JABAL

Son of Lamech and Adah, and a descendant of Cain. He is supposed to have been the first to adopt the nomadic mode of life, still practiced in Arabia and Tartary, and to have invented portable tents, perhaps of skins, Ge 4:20 And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of such as dwell in tents and have cattle.

JABBOK

Now the Zerka, a perennial stream, flowing into the Jordan midway between the sea of Galilee and the Dead sea, about thirty miles from each, after a westerly course of some sixty miles. It traverses at first an elevated and desert region, and receives a branch from the north and another from the south. This latter branch separated the Ammonites from Israel. The eastern part of the Jabbok is dry in summer. Towards the west, it flows through a deep ravine. Penuel, where Jacob wrestled with the Angel, was a fording-place of the Jabbok, Ge 32:32.

This stream divided the territory of Og from that of Sihon, Jos 12:2 12:5

JABESH

A city in the half-tribe of Manasseh east of the Jordan generally called Jabesh-gilead because situated within the territory commonly called Gilead. Eusebius places it six miles from Pella, towards Gerasa. It was sacked by the Israelites for refusing to aid in chastising the Benjamites, Jud 21:8-10

At a later day, it was besieged by the Ammonites, and relieved by Saul; in gratitude for which service the men of Jabesh-gilead rescued the dead bodies of Saul and his sons from the insults of the Philistines, 1Sa 11:1-15 31:11-13 2Sa 2:5.

JABEZ

A descendant of Judah, whose high distinction among his brethren seems to have been owing to his prevalence in prayer, 1Ch 4:9-10

JABIN

1. A powerful king in the time of Joshua, at Hazor in the north of Canaan. The league which he organized to crush Joshua, only made his own ruin more complete, Jos 11:1-23 B. C. 1450.

2. Another king of Hazor, a century and a half later, who sorely oppressed Israel for twenty years, till Deborah and Barak were raised up as deliverers, Jud 4:1-24 Ps 83:9.

JABNEH

Afterwards Jamnia, now Jebna, a Philistine city on the Mediterranean coast, some twelve miles south of Joppa. It was conquered by the Jews, 2Ch 26:6.

JACHIN

God confirms, the name of the right-hand brazen column at the entrance of Solomonís temple 1Ki 7:21. See BOAZ.

JACINTH

Or HYACINTH, a gem of a yellowish red or hyacinth color, nearly related to zircon and to the amethyst. It loses its color by being heated, and resembles the diamond, Re 9:17 21:20.

.

JACOB

Son of Isaac and Rebekah, and twin-brother to Esau. As at his birth he held his brotherís heel, he was called Jacob, that is, the heelholder, one who comes behind and catches the heel of his adversary, a supplanter, Ge 25:26. This was a king of predictive intimation of his future conduct in life. Jacob was meek and peaceable, living a shepherd life at home. Esau was more turbulent and fierce, and passionately fond of hunting. Isaac was partial to Esau, Rebekah to Jacob. Jacob having taken advantage of his brotherís absence and his fatherís infirmity to obtain the blessing of the birthright, or primogeniture, was compelled to fly into Mesopotamia to avoid the consequences of his brotherís wrath, Ge 27:1-28:22. On his journey the Lord appeared to him in a dream, (see LADDER,) promised him His protection, and declared His purpose relative to his descendantsí possessing the land of Canaan, and the descent of the Messiah through him, Ge 28:10, etc. His subsequent days, which he calls "few and evil," were clouded with many sorrows, yet amid them all he was sustained by the care and favor of God. On his solitary journey of six hundred miles into Mesopotamia, and during the toils and injuries of this twenty yearsí service with Laban, God still prospered him, and on his return to the land of promise inclined the hostile spirits of Laban and of Esau to peace. On the border of Canaan the angels of God met him, and the God of angels wrestled with him, yielded him the blessing, and gave him the honored name of Israel. But sore trials awaited him: his mother was no more; his sister-wives imbittered his life with their jealousies; his children Dinah, Simeon, Levi and Reuben filled him with grief and shame; his beloved Rachel and his father were removed by death; Joseph his favorite son he had given up as slain by wild beasts; and the loss of Benjamin threatened to bring his gray hairs with sorrow to the grave. But the sunset of his life was majestically calm and bright. For seventeen years, he enjoyed in the land of Goshen a serene happiness: he gave a dying blessing in Jehovahís name to his assembled sons; visions of their future prosperity rose before his eyes, especially the long line of the royal race of Judah, culminating in the glorious kingdom of SHILOH. "He saw it, and was glad." Soon after, he was gathered to his fathers, and his body was embalmed, and buried with all possible honors in the burial-place of Abraham near Hebron, B. C. 1836-1689. In the history of Jacob we observe that in repeated instances he used unjustifiable means to secure promised advantages, instead of waiting, in faith and obedience, for the unfailing providence of God. We observe also the divine chastisement of his sins, and his steadfast growth in grace to the last, Ge 24:1-50. His name is found in the New Testament, illustrating the sovereignty of God and the power of faith, Ro 9:13 Heb 11:9,21.

JACOBíS WELL

See SHECHEM.

JAEL

Wife of Heber the Kenite, slew Sisera, general of the Canaanitish army, who had fled to her tent, which was then temporarily on the western border of the plain of Esdraelon. Jael took her opportunity, and while he was sleeping, drove a large nail or tent-pin through his temples, Jud 4:17-23. The life of Sisera was undoubtedly forfeited to the Israelites by the usages of war, and probably to society by his crimes. Besides this, the life or honor of Jael may have been in danger, or her feelings of hospitality may have been overpowered by a sudden impulse to avenge the oppressed Israelites, with whom she was allied by blood. The song of Deborah celebrates the act as one of justice and heroism, and as a divine judgement which, as well as the defeat of Siseraís host, was the more disgraceful to him for being wrought by a woman, Jud 5:1; 21:25,25.

JAH

A Hebrew contraction for JEHOVAH, Ps 68:4. It is often found in Hebrew compound words, as in Adonijah, Malachia, Hallelujah.

JAHAZ

JAHAZAH or JAHZAH, a city in the north of Moab, near which Moses defeated Sihon, Nu 21:23. It was in the limits of Reuben, and was a Levitical city, Jos 21:36. In Isa 15:4, and Jer 48:21, it appears as again in the hands of the Moabites.

JAIR

1 A leader in the conquest of Bashan, probably before the Jews crossed the Jordan, B. C. 1451. Twenty-three cities near Argob were called after him Havoth-jair, which see.

2. The eighth judge of Israel, in Gilead of Manasseh, B. C. 1210. He seems to have been a descendant and heir of the former, Jud 10:3- 5.

JAIRUS

A ruler of the synagogue at Capernaum, memorable for his faith in Christ. His deceased daughter, twelve years of age, was restored to life and health by the Savior, Mr 5:33; Lu 8:41.

JAMBRES

See JANNES.

JAMES

Surnamed the greater, or the elder, to distinguish him from James the younger, was one of the twelve apostles, brother of John the evangelist, and son of Zebedee and Salome, Mt 4:21 27:56. Compare Mr 15:40. James was of Bethsaida in Galilee, and left his earthly occupation to follow Christ, Mr 1:29,20. His mother Salome was one of those women who occasionally attended our Savior in his journeys, and one day desired that her two sons might be seated at his right and left hand in the kingdom, Mt 20:20-23.

James and John were originally fishermen, with Zebedee their father, Mr 1:19. They were witnesses of our Lordís transfiguration, Mt 17:1,2; and when certain Samaritans refused to receive him, James and John wished for fire from heaven to consume them, Lu 9:54. For this reason, or because of their zeal and energy as ministers of Christ, the name of Boanerges, or sons of thunder, was afterwards given to them, Mr 3:17. Together with Peter they appear to have enjoyed special honors and privileges among the disciples, Mr 1:29 5:37 9:2 13:3 14:33 Lu 8:51. After the ascension of our Lord, at which James was present, he appears to have remained at Jerusalem, and was put to death by Herod, about A. D. 44, the first martyr among the apostles, Ac 12:1,2.

Another apostle, son of Alphaeus, or Cleophas, Mt 10:3 Mr 3:18 Lu 6:15. His motherís name was Mary, (3) and his brethren were Joses and Judas, (3) Mt 27:56; Mr 15:40. He is here called THE LESS, or the younger, to distinguish him from James the son of Zebedee.

"The Lordís brother," Ga 1:19; either a brother a Christ, being a son of Joseph and Mary; or as many think, a cousin of Christ, and identical with the James above, 2. He resided at Jerusalem, Ac 15:13; and is called "the Just" by Josephus, and said to have been stoned to death, about A. D. 62. The epistle of James is ascribed to him by those who distinguish him from James the Less. The question of his true relationship to Christ is involved in much doubt. The gospels repeatedly mention James, Joses, Juda, and Simon, as "brothers" of our Lord, and speak in the same connection of his "mother" and his "sisters," Mt 12:46 13:56 Mr 3:31 6:3 Lu 8:19; moreover, the inspired writers expressly distinguish the brothers of Christ from the apostles both James the Less and Jude, Joh 2:12 7:3-10 Ac 1:13,14, thus furnishing strong reasons, as many believe, for the opinion that James the Just was literally a brother of our Lord.

JAMES, THE EPISTLE OF

Is generally supposed to have been written at Jerusalem, about A. D. 61, by James the Just, shortly before his death. It is addressed particularly to Jewish converts, but was intended for the benefit of Christians generally. It is hence called catholic. See CATHOLIC and EPISTLE. It has often been regarded as teaching a different doctrine in respect to faith and works, from what Paul teaches in his epistle to the Romans. But the doctrine of the two apostles is at bottom the same, only that Paul dwells more on faith, the sole origin of good works, which result from true faith. According to Paul, there can be no true faith, which does not manifest itself in good works; and according to James, there can be no truly good works, which do not spring from true faith.

JANNES

And JAMBRES were two of the principal Egyptian magicians, who withstood Moses and Aaron by attempting to imitate the miracles, which they exhibited. See Ex 7:11, etc. These names are not found in the Old Testament, but are often mentioned in the rabbinical books, 2Ti 3:8.

JAPHETH

Enlargement, the eldest of Noahís three sons, Ge 9:24 10:21, born one hundred years before the flood. He was perhaps the Iapetos, whom Greek legends represent as the progenitor of the Greek race. His seven sons, Ge 10:2-5 1Ch 1:5, occupied with their posterity the north of Asia and most of Europe. The probable location of each of the seven is described in its place. In later years the Greeks and Romans subdued large portions of Southern and Western Asia, in accordance with the prediction of Noah, Ge 9:27. The "enlargement" of Japheth now extends over America also.

JAPHO

See JOPPA.

JASHER

THE BOOK OF, that is, the book of the upright, or of the excellent, noble-minded. This work is mentioned in Jos 10:13, and 2Sa 1:18, and would seem to have been a collection of national, historical, triumphal, and elegiac songs, which was still extant in the time of David. Josephus speaks of a book of Jasher as then existing in the temple, but nothing is known respecting it. The books now published under this name are gross forgeries.

JASON

A kinsman and host of Paul, at Thessalonica. His person and goods were interposed to shield the apostle from the rabble, A. D. 52, Ac 17:5-10. He seems also to have been with him at Corinth, five years afterwards, Ro 16:21.

JASPER

A precious stone of various colors, as green, purple, etc., often clouded with white, and beautifully striped with red or yellow, Ex 28:20; Re 4:3; 21:11.

JAVAN

The fourth son of Japheth, Ge 10:2,4. This name is the same as the Greek Ion, whence comes Ionia, and it is understood that Javan was the ancestor of the Greeks. See GREECE.

JAZER

Or JAAZER, Nu 21:32, a city of the Amorites, in Gilead; afterwards a Levitical city in Gad. It lay some fifteen miles north of Heshbon, near a small stream, Nu 1:1-36:13 32:1 Jos 21:39 1Ch 26:31 Jer 48:32.

JEALOUSY

See under ADULTERY. The idol of jealousy, Eze 8:3,5, is the same with Thammuz in Eze 8:14. See THAMMUZ.

JEBUSITES

See CANAANITES.

JECONIAH

See JEHOIACHIN.

JEDIDIAH

Beloved of the Lord, a name given to Solomon at his birth, by Nathan the prophet, 2Sa 12:25.

JEDUTHUN

A Levite, one of the directors of music at the temple, 1Ch 16:38-42. His descendants held the same office, 2Ch 35:15 Ne 11:7; and the name of one of them appears in the title of Ps 39:1-13 62:1-12 77:1-20. See ASAPH.

JEGAR-SAHADUTHA

Heap of witness, a Chaldee name, equivalent to Galeed in Hebrew, both marking the scene of the covenant between Jacob and Laban, Ge 31:47.

JEHOAHAZ

1. Son and successor of Jehu king of Israel, B. C. 856, reigned seventeen years. In punishment for his sins and those of his people, Israel was invaded and reduced to great extremities by the Syrians under Hazael and Benhadad. The king humbled himself before God, and deliverance came by the hand of Joash his son, 2Ki 13:19,25

2. Also called Shallum, 1Ch 3:15, the third son and the successor of Josiah king of Judah, B. C. 609, reigned about three months in Jerusalem. He was deposed by the king of Egypt, 2Ki 23:30-34 2Ch 36:1-4. See also Jer 22:10-13 Eze 19:3.

JEHOASH

See JOASH.

JEHOIACHIN

Son and successor of Jeohiakim, king of Judah, B. C. 509, reigned three months, and was then carried away to Babylon, where he was imprisoned for thirty-six years, and then released and favored by Evil-merodach, 2Ki 24:6-16 25:27 2Ch 3:9,10. In this last passage he is said to have been eight years old at the commencement of his reign. If the text has not here been altered from eighteen years, as it stands in the first passage, we may conclude that he reigned ten years conjointly with his father. He is also called Coniah, and Jeconiah, 1Ch 3:16 Jer 27:20 37:1. The prediction in Jer 22:30, signified that no son of his should occupy the throne, 1Ch 3:17,18 Mt 1:12.

JEHOIADA

A high priest, who preserved the life and throne of the young Josiah against the usurping Athaliah. His wisdom and piety continued to bless the kingdom until he dies, B. C. 834, aged 130, and was buried

JEHOIAKIM

Or ELIAKIM, second son of Josiah, brother and successor of Jehoahaz or Shallum, king of Judah, for whom he was substituted by the king of Egypt. He was king during eleven years of luxury, extortion, and idolatry. In the third year, Nebuchadnezzar carried to Babylon a part of his princes and treasures. A year after, his allied the Egyptians were defeated on the Euphrates; yet he despised the warnings of Jeremiah, and cast his book into the fire. At length he rebelled against Nebuchadnezzar, but was defeated and ingloriously slain, B. C. 599, 2Ki 23:34 24:6 2Ch 36:4-8 Jer 22:1-30 26:1-24 36:1-32.

JEHORAM

See JORAM.

JEHOSHAPHAT

A pious king of Judah, the son and successor of Asa. He began to reign at the age of thirty-five, about the year 914 B. C., and reigned twenty-five years. His history is found in 1Ki 15:24 22:1-53 2Ch 17:1-20:37. He was distinguished by his zeal for true religion, and his firm trust in God. He thoroughly cleansed the land from idolatry, restored the divine ordinances, and provided for the religious instruction of the people. His government was highly prospered at home and abroad. The great error of his life was an entangling alliance with the wicked Ahab, whose infamous daughter Athaliah early began to afflict the kingdom of Judah, of which she was afterwards the queen. Jehoshaphat was beguiled by Ahab into an unsuccessful war with the Syrians, but soon resumed his labors in behalf of religion and justice. Having failed in a commercial enterprise with Ahaziah, he declined a second trial, 1Ki 22:48,49 but united with Joram, his successor, in a war with Moab. This seems to have led to his being assailed by a vast host of Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, and Syrians; but again he was victorious through his faith in God. He died at the age of sixty years.

JEHOSHAPHAT, VALLEY OF

Or valley of the judgment of God, a metaphorical name of some place where God would judge the foes of his people, Joe 3:2,12. There is no ground for applying it to any known locality, or for connecting it, unless for mere illustration, with the great battle of Jehoshaphat described in 2Ch 20:1-37. Since the third century, however, the name has been appropriated to the deep and narrow glen east of Jerusalem, running north and south between the city and the Mount of Olives, called in the Bible the brook Kidron. See JERUSALEM.

JEHOSHEBA

The aunt of Joash, king of Judah, whose life in infancy and childhood she saved, in spite of the designs of Athaliah, 2Ki 11:1- 3.

JEHOVAH

The ineffable name of God among the Hebrews. It never has the article before it, nor is it found in the plural form. The Jews never pronounced this name; and wherever it occurs in the Hebrew Scriptures, the substituted for it, in reading, the word ADONAI, Lord, or ELOHIM, God. See GOD. In the Hebrew Bible, it is always written with the vowels of one or the other of these words. Its ancient pronunciation is by many thought to have been Yahweh, but this is not certain. Its meaning is HE IS the same as I AM, the person only being changed. Thus it denotes the self-existence, independence, immutability, and infinite fullness of the divine Being, which is a pledge that he will fulfil all his promises. Compare Ex 3:14, I AM THAT I AM, the meaning of which see under the article GOD. In Ex 6:3, God says, "I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty; but by my name Jehovah was I not known to them;" yet the appellation Jehovah appears to have been known from the beginning, Ge 4:2. We have reason to believe that God himself, who named man Adam, named himself JEHOVAH; but in his revelation to the patriarchs he had not appropriated to himself this name in a peculiar way, as he now did, nor unfolded the deep meaning contained in it. He had said to them, "I am God Almighty," Ge 17:1 26:11; or, "I am Jehovah, the God of Abraham," etc.; but never simply, "I am Jehovah." It should be remembered that our English version translates this name by the word LORD, printed in small capitals.

JEHOVAH-JIREH

Jehovah will provide, the name given by Abraham to the place where he had been on the point of slaying his son Isaac, Ge 22:14. He gave this name in allusion to his answer to Isaacís question in Ge 22:8, that God would provide a victim for the sacrifice.

JEHOVAH-NISSI

Jehovah my banner, Ex 17:15.

JEHOVAH-SHALOM

Jehovah of peace, or prosperity, the name given by Gideon to an altar which he built in the place where the Angel-Jehovah had appeared to him, and saluted him by saying "Peace be unto thee," Jud 6:24.

JEHOVAH-SHAMMAH

Jehovah is there, the name given by Ezekiel, Eze 48:35, to a future holy city.

JEHOVAH-TZIDEKNU

Jehovah our righteousness, a name given to the Savior, and through him to his church, Jer 23:6; 33:16.

JEHU

The son of Hanani, a prophet, sent with messages from God to Baasha king of Israel, and many years afterwards, to Jehoshaphat king of Judah, 1Ki 16:1-7 2Ch 19:1-3 20:34.

The "son" of Jehoshaphat and grandson of Nimshi, (compare 1Ki 19:16 2Ki 9:2) a general of the army of Joram, slew his master, and usurped the throne of Israel, B. C. 884. He reigned twentyeight years. See his history in 1Ki 19:16,17 2Ki 9:1-10:36. He fulfilled the divine purpose in extirpating the family of the impious Ahab, and zealously destroyed the priests of Baal and many other friends of Ahab. But his heart was not right with God. The Syrians possessed themselves of his eastern frontier, and his dynasty was cut short in the fourth generation.

JEPHTHAH

The son of Gilead, was a judge of Israel, and successor to Jair. His history is told in Jud 11:1-12:15. A most affecting incident in it is his devoting his daughter to God as a sacrifice, in consequence of a rash vow.

The arguments on the question whether Jephthahís daughter was actually sacrificed or not, cannot here be cited. The natural repugnance we feel to such a vow and its fulfillment has led many interpreters to adopt the less obvious theory that she was only condemned to live and die unmarried. There is no intimation in Scripture that God approved of his vow, whatever it was. Paul numbers Jephthah among the saints of the Old Testament distinguished for their faith, Heb 11:32.

JEREMIAH

One of the chief prophets of the Old Testament, prophesied under Josiah, Jehoiakim, and Zedekiah, and also after the captivity of the latter. He was born at Anathoth, of the race of the priests, and was destined of God to be a prophet, and consecrated for that object before his birth, Jer 1:1,5. At an early age he was called to act as a prophet, B. C. 628, in the thirteenth year of King Josiah. This good king no doubt cooperated with him to promote the reformation of the people; but the subsequent life of the prophet was full of afflictions and persecutions. Jehoiakim threw his prophetic roll into the fire, and sought his life. Zedekiah was kindly instructed by him, and warned of the woes impending over his guilty people, and of their seventy yearsí captivity, but to no purpose. The fidelity of the prophet often endangered his life, and he was in prison when Jerusalem was taken by Nebuchadnezzar. That monarch released him, and offered him a home in Babylon; but he chose to remain with the remnant of the Jews, and was carried by them before long into Egypt, B. C. 586, still faithfully advising and reproving them till he died. For forty-two years he steadfastly maintained the cause of truth and of God against his rebellious people. Though naturally mild, sensitive, and retiring, he shrank from no danger when duty called; threats could not silence him, nor ill usage alienate him. Tenderly compassionate to his infatuated countrymen, he shared with them the woes, which he could not induce them to avert from their own heads.

JEREMIAH, THE BOOK OF

In the chronological order of its several predictions and divine messages, is somewhat difficult of arrangement; but may be divide, by a natural and sufficiently accurate method, in to four general sections, containing severally the prophecies uttered in the reigns of Josiah, Jehoiakim, Zedekiah, and Gedaliah. The last chapter of the book appears to have been added, perhaps by Ezra; it is taken almost verbatim from 2Ki 24:18-20 25:1-30. See Jer 51:64.

Jeremiah wrote also the book of LAMENTATIONS, in which he utters the most plaintive and pathetic sentiments over the calamities of his people. See LAMENTATIONS.

JERICHO

A city of Benjamin, Jos 16:7 18:21, about eighteen miles east north east of Jerusalem, and seven miles from the Jordan. It was the first city in Canaan taken by Joshua, who being miraculously aided by the downfall of its walls, totally destroyed it, sparing only Rahab and her household, and pronounced a curse upon the person who should ever rebuild it, which was more than five hundred years afterwards fulfilled on Hiel, Jos 6:26 1Ki 16:34. Meanwhile a new Jericho had been built on some neighboring site, Jud 3:3 2Sa 10:5. Jericho was also called the "city of palm-trees," De 34:3 Jud 1:16, and became afterwards flourishing and second in importance only to Jerusalem. It contained a school of the prophets, and as the residence of Elisha, 2Ki 2:4,18. Here also Christ healed two blind men, Mt 20:29-34, and forgave Zaccheus, Lu 19:2-8.

The site of Jericho has usually been fixed at Rihah, a mean and foul Arab hamlet of some two hundred inhabitants. Recent travellers, however, show that the probably location of Jericho was two mile west of Rihah, at the mouth of Wady Kelt, and where the road from Jerusalem comes into the plain. The city destroyed by Joshua may have been nearer to the fountain of Elisha, supposed to be the present Ain es-Sultan, two miles northwest of Rihah. On the west and north of Jericho rise high limestone hills, one of which, the dreary Quarantana, 1,200 or 1,500 feet high, derives its name from the modern tradition that it was the scene of our Lordís forty daysí fast and temptation. Between the hills and the Jordan lies "the plain of Jericho," Jos 4:13, over against "the plains of Moab" east of the river. It was anciently well watered and amazingly fruitful. It might easily be made so again, but now lies neglected, and the palmtrees, balsam, and honey, for which it was once famous, have disappeared.

The road from Jericho to Jerusalem ascends through narrow and rocky passes amid ravines and precipices. It is an exceedingly difficult and dangerous route, and is still infested by robbers, as in the time of the good Samaritan, Lu 10:30-34.

JEROBOAM

The first king of Israel, an Ephraimite, the son of Nebat. During the latter part of Solomonís reign, and while an officer under him, he plotted against him, and was obliged to flee into Egypt. On the death of Solomon, he was summoned by the ten tribes to return and present their demands to Rehoboam; and when these were refused, he was chosen king of the revolted tribes, B. C. 975. He reigned twentytwo years. The only notable act of his reign marked him with infamy, as the man "who made Israel to sin." It was the idolatrous establishment of golden calves at Bethel and Dan that the people might worship there and not at Jerusalem. He also superseded the sons of Aaron by priests chosen from "the lowest of the people." This unprincipled but effective measure, in which he was followed by all the kings of Israel, was a confession of weakness as well as of depravity. Neither miracles nor warnings, nor the premature death of Abijah his son could dissuade him. He was at war with Judah all his days, and with the brief reign of Nadab his son the doomed family became extinct, 1Ki 12:1-14:20 2Ch 10:1-19 13:1-22.

JEROBOAM SECOND, the thirteenth king of Israel, son and successor of Joash, B. C. 825 reigned forty-one years. He followed up his fatherís successes over the Syrians, took Hamath and Damascus, and all the region east f the Jordan down to the Dead Sea, and advanced to its highest point the prosperity of that kingdom. Yet his long reign added heavily to the guilt of Israel, by increased luxury, oppression, and vice. After him, the kingdom rapidly declined, and his own dynasty perished within a year, 2Ki 14:23-29 15:8-12. See also the contemporary prophets, particularly Amos and Hosea.

JERUBBAAL

Let Baal plead, Jud 6:31,32. See GIDEON.

JERUSALEM

The chief city of the Holy Land, and to the Christian the most illustrious in the world. It is situated in 31 degrees 46í43" N. lat., and 35 degrees 13í E. long. on elevated ground south of the center of the country, about thirty-seven miles from the Mediterranean, and about twenty-four from the Jordan. Its site was early hallowed by Godís trial of Abrahamís faith, Ge 22:1-24 2Ch 3:1. It was on the border of the tribes of Benjamin and Judah, mostly within the limits of the former, but reckoned as belonging to the latter, because conquered by it, Jos 15:8 18:16,28 Jud 1:18. The most ancient name of the city was Salem, Ge 14:18 Ps 76:2; and it afterwards was called Jebus, as belonging to the Jebusites, Jud 19:10,11. Being a very strong position, it resisted the attempts of the Israelites to become the sole masters of it, until at length its fortress was stormed by David, 2Sa 5:6,9; after which it received its present name, and was also called "the city of David." It now became the religious and political center of the kingdom, and was greatly enlarged, adorned, and fortified. But its chief glory was, that in its magnificent temple the ONE LIVING AND TRUE GOD dwelt, and revealed himself.

After the division of the tribes, it continued the capital of the kingdom of Judah, was several times taken and plundered, and at length was destroyed at the Babylonian captivity, 2Ki 14:13 2Ch 12:9 21:16 24:23 25:23 36:3,10 17:1-20:37. After seventy years, it was rebuilt by the Jews on their return from captivity about 536 B. C., who did much to restore it to its former splendor. About 332 B. C., the city yielded to Alexander of Macedon; and not long after his death, Ptolemy of Egypt took it by an assault on the Sabbath, when it is said the Jews scrupled to fight. In 170 B. C., Jerusalem fell under the tyranny of Antiochus Epiphanes, who razed its walls, set up an image of Jupiter in the temple, and used every means to force the people into idolatry. Under the Maccabees, however, the Jews, in 163 B. C., recovered their independence. Just a century later, it was conquered by the Romans. Herod the Great expended vast sums in its embellishment. To the city and temple thus renovated the ever-blessed Messiah came, in the fullness of time, and made the place of his feet glorious. By his rejection and crucifixion Jerusalem filled up the cup of her guilt; the Jewish nation perished from off the land of their fathers, and the city and temple were taken by Titus and totally destroyed, A. D. 70-71. Of all the structures of Jerusalem, only three towers and a part of the western wall were left standing. Still, as the Jews began to return thither, and manifested a rebellious spirit, the emperor Adrian planted a Roman colony there in A. D. 135, and banished the Jews, prohibiting their return on pain of death. He changed the name of the city to Aelia Capitolina, consecrated it to heathen deities, in order to defile it as much as possible, and did what he could to obliterate all traces both of Judaism and Christianity. From this period the name Aelia became so common, that the name Jerusalem was preserved only among the Jews and better-informed Christians. In the time of Constantine, however, it resumed its ancient name, which it has retained to the present day. Helena, the mother of Constantine, built two churches in Bethlehem and on mount Olivet, about A. D. 326; and Julian, who, after his father, succeeded to the empire of his uncle Constantine, endeavored to rebuild the temple; but his design, and that of the Jews, whom he patronized, was frustrated, as contemporary historians relate, by an earthquake, and by balls of fire bursting forth among the workmen, A. D. 363.

The subsequent history of Jerusalem may be told in a few words. In 613, it was taken by Chosroes king of Persia, who slew, it is said, 90,000 men, and demolished, to the utmost of his power, whatever the Christians had venerated: in 627, Heraclius defeated Chosroes, and Jerusalem was recovered by the Greeks. Soon after command the long and wretched era of Mohammedanism. About 637, the city was taken from the Christians by the caliph Omar, after a siege of four months, and continued under the caliphs of Bagdad till 868, when it was taken by Ahmed, a Turkish sovereign of Egypt. During the space of 220 years, it was subject to several masters, Turkish and Saracenic, and in 1099 it was taken by the crusaders under Godfrey Bouillon, who was elected king. He was succeeded by his brother Baldwin, who died in 1118. In 1187, Saladin, sultan of the East, captured the city, assisted by the treachery of Raymond, count of Tripoli, who was found dead in his bed on the morning of the day in which he was to have delivered up the city. It was restored, in 1242, to the Latin princes, by Saleh Ismael, emir of Damascus; they lost it in 1291 to the sultans of Egypt, who held it till 1382. Selim, the Turkish sultan, reduced Egypt and Syria, including Jerusalem, in 1517, and his son Solyman built or reconstructed the present walls in 1534. Since then it has remained under the dominion of Turkey, except when held for a short time, 1832-4, by Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt. At present, this city is included in the pashalic of Damascus, though it has a resident Turkish governor.

Jerusalem is situated on the central tableland of Judea, about 2,400 feet above the Mediterranean. It lies on ground which slopes gently down towards the east, the slope being terminated by an abrupt declivity, in some parts precipitous, and overhanging the valley of Jehoshaphat or of the Kidron. This sloping ground is also terminated on the south by the deep and narrow valley of Hinnom, which constituted the ancient southern boundary of the city, and which also ascends on its west side, and comes out upon the high ground on the northwest. See GIHON. But in the city itself, there were also two ravines or smaller valleys, dividing the land covered by buildings into three principal parts or hills. ZION, the highest of these, was in the southwest quarter of the city, skirted on the south and west by the deep valley of Hinnom. On its north and east sides lay the smaller valley "of the cheesemongers," or Tyropoeon also united, near the northeast foot of Zion, with a valley coming down from the north. Zion was also called, The city of David; and by Josephus, "the upper city." Surrounded anciently by walls as well as deep valleys, it was the strongest part of the city, and contained the citadel and the kingís palace. The Tyropoeon separated it from Acra on the north and Moriah on the northeast. ACRA was less elevated than Zion, or than the ground to the northwest beyond the walls. It is called by Josephus "the lower city." MORIAH, the sacred hill, lay northeast of Zion, with which it was anciently connected at its nearest corner, by a bridge over the Tyropoeon, some remnants of which have been identified by Dr. Robinson. Moriah was at first a small eminence, but its area was greatly enlarged to make room for the temple. It was but a part of the continuous ridge on the east side of the city, overlooking the deep valley of the Kidron; rising on the north, after a slight depression, into the hill Bezetha, the "new city" of Joephus, and sinking away on the south into the hill Ophel. On the east of Jerusalem, and stretching from north to south, lies the Mount of Olives, divided from the city by the valley of the Kidron, and commanding a noble prospect of the city and surrounding county. Over against Moriah, or a little further north, lies the garden of Gethsemane, with its olive trees, at the foot of the Mount of Olives. Just below the city, on the east side of the valley of the Kidron, lies the miserable village of Siloa; farther down, this valley unites with that of Hinnon, at a beautiful spot anciently "the kingís gardens;" still below, is the well of Nehemiah, anciently En-rogel; and from this spot the united valley winds among mountains southward and eastward to the Dead sea. In the mouth of the Tyropoeon, between Ophel and Zion, is the pool of Siloam. In the valley west and northwest of Zion are the two pools of Gihon, the lower being now broken and dry. In the rocks around Jerusalem, and chiefly in the sides of the valleys of the Kidron and Hinnom opposite the city, are many excavated tombs and caves.

Of the WALLS of ancient Jerusalem, the most ancient that of David and Solomon, encircled the whole of Mount Zion, and was also continued around Moriah and Ophel. The depth of the valleys south and east of Jerusalem, rendered it comparatively easy to fortify and defend it on these sides. This southern wall, in the period of kings and of Christ, traversed the outmost verge of those hills, inclosing the pool of Siloam, Ophel, and portions apparently of the valleys of Hinnom and the Kidron, 2Ch 33:14 Ne 2:14 3:15.

A second wall, built by Jotham, Hezekiah, and Manasseh, made some changes on the southern line, and inclosed a large additional space on the north. It commenced somewhat east of the tower of Hippicus, on the northwest border of Zion, included Acra and part of Bezetha, and united with the old wall on the east. This wall was destroyed, as well as the first, at the captivity, but both were afterwards reerected, it is believed, on nearly the same lines, and were substantially the same at the time of Christ. The precise course of the second wall may perhaps be ascertained by future excavations, but is now more disputed than any other point of the topography of Jerusalem. To ascertain the exact location of "the tower Gennath," where this wall began, and trace its course "in a circuit" to Antonia, would show whether the traditional site of Calvary, now far within the city limits, lay within or without the ancient wall. The arguments from topography are strongly against the tradition; and it would seem that this whole region, if not actually within the wall, must have been at least occupied by the city suburbs at that time.

The third wall, commenced by Herod Agrippa only ten years after the crucifixion of Christ, ran from the tower Hippicus nearly half a mile northwest to the tower of Psephinos, and sweeping round by the "tombs of the kings," passed down east of Bezetha, and joined the old eastern wall. The whole circumference of the city at that time was a little over four miles. Now it is only two and three quarters at the most; and the large space on the north, which the wall of Agrippa inclosed, is proved to have been built upon by the numerous cisterns which yet remain, and the marble fragments which the plough often turns up.

The preceding plan of Ancient Jerusalem exhibits the walls, gates, towers, and other prominent objects in and around the city, with as much accuracy as can be secured, now that it has borne the ravages of so many centuries, been nearly a score of times captured, and often razed to the ground. Fuller descriptions of many of the localities referred to may be found under their respective heads.

MODERN JERUSALEM, called by the Arabs El-Kuds, the holy, occupies unquestionably the site of the Jerusalem of the Bible. It is still "beautiful for situation," and stands forth on its well-defined hills "as a city that is compact together," Ps 48:2,12 122:3,4 125:1,2. The distant view of its stately walls and numerous domes and minarets is highly imposing. But its old glory has departed; its thronging myriads are no more; desolation covers the barren mountains around it, and the tribes go up to the house of the Lord no longer. She that once sat as a queen among them, now sitteth solitary, "trodden down of the Gentiles," "reft of her sons, and mid her foes forlorn." "Zion is ploughed as a field," and the soil is mixed with the rubbish of ages, to the depth in some places of forty feet.

The modern wall, built in 1542, varies from twenty to sixty feet in height, and is about two and a half miles in circuit. On the eastern and shortest side, its course is nearly straight; and it coincides, in the southern half on this side, with the wall of the sacred area now called El-Haram, the holy. This area, 510 yards long from north to south, and 310 to 350 yards in breadth, is inclosed by high walls, the lower stones of which are in many parts very large, and much more ancient than the superstructure. It is occupied by the great octagonal mosque called Kubbet es-Sukhrah, or Dome of the Rock, and the mosque El-Aksa, with their grounds. It covers the site of the ancient temple and of the great tower Antonia. See TEMPLE. At its southeast corner, where the wall is seventy-seven feet high, the ground at its base is one hundred and fifty feet above the dry bed of the Kidron. From this corner, the wall runs irregularly west by south, crosses mount Zion, leaving the greater part of it uninclosed on the south, and at its western verge turns north to the Jaffa gate, where the lower part of a very old and strong tower still remains. The upper part of this tower is less ancient and massive. It is known as "the tower of David," and is generally thought to have been the Hippicus of Josephus. Thence the wall sweeps irregularly round to the northeast corner. It is flanked at unequal distances by square towers, and has battlements running all around on its summit, with loopholes in them for arrows or muskets. There are now in use only four gates: the Jaffa or Bethlehem gate on the west, the Damascus gate on the north, St. Stephenís gate on the east, and Zion gate on the south. In the eastern wall of El-Haram is the Golden gate, long since blocked up, and in the city wall two smaller gates, more recently closed, namely, Herodís gate on the north-east, and Dung gate in the Tyropoeon on the south.

Within the city walls are seen narrow and often covered streets, ungraded, ill-paved, and in some parts filthy, though less so than in most oriental cities. The houses are of hewn stone, with few windows towards the streets. Their flat roofs are strengthened and ornamented by many small domes. The most beautiful part of the city is the area of the great mosque-from which until recently all Christians have been rigorously excluded for six centuries-with its lawns and cypress trees, and the noble dome rising high above the wall. On mount Zion, much of the space within the wall is occupied by the huge Armenian convent, with the Syrian convent, and the church of St. James. Beyond the wall and far to the south is a Mohammedan mosque, professedly over the tomb of David. This is more jealously guarded against Christians than even the mosque of Omar. Near it is the small cemetery of the American missionaries. At the northwest corner of Zion rises the high square citadel above referred to, ancient and grand. Still farther north is the Latin convent, in the most westerly part of Jerusalem; and between it and the center of the city stands the church of the Holy Sepulchre, over the traditional scenes of the death and the resurrection of our Lord. See CALVARY. In various parts of the city the minarets of eight or ten mosques arise, amid an assemblage of about two thousand dwellings, not a few of which are much dilapidated.

The present population of Jerusalem may be about 12,000 souls, of whom about two-fifths are Mohammedans, and the remainder Jews and Christians in nearly equal numbers. There is also a considerable garrison, 800 to 1,000, stationed there; and in April of each year many thousands of pilgrims from foreign lands make a flying visit to the sacred places. The Moslemim reside in the center of the city, and towards the north and east. The Jewsí quarter is on the northeast side of Zion. The Greek, Latin, Armenian, Syrian, and Coptic Christians are located chiefly around their respective convents, and their burial-places are on mount Zion, as well as that of the American Protestant mission. The Jews bury on Mount Olivet and the Mohammedans in several places, though preferring the eastern brow of Moriah. Jerusalem is but the melancholy shadow of its former self. The nominal Christians residing there are in a state of degraded and ignorant subjection to the Mohammedans, and their petty discords and superstitions are a reproach to the Christian name. The Jews, 3,000 to 5,000 in number, are still more oppressed and abject. Most of them were born in other lands, and have come here to die, in a city no longer their own. Discouraged by endless exactions, they subsist on the charities of their brethren abroad. It is only as a purchased privilege that they are allowed to approach the foundations of the sacred hill where their fathers worshipped the only true God. Here, in a small area near some huge and ancient stones in the base of the western wall of Moriah, they gather, especially on sacred days, to sit weeping and wailing on the ground, taking up the heart-breaking lamentations of Jeremiah-living witnesses of the truth of Godís word fulfilled in them. See WALL.

THE NEW JERUSALEM, is a name given to the church of Christ, and signifying is firm foundations in the love, choice, an covenant of God; its strong bulwarks, living fountains, and beautiful palaces; its thronging thousands, its indwelling God, and its consummated glory in heaven, Ga 4:26 Heb 12:22 Re 3:12 21:1-27.

JESHUA

Or JOSHUA, son of Josedech, was high priest of the Jews at their return from the captivity, and acted well his part in the restoration of the city, the temple, and the divine worship, Ezr 4:3 5:2. His name occurs in the prophecies of the time, Hag 1:1 2:2 Zec 3:1-10 6:11-15.

JESHURUN

A poetical name of Israel, probably derived from a root meaning to be upright, and applied to the people of God as the objects of his justifying love, which does not "behold iniquity in Jacob," De 32:5 33:5,26 Isa 44:2.

JESSE

Son of Obed and father of David. He was a grandson of Ruth the Moabitess, and in he native land he found an asylum while David was most in danger from the jealous pursuit of Saul, Ru 4:17 1Sa 16:1-23 17:12 22:3 Mt 1:5.

JESUS CHRIST

The Son of God, the Messiah and Savior of the World, the first and principal object of the prophecies; who was prefigured and promised in the Old Testament; was expected and desired by the patriarchs; the hope and salvation of the Gentiles; the glory, happiness, and consolation of Christians. The name JESUS, in Hebrew JEHOSHUAH or Joshua, signifies Savior, or Jehovah saves. No one ever bore this name with so much justice, nor so perfectly fulfilled the signification of it, as Jesus Christ, who saves from sin and hell, and has merited heaven for us by the price of his blood. It was given to him by divine appointment, Mt 1:21, as the proper name for the Savior so long desired, and whom all the myriads of the redeemed in heaven will for ever adore as their only and all-glorious Redeemer.

JESUS was the common name of the Savior; while the name CHRIST, meaning the Anointed One, The Messiah, was his official name. Both names are used separately, in the gospels and also in the epistles; but JESUS generally stands by itself in the gospels, which are narratives of his life; while in the epistles, which treat of his divine nature and of his redeeming work, he is called CHRIST, CHRIST JESUS, or THE LORD JESUS CHRIST. See CHRIST.

Here, under the Redeemerís human name, belong the facts relating to his human nature and the history of his life upon earth. His true and complete humanity, having the soul as well as the body of man, is everywhere seen in the gospel history. He who is "God over all, blessed forever," was an Israelite "as concerning the flesh," Ro 9:5, and took upon him our whole nature, in order to be a perfect Savior. As a man, Jesus was the King of men. No words can describe that character in which such firmness and gentleness, such dignity and humility, such enthusiasm and calmness, such wisdom and simplicity, such holiness and charity, such justice and mercy, such sympathy with heaven and with earth, such love to God and love to man blended in perfect harmony. Nothing in it was redundant, and nothing was wanting. The world had never produced, nor even conceived of such a character, and its portraiture in the gospels is a proof of their divine origin, which the infidel cannot gainsay. Could the whole human race, of all ages, kindreds, and tongues, be assembled to see the crucified Redeemer as he is, and compare earthís noblest benefactors with Him, there would be but one voice among them. Every crown of glory and every meed of praise would be given to Him who alone is worthy-for perfection of character, for love to mankind, for sacrifices endured, and for benefits bestowed. His glory will forever be celebrated as the Friend of man; the Lamb sacrificed for us.

The visit of JESUS CHRIST to the earth has made it forever glorious above less favored worlds, and forms the most signal event in its annals. The time of his birth is commemorated by the Christian era, the first year of which corresponds to about the year 753 from the building of Rome. It is generally conceded, however, that the Savior was born at least four years before A. D. 1, and four thousand years after the creation of Adam. His public ministry commenced when he was thirty years of age; and continued, according to the received opinion, three and a half years. Respecting his ancestors, see GENEALOGY.

The life of the Redeemer must be studied in the four gospels, where it was recorded under the guidance of supreme wisdom. Many efforts have been made, with valuable results, to arrange the narrations of the evangelists in the true order of time. But as neither of the gospels follows the exact course of events, many incidents are very indeterminate, and are variously arranged by different harmonists. No one, however, has been more successful than Dr. Robinson in his valuable "Harmony of the Gospels".

The divine wisdom is conspicuous not only in what is taught us respecting the life of Jesus, but in what is withheld. Curiosity, and the higher motives of warm affection, raise numerous questions to which the gospels give no reply; and in proportion as men resort to dubious traditions, they lose the power of a pure and spiritual gospel. See further, concerning Christ, MESSIAH, REDEEMER, etc.

Jesus was not an uncommon name among the Jews. It was the name of the father of Elymas the sorcerer, Ac 13:6; and of Justus, a fellow-laborer and friend of Paul, Col 4:11. It is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Joshua, or Jeshua, borne by the high priest in Ezraís time, and by the well-known leader of the Jews in to the Promised Land. See also 1Sa 6:14 2Ki 23:8. The Greek form of the word, Jesus, is twice used in the New Testament when Joshua the son of Nun is intended, Ac 7:45 Heb 4:8.

JETHRO

"Mosesí father-in-law," a shepherd-prince or priest of Midian, Ex 3:1 4:18 18:1-27. When the Hebrews were at mount Sinai, he visited Moses, gave him some wise counsel as to the government of the tribes, and then returned to his own people. See HOBAB and RAGUEL. Jethro was a worshipper of God, Ex 18:10,11, and some infer that he was a descendant of Abraham, through Midian, Ge 25:2.

JEWS

The name borne by the Hebrews among foreign nations, especially after the return from Babylon; from Judah their ancestor. See HEBREWS.

JEZEBEL

Daughter of Ethbaal king of Tyre and Zidon, and wife of Ahab king of Israel, 1Ki 16:31. She spent herself in efforts to establish idolatry in Samaria, and exterminate the worship of God and the lives of his servants. Obadiah saved a hundred of them, at the risk of his own life. Jezebel herself maintained four hundred priests of Astarte. When the prophets of Baal perished at Carmel, at the word of Elijah, she sought to avenge herself on him. Afterwards, she secured the vineyard of Naboth for her husband by perjuries and murder; and her tragical death, the fitting close of a bloody life, took place, according to the prediction of Elijah, near the scene of this crime,

1Ki 19:1-21 21:1-29 2Ki 9:1-37. Her name has become a proverb, and is given by John, probably as a descriptive epithet, to a certain female at Thyatira in his day holding a like bad preeminence in station and profligacy, in malice and in ruin, Lu 20:18 Re 2:20.

JEZREEL

1. A celebrated city of Issachar, Jos 19:18, lying westward of Bethshean, 2Sa 4:4. Ahab had here a palace; and this city became famous on account of his seizure of Nabothís vineyard, 1Ki 21:1-29; and the vengeance executed on Ahab, 2Ki 9:10,14-37 10:1-11. Jezreel was called Esdraela in the time of the Maccabees, and is now replaced by a small and ruinous Arab village, called Zerin, at the northwest point of mount Gilboa. Its elevated site gives one a fine view of the great plain of Esdraelon on the west, and the hills that border it; and towards the east it overhangs the wide and fertile "valley of Jezreel," Jos 17:16 Jud 6:33 Ho 1:5, which runs down east-south-east from the great plain to the Jordan, between Gilboa and little Hermon. In this valley, below and east of Zerin, is the copious "fountain of Jezreel," near which Saul perished, 1Sa 29:1 31:1

2. The great plain lying between Jezreel and Acre, called from two cities on its border in one part, "the valley of Megiddo," 2Ch 35:22, and in its western part or branch the "plain or valley of Jezreel," afterwards Esdraelon. The body of this beautiful plain forms a triangle, rising gradually from the Mediterranean four hundred feet, and being about thirteen or fourteen miles long on the north side, seventeen on the east, and twenty on the south-west. The western part is level; on the east it is more undulating, and is at length broken by mount Gilboa and "little Hermon" into three valleys two or three miles wide, which sink down into the valley of the Jordan. Of these, the middle valley, described above, is the proper "valley of Jezreel." The river Kishon traverses this plain. It was formerly well watered and astonishingly fertile, but is now under the blight of tyranny and insecurity, comparatively uncultivated and deserted. The highways are unoccupied, the villages have ceased in Israel, Jud 5:6. There are a few small hamlets, particularly on the higher grounds that border it; and the abundant crops that it yields, even with poor cultivation, show that it might again be made the granary of Syria. Across this plain, from Carmel to Jezreel, Elijah ran before the chariot of Ahab, 1Ki 18:46. It has been the chosen battleground of many armies. Here the hosts of Sisera were swept away, Jud 4:1-24; and here Josiah fell, fighting against Pharaohnecho, 2Ki 23:29. Battles were fought here in the later periods of the Romans, and of the Crusaders; and in our own century, near mount Tabor, fifteen hundred French under General Kleber sustained the assault of twenty-five thousand Turks for half a day, and were succored by Napoleon.

JOAB

Son of Zeruiah, Davidís sister, and brother of Abishai and Asahel, was the commander of Davidís army during almost the whole of his reign, 2Sa 5:6-10. He was a valiant warrior, and an able general; and his great influence on public affairs was often exerted for good, as in the rebellion of Absalom, and the numbering of Israel, 2Sa 18:1-19:42 24:1-25. But as a man he was imperious, revengeful, and unscrupulous: witness his treacherous assassination of Abner, and of his cousin Amasa, 2Sa 3:27 20:9-10; his bearing towards David, 2Sa 3:39 19:5, and connivance with him in the matter of Uriah; his slaying Absalom, and conspiring with Adonijah against the divinely appointed heir to the throne; for all which he was at length put to death by order of Solomon, 1Ki 2:1-46.

JOANNA

One of the faithful women who ministered to Christ while living, and brought spices to his tomb. Her husband Chuza was a steward of Herod Antipas, Lu 8:3; 24:1-10.

JOASH Or JEHOASH,

The father of Gideon, of the family of Abiezer, in Manasseh. For a long time he was a worshipper of Baal; but when his son boldly attacked idolatry, he also came out on the Lordís side, Jud 6:11,25-32.

An officer, appointed as keeper of the prophet Micaiah, during Ahabís disastrous war with Syria, 1Ki 22:26 2Ch 18:1-34.

The eighth king of Judah, B. C. 878-838. He was the only son of Ahaziah who was not slain by the usurping Athaliah, his grandmother. Being rescued by Jehoshebah his aunt, and secluded six years in the temple, he was raised to the throne when seven years of age through the faithful care of Jehoiada; and while this venerable man survived, Joash served God and prospered. Idols were banished, and the temple was repaired. But afterwards he followed less wholesome counsels; idolatry revived; and when Zechariah the high priest rebuked the guilty people, the ungrateful king caused this servant of God, the son of his benefactor, to be stoned to death. Misfortunes soon multiplied on his head; he was repeatedly humbled by the Syrians, and gave them the temple treasures as a ransom; a loathsome disease imbittered his life, which was very soon cut short by a conspiracy of his servants, and he was not buried in the sepulchre of the kings, 2Ki 11:1-12:21 2Ch 23:1-24:27. The prophet Joel was contemporary with him.

The son and successor of Jehoahaz, king of Israel, B. C. 840-825. There was much in his conduct to commend. He had a great regard for the prophet Elisha, and visited him on his deathbed, where by a divine oracle he was assured of three victories over the Syrians. He was also victorious when forced to give battle to Amaziah king of Judah, and was one of the best of the kings of Israel. The worship of the golden calf, however, still continued during his reign, 2Ki 13:9-25 14:1-8 2Ch 25:1-28.

JOB

A patriarch distinguished for his integrity and piety, his wealth, honors, and domestic happiness, whom God permitted, for the trial of his faith, to be deprived of friends, property, and health, and at once plunged into deep affliction. He lived in the land of Uz, lying, it is generally thought, in Eastern Edom, probably not far from Bozrah.

THE BOOK OF JOB, has originated much criticism, and on many points a considerable diversity of opinion still exists. Sceptics have denied its inspiration, and called it a mere philosophical romance; but no one who respects revelation can entertain this notion, or doubt that Job was a real person. Inspired writers testify to both. See Eze 14:14 Jas 5:11, and compare 1Co 3:19 with Job 5:13. The book itself specifies persons, places, and circumstances in the manner of true history. Moreover, the name and history of Job are spread throughout the East; Arabian writers mention him, and many Mohammedan families perpetuate his name. Five different places claim the possession of his tomb.

The precise period of his life cannot be ascertained, yet no doubt can exist as to its patriarchal antiquity. The book seems to allude to the flood, Job 22:15-17, but not to the destruction of Sodom, to the exodus from Egypt, or the giving of the Law. No reference is made to any order of priesthood, Job himself being the priest of his household, like Noah and Abraham. There is allusion to the most ancient form of idolatry, star-worship, and to the earliest mode of writing, Job 19:24. The longevity of Job also places him among the patriarchs. He survived his trial one hundred and forty years, and was an old man before his trial began, for his children were established each at the head of his own household, Job 1:4 42:16. The period of long lives had not wholly passed away, Job 15:10. Hales places the trial of Job before the birth of Abraham, and Usher, about thirty years before the exodus, B. C. 1521.

As to the authorship of the book, many opinions have been held. It has all the freedom of an original composition, bearing no marks of its being a translation; and if so, it would appear that its author must have been a Hebrew, since it is written in the purest Hebrew. It exhibits, moreover, the most intimate acquaintance with both Egyptian and Arabian scenery, and is in the loftiest style of oriental poetry. All these circumstances are consistent with the views of those who regard Moses as its probable author. It has, however, been ascribed to various other persons. IT presents a beautiful exhibition of patriarchal religion. It teaches the being and perfections of God, his creation of all things, and his universal providence; the apostasy and guilt of evil spirits and of mankind; the mercy of God, on the basis of a sacrifice, and on condition of repentance and faith, Job 33:27-30 42:6,8; the immortality of the soul, and the resurrection of the body, Job 14:7-15 19:25-27.

The main problem discussed in Job is the justice of God in suffering the righteous to be afflicted, while the wicked prosper. It is settled, by showing that, while the hand of a just God is manifest in his providential government of human affairs, it is his sovereign right to choose his own time and mode of retribution both to the evil and the good, and to subject the graces of his people to whatever trials he deems best.

The conference of Job and his friends may be divided into three parts. In the first, Eliphaz addresses Job, and Job replies; then Bildad and Job, and Zophar and Job speak, in turn. In the second part, the same order is observed and in the third also, except that after Jobís reply to Bildad, the three friends have no more to urge, and instead of Zophar, a fourth friend named Elihu takes up the word; and the whole is concluded by the decision of Jehovah himself. The friends of Job argue that his remarkable afflictions must have been sent in punishment of highly aggravated transgressions, and urge him to confession and repentance. The pious patriarch, conscious of his own integrity and love to God cast down and bewildered by his sore chastisements, and pained by the suspicions of his friends, warmly vindicates his innocence, and shows that the best of men are sometimes the most afflicted; but forgets that his inward sins merit far heavier punishment, and though he still maintains faith in God, yet he charges Him foolishly. Afterwards he humbly confesses his wrong, and is cheered by the returning smile of God, while his uncharitable friends are reproved. The whole book is written in the highest style of Hebrew poetry, except the two introductory chapters and part of the last, which are prose. As a poem, it is full of sublime sentiments and bold and striking images.

The DISEASE of Job is generally supposed to have been the elephantiasis, or black leprosy. The word rendered "boils" does not necessarily mean abscesses, but burning and inflammation; and no known disease better answers to the description given, Job 2:7,8 7:5,13,13 19:17 30:17, than the leprosy referred to above. See LEPER.

JOCHEBED

Wife of Amram, and mother of Moses, Aaron, and Miriam, Nu 26:59. She was a daughter of Levi, and her husbandís aunt, Ex 6:20, though such marriages were afterwards prohibited, Le 18:12.

JOEL

One of the minor prophets, of whom nothing is known beyond the few hints furnished in his brief but valuable prophecy. He lived in the kingdom of Judah, and at a time when the temple and temple-worship still existed, Joe 1:14 2:1,15,32 3:1. Different authors assign to his prophecy different dates, but the prevailing opinion is that he prophesied in the reign of Uzziah, nearly 800 B. C.

The BOOK of JOEL opens with a most graphic and powerful description of the devastation caused by swarms of divers kinds of locusts, accompanied by a terrible drought. The plague of locusts, one of the most dreadful scourges of the East, (see LOCUSTS,) is highly suggestive of an invasion of hostile legions such as have often ravaged Judea; and many have understood, by the locusts of Joel, the Chaldeans, Persians, Greeks, or Romans. The prophet, however, adheres to his figure, if it be one; depicts the land as stripped of its verdure and parched with drought, summons the stricken people to fasting and penitence, and encourages them by promising the removal of the divine judgments and the return of fertility. While describing this returning plenty and prosperity, the prophet casts his view forward on a future still more remote, and predicts the outpouring of the Holy Spirit, and the signs and wonders and spiritual prosperity of the Messiahís reign, Joe 2:28. This passage is quoted by the apostle Peter in Ac 2:16. The style of Joel is exceedingly poetical and elegant; his descriptions are vivid and sublime, and his prophecy ranks among the gems of Hebrew poetry. It is well fitted to cheer the church militant in all ages.

JOHANAN

Son of Kareah, a leading captain of the Jews after the destruction of Jerusalem, B. C. 588, who recognized the authority of Gedaliah, warned him in vain of the plot of Ishmael, and avenged his murder; but afterwards carried the remnant of the people to Egypt against the remonstrances of Jeremiah, who, unable to check his rebellious and idolatrous course, foretold divine judgments, which in due time were fulfilled, 2Ki 25:23-26 Jer 40:1-44:30.

JOHN

1. THE BAPTIST, the forerunner of our Lord Jesus Christ, was the son of Zacharias and Elisabeth, and was born about six months before Christ, as Reland and Robinson suppose at Juttah, Jos 21:16 Lu 1:29, a town some five miles south of Hebron, but according to tradition at a place about four miles west of Jerusalem. Several Old Testament predictions found their fulfillment in him. See Isa 40:3 Mt 3:3 Mal 3:1 4:5 Mt 11:14. His birth, name, and office were also foretold by the angel Gabriel to his father Zacharias while ministering at the temple altar. Several other supernatural incidents attended the visit of Mary to Elisabeth, and the birth and naming of John, Lu 1:1-80. He passed his early life among the crags of Eastern Judea, and when not far from thirty years of age, appeared as a prophet of the Lord. Being also a priest by birth, and an austere Nazarite in appearance and mode of life, he was like a reproduction of Elijah of old. Crowds flocked from all quarters to hear the word of God from his lips boldly denouncing their sins, and to receive the baptism of repentance preparatory to the full revelation of grace in Christ. Among others, the Savior at length came, and was baptized as an example of obedience to all divine enjoinments. John was at once satisfied that Jesus was the Messiah, but "knew him not" by any divine intimation till he saw the appointed sign, the descending Spirit. He then stood forth as the representative of "all the law and the prophets," pointing the world to Christ as an atoning Savior, and thus introduced Him to His public ministry: "Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world," Joh 1:29 Ga 3:24.

John enjoyed at this time a high degree of popular veneration, Lu 3:15; the Sanhedrin sent a deputation to question him, Joh 1:19-28, king Herod "did many things, and heard him gladly." But he laid all he had at the Saviorís feet, Joh 1:27 3:33. We read several times of his "disciples," Mt 9:14 Lu 5:33 Joh 3:23-15 4:1; and meet with subsequent traces of the wide extent of his influence, Ac 18:25 19:3. We know not why he continued for a time his separate ministry, instead of attending Christ. He persevered, however, in his faithful labors for reformation; and these, in the second year afterwards, led to his imprisonment by Herod Antipas. See HEROD 3. It was while in prison that he sent two of his disciples to Christ to inquire, "Art thou he that should come, or do we look for another?" Mt 11:3. He may have been moved to send this message by some lingering Jewish views as to a temporal Messiah, who would right all their national wrongs, or by some temporary unbelieving haste to have Christ publicly announce his Messiahship. It was on this occasion that Christ calls him greater than any other prophet; because, of all the prophets of the Messiah, he alone saw Him entering on his work whom all "desired to see;" yet he was less than the "least in the kingdom of God," inasmuch as he died without seeing that kingdom established in the death and resurrection of his Lord. But his earthly work was soon done. Herod, according to Josephus, feared his great influence over the people, and Herodias dreaded his bold fidelity to her husband. The dancing of her daughter Salome, and the vow of the besotted king, furnished a pretext. John was beheaded in prison; his disciples buried his remains with honor, and "went and told Jesus," Mt 14:3-12

2. THE APOSTLE AND EVANGELIST, son of Zebedee and Salome, was a native of Bethsaida in Galilee. Zebedee and his sons were fishermen, and appear to have been in easy circumstances, Mr 1:20 15:40 Joh 18:15 19:27. In Johnís character there was an admirable mixture of gentleness and force. The picture the Bible gives of him has a peculiar charm, so much peace, humility, charity, and brotherly love glow in it. His affectionate, meditative, spiritual character had also the elements of vigor and decision, Lu 9:54. Though amiable, he was firm and fearless. He was present at the scene of the Saviorís crucifixion, which he describes as an eyewitness, Joh 19:35. He was early at the tomb of the Redeemer, and after his ascension, boldly proclaimed the gospel at Jerusalem, Ac 4:13, though imprisoned, scourged, and threatened with death. He was remarkable for devotion to Christ; and it was this, perhaps, as much as ambition, that led him to request a place at His right hand, Mt 20:20-24. He is supposed to have been the youngest of the apostles. He had been a disciple of John the Baptist; but on being directed to Christ, at once attached himself to him. For a time he returned to his employment by the sea of Galilee, but was soon called to leave all and attend the Savior, Lu 5:5-10. Christ had a particular friendship for this lovely and zealous disciple, Joh 13:23 19:26 20:2 21:7. At the last supper, he reclined next to the Savior, and to his care the dying Redeemer committed his mother. Together with Peter and James he witnessed the transfiguration, and the agony in the garden. See JAMES.

After the ascension of our Lord, John continued to reside at Jerusalem, where he was one of the chief pillars of the church, Ga 2:9. About A. D. 65, it is thought, he removed to Ephesus, and labored to diffuse the gospel in Asia Minor, where for many years after the death of Paul his great personal and apostolic influence was widely exerted. About A. D. 95, he was banished, probably by Domitian, to the isle of Patmos, where he had the visions described in the Apocalypse. He afterwards returned to Ephesus, where he lived to a very great age, so that he could scarcely go to the assembly of the church without being carried by his disciples. Being now unable to make long discourses, his custom was to say in all assemblies, "Little children, love one another;" and when they wondered at his frequent repetition of this concise exhortation, his answer was, "This is what the Lord commands you; and this, if you do it, is sufficient." Chrysostom, Clement, and Eusebius relate that on his return from Patmos he found that a young man of promise under his charge had been misled, and had joined a band of robbers; and that the aged apostle sought him out in his mountain haunts, and by the blessing of God on his fearless and faithful love, reclaimed his soul from death. He died at Ephesus, in the third year of Trajan, A. D. 100, being then, according to Epiphanius, ninetyfour years of age. He was buried near that city, and several of the fathers mention his sepulchre as being there.

Besides the invaluable gospel and the Apocalypse, which bear his name, we have three EPISTLES of JOHN. The first is a catholic or general letter, designed apparently to go with his gospel, and refute certain Gnostic errors as to the person of Christ; but also and chiefly to build up the church universal in truth and grace, and especially in holy love. The second epistle is addressed "to the elect lady," or the excellent Kuria, who was probably some Christian woman eminent for piety and usefulness. The third is directed to Gaius, the Latin Caius, whom John praises for his fidelity and hospitality, and exhorts to persevere in every good work. The Revelation and epistles of John, it is generally believed, were written about 96-98 A. D. They are the latest books of the New Testament cannon, which, as the last surviving apostle, he must have greatly aided in settling.

3. Surnamed MARK. See MARK.

JOKSHAN

The second son of Abraham and Keturah, ancestor of the Sabeans and Dedanites of Southern Arabia, Ge 25:1-3.

JOKTAN

Son of Eber, and by him connected with the Hebrews and other Shemite families, Ge 10:25-30; 1Ch 1:19-23. He is believed to be the Kahtan, or Yektan, to whom Arabian writers trace their purest and most ancient genealogies.

JOKTHEEL

1. A city of Judah, Jos 15:38

2. The name given by Amaziah to the capital of Arabia Petraea, 2Ki 14:7. See SELA.

JONADAB

1. A SON OF Shimeah, the cunning and unprincipled nephew of David, and friend of Amnon, 2Sa 13:3-5. Yet he seems to have been long aware of the purpose of Absalom to avenge his sisterís dishonor upon Amnon, and very coolly excused the assassination of his friend, 2Sa 13:32-35.

2. A son of Rechab, a Kenite, descended from Hobab the brother of Moses. He was at the head of the Rechabites in the time of Jehu, and seems to have given them a command to abstain from wine, 2Ki 10:15 1Ch 2:55 Jer 35:6-10. See RECHABITES.

JONAH

One of the minor prophets, was a native of Gath-hepher, in Zebulun, 2Ki 14:25. Being ordered of God to prophesy against Ninevah, probably in or before the reign of Jeroboam 2, which begun 825 B. C., he endeavored to avoid the command by embarking at Joppa for Tarshish, in order to fly as far as possible in the opposite direction. But being overtaken by a storm, he was thrown overboard at his own request, and miraculously preserved by being swallowed by a large fish. See WHALE. Several Greek and Roman legends seem to have been borrowed from this source. After three days, typical of our Saviorís stay in the tomb, the fish cast Jonah out upon the shore; the word of the Lord a second time directed him to go to Nineveh, and he obeyed. The allusions of the narrative to the vast extent and population of this city, are confirmed by other ancient accounts and by modern investigations. See NINEVEH. At the warning word of the prophet, the Ninevites repented, and the destruction threatened was postponed; but the feelings of Jonah at seeing his predictions unfulfilled and the enemies of Godís people spared, rendered necessary a further exercise of the forbearance of God. See GOURD.

The literal truth of the narrative is established by our Saviorís repeated quotations, Mt 12:39-41 16:4 Lu 11:29-32. It is highly instructive, as showing that the providential government of God extends to all heathen nations, and that his grace has never been confined to his covenant people.

JONATHAN

1. A Levite, son of Gershom, and grandson of Moses, who after the death of Joshua impiously served as a priest, first to Micah, and then to the Danites in Laish or Dan, where his posterity succeeded him until the captivity, Jud 17:1-18:31.

2. The eldest son of Saul, and one of the loveliest characters in Old Testament history. The narrative of his brilliant exploit in Michmash, 1Sa 13:1-14:52, illustrates his pious faith, his bravery, (see also 1Sa 13:3) and the favor borne him by the people, who would not suffer him to be put to death in consequence of Saulís foolish vow. This valiant and generous prince loved David as his own soul, 1Sa 18:1-4 19:2 20:1-42; and though convinced that his friend was chosen of God for the throne, nobly yielded his own pretensions, and reconciled fidelity to his father with the most pure and disinterested friendship for David. He perished with his father, in battle with the Philistines at mount Gilboa; and nothing can surpass the beauty and pathos of the elegy in which David laments his friend, 2Sa 1:1-27, whose son Mephibosheth he afterwards sought out and befriended, 2Sa 9:1-13.

JOPPA

Hebrew JAPHO, is one of the most ancient seaports in the world. It was a border town of the tribe of Dan, Jos 19:46, on the coast of the Mediterranean sea, thirty miles south of Caesarea, and about thirty-five north-west of Jerusalem. Its harbor is shoal and unprotected from the winds; but on account of its convenience to Jerusalem, it became the principal port of Judea, and is still the great landing-place of pilgrims. Here the materials for building both the first and the second temple, sent from Lebanon and Tyre, were landed, 2Ch 3:16 Ezr 3:7. Here Jonah embarked for Tarshish. Here, too, Peter raised Dorcas from the dead; and in the house of Simon the tanner, by the seaside, was taught by a heavenly vision that salvation was for Gentiles as well as Jews, Ac 9:1-11:30. Joppa was twice destroyed by the Romans. It was the seat of a Christian church for some centuries after Constantine. During the crusades it several times changed hands; and in modern times, 1799, it was stormed and sacked by the French, and twelve hundred Turkish prisoners, said to have broken their parole, were put to death.

The present town of Jaffa, or Yafa, is situated on a promontory jutting out into the sea, rising to the height of about one hundred and fifty feet, crowned with a fortress, and offering on all sides picturesque and varied prospects. Towards the west is extended the open sea; towards the south are spread the fertile plains of Philistia, reaching as far as Gaza; towards the north, as far as Carmel, the flowery meads of Sharon present themselves; and to the east, the hills of Ephraim and Judah raise their towering heads. The town is walled round on the south and east, towards the land, and partially so on the north and west, towards the sea. Its environs, away from the sand-hills of the shore, are full of gardens and orchards. From the sea, the town looks like a heap of buildings, crowded as closely as possible into a given space; and from the steepness of its site, they appear in some places to stand one on the other. The streets are very narrow, uneven, and dirty, and might rather be called alleys. The inhabitants are estimated at about fifteen thousand, of whom more than half are Turks and Arabs. There are several mosques; and the Latins, Greeks, and Armenians have each a church, and a small convent for the reception of pilgrims.

JORAM Or JEHORAM

1. Son of Ahab king of Israel, succeeded his older brother Ahaziah in the throne, B. C. 896, and reigned twelve years. He discontinued the worship of Baal, but followed the "sin of Jeroboam." During his reign, the Moabites revolted. Joram secured the aid of Jehoshaphat king of Judah, and after receiving for his alliesí sake a miraculous deliverance from drought, defeated the Moabites with great slaughter. Not long after he was involved in war with Ben-hadad king of Syria, and Hazael his successor; and in this time occurred the miraculous deliverance of Samaria from siege and famine, and also various miracles of Elisha, including the healing of Naaman. Joram was wounded in a battle with Hazael, and met his death, in the suburbs of Ramoth-gilead, by the hand of Jehu his general. His body was thrown into the field of Naboth at Jezreel, and with him perished the race of Ahab, 1Ki 21.18-29; 2Ki 1.17; 3.1; 6.9.

2. The son and successor of Jehoshaphat king of Judah. He reigned with his father, from B. C. 889, four years, and four years alone; in all eight years. Unhappily he was married to Athaliah, daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, whose evil influence did much to render his reign a curse to the land. He slew his own brothers, five in number, and seized their possessions. He also introduced Phoenician idols and their worship into Judah. The divine wrath was shown in leaving him unaided under a successful revolt of the Edomites, and repeated invasions of the Philistines and Arabians. His country, the city, and his own household were ravaged, his body was afflicted with a frightful dysenteric illness, and after death a burial in the royal sepulchres was denied him, 2Ki 8:16-24 2Ch 21:1-20.

JORDAN

The chief river of Palestine, running from north to south, and dividing the Holy Land into two parts, of which the larger and more important lay on the west. There are two small streams, each of which claims to be its source. One of these, near Banias, anciently Caesarea Philippi, issues from a large cave in a rocky mountain side, and flows several miles towards the south-west, where it is joined by the second and larger stream, which originates in a fountain at Tellel-Kady, three miles west of Banias. But besides these, there is a third and longer stream, which rises beyond the northern limit of Palestine, near Hasbeia on the west side of mount Hermon, flows twenty-four miles to the south, and unites with the other streams before they enter the "waters of Merom," now lake Huleh, the Jordan flows about nine miles south-ward to the sea of Tiberias, through which its clear and smooth course may be traced twelve miles to the lower end. Hence it pursues its sinuous way to the south, till its pure waters are lost in the bitter sea of Sodom.

Between these two seas, that of Tiberias and the Dead Sea, lies the great valley or plain of the Jordan, 2Ki 25:4 2Ch 4:17. It is called by the Arabs El-Ghor. Its average width is about five miles, but near Jericho it is twelve or fifteen miles. It is terminated on both sides, through its whole length, by hills, which rise abruptly on the western border 1,000 or 1,200 feet high, and more gradually on the east, but twice as high. This valley is excessively not, and except where watered by fountains or rivulets, is sandy and destitute of foliage. It is covered in many parts with innumerable cone-like mounds, and sometimes contains a lower and narrow terrace of similar character, perhaps an eighth of a mile wide. Through this valley the river takes its serpentine course in a channel from fifteen to fifty feet below the general level. Its immediate banks are thickly covered with trees and shrubs, such as the willow, tamarisk, and oleander; and often recede, and leave a larger space for vegetation. In the lower Jordan, the stream is bordered by numerous canebrakes. The thickets adjoining the river were formerly the retreat of wild beasts, which of course would be driven out by a freshet; hence the figure, "He shall come up like a lion from the swelling of Jordan," Jer 49:19 50:44. The channel of the river may be deeper sunk than of old, but even now not only the intervales within the banks are overflowed in spring, but in many places the banks themselves, 1Ch 12:15. Lieutenant Lynch of the United States navy, who traversed the Jordan in 1848, ascertained that, although the distance from the sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea is but sixty miles in a straight line, it is two hundred miles by the course of the river, which has innumerable curves. Its width varies at different points from seventy-five to two hundred feet, and its depth from three to twelve feet. Its volume of water differs exceedingly at different seasons and from year to year. The current is usually swift and strong; and there are numerous rapids and falls, of which no less than twenty-seven are specified by Lieutenant Lynch as dangerous even to his metallic boats. The sea of Tiberias lies 312 (according to Lynch, 653) feet below the level of the Mediterranean, and the Dead Sea 1,316 feet; hence the fall of the Jordan between the two seas is 1,000 feet. The waters of the Jordan are cool and soft, and like the Sea of Galilee, it abounds in fish. It is crossed by a stone bridge, below Lake Huleh, (see GESHUR, GESHURI, GESHURITES;) and the fragments of another, just south of the Sea of Tiberias, still remain. Several fords, available in ordinary season, are mentioned in Scripture, Jud 3:28 12:5 2Sa 17:22-24. Ferryboats were also used, 2Sa 19:17,18,39. See SEA 4.

It was during the annual "swelling of the Jordan" that Joshua and the Israelites crossed it, Jos 3:15. Yet the swift and swollen current was arrested in its course, opposite to Jericho; and while the waters below the city rolled on to the4 sea, those above it were miraculously stayed, and left in the river bed a wide passage for the hosts of Israel. Twice afterwards the Jordan was miraculously crossed, by Elijah and Elisha, 2Ki 5:14 6:6. Here, too, our Savior was baptized, Mt 3:13; and this event is commemorated, in the middle of April of each year, by thousands of pilgrims of various sects of nominal Christians, who on a given day, and under the protection of a strong Turkish escort, visit the sacred river, drink and bathe in its waters, and after an hour or two return to Jerusalem.

The principal branches of the Jordan are the Yermak, anciently Hieroma, a large stream, and the Jabbok, both on the east. There are several small rivulets and many mountain brooks, which dry up more or less early in the summer. The phrase, "beyond Jordan," usually indicates the east side of the river, but before the conquest by Joshua it meant the west side.

At the present day, the Jordan is lost in the Dead sea; but many have supposed that in very ancient times, before the destruction of the cities in the vale of Sodom, the Jordan passed through the Dead Sea and the vale of Siddim, and continued its course southward to the Elanitic Gulf of the Red Sea. The southern end of the Dead Sea is found to be connected with the Elanitic gulf, or gulf of Akaba, by the great valley, called El-Arabah, forming a prolongation of El-Ghor, the valley of the Jordan. See map in EXODUS. The course of this valley is between south and south-southwest. Its length, from the Dead Sea to Akaba, is about one hundred miles in a direct line. From the extremity of the Dead Sea, a sandy plain extends southward between hills, and on a level with the sea, for the distance of eight or ten miles, where it is interrupted by a chalky cliff, from sixty to eighty feet high, which runs nearly across the valley, but leaves at its western end the opening of a valley nearly half a mile wide, which runs up for many miles to the south within the broad and desert valley El-Arabah, upon which it at length emerges, and the water of which it conveys to the Dead Sea. The cliff above referred to, probably the Akrabbim of the Bible, marks the termination of El-Ghor and the commencement of El-Arabah, which is thence prolonged without interruption to Akaba. It is skirted on each side by a chain of mountains; but the streams which descend from these, are in summer lost in their gravelly beds before they reach the valley below; so that this lower plain is in summer entirely without water, which alone can produce verdure in the Arabian deserts and render them habitable. There is not the slightest appearance of a road, or of any other work of human art, in any part of the valley. The opinion that the Jordan formerly traversed this great valley is rendered untenable by the fact that the Dead Sea lies nearly 1,300 feet lower than the Gulf of Akaba, and that most of the intervening region now pours its streams north into the Dead Sea. Of course the Jordan must also have stopped there of old, as it does now, unless, according to the somewhat startling theory of Lieutenant Lynch and others, the Dead sea-and with it, though less deeply, the whole valley to the north and south-sunk down from a higher level into its present deep chasm, perhaps long before that appalling catastrophe from which Lot found refuge in "the mountain," Ge 19:17-28,30. See SEA 3.

JOSEPH

1. The son of Jacob and his beloved Rachel, born in Mesopotamia, Ge 30:22-24, B. C. 1747. He is memorable for the wonderful providence of God, which raised him from a prison to be the grandvizier of Egypt, and made him the honored means of saving countless human lives. His history is one of the most pleasing and instructive in the Bible; and is related in language inimitably natural, simple, and touching. It is too beautiful for abridgment, and too familiar to need rehearsal. It throws much light on the superintending providence of God, as embracing all things, great and small in the perpetual unfolding of his universal plan. No narrative in the Bible more strikingly illustrates the protective and elevating power of the fear of God, and its especial value for the young. To behold this lovely image of filial piety and unwavering faith, of self-control in youth and patience in adversity, of discretion and fidelity in all stations of life, serenely walking with God through all, and at death intrusting soul and body alike into his hands, Heb 11:22; may well lead the young reader to cry, Oh that the God of Joseph were my God, Ge 37:1-36 39:1-50:26. Joseph died, aged on hundred and ten, B. C. 1637; and when the Israelites, a century and a half later, went up from Egypt, they took his bones, and at length buried them in Shechem, Ex 13:19 Jos 24:32. A Mohammedan wely or tomb covers the spot regarded generally, and it may be correctly, as the place of his burial. It is a low stone enclosure, and stands in quiet seclusion among high trees, at the western entrance of the valley of Shechem, at the right of the travellerís path and nearer mount Ebal than mount Gerizim.

2. The husband of Mary, Christís mother. His genealogy is traced in Mt 1:1-15, to David, Judah, and Abraham. See GENEALOGY. His residence was at Nazareth in Galilee, where he followed the occupation of a carpenter, to which Christ also was trained, Mr 6:3. He was a pious and honorable man, as appears from his whole course towards Mary and her son. They both attended the Passover at Jerusalem when Christ was twelve years of age, Lu 2:41-51; and as no more is said of him in the sacred narrative, and Christ committed Mary to the care of one of his disciples, he is generally supposed to have died before Christ began his public ministry. He seems to have been well known among the Jews, Mr 6:3 Joh 6:42.

3. A native of Arimathea, but at the time of Christís crucifixion a resident at Jerusalem. He was doubtless a believer in the Messiah, and "waited for the kingdom of God." He was a member of the Jewish Sanhedrim, and opposed in vain their action in condemning the Savior, Lu 23:51. When all was over, he "went in boldly unto Pilate, and craved the body of Jesus." It was now night and the Jewish Sabbath was at hand. He therefore, with the aid of Nicodemus, wrapped the body in spices, for the time, and laid it in his own tomb, Mr 15:43-46 Joh 19:38-42.

4. A disciple of Christ, also named Justus, and Barsabas. See BARSABAS.

JOSES

1. One of the brethren of our Lord, Mt 13:55 Mr 6:3. His brethren did not at first believe on him, but after his resurrection they are found among his disciples, Joh 2:12 7:5 Ac 1:14.

2. A son of Cleophas and Mary, identified by some with the above, Mt 27:56. See Jas 3.

3. See BARNABAS.

JOSHUA

1. The son of Nun, a distinguished leader of the Hebrews, and the successor of Moses. His name at first was Oshea, Nu 13:8,16; and in the New Testament he is called Jesus, Ac 7:45 Heb 4:8. Both the names, Joshua and Jesus, signify savior, deliverer. See JESUS. Joshua led Israel over the Jordan, and took possession of the promised land; he conquered the Canaanites, and then distributed the country among the tribes. He is first mentioned as the leader of Israel against the Amalekites at Rephidim,

Ex 17:8-16. See also Nu 14:6. At the passage over Jordan he was eighty-four years of age; and after about twenty-six years employed in his appointed work, and then judging Israel at his at Timnath-serah, he died, B. C. 1426. His last grand convocation of all Israel, at Shechem, and his solemn address to them and renewal of their covenant with God, form the worthy close of a life on which in the sacred records no blot rests. He seems to have served the Lord with singular fidelity. No man witnessed more or greater miracles than he; and in his life may be found many points of resemblance to that of the greater "Captain of the Lordís host," who establishes his people in the true promised land.

THE BOOK OF JOSHUA contains the narrative of all these transactions, and was written by Joshua himself, or under his direction, B. C. 1427. From Jos 24:27 on, was of course added by a later hand; but all was done under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, 2Ti 3:16.

2. The son of Josedech. See JESHUA.

JOSIAH

Son of Amon and great-grandson of Hezekiah, a pious king of Judah, who introduced great reforms in the temple worship, and in the religious character of the nation in general. No king set himself more earnestly to destroy every vestige of idolatry out of the land. Among other things, he defiled the altars of the idols at Bethel by burning upon them the bones from the tombs of their deceased priests; as had been foretold more than three centuries before, 1Ki 13:2. While cleaning and repairing the temple at his command, the priests found the temple copy of the five books of the law, perhaps the original copy from Mosesí own hand. The sacred book was too much neglected in those days of declension; and even the pious Josiah seems to have been impressed by the closing chapters of Deuteronomy as though he had never read them before. To avert the judgments there threatened, he humbled himself before God, and sought to bring the people to repentance. He caused them to renew their covenant with Jehovah, and celebrated the Passover with a solemnity like that of its first institution. The repentance of the people was heartless, and did not avert the divine judgments. Josiah, however, was taken away from the evil to come. He met death in battle with Pharaohnecho, whose passage across his territory to attack the king of Assyria, Josiah felt obliged to resist. The death of this wise and pious king was deeply lamented, by the prophet Jeremiah and all the people, Zec 12:11. He began to reign B. C. 641, at the age of eight years, and reigned thirty-one years, 2Ki 22:1-23:37 2Ch 34:1-35:27.

JOT

A word which comes from the name of the Greek letter iota and the Hebrew yod. It is the smallest letter of these alphabets; and is therefore put for the smallest thing or particle; which is also its meaning in English, Mt 5:18. See TITTLE.

JOTHAM

1. The youngest son of Gideon, who escaped the massacre of his brethren by Abimelech, and afterwards boldly and prophetically denounced the Shechemites in the beautiful parable of the bramble and the other trees. He escaped to Beer, and probably lived to see his threatenings fulfilled, Jud 9:1-57. See ABIMELECH 3.

2. The son and successor of Uzziah, or Azariah, king of Judah, B. C. 758. He appears to have been for some years regent before the death of Uzziah his leprous father, but ascended the throne at the age of twenty-five years, and reigned sixteen years in the fear of God. The history of his wise and prosperous reign, and of his useful public works, is found in 2Ki 15:5,32,38 2Ch 26:21 27:9.

JOURNEY

A "sabbath-dayís journey," among the Jews, seems to have been reckoned at about seven furlongs, or nearly one mile, Mt 24:20 Ac 1:12. An ordinary dayís journey is about twenty miles. Persons starting on a journey in the East frequently make their first stage a short one, that they may the more easily send back for any forgotten articles or necessary supplies. This may perhaps apply to the "dayís journey" of the parents of Jesus, mentioned in Lu 2:44.

For the journeyings of the Israelites, see EXODUS, and WANDERINGS.

JUBAL

Music, son of Lamech and Adah, and a descendant of Cain. He invented the lyre, and the shepherdís pipe, Ge 4:21.

JUBILEE

A Hebrew festival, celebrated in every fiftieth year, which of course occurred after seven weeks of years, or seven times seven years, Le 25:10. Its name Jubilee, sounding or flowing, was significant of the joyful trumpet-peals that announced its arrival. During this year no one sowed or reaped; but all were satisfied with what the earth and the trees produced spontaneously. Each resumed possession of his inheritance, whether it were sold, mortgaged, or otherwise alienated; and Hebrew servants of every description were set free, with their wives an children, Le 25:1-55. The first nine days were spent in festivities, during which no one worked, and every one wore a crown on his head. On the tenth day, which was the day of solemn expiation, the Sanhedrin ordered the trumpets to sound, and instantly the slaves were declared free, and the lands returned to their hereditary owners. This law was mercifully designed to prevent the rich from oppressing the poor, and getting possession of all the lands by purchase, mortgage, or usurpation; to cause that debts should not be multiplied too much, and that slaves should not continue, with their wives and children, in perpetual bondage. It served to maintain a degree of equality among the Hebrew families; to perpetuate the division of lands and households according to the original tribes, and secure a careful registry of the genealogy of every family. They were also thus reminded that Jehovah was the great Proprietor and Disposer of all things, and they but his tenants. "The land is mine; for ye are strangers and sojourners with me," Le 25:23. And this memento met them constantly and pointedly; for every transfer of land was valuable in proportion to the number of years remaining before the jubilee. Isaiah clearly refers to this peculiar and important festival, as foreshadowing the glorious dispensation of gospel grace, Isa 61:1,2 Lu 4:17-21.

See also the notice of a similar institution under SABBATICAL YEAR.

JUDAH

The fourth son of Jacob and Leah, born in Mesopotamia, B. C. 1755, Ge 29:35. His name appears honorably in the history of Joseph, Ge 37:26,27 44:16-34; but disgracefully in that of Tamar his daughter-in-law, Ge 38:1-30. The dying benediction of Jacob foretells the superior power and prosperity of the family of Judah, and their continuance as chief of the Jewish race until the time of Christ, Ge 49:8-12. Though not the firstborn, Judah soon came to be considered as the chief of Jacobís children, and his tribe was the most powerful and numerous. The southeastern part of Palestine fell to their lot. See JUDEA. On the border of their territory was Jerusalem, the seat of the Jewish worship; and from Judah sprung David and his royal race, from which descended the Savior of the world.

After the return from the captivity, this tribe in some sort united in itself the whole Hebrew nation, who from that time were known only as Judaei, Jews, descendants of Judah. Judah-when named in contradistinction to Israel, Ephraim, the kingdom of the ten tribes, or Samaria-denotes the kingdom of Judah, and of Davidís descendants. See HEBREWS and KINGS. One of the principal distinctions of this tribe is, that it preserved the true religion, and the public exercise of the priesthood, with the legal ceremonies in the temple at Jerusalem; while the ten tribes gave themselves up to idolatry and the worship of the golden calves.

JUDAS

1. ISCARIOT, that is, man of Carioth or Kerioth, a city of Judah, Jos 15:25. Being one of the twelve apostles of our Lord, Judas seems to have possessed the full confidence of his fellow apostles, and was entrusted by them with all the presents which were made them, and all their means of subsistence; and when the twelve were sent out to preach and to work miracles, Judas appears to have been among them, and to have received the same powers. He was accustomed, however, even at this time, to appropriate part of their common stock to his own use, Joh 12:6; and at length sealed his infamy by betraying his Lord to the Jews for money. For the paltry sum of about $15, he engaged with the Jewish Sanhedrin to guide them to a place where they could seize him by night without danger of a tumult. But when he learned the result, a terrible remorse took possession of him; not succeeding in undoing his fatal work with the priests, he cast down before them the price of blood, crossed the gloomy valley of Hinnom, and hung himself, Mt 27:3-10. Luke, in Ac 1:18, adds that he fell headlong and burst asunder, probably by the breaking of the rope or branch. The steep hillside south of the valley of Hinnom might well be the scene of such a twofold death. See ACELDAMA.

The remorseful confession of Judas was a signal testimony to the spotless innocence of Christ, Mt 27:4; and his awful end is a solemn warning against avarice, hypocrisy, and all unfaithfulness, Mt 26:34 Joh 17:12 Ac 1:25.

2. One of the apostles, called also Jude, Lebbeus, and Thaddeus, Mt 10:3 Mr 3:18 Jude 1:1, the son of Alpheus and Mary, and brother of James the LESS. See Jas 2 and 3. He was the author of the epistle which bears his name, Mr 6:3 Lu 6:16 Ac 1:13.

3. The brother of our Lord, Mt 27:56. Supposed by many to have been only a cousin, and the same as Judas 2. The apostle. But his "brethren" did not believe in him until near the close of his ministry. See Jas 3 4. A Christian teacher, called also Barsabas, sent from Jerusalem to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas, Ac 15:22,27,32.

5. Surnamed "the Galilean," called also, by Josephus, the Gaulonite. He was born at Gamala, a city of Gaulonitis near the southeastern shore of the lake of Tiberias. In company with one Sadoc, he attempted to excite a sedition among the Jews, but was destroyed by Quirinus, or Cyrenius, at that time governor of Syria and Judea, Ac 5:37.

6. A Jew at Damascus, with whom Paul lodged, Ac 9:11.

JUDE

See JUDAS 2.

The EPISTLE OF JUDE, assigned conjecturally to the year 66 A. D., is a fervid and vehement voice of warning against following certain false teachers in their errors and corruptions, and so sharing their awful doom. It resembles the second epistle of Peter. As to the quotation in Jude 1:14,15, see ENOCH 2.

JUDEA

Or land of the Jews, a name sometimes given to the southern part of the Holy Land; and sometimes, especially by foreigners, to the whole country. In the general division of Canaan among the tribes, the southeast part fell to the lot of the tribe of Judah. With the increasing ascendency of that tribe the name of Judah covered a more extended territory, 2Sa 5:5; and after the secession of the ten tribes, the kingdom of Judah included the territory of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin, with a part of that of Simeon and Dan. Judah thus occupied all the southern portion of Palestine, while the northern part was called Galilee, and the middle Samaria. After the captivity, as most of those who returned were of the kingdom of Judah, the name Judah, or Judea, was applied generally to the whole of Palestine, Hag 1:1,14 2:2; and this use of the word has never wholly ceased. When the whole country fell into the power of the Romans, the former division into Galilee, Samaria, and Judea seems to have again become current, Lu 2:4 Joh 4:3,4. Josephus describes Judea in his day as bounded north by Samaria, east by the Jordan, west by the Mediterranean, and south by the territory of the Arabs. These boundaries seem to include a part of Idumaea. Judea in this extent constituted part of the kingdom of Herod the Great, and afterwards belonged to his son Archelaus. When the latter was banished for his cruelties, Judea was reduced to the form of a Roman province, annexed to the proconsulate of Syria, and governed by procurators, until it was at length given as part of his kingdom to Herod Agrippa II. During all this time, the boundaries of the province were often varied, by the addition or abstraction of different towns and cities.

The original territory of the tribe of Judah was an elevated plain, much broken by frequent hills, ravines, and valleys, and sinking into fine plains and pasture-grounds on the west and south, Zec 7:7. It was a healthy, pleasant, and fruitful land. The valleys yielded large crops of grain; and the hills were terraced, watered, covered with vines, Ge 49:11,12, and rich in olives, figs, and many other fruits. See CANAAN. The "hill country" of Judah lay south and southeast of Jerusalem, Lu 1:39,65, including Bethlehem, Hebron, etc. "The plain" refers usually to the low ground near the Jordan, 2Sa 2:29 2Ki 25:4,5.

The "wilderness of Judea," in which John began to preach, and where Christ was tempted, seems to have been in the eastern part of Judah, adjacent to the Dead sea, and stretching towards Jericho, 2Sa 15:28. It is still one of the most dreary and desolate regions of the whole country, Mt 3:1 4:1.

JUDGES

In Hebrew Shophetim, were the rulers, chiefs, or leaders of Israel, from Joshua to Saul. They were very different from the ordinary administrators of justice among the Hebrews, respecting whom, see JUSTICE. The Carthaginians, a colony of the Tyrians, had likewise governors, whom they called Suffetes, or Sophetim, with authority almost equal to that of kings.

The dignity of judge was for life; but the succession was not always constant. There were anarchies, or intervals, during which the commonwealth was without rulers. There were likewise long intervals of foreign servitude and oppression, under which the Hebrews groaned without deliverers. Although God alone regularly appointed the judges, yet the people, on some occasions, chose that individual who appeared to them most proper to deliver them from oppression; and as it often happened that the oppressions which occasioned recourse to the election of a judge were not felt over all Israel, the power of such judge extended only over that province which he had delivered. Thus it was chiefly the land east of the Jordan that Ehud, Jephthah, Elon, and Jair delivered and governed; Barak and Tola governed the northern tribes; Abdon the central; and Ibzan and Samson the southern. The authority of judges was little inferior to that of kings: it extended to peace and war; they decided causes with absolute authority; but had no power to make new laws, or to impose new burdens on the people. They were protectors of the laws, defenders of religion, and avengers of crimes, particularly of idolatry; they were without salary, pomp, or splendor; and without guards, train, or equipage, other than that their own wealth afforded.

The command of Jehovah to expel or destroy all the Canaanites, was but imperfectly executed; and those who were spared infected the Hebrews with the poison of their idolatry and vice. The affair of Micah and the Levite, and the crime at Gibeah which led to the ruinous war against the Benjamites, though recorded at the close of the book of Jud 17:1-21:25, occurred not long after the death of Joshua, and show how soon Israel began to depart from God. To chastise them, he suffered the people of Mesopotamia and of Moab, the Canaanites, Midianites, Ammonites, and Philistines, in turn to oppress by their exactions apart of the tribes, and sometimes the whole nation. But before long, in pity for their sufferings, he would raise up one of the military and civil dictators above described. Fifteen judges are named in the Bible, beginning with Othniel, some twenty years after Joshua, and continuing till the coronation of Saul.

The time from Othniel to Saul, according to the received chronology, it is about 310 years. It is supposed that some periods overlap each other; but chronologists are not agreed as to the mode of reconciling the accounts in Judges with other known dates, and with 1Ki 6:1, and Ac 13:20, though several practicable methods are proposed, the examination of which would exceed the limits of this work.

THE BOOK OF JUDGES contains the annals of the times in which Israel was ruled by judges, and is often referred to in the New Testament and other parts of the Bible. It appears to have been written before David captured Zion, Jud 1:21, and yet after a regal government was introduced, Jud 17:6 18:11 21:25. Who was its author is unknown; the majority of critics ascribe it to Samuel, B. C. 1403, but many regard it as a compilation by Ezra. It illustrates Godís care over his people, mingling his long-suffering with timely chastisements. The period of the judges was, on the whole, one of prosperity; and while the providence of God confirmed his word, "If ye refuse and rebel, ye shall be devoured by the sword," it is no less faithfully assured the, "If ye be willing and obedient, ye shall east of the good of the land."

JUDGMENT

Is put, in Mt 5:21,22, for a court of judgment, a tribunal, namely, the tribunal of seven judges, which Josephus mentions as existing in every city, and which decided causes of minor importance. See under SYNAGOGUE.

For the expression, "judgment-hall," see PRETORIUM.

THE DAY OF JUDGMENT, for which the word "judgment" alone is sometimes used, is that great day, at the end of the world and of time, when Christ shall sit as judge over all the universe, and when every individual of the human race will be judged and recompensed according to his works, whether they be good or evil. The time of its coming and its duration are known only to God. It will break upon the world suddenly, and with a glorious but awful majesty. It will witness the perfect vindication of all the ways of God. The revelation of his justice, appalling but unstained, will fill the universe with approving wonder; but the revelation of his yet more amazing goodness will crown him with unutterable glory. The Redeemer especially will then receive his reward, and be glorified in his saints, who shall be raised from the dead in his likeness. He will divide all mankind into tow classes: all the righteous will be in one, and all the wicked in the other; all that love God in the one, and all that hate him in the other; all that penitently believed in Christ while they lived in the one, and all that died impenitent and unbelieving in the other. And this judgement and separation will be eternal: the former will rise in holiness and joy, and the latter sink in sin and woe forever, Ec 11:9 Da 12:2 Mt 10:15 12:36 25:31-46 26:64 Joh 5:22 Ac 17:31 Ro 14:10-12 2Th 1:7-10 2Pe 2:9 3:7 1Jo 4:17 Re 20:12-15.

JULIUS

A centurion of the cohort of Augustus, to whom Festus, governor of Judea, committed Paul to be conveyed to Rome. Julius had great regard for Paul. He suffered him to land at Sidon, and to visit his friends there; and in a subsequent part of the voyage he opposed the violence of the soldiers, directed against the prisoners generally, in order to save the apostle, Ac 27:1-44.

JUNIPER

Is found in the English Bible, 1Ki 19:4,5; Job 30:4; Ps 120:4. The Hebrew word, however, signifies the plant Genista, or Spanish broom, which is common in the desert regions of Arabia, and has yellowish blossoms and a bitter root.

JUPITER

The supreme god of the heathen Greeks and Romans. He was called the son of Saturn and Ops, and was said to have been born in Crete. The character attributed to him in pagan mythology was a compound of all that is wicked, obscene, and beastly in the catalogue of human crime. Still he was ever described as of noble and dignified appearance and bearing. Barnabas was supposed by the people of Lystra to represent him, Ac 14:12,13; 19:35.

JUSTICE

A principle of righteousness and equity, controlling our conduct, and securing a due regard to all the rights of others-their persons, property, character, and interests. It has to do, not with pecuniary transactions alone, but with all our intercourse with society. It forms a chief element of the character approved in Godís word; and a truly just man has but to "love mercy, and walk humbly with God," to fulfil all righteousness. Justice in magistrates, rulers, and judges, must be fearless and impartial, and all its decisions such as will bear revision before the court of heaven, De 1:16,17 2Sa 23:3 2Ch 19:6-10. Judgement is peculiarly the prerogative of God, and every earthly tribunal lies under the shadow of the "great white throne." A just judgment is the voice of God; and hence an unjust one is doubly hateful in his sight.

THE JUSTICE OF GOD is that essential and infinite attribute which makes his nature and his ways the perfect embodiment of equity, and constitutes him the model and the guardian of equity throughout the universe, De 32:4 Ps 89:14. The justice of God could not leave the world without laws, and cannot fail to vindicate them by executing their penalties; and as all mankind perpetually break them, every human soul is under condemnation, and must perish, unless spared through the accepted ransom, the blood of Christ.

THE ADMINSITRATION OF JUSTICE among the Hebrews, was characterized by simplicity and promptitude. In early times the patriarch of each family was its judge, Ge 38:24. Afterwards, in the absence of more formal courts, the elders of a household, tribe, or city, were its judges by natural right. In the wilderness, Moses organized for the Jews a regular system of judges, some having jurisdiction over ten families, others over fifty, one hundred, or one thousand. The difficult cases were referred to Moses, and he often sought divine direction concerning them, Ex 18:21-26 Le 24:12. These judges were perhaps the "princes of the congregation," and the chiefs of the families and tribes of whom we afterwards read, Nu 27:3. In the land of Canaan, local magistrates were appointed for every city and village; and these were instructed to cooperate with the priests, as being all together under the theocracy, the actual government of Jehovah, the supreme Judge of Israel, De 16:18 17:8-10 19:17 21:16. Their informal courts were held in the gate of the city, as the most public and convenient place, De 21:9 22:15 25:7; and in the same place contracts were ratified, Ru 4:1,9 Jer 32:7-15. Deborah the prophetess judged Israel beneath a palm-tree, Jud 4:5. Samuel established virtually a circuit court, 1Sa 7:16 8:1; and among the kings, Jehoshaphat made special provision for the faithful administration of justice, 2Ch 19:1-11. The kings themselves were supreme judges, with almost unlimited powers, 1Sa 22:16 2Sa 4:9,10 1Ki 22:26. They were expected, however, to see that justice was everywhere done, and seem to have been accessible to all who were wronged. Frequent complaints are on record in the sacred books of the maladministration of judges, of bribery and perjury, 1Sa 8:3 1Ki 21:8-14 Isa 1:23 10:1 Mic 3:11 7:3.

There was no class among the Jews exactly corresponding to our lawyers. The accuser and the accused stood side by side before the judge, with their witnesses, and pleaded their own cause. The accuser is named in several places, Satan, that is, the adversary, Ps 109:6 Zec 3:1-3. No one could be condemned without the concurring testimony of at least two witnesses, Nu 35:30; and these failing, he was obliged to make oath of his innocence, Ex 22:11 Heb 6:16. The sentence of the judge was instantly executed; and in certain cases the witnesses cast the first stone, De 17:5,7 25:2 Jos 7:24 1Sa 22:18 1Ki 2:24 Pr 16:14. The same frightful celerity still marks the administration of justice in the East. The application of torture to extract evidence is only once mentioned, and that under the authority of Rome, Ac 22:24. See SANHEDRIM and SYNAGOGUE.

JUSTIFICIATION

The being regarded and treated as if innocent; or acquittal from the consequences of guilt before the tribunal of God. "Justification by faith" means that a person, on account of true and living faith in Christ as manifested by good works, will be delivered from condemnation on account of his sins; that is, his sins will be forgiven, and he be regarded and treated as if innocent and holy. Thus, besides the remission of sins and their penalty, it includes the restoration and everlasting enjoyment of the favor of God.

We obtain justification by faith in Christ. Yet neither this nor any other act of ours, as a work, is any ground of our justification. In acquitting us before his bar, God regards not our works, in whole or in part, but the atoning work and merits of Christ. He was treated as a sinner, that we might be treated as righteous. "There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus;" the moment we believe, our justification is as perfect as the infinite worthiness of our Redeemer. Its validity does not depend on the measure of our assurance of hope, nor on spotless holiness of life. Sanctification, indeed, or progressive growth in holiness, commences simultaneously with justification, and must in the end reach the same perfectness. Yet it is important to distinguish between the two, and to observe that, could the believerís holiness become as perfect as an angelís, it could not share with the atoning merits of Christ in entitling him to admission to heaven.

"The best obedience of my hands

Dares not appear before thy throne;

But faith can answer thy demands,

By pleading what my Lord hath done."

True justification, by the gratuitous gift of the Savior, furnishes

the most powerful motive to a holy life. It is followed by adoption,

peace of conscience, and the fruits of the Spirit in this life; and

by final sanctification, acquittal in the day of judgment, and

admittance to heaven, Ro 3:20-31 5:1-21 8:1-4 10:4-10 Ga 2:16-21

Eph 2:4-10.