by rainwater and by the aqueduct from Solomonís pools, and says, "These of themselves, in case of a siege, would furnish a tolerable supply. But in addition to these, almost every house in Jerusalem, of any size, is understood to have at least one or more cisterns, excavated in the soft limestone rock on which the city is built. The water is conducted into them during the rainy season, and with proper care remains pure and sweet during the whole summer and autumn." Such cisterns, and others more properly called tanks and pools, were provided in the fields for irrigation, and at intervals along the highways, for the accommodation of travellers, Ps 84:6. The same causes led to the erection, near all the chief cities, of large open reservoirs for public use. These were built of massive stones, and in places where the winter rains could be easily conducted into them. Many such reservoirs, and ruins of others, yet remain. See BETHESDA, SILOAM, SOLOMONíS POOLS.


The towns and cities of Palestine were commonly built on heights, for better security against robbers or invaders. These heights, surrounded by walls, sometimes formed the entire city. In other cases, the citadel alone crowned the hill, around and at the base of which the town was built; and in time of danger the surrounding population all took refuge in the fortified place. Larger towns and cities were often not only defended by strong outer walls, with towers and gates, but by a citadel or castle within these limits-a last resort when the rest of the city was taken, Jud 9:46,51. The "fenced cities" of the Jews, De 3:5, were of various sizes and degrees of strength; some being surrounded by high and thick stone walls, and others by feebler ramparts, often of clay or sun-dried bricks, and sometimes combustible, Isa 9:10 Am 1:7-14. They were also provided with watchmen, Ps 127:1 So 5:7. The streets of ancient towns were usually narrow, and often unpaved. Some cities were adorned with vast parks and gardens; this was the case with Babylon, which embraced an immense at this day to form any reliable estimate of the population of the cities of Judea. Jerusalem is said by Josephus to have had 150,000 inhabitants, and to have contained, at the time of its siege by the Romans, more than a million of persons crowded in its circuit of four miles of wall. See GATE, REFUGE, CITIES OF, WATCHMEN.

CITY OF DAVID, usually denotes mount Zion, the southwest section of Jerusalem, which David took from the Jebusites, and occupied by a palace and city called by his name. In Lu 2:11, Bethlehem his native city is meant.

CITY OF GOD, De 12:5 Ps 46:4, and the HOLY, HOLINESS CITY, Ne 11:1, names of Jerusalem. Its modern name is El-Kuds, the Holy.


A small island near the southwest shore of Crete, approached by Paul in his voyage to Jerusalem, Ac 27:16. It is now called Gozzo, and is occupied by about thirty families.


A Christian woman, probably a convert of Paul at Rome 2Ti 4:21.


Fifth emperor of Rome, succeeded Caius Caligula, A. D. 41, and was followed by Nero, after a reign of thirteen years. He endowed Agrippa with royal authority over Judea, which on the death of Agrippa again became a province of Rome, A. D. 45. About this time probably occurred the famine foretold by Agabus, Ac 11:28. In the ninth year of his reign, he banished all Jews from Rome, Ac 18:2. In A. D. 43-44, he made a military expedition to Britain. His death was caused by poison, from the hand of his wife and niece Agrippina.






Designed for earthenware was trodden by the feet to mix it well, Isa 41:25, was molded on a wheel, and then baked in a kiln, Jer 18:3 43:9. The potterís art is referred to in Scripture to illustrate manís dependence upon God, Isa 64:8 Ro 9:21. See POTTER. Clay seems to have been also used in sealing, as wax is with us, Job 38:14. The bricks of Babylon are found marked with a large seal or stamp, and modern travellers find the locks of doors in eastern khans and granaries sealed on the outside with clay.


Terms often used in the Bible in a ceremonial sense; assigned to certain animals, and to men in certain cases, by the law of Moses, Le 11:1-15:33 Nu 19:1-22 De 14:1-29. A distinction between clean and unclean animals existed before the deluge, Ge 7:2. The Mosaic law was not merely arbitrary, but grounded on reasons connected with animal sacrifices, with health, with the separation of the Jews from other nations, and their practice of moral purity, Le 11:43-45 20:24-26 De 14:2,3,21. The ritual law was still observed in the time of Christ, but under the gospel is annulled, Ac 10:9-16.

Ceremonial uncleanness was contracted by the Jews in various ways, voluntarily and involuntarily. It was removed, usually at the evening of the same day, by bathing. In other cases a week, or even forty or fifty days, and some sacrificial offerings, were required.


Mentioned in Php 4:3. It is conjectured, though without evidence, that this is the same Clement who was afterwards a bishop at Rome, commonly called Clemens Romanus. The church at Corinth having been disturbed by divisions, Clement wrote a letter to the Corinthians, which was so much esteemed by the ancients, that they read it publicly in many churches.


The husband of Mary, Joh 19:25, called also ALPHEUS, which see. The Cleopas mentioned in Lu 24:18, probably was a different person.




PILLAR OF, the miraculous token of the divine presence and care, Ex 14:24 16:10 Nu 12:5, which guided the Israelites in the desert; it was a means of protection and perhaps of shade by day, and gave them light by night, Ex 13:21,22 14:19,20. By it God directed their movements, Nu 9:15-23 14:14 De 1:33. See the beautiful application of the image to the future church in Isa 4:5.


In the summer season of Palestine, were an unlooked-for phenomenon, 1Sa 12:17,18, and rising from off the Mediterranean, betokened rain, 1Ki 18:44 Lu 12:54. Clouds are the symbol of armies and multitudes, probably by their grand and majestic movements, Isa 60:8 Jer 4:13 Heb 12:1. They betokened the presence of Jehovah, as on mount Sinai,

Ex 19:9 24:12-18; in the temple, Ex 40:34 1Ki 8:10; in the cloudy pillar, and on the mount of Transfiguration. They are found in many representations of the majesty of God, Ps 18:11,12 97:2; and of Christ, Mt 24:30 Re 14:14-16.


A town and peninsula of Doris in Caria, jutting out from the southwest corner of Asia Minor, between the islands of Rhodes and Cos. It had a fine harbor, and was celebrated for the worship of Venus. Paul passed by it in his voyage to Rome, Ac 27:7.


Usually in Scripture, charcoal, or the embers of fire. Mineral coal is now procured in mount Lebanon, eight hours from Beirut; but we have no certainty that it was known and used by the Jews. The following passages are those which most strongly suggest this substance, 2Sa 22:9,13; Job 41:21.


An old English word of obscure origin, used by our translators to designate the Hebrew Tzepha, or Tsiphoni, a serpent of a highly venomous character, Isa 14:29 59:5 Jer 8:17. See SERPENT.


The third watch of the night, in the time of Christ. See HOUR.


A plant growing among wheat, Job 31:40. The Hebrew word seems to denote some noisome weed which infests cultivated grounds.


A city of Phrygia, situated on a hill near the junction of the Lycus with the Meander, and not far from the cities Hierapolis and Laodicea, Col 2:1 4:13,15. With these cities it was destroyed by an earthquake in the tenth year of Nero, about A. D. 65, while Paul was yet living. It was soon rebuilt. The church of Christians in this city, to whom Paul wrote, seems to have been gathered by Epaphras, Col 1:7-9 4:12,13. In modern times the place is called Chonos.


Was written by Paul, from Rome, A. D. 62. The occasion of the letter was the intelligence brought him by Epaphras, Col 1:6-8, respecting the internal state of the church, which apparently he himself had not yet visited, Col 2:1, though familiar with their history and affairs, Ac 16:6 18:23. Some Jewish philosopher professing Christianity, but mingling with it a superstitious regard for the law and other errors, seems to have gained a dangerous ascendancy in the church. Paul shows that all our hope of salvation is in Christ the only mediator, in whom all fullness dwells; he cautions the Colossians against the errors introduced among them, as inconsistent with the gospel, and incites them by most persuasive arguments to a temper and conduct worthy of their Christian character. The epistle was written at the same time with that to the Ephesians, and was sent by the same bearer. The two closely resemble each other, and should be studied together.


Greek PARACLETE, an advocate, teacher, or consoler. This title is given to our Savior: "We have an advocate (paraclete) with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous," 1Jo 2:1. But more frequently it designates the Holy Spirit. He is the "other Comforter," succeeding Christ, the great promised blessing of the Christian church, Joh 14:16,17,26 15:1-27 16:1-33 Lu 24:29 Ac 1:4. The English word Comforter does not adequately describe the office of the Paraclete, who was not only to console, but to aid and direct them, as Christ had done. The disciples found the promise fulfilled to them. The Comforter aided them when called before councils; guided them into all truth respecting the plan of salvation; brought to their remembrance the words and deeds of Christ; and revealed to them things to come. His presence was accompanied by signal triumphs of grace, and made amends for the absences of Christ. The church is still under the dispensation of the Comforter, and still he convinces the world of sin, of righteousness, and of the judgement to come.


Profane, ceremonially unclean, Mr 7:2,5; Ac 10:14,15; Ro 14:14.


Cutting, a term of reproach, applied to certain Judaizing teachers at Philippi, as mere cutters of the flesh; in contrast with the true circumcision, those who were created anew in Christ Jesus unto righteousness and true holiness, Php 3:2.


A term which, in modern authors, commonly signifies a woman who, without being married to a man, lives with him as his wife; but in the Bible the word concubine is understood in another sense- meaning a lawful wife, but of a secondary rank. She differed from a proper wife in that she was not married by solemn stipulation, but only betrothed; she brought no dowry with her, and had no share in the government of the family. She was liable to be repudiated, or sent away with a gift, Ge 21:14, and her children might be treated in the same way, and not share in their fatherís inheritance, Ge 25:6. On cause of concubinage is shown in the history of Abraham and Jacob, Ge 16:16. Concubinage, however, became a general custom, and the Law of Moses restricted its abuses, Ex 21:7-9 De 21:10-14, but never sanctioned it. The gospel has restored the original law of marriage, Ge 2:24 Mt 19:5 1Co 7:2, and concubinage is ranked with fornication and adultery.


An old English name for the rabbit; used in Scripture to translate the Hebrew SHAPHAN, which agrees with the Ashkoko or Syrain Hyrax, Le 11:5 De 14:7 Ps 104:18 Pr 30:26. This animal is externally of the size and form of the rabbit, and of a brownish color. It is, however, much clumsier in its structure, without tail, and having long bristly hairs scattered through the fur. The feet are naked below, and the nails flat and rounded, except those in the inner toe of the hind feet, which are long and awl-shaped. They cannot dig, but reside in the clefts of rocks. They are called by Solomon, "wise," and "a feeble folk;" they are timid and gregarious in their habits, and so gentle and quiet, that they shrink from the shadow of a passing bird. The name of Spain is said to have been given to it by Phoenician voyagers, who seeing its western coast overrun with animals resembling the shaphan, called it Hispania, or Coley-land. Some eminent interpreters think the SHAPHAN means the Jerboa.




Is that faculty common to all free moral agents, Ro 2:13-15, in virtue of which we discern between right and wrong, and are prompted to choose the former and refuse the latter. Its appointed sphere is in the regulation, according to the will of God revealed in nature and the Bible, of all our being and actions so far as these have a moral character. The existence of this faculty proves the soul accountable at the bar of its Creator, and its voice is in an important sense the voice of God. We feel that when pure and fully informed, it is an unerring guide to duty, and that no possible array of inducements can justify us in disregarding it. In man, however, though this conviction that we must do what is right never fails, yet the value of conscience is greatly impaired by its inhering in a depraved soul, whose evil tendencies warp and pervert our judgment on all subjects. Thus Paul verily thought that he ought to persecute the followers of Christ, Ac 26:9. His sin was in his culpable neglect to enlighten his conscience by all the means in his power, and to purify it by divine grace. A terrible array of conscientious errors and persecutions, which have infested and afflicted the church in all ages, warns us of our individual need of perfect light and sanctifying grace. A "good" and "pure" conscience, 1Ti 1:5 3:9, is sprinkled with Christís blood, clearly discerns the will of God, and urges us to obey it from the gospel motives; in proportion as we thus obey it, it is "void of offence," Ac 24:16, and its approbation is one of the most essential elements of happiness. A "weak," or irresolute and blind conscience, 1Co 8:7; a "defiled" conscience, the slave of a corrupt heart, Tit 1:15 Heb 10:22; and a "seared" conscience, 1Ti 4:2, hardened against the law and the gospel alike, unless changed by grace, will at length become an avenging conscience, the instrument of a fearful and eternal remorse. No bodily tortures can equal the agony it inflicts; and though it may slumber here, it will hereafter be like the worm that never dies and the fire that never can be quenched.


Suitable and right, Ro 1:28.


In the Bible, usually means the whole tenor of oneís life, intercourse with his fellow men, Ga 1:13 Eph 4:22 1Pe 1:15. Another word is employed in Php 3:20, which means, "our citizenship is in heaven." For conversation in modern sense of discourse, the English version generally has communication, 2Ki 9:11 Mt 5:37 Eph 4:29.


A small island of the Grecian archipelago, at a short distance from the southwest point of Asia Minor. Paul passed it in his voyage to Jerusalem, Ac 21:1. It is now called Stanchio. It was celebrated for its fertility, for wine and silkworms, and for the manufacture of silk and cotton of a beautiful texture.


One of the primitive metals, and the most ductile and malleable after gold and silver. Of this metal and zinc is made brass, which is a modern invention. There is little doubt but that copper is intended in those passages of our translation on the Bible which speak of brass. Copper was known prior to the flood, and was wrought by Tubal-cain, Ge 4:22. Hiram of Tyre was a celebrated worker in copper, 1Ki 7:14. Palestine abounded in it, De 8:9, and David amassed great quantities to be employed in building the temple, 1Ch 22:3-14. In Ezr 8:27, two vessels are mentioned "of fine copper, precious as gold." This was probably a metal compounded of copper, with gold or silver, or both. It was extolled for its beauty, solidity, and rarity, and for some uses was referred to gold itself. Some compound of this kind may have been used for the small mirrors mentioned in Ex 38:8 Job 37:18. See BRASS.


A hard calcareous, marine production, produced by the labors of millions of insects, and often resembling in figure the stem of a plant, divided into branches. It is of various colors, black, white, and red. The latter is the most valuable. It is ranked by Job 28:18, and Eze 27:16, among precious stones. It abounds in the Red sea; and the islands of the South seas are often coral reefs, covered over with earth. The word "rubies" in Pr 3:15; 8:11; 20:15; 31:10, is thought by many to mean ornaments of coral.


A sacred gift, a present devoted to God, or to his temple, Mt 23:18. Our Savior reproaches the Jews with cruelty towards their parents, in making a corbon of what should have been appropriated to their use. The son would say to his needy parents, "It is a gift- whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me," that is, I have already devoted to God that which you request of me, Mr 7:11; and the traditionary teachings of the Jewish doctors would enforce such a vow, and not suffer him to do aught for his parents against it, although it was contrary to nature and reason, and made void the law of God as to honoring parents, Mt 15:3-9. The Pharisees, and the Talmudists their successors, permitted even debtors to defraud their creditors by consecrating their debt to God; as if the property were their own, and not rather the right of their creditor.


A small round seed of an aromatic plant. The plant is a native of China, and is widely diffused in Asia and the south of Europe. Its seeds are planted in March. They are employed as a spice in the East, and are much used by druggists, confectionarists, etc. The manna which fell in the wilderness was like coriander-seed, Ex 16:31 Nu 11:7. See MANNA.


Called anciently Ephyra, the capital of Achaia, and seated on the isthmus which separates the Ionian Sea from the Aegean, and hence called bimaris, "on two seas." The city itself stood a little inland; but it had two ports, Lechaeum on the west, and Cenchrea on the east. Its position gave it great commercial and military importance; for while the traffic of the east and west poured through its gates, as over the isthmus of Darien the commerce of two oceans, it was also at the gate of the Peloponnesus, and was the highway between Northern and Southern Greece. Its defense, besides the city walls, was in the Acro-corinth, a mass of rock, rising 2,000 feet above the sea, with precipitous sides, and with room for a town upon its summit. Corinth thus became one of the most populous and wealthy cities of Greece; but its riches produced pride, ostentation, effeminacy, and all the vices generally consequent on plenty. Lasciviousness, particularly, was not only tolerated, but consecrated here, by the worship of Venus, and the notorious prostitution of numerous attendants devoted to her. Corinth was destroyed by the Romans, B.C. 146. It was afterwards restored by Julius Caesar, who planted in it a Roman colony; but though it soon regained its ancient splendor, it also relapsed into all its former dissipation and licentiousness. Paul arrived at Corinth, A. D. 52, Ac 18:1, and lodged with Aquila and his wife Priscilla, who, as well as himself, were tentmakers. Supporting himself by this labor, he remained at Corinth a year and a half, preaching the gospel at first to the Jews, and afterwards more successfully to the Gentiles. During this time he wrote the epistles to the Thessalonians; and in a subsequent visit, the epistles to the Galatians and Romans. Some suppose he made a short intervening visit, not narrated in the Bible. Compare 2Co 13:1 with 2Co 1:15 2:1 12:14,21 13:2. Apollos followed him in his labors at Corinth, and Aquila and Sosthenes were also among its early minister, Ac 18:1 1Co 1:1 16:19. Its sited is now unhealthy and almost deserted, with few vestiges of its former greatness.


EPISTLE 1. This was written by Paul at Ephesus, about A.D. 57, upon the receipt of intelligence respecting the Corinthian church, conveyed by members of the family of Chole, 1Co 1:11, and by a letter from the church requesting advice, 1Co 7:1, probably brought by Stephanus, etc., 1Co 16:17. Certain factions had arisen in the church, using his name and those of Peter, Apollos, and of Christ himself, in bitter partisan contentions. In the first part of this letter he endeavors to restore harmony among them, by reuniting them to the great and sole Head of the church. He then takes occasion to put them on their guard against teachers of false philosophy, and resting their faith on the wisdom of men instead the simple but mighty word of God. He proceeds, in 1Co 5:1-13, to reprove them for certain gross immoralities tolerated among them, such as they had formerly practiced like all around them, but which he charges them to banish form the church of Christ. He replies to their queries respecting celibacy and marriage, and the eating of food offered to idols; and meets several errors and sins prevalent in the church by timely instructions as to disputes among brethren, decorum in public assemblies, the Lordís supper, the resurrection of believers, true charity, and the right use of spiritual gifts, in which the Corinthian Christians excelled, but not without a mixture of ostentation and disorder. He directs them as to the best method of Christian beneficence, and closes with friendly greetings.

EPISTLE 2. This was occasioned by intelligence received through Titus, at Philippi. Paul learned of the favor reception of his former letter, and the good effect produced, and yet that a party remained opposed to him-accusing him of fickleness in not fulfilling his promise to visit them; blaming his severity towards the incestuous person; and charging him with an arrogance and assumption unsuited to his true authority and his personal appearance. In the course of his reply he answers all these objections; he enlarges upon the excellence of the new covenant, and the duties and rewards of its ministers, and on the duty of the Corinthian Christians as to charitable collections. He then vindicates his own course, his dignity and authority as an apostle, against those who assailed him. His last words invite them to penitence, peace, and brotherly love. This epistle seems to have been written soon after the first.


A water bird about the size of a goose. It lives on fish, which it catches with great dexterity; and is so voracious and greedy, that its name has passed into a kind of proverbial use. The Hebrew word translated "cormorant" in Isa 34:11 Zep 2:14, should rather be translated, as it is in other passages, "pelican," Le 11:17.


In the Bible, is the general word for grain of all kinds, including various seeds, peas, and beans. It never means, as in America, simply maize, or Indian corn. Palestine was anciently very fertile in grain, which furnished in a great measure the support of the inhabitants. "Corn, wine, and oil-olive" were the staple products, and wheat and barley still grow there luxuriantly, when cultivated. Wheat was often eaten in the field, the ripe ear being simply rubbed in the hands to separate the kernels, De 23:25 Mt 12:1. Parched wheat was a part of the ordinary food of the Israelites, as it still is of the Arabs, Ru 2:14 2Sa 17:28,29; by the feet of cattle, De 25:4; or by "a sharp threshing instrument having teeth," Isa 41:15, which was something resembling a cart, drawn over the corn by means of horses or oxen. See THRESHING.

When the grain was threshed, it was separated from the chaff and dust by throwing it forward across the wind, by means of a winnowing fan, or shovel, Mt 3:12; after which the grain was sifted, to separate all impurities from it, Am 9:9 Lu 22:31. Hence we see that the threshing-floors were in the open air, and if possible on high ground, as travellers still find them in actual use, Jud 6:11 2Sa 24:18. The grain thus obtained was sometimes pounded in a mortar, Nu 11:8 Re 18:22, but was commonly reduced to meal by the hand-mill. This consisted of a lower millstone, the upper side of which was slightly concave, and an upper millstone, the lower surface of which was convex. These stones were each about two feet in diameter, and half a foot thick; and were called "the nether millstone," and the rider, Job 41:24 Jud 9:53 2Sa 11:21. The hole for receiving the corn was in the center of the upper millstone; and in the operation of grinding, the lower was fixed, and the upper made to move round upon it with considerable velocity by means of a handle. The meal came out at the edges, and was received on a cloth spread under the mill on the ground. Each family possessed a mill, and the law forbade its being taken in pledge, De 24:6; one among innumerable examples of the humanity of the Mosaic legislation. These mills are still in use in the East, and in some parts of Scotland. Dr. E.D. Clarke says, "In the island of Cyprus I observed upon the ground the sort of stones used for grinding corn, called querns in Scotland, common also in Lapland, and in all parts of Palestine." These are the primeval mills of the world; and they are still found in all corn countries where rude and ancient customs have not been liable to those changes introduced by refinement. The employment of grinding with these mills is confined solely to females, who sit on the ground with the mill before them, and thus may be said to be "behind the mill," Ex 11:5; and the practice illustrates the prophetic observation of our Savior concerning the day of Jerusalemís destruction: "Two women shall be grinding at the mill; one shall be taken and the other left," Mt 24:41. To this feminine occupation Samson was degraded, Jud 16:21. The women always accompany the grating noise of the stones with their voices; and when ten or a dozen are thus employed, the fury of the song rises to a high pitch. As the grinding was usually performed in the morning at daybreak, the noise of the females at the hand-mill was heard all over the city, and often awoke their more indolent masters. The Scriptures mention the want of this noise as a mark of desolation, Jer 25:10 Re 18:22.


A Roman centurion, stationed at Caesarea in Palestine, supposed to have been of a distinguished family in Rome. He was "the first gentile convert;" and the story of his reception of the gospel shows how God broke down the partition-wall between Jews and Gentiles. When first mentioned, Ac 10:1, he had evidently been led by the Holy Spirit to renounce idolatry, to worship the true God, and to lead, in the midst of profligacy, a devout and beneficent life; he was prepared to receive the Savior, and God did not fail to reveal Him. Cornelius was miraculously directed to send for Peter, who was also miraculously prepared to attend the summons. He went from Joppa to Caesarea, thirty-five miles, preached the gospel to Cornelius and his friends, and saw with wonder the miraculous gifts of the Spirit poured upon them all. Providence thus explained his recent vision in the trance; he nobly discarded his Jewish prejudices, and at once began his great work as apostle to the Gentiles by receiving into the church of Christ those whom Christ had so manifestly accepted, Ac 10:11.


A massive stone, usually distinct from the foundation, Jer 51:26; and so placed at the corner of the building as to bind together the two walls meeting upon it. Such a stone is found at Baalbek, twenty-eight feet long, six and a half feet wide, and four feet thick.

Our Lord is compared in the New Testament to a corner stone in three different points of view. First, as this stone lies at the foundation, and serves to give support and strength to the building, so Christ, or the doctrine is the most important feature of the Christina religion-as a system of truths, and as a living power in the souls of men. Further, as the corner stone occupies an important and conspicuous place, Jesus is compared to it, 1Pe 2:6, because God has given him, as the Mediator, a dignity and conspicuousness above all others. Lastly, since men often stumble against a projecting corner stone, Christ is so called, Mt 21:42, because his gospel will be the cause of aggravated condemnation to those who reject it.


A wind instrument of music, of a curved form, 1Ch 15:28 Da 3:5,7. See MUSIC.


Enclosures for the safe keeping of sheep, 2Ch 32:28. See SHEEP.


A rustic tent or shelter, made perhaps of boughs, Isa 24:20.


Was a native product of India, and perhaps of Egypt, and is supposed to be intended in some of the passages where the English version has "fine linen." It had been much disputed whether cotton clothe was used by the ancient Hebrews and Egyptian mummies were wrapped, proves that this material was sometimes used, especially for children. See FLAX, LINEN.


See BED.


Is occasionally taken for any kind of assembly; sometimes for that of the Sanhedrin; at others, for a convention of pastors met to regulate ecclesiastical affairs. Thus the assembly of the apostles, etc., at Jerusalem, Ac 15:1-41, to determine whether the yoke of the law should be imposed on gentile converts, is commonly reputed to be the first council of the Christian church. See SANHEDRIN.


The order in which the priests were on duty at the temple. See ABIA.


An enclosed space or yard within the limits of an oriental house, 2Sa 17:18. For the courts of the temple, see TEMPLE. The tabernacle also had a court. All oriental houses are built in the form of a hollow spare around a court. See HOUSE.


The word testamentum is often used in Latin to express the Hebrew word which signifies covenant; whence the titles, Old and New Testaments, are used to denote the old and new covenants. See TESTAMENT.

A covenant is properly an agreement between two parties. Where one of the parties is infinitely superior to the other, as in a covenant between God and man, there Godís covenant assumes the nature of a promise, Isa 59:21 Jer 31:33,34 Ga 3:15-18. The first covenant with the Hebrews was made when the Lord chose Abraham and his posterity for his people; a second covenant, or a solemn renewal of the former, was made at Sinai, comprehending all who observe the law of Moses. The "new covenant" of which Christ is the Mediator and Author, and which was confirmed by his blood, comprehends all who believe in him and are born again, Ga 4:24 Heb 7:22 8:6-13 9:15-23 12:24. The divine covenants were ratified by the sacrifice of a victim, to show that without an atonement there could be no communication of blessing and salvation form God to man, Ge 15:1-8 Ex 24:6-8 Heb 9:6. Eminent believers among the covenant people of God were favored by the establishment of particular covenants, in which he promised them certain temporal favors; but these were only renewals to individuals of the "everlasting covenant," with temporal types and pledges of its fulfilment. Thus God covenanted with Noah, Abraham, and David, Ge 9:8,9 17:4,5 Ps 89:3,4, and gave them faith in the Savior afterwards to be revealed, Ro 3:25 Heb 9:15.

In common discourse, we usually say the old and new testaments, or covenants-the covenant between God and the posterity of Abraham, and that which he has made with believers by Jesus Christ; because these two covenants contain eminently all the rest, which are consequences, branches, or explanations of them. The most solemn and perfect of the covenants of God with men is that made through the mediation of our Redeemer, which must subsist to the end of time. The Son of God is the guarantee of it; it is confirmed with his blood; the end and object of it is eternal life, and its constitution and laws are more exalted than those of the former covenant.

Theologians use the phrase "covenant of works" to denote the constitution established by God with man before the fall, the promise of which was eternal life on condition of obedience, Ho 6:7 Ro 3:27 Ga 2:19. They also use the phrase, "covenant of grace or redemption," to denote the arrangement made in the counsels of eternity, in virtue of which the Father forgives and saves sinful men redeemed by the death of the Son.


A sort of hard brittle cakes, 1Ki 14:3.


In Isa 38:14 Jer 8:7, two birds are mentioned, the sus and the AGUR, the first rendered in our version crane, the second swallow. Bochart says the sus, or sis, is the swallow; the agur, the crane. The numidian crane, supposed to be referred to, is about three feet in length, is bluish-grey, with the cheeks, throat, breast, and tips of the long hinder feathers black, with a tuft of white feathers behind each eye. "Like a crane, or a swallow, so did I chatter:" there is peculiar force and beauty in the comparison here made between the dying believer and migratory birds about to take their departure to a distinct but more genial clime. They linger in the scenes which they have frequented, but instinct compels them to remove.


(1.) the act by which God calls into existence things not previously in being-material or spiritual, visible or invisible, Ps 148:5 Re 4:11;

(2.) the molding or reconstituting things, the elements of which previously existed; and

(3.) the things thus "created and made," 2Pe 3:4 Re 3:14 5:13. It is probably in the first of these senses the word "created" is to be understood in Ge 1:1, though some understand it in the second sense. In either case the idea of the eternity of matter is to be rejected, as contrary to sound reason and to the teachings of Scripture, Pr 8:22-31 Joh 1:1-3 Heb 11:3.

Creation is exclusively the work of God. The Father, the Son, and the Spirit are each in turn named as its author, Isa 40:28 Col 1:16 Ge 2:2. It is a work the mysteries of which no finite mind can apprehend; and yet, as it reveals to us the invisible things of God, Ro 1:20, we may and ought to learn what he reveals respecting it not only in revelation, but in his works. These two volumes are from the same divine hand, and cannot but harmonize with each other. The Bible opens with an account of the creation unspeakably majestic and sublime. The six days there spoken of have usually been taken for our present natural days; but modern geological researches have given rise to the idea that "day" here denotes a longer period. The different rocks of our globe lie in distinct layers, the comparative age of which is supposed to have been ascertained. Only the most recent have been found to contain human remains. Older layers present in turn different fossil remains of animals and plants, many of them supposed to be now extinct. These layers are deeply imbedded beneath the present soil, and yet appear to be formed of matter washed into the bed of some primeval sea, and hardened into rock. Above this may lie numerous other strata of different materials, but which appear to have been deposited in the same manner, in the slow lapse of time. These layers are also thrown up and penetrated all over the world by rocks of still earlier formations, apparently once in a melted state.

There are several modes of reconciling these geological discoveries with the statements of Scripture: First, that the six days of Gen 1.1-31 denote six long epochs-periods of alternate progressive formation and revolution on the surface of the earth. To the Lord "a thousand years are as one day," Ps 90:2,4 2Pe 3:5-10 Re 20:1- 15. Secondly, that the long epochs indicated in the geological structure of the globe occurred before the Bible account commences, or rather in the interval between the first and second verses of Ge 1:1-31. According to this interpretation, Ge 1:2 describes the state of the earth at the close of the last revolution it experienced, preparatory to Godís fitting it up for the abode of man as described in the verses following. Thirdly, that God compressed the work of those untold ages into six short days, and created the world as he did Adam, in a state of maturity, embodying in its rocks and fossils those rudimental forms of animal and vegetable life which seem naturally to lead up to the existing forms.

The "Creature" and "the whole creation," in Ro 8:19-22, may denote the irrational and inferior creation, which shall be released from the curse, and share in the glorious liberty of the sons of God, Isa 11:6 35:1 2Pe 3:7-13. The bodies of believers, now subject to vanity, are secure of full deliverance at the resurrection-"the redemption of our body," Ro 8:23.


An assistant of the apostle Paul, and probably one of the seventy disciples; supposed to have exercised his ministry in Galatia, 2Ti 4:10.


A large island, now called Candia, in the Mediterranean, originally people probably by a branch of the Caphtorim. It is celebrated by Homer for its hundred cities. Being surrounded by the sea, its inhabitants were excellent sailors, and its vessels visited all coasts. They were also famous for archery, which they practiced from their infancy. The Cretans were one of the three Grecian proverb cautioned-Kappadocia, Killicia, and Krete. In common speech, the expression, "to Cretanize," signified to tell lies; which helps to account for that detestable character which the apostle has given of the Cretans, that they were "always liars," brutes, and gormandizers, and Epimenides, and Cretan poet, described them, Tit 1:12,13.

Crete is famous as the birthplace of the legislator Minos; and in the Bible, for its connection with the voyage of Paul to Rome, Ac 27:1-44. The ship first made Salmone, the eastern promontory of the island, and took shelter at Fair Havens, a roadstead on the south side, east of cape Matala. After some time, and against Paulís warning, they set sail for Phenice, a more commodious harbor on the western part of the island; but were overtaken by a fierce wind from the east-north-east, which compelled them to lie to, and drifted them to Malta. Paul is supposed to have visited Crete afterwards, in connection with one of his visits to Asia Minor, 1Ti 1:3 Phm 1:22. Here he established gospel institutions, and left Titus in the pastoral charge, Tit 1:5.


2Ch 2:7-14 3:14. See PURPLE.


Irons for curling the hair, Isa 3:22.


President of the synagogue at Corinth, converted under the preaching of Paul, Ac 18:8, and baptized by him, 1Co 1:14.


A kind of gibbet made of pieces of wood placed transversely, whether crossing at right angles, one at the top of the other, T, or below the top, t, or diagonally, X. Death by the cross was a punishment of the meanest slaves, and was a mark of infamy, De 21:23 Ga 3:13. This punishment was so common among the Romans, that pains, afflictions, troubles, etc., were called "crosses." Our Savior says that his disciples must take up the cross and follow Him. Though the cross is the sign of ignominy and sufferings, yet it is the badge and glory of the Christian.

The common way of crucifying was by fastening the criminal with nails, one through each hand, and one through both his feet, or through each foot. Sometimes they were bound with cords, which, though it seems gentler, because it occasions less pain, was really more cruel, because the sufferer was hereby made to languish longer. Sometimes they used both nails and cords for fastenings; and when this was the case, there was no difficulty in lifting up the person, together with his cross, he being sufficiently supported by the cords; near the middle of the cross also there was a wooden projection, which partially supported the body of the sufferer. Before they nailed him to the cross, they generally scourged him with whips or leathern thongs, which was thought more severe and more infamous than scourging with cords. Slaves who had been guilty of great crimes were fastened to a gibbet or cross, and were thus led about the city, and beaten. Our Savior was loaded with his cross, and as he sunk under the burden, Simon the Cyrenian was constrained to bear it after him and with him, Mr 15:21.

After the person had been nailed to the cross, a stupefying draught was sometimes administered, in order to render him less sensible to pain, an alleviation which our Savior did not accept, Mt 27:34 Mr 15:23; though he seems afterwards to have taken a little of the common beverage of the soldiers. Sent by the Father to bear the heavy load of penal suffering for a lost race, he felt that he had no right to the palliatives resorted to in ordinary cases, and perfectly lawful except in his own. "The cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?" Joh 18:11. He drank it, and to the very dregs. The cross being erected under the burning sun, the wounds made by the scourge and the nails soon occasioned a general fever and an intolerable thirst. The blood, interrupted in its regular flow, accumulated in various parts of the body, and caused painful congestions. Every slight writhing of the sufferer increased his anguish, which found no relief but in final mortification and death. Those who were fastened upon the cross lived in that condition several days, and sometimes a week or more. Hence Pilate was amazed at our Saviorís dying so soon, because naturally he must have lived longer, Mr 15:44. The legs of the two thieves were broken, to hasten their death, but their bodies might not remain on the cross on the Sabbath say, De 21:23 Jos 8:29; but the crucified were usually left hanging, under the eye of guards, till their bodies fell to the ground, or were devoured by birds and beasts of prey.


There are two distinct Hebrew terms rendered crown. The one represents such headdresses as we should designate coronet, band, miter, tiara, garland, etc. The other is generally applied to the headdresses of kings.

The former was a simple fillet or diadem around the head, variously ornamented. Newly-married persons of both sexes wore crowns on their wedding-day, So 3:11 Eze 16:12.

The crowns of kings were sometimes white fillets, bound round the forehead, the ends falling back on the neck; or were made of gold tissue, adorned with jewels. That of the Jewish high priest was a fillet, or diadem, tied with a ribbon of a hyacinth color, Ex 28:36 39:30. Occasionally the crown was of pure gold, and was worn by kings, 2Ch 23:11, sometimes when they went to battle, 2Sa 1:10 12:30. It was also worn by queens, Es 2:17. The crown is a symbol of honor, power, and eternal life, Pr 12:4 La 5:16 1Pe 5:4. Crowns or garlands were given to the successful competitors at the Grecian games, to which frequent allusion is made in the Epistle, 2Ti 4:7,8.


A small vessel for holding water and other liquids, 1Sa 26:11. The above cut {see picture 1} represents various antique cups, travelling flasks, and cruses, like those still used in the East.


The same Hebrew word is rendered by our translators, crystal, Eze 1:22; frost, Ge 31:40; and ice, Job 6:16. The word primarily denotes ice; and the name is given to a perfectly transparent and glass-like gem, from its resemblance, Job 28:17; Re 4:6; 21:11.


A measure used among the ancients. A cubit was originally the distance from the elbow to the extremity of the middle finger, which is the fourth part of a well-proportioned manís stature. The Hebrew cubit, according to some, is twenty-one inches; but others fix it at eighteen. The Talmudists observe that the Hebrew cubit was larger by one quarter than the Roman.


A vegetable very plentiful in the East, especially in Egypt, Nu 11:5, where they are esteemed delicacies, and form a great part of the food of the lower class of people, especially during the hot months. The Egyptian cucumber is similar in form to ours, but larger, being usually a foot in length. It is described by Hasselquist as greener, smoother, softer, sweeter, and more digestible than our cucumber.


A plant much like fennel, and which produces blossoms and branches in an umbellated form. Its seeds yield an aromatic oil, of a warm, stimulating nature, Isa 28:25-27. Our Lord reproved the scribes and Pharisees for so very carefully paying tithe of mint, anise, and cummin, and yet neglecting good works and obedience to Godís law, Mt 23:23.


This word is taken in Scripture both in a proper and in a figurative sense. In a proper sense, it signifies a common cup, of horn, or some precious metal, Ge 40:13 44:2 1Ki 7:26, such as is used for drinking out of at meals; or a cup of ceremony, used at solemn and religious meals-as at the Passover, when the father of the family pronounced certain blessings over the cup, and having tasted it, passed it round to the company and his whole family, who partook of it, 1Co 10:16. In a figurative sense, a cup is spoken of as filled with the portion given to one by divine providence, Ps 11:6 16:5; with the blessings of life and of grace, Ps 23:5; with a thank-offering to God, Ex 29:40 Ps 116:13; with liquor used at idolatrous feasts, 1Co 10:21; with love-potions, Re 17:4; with sore afflictions, Ps 65:8 Isa 51:17; and with the bitter draught of death, which was often caused by a cup of hemlock or some other poison, Ps 75:8. See Mt 16:28 Lu 22:42 Joh 18:11. See CRUSE.


1. The eldest son of Ham, and father of Nimrod, Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabtecha, most of whom settled in Arabia Felix, Ge 10:6-8.

2. The countries peopled by the descendants of Cush, and generally called in the English Bible, Ethiopia, though not always. But under this name there seem to be included not less than three different countries:

A. The oriental Cush, comprehending the regions of Persis, Chusistan, and Susiana, in Persia. It lay chiefly to the eastward of the Tigris. Hither we may refer the river Gihon, Ge 2:13 Zep 3:10. See EDEN.

B. The Hebrews also, in the opinion of many, used Cush and Cushan, Hab 3:7, to designate the southern parts of Arabia, and the coast of the Red sea. From this country originated Nimrod, who established himself in Mesopotamia, Ge 10:8. The "Ethiopian woman," too, whom Moses married during the march of the Israelites through the desert, came probably from this Cush, Ex 2:16-21 Nu 12:1 2Ch 21:16.

C. But, more commonly, Cush signifies Ethiopia proper, lying south and southeast of Egypt, and now called Abyssinia, Isa 18:1 20:3-5 Jer 13:23 Eze 29:10 Da 11:43.


A people who dwelt beyond the Euphrates, and were thence transplanted into Samaria, in place of the Israelites who had before inhabited it. They came from the land of Cush, or Cutha, in the East; their first settlement being in the cities of the Medes, subdued by Shalmaneser and his predecessors. See CUSH. The Israelites were substituted for them in those places, 2Ki 17:24,30.


A musical instrument consisting of two broad plates of brass, of a convex form, which being struck together, produce a shrill, piercing sound. From Ps 150:5, it would appear that both hand-cymbals and finger-cymbals, or castagnets, were used. They were used in the temple, and upon occasions of public rejoicings, 1Ch 13.8; 16.5, as they are by the Armenians at the present day. In 1Co 13:1, the apostle deduces a comparison from sounding brass and "tinkling" cymbals; perhaps the latter words had been better rendered clanging or clattering cymbals, since such is the nature of the instrument. See MUSIC.


An evergreen tree, resembling in form and size the Lombardy poplar. Its wood is exceedingly durable, and seems to have been used for making idols, Isa 44:14. The cypress is thought to be intended in some of the passages where "fir-tree" occurs, 2Sa 6:5, etc.


A large island in the Mediterranean, situated in the northeast part of that sea between Cilicia and Syria. It is about one hundred and forty miles long, and varies from five to fifty miles in breadth. Its inhabitants were plunged in all manner of luxury and debauchery. Their principal deity was Venus, who had a celebrated temple at Paphos. The island was extremely fertile, and abounded in wine, oil, honey, wool, copper, agate, and a beautiful species of rock crystal. There were also large forests of cypress-trees. Of the cities in the island, Paphos on the western coast, and Salmis at the opposite end, are mentioned in the New Testament. The gospel was preached there at an early day, Ac 11:19. Barnabas and Mnason, and other eminent Christians, were natives of this island, Ac 11:20 21:16. The apostles Paul and Barnabas made a missionary tour through it, A. D. 44, Ac 13:4-13. See also Ac 15:39 27:4.


A city and province of Libya, west of Egypt, between the Great Syrtis and the Mareotis, at present called Cairoan, in the province of Barca. It was sometimes called PENTAPOLIS, from the five principal cities that it contained-Cyrene, Apollonia, Arsinoe, Berenice, and Ptolemais. From hence came Simon the Cyrenian, father of Alexander and Rufus, on whom the Roman soldiers laid a part of our Saviorís cross, Mt 27:32 Lu 23:26. There were many Jews in the province of Cyrene, a great part of whom embraced the Christian religion, though others opposed it with much obstinacy, Ac 6:9 11:20 13:1.


Or Publius Sulpitius QUIRINUS, according to his Latin appellation, governor of Syria, Lu 2:2. According to history, Quirinus was not properly governor of Syria till some years after this date; and the only census of that time mentioned by secular historians took place when Christ was eight or ten years old. The passage in Luke may be translated, "This enrolment took place first under Cyrenius governor of Syria." Compare Ac 5:37.


Son of Cambyses king of Persia, and Mandane, daughter of Astyages king of the Medes. He aided his uncle Cyaxares (called "Darius the Mede" in the Bible) in conquering Asia Minor, and afterwards their joint forces captured Babylon and overran the Assyrian empire. He married his cousin, the daughter of Cyaxares, and thus at length inherited and united the crowns of Persia Media. Cyrus was foretold by the prophet Isaiah, Isa 44:28 45:1-7, as the deliverer and restorer of Judah, as he proved to be, 2Ch 36:22,23 Ezr 1:1-4. The prophet Daniel was his favorite minister, Da 6:28.