or DABERATH, a town on the boundary of Zebulun.
Under the name of Debarieh it still lies at the western foot of Tabor.
(a hill-place), a town on the boundary of Zebulun.
(a fish), apparently the masculine,
correlative of Atargatis, was the national god of the Philistines. The most famous temples of Dagon were at Gaza,
1Sa 5:5,6; 1Ch 10:10
The latter temple was destroyed by Jonathan in the Maccabaean wars. Traces of the worship of Dagon likewise appear in the names Caphar-dagon (near Jamnia) and Beth-dagon in Judah,
Dagon was represented with the face and hands of a man and the tail of a fish.
The fish-like form was a natural emblem of fruitfulness, and as such was likely to be adopted by seafaring tribes in the representation of their gods.
(freed by Jehovah) a descendant of the royal family of Judah.
a town on the west side of the Sea of Galilee, near Magdala.
and Mark 8:10 [MAGDALA] Dalmnnutha probably stood at the place called ’Ain-el-Barideh, "the cold fountain."
a mountainous district on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. St. Paul sent Titus there.
(swift), the second of the ten sons of Hamam
(a heifer), an Athenian woman converted to Christianity by St. Paul’s preaching.
(A.D 48.) Chrysostom and others held her to have been the wife of Dionysius the Areopagite.
one of the most ancient and most important of the cities of Syria. It is situated 130 miles northeast of Jerusalem, in a plain of vast size and of extreme fertility, which lies east of the great chain of Anti-Libanus, on the edge of the desert. This fertile plain, which is nearly circular and about 30 miles in diameter, is due to the river Barada, which is probably the "Abana" of Scripture. Two other streams the Wady Helbon upon the north and the Awaj, which flows direct from Hermon upon the south, increase the fertility of the Damascene plain, and contend for the honor of representing the "Pharpar" of Scripture. According to Josephus, Damascus was founded by Uz grandson of Shem. It is first mentioned in Scripture in connection with Abraham,
whose steward was a native of the place.
At one time david became complete master of the whole territory, which he garrisoned with israelites.
It was in league with Baasha, king of Israel against Asa,
1Ki 15:19; 2Ch 16:3
and afterwards in league with Asa against Baasha.
Under Ahaz it was taken by Tiglath-pileser,
the kingdom of Damascus brought to an end, and the city itself destroyed, the inhabitants being carried captive into Assyria.
comp. Isai 7:8 and Amos 1:5 Afterwards it passed successively under the dominion of the Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Macedonians, Romans and Saracens, and was at last captured by the Turks in 1516 A.D. Here the apostle Paul was converted and preached the gospel.
Damascus has always been a great centre for trade. Its present population is from 100,000 to 150,000. It has a delightful climate. Certain localities are shown as the site of those scriptural events which specially interest us in its history. Queen’s Street, which runs straight through the city from east to west, may be the street called Straight.
The house of Judas and that of Ananias are shown, but little confidence can be placed in any of these traditions.
1. The fifth son of Jacob, and the first of Bilhah, Rachel’s maid.
(B.C. after 1753.) The origin of the name is given in the exclamation of Rachel. The records of Dan are unusually meagre. Only one son is attributed to him,
but his tribe was, with the exception of Judah, the most numerous of all. In the division of the promised land Dan was the last of the tribes to receive his portion, which was the smallest of the twelve.
But notwithstanding its smallness it had eminent natural advantages. On the north and east it was completely embraced by its two brother tribes Ephraim and Benjamin, while on the southeast and south it joined Judah, and was thus surrounded by the three most powerful states of the whole confederacy. It was a rich and fertile district; but the Amorites soon "forced them into the mountain,"
and they had another portion granted them. Judges 18. In the "security" and "quiet,"
of their rich northern possession the Danites enjoyed the leisure and repose which had been denied them in their original seat. In the time of David Dan still kept its place among the tribes.
Asher is omitted, but the "prince of the tribe of Dan" is mentioned in the list of
But from this time forward the name as applied to the tribe vanishes; it is kept alive only by the northern city. In the genealogies of 1Chr 2-12, Dan is omitted entirely. Lastly, Dan is omitted from the list of those who were sealed by the angel in the vision of St. John.
2. The well-known city, so familiar as the most northern landmark of Palestine, in the common expression "from Dan even to beersheba." The name of the place was originally LAISH or LESHEM.
LESHEM -See 7679
After the establishment of the Danites at Dan it became the acknowledged extremity of the country. It is now Tell el-Kadi, a mound, three miles from Banias, from the foot of which gushes out one of the largest fountains in the world, the main source of the Jordan.
The descendants of Dan and the members of his tribe.
Jud 13:2; 18:1,11; 1Ch 12:35
(Danian, i.e. belonging to Dan).
Probably the same as DAN.
The dance is spoken of in Holy Scripture universally as symbolical of some rejoicing, and is often coupled for the sake of contrast with mourning, as in
comp. Psal 30:11; Matt 11:17 In the earlier period it is found combined with some song or refrain,
Ex 15:20; 32:18,19; 1Sa 21:11
and with the tambourine (Authorized Version "timbrel"), more especially in those impulsive outbursts of popular feeling which cannot find sufficient vent in voice or in gesture singly. Dancing formed a part of the religious ceremonies of the Egyptians, and was also common in private entertainments. For the most part dancing was carried on by the women, the two sexes seldom and not customarily intermingling. The one who happened to be near of kin to the champion of the hour led the dance. In the earlier period of the Judges the dances of the virgins of Shiloh.
were certainly part of a religious festivity. Dancing also had its place among merely festive amusements, apart from any religious character.
Jer 31:4,13; Mr 6:22
a musical instrument of percussion, supposed to have been used by the Hebrews at an early period of their history.
(judgment of God).
1. The second son of David, by Abigail the Carmelitess.
he is called Chileab. (B.C. about 1051.)
2. The fourth of ‘the greater prophets." Nothing is known of his parentage or family. He appears, however, to have been of royal or noble descent,
and to have possessed considerable personal endowments.
He was taken to Babylon in "the third year of Jehoiakim" (B.C. 604), and trained for the king’s service. He was divinely supported in his resolve to abstain from the "king’s meat" for fear of defilement.
At the close of his three years discipline,
Daniel had an opportunity of exercising his peculiar gift,
of interpreting dreams, on the occasion of Nebuchadnezzar’s decree against the Magi.
ff. In consequence of his success he was made "ruler of the whole province of Babylon."
He afterwards interpreted the second dream of Nebuchadnezzar,
and the handwriting on the wall which disturbed the feast of Belshazzar.
At the accession of Darius he was made first of the "three presidents" of the empire,
and was delivered from the lion’s den, into which he had been cast for his faithfulness to the rites of his faith.
cf. Bel and Dr. 29-42. At the accession of Cyrus he still retained his prosperity,
cf. Dani 1:21 though he does not appear to have remained at Babylon, cf.
and in "the third year of Cyrus" (B.C. 534) he saw his last recorded vision, on the banks of the Tigris.
In the prophecies of Ezekiel mention is made of Daniel as a pattern of righteousness,
The narrative in
implies that Daniel was conspicuously distinguished for purity and knowledge at a very early age.
3. A descendant of Ithamar, who returned with Ezra.
4. A priest who sealed the covenant drawn up by Nehemiah, B.C. 445.
He is perhaps the same as No. 3.
Dan’iel, The book of,
stands at the head of a series of writings in which the deepest thoughts of the Jewish people found expression after their close of the prophetic era. Daniel is composed partly in the vernacular Aramaic (Chaldee) and partly in the sacred Hebrew. The introduction, Dan. 1-2:4 a, is written in Hebrew. On the occasion of the "Syriac" (i.e. Aramaic) answer of the Chaldeans, the language changes to Aramaic, and this is retained till the close of the seventh chapter (2:4 b-7). The personal introduction of Daniel as the writer of the text, 8:1, is marked by the resumption of the Hebrew, which continues to the close of the book. ch. 8-12. The book may be divided into three parts. The first chapter forms an introduction. The next six chapters, 2-7, give a general view of the progressive history of the powers of the world, and of the principles of the divine government as seen in the events of the life of Daniel. The remainder of the book, chs. 8-12, traces in minuter detail the fortunes of the people of God, as typical of the fortunes of the Church in all ages. In the first seven chapters Daniel is spoken of historically; int he last five he appears personally as the writer. The cause of the difference of person is commonly supposed to lie int he nature of the case. It is, however, more probable that the peculiarity arose from the manner in which the book assumed its final shape. The book exercised a great influence upon the Christian Church. The New Testament incidentally acknowledges each of the characteristic elements of the book, its miracles,
and its doctrine of angels.
The authenticity of the book has been attacked in modern times. (But the evidence, both external and internal, is conclusive as to its genuineness. Rawlinson, in his "Historical Evidences," shows how some historical difficulties that had been brought against the book are solved by the inscription on a cylinder lately found among the ruins of Ur in Chaldea. —ED.)
Dan’iel, Apocryphal additions to.
The Greek translations of Daniel contain several pieces which are not found int he original text. The most important are contained in the Apocrypha of the English Bible under the titles of The Son of the Three Holy Children, The History of Susannah, and The History of...Bel and the Dragon. The first of these is supposed to be the triumphal song of the three confessors in the furnace,
praising God for their deliverance, of which a chief part (35-66) has been used as a hymn in the Christian Church since the fourth century. The second, called also The Judgment of Daniel, relates the story of the clearing of Susannah from a charge of adultery; and the third gives an exaggerated account of Daniel’s deliverance.
a city in the mountains of Judah,
and probably south or southwest of Hebron. No trace of its name has been discovered.
(from dara, a king), Authorized Version "dram,"
1Ch 29:7; Ezr 2:69; 8:27; Ne 7:70,71,72
a gold coin current in Palestine in the period after the return from Babylon. It weighed 128 grains, and was worth about five dollars. At these times there was no large issue of gold money except by the Persian kings. The darics which have been discovered are thick pieces of pure hold, of archaic style, bearing on the obverse the figure of a king with bow and javelin or bow and dagger, and on the reverse an irregular incuse square. The silver daric was worth about fifty cents.
(lord), the name of several kings of Media and Persia.
1. DARIUS THE MEDE,
Da 6:1; 11:1
"the son of Ahasuerus,"
who succeeded to the Babylonian kingdom ont he death of Belshazzar, being then sixty-two years old.
Da 5:31; 9:1
(B.C. 538.) Only one year of his reign is mentioned,
Da 9:1; 11:1
but that was of great importance for the Jews. Daniel was advanced by the king to the highest dignity,
ff., and in his reign was cast into the lions’ den. Dan. 6. This Darius is probably the same as "Astyages," the last king of the Medes.
2. DARIUS, the son of Hystaspes the founder of the Perso-Arian dynasty. Upon the usurpation of the magian Smerdis, he conspired with six other Persian chiefs to overthrow the impostor and on the success of the plot was placed upon the throne, B.C. 521. With regard to the Jews, Darius Hystaspes pursued the same policy as Cyrus, and restored to them the privileges which they had lost.
etc.; Ezra 6:1 etc.
3. DARIUS THE PERSIAN,
may be identified with Darius II. Nothus (Ochus), king of Persia B.C. 424-3 to 405-4; but it is not improbable that it points to Darius III. Codomannus, the antagonist of Alexander and the last king of Persia, B.C. 336-330.
is spoken of as encompassing the actual presence of God, as that out of which he speaks, —the envelope, as it were, of divine glory.
Ex 20:21; 1Ki 8:12
The plague of darkness in Egypt was miraculous. The darkness "over all the land,"
attending the crucifixion has been attributed to an eclipse, but was undoubtedly miraculous, as no eclipse of the sun could have taken place at that time, the moon being at the full at the time of the passover. Darkness is also, as in the expression "land of darkness," used for the state of the dead,
and frequently, figuratively, for ignorance and unbelief, as the privation of spiritual light.
Joh 1:5; 3:19
(scatterer). Children of Darkon were among the "servants of Solomon" who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel.
Ezr 2:56; Ne 7:58
(B.C. before 536).
marg. [PALM TREE]
(belonging to a fountain) a Reubenite chieftain, son of Eliab, who joined the conspiracy of Korah the Levite.
Nu 16:1; 26:9; De 11:6; Ps 106:17
The word is used in Scripture not only for daughter, but for granddaughter or other female descendant.
It is used of the female inhabitants of a place or country,
Ge 6:2; Lu 23:28
and of cities in general,
Isa 10:32; 23:12
but more specifically of dependent towns or hamlets, while to the principal city the correlative "mother" is applied.
"Daughters of music," i.e. singing birds,
refers to the power of making and enjoying music.
(well-beloved), the son of Jesse. His life may be divided into three portions:
1. His youth before his introduction to the court of Saul;
2. His relations with Saul;
3. His reign.
1. The early life of David contains in many important respects the antecedents of his future career. It appears that David was the youngest son, probably the youngest child, of a family of ten, and was born in Bethlehem B.C. 1085. The first time that David appears in history at once admits us to the whole family circle. The annual sacrificial feast is being held when Samuel appears, sent by God to anoint one of Jesse’s sons as they pass before him,
Samuel sends for the youngest, David, who was "keeping the sheep," and anoints him.
As David stood before Samuel we are enabled to fix his appearance at once in our minds. He was of short stature, with red or auburn hair, such as is not unfrequently seen in his countrymen of the East at the present day. In later life he wore a beard. His bright eyes are specially mentioned,
and generally he was remarkable for the grace of his figure and countenance ("fair of eyes," "comely," "goodly,")
1Sa 16:12,18; 17:42
well made and of immense strength and agility. His swiftness and activity made him like a wild gazelle, his feet like hart’s feet, and his arms strong enough to break a bow of steel.
After the anointing David resumes his accustomed duties, and the next we know of him he is summoned to the court to chase away the king’s madness by music,
and in the successful effort of David’s harp we have the first glimpse into that genius for music and poetry which was afterwards consecrated in the Psalms. After this he returned to the old shepherd life again. One incident alone of his solitary shepherd life has come down to us —his conflict with the lion and the bear in defence of his father’s flocks.
It was some years after this that David suddenly appears before his brothers in the camp of the army, and hears the defiant challenge of the Philistine giant Goliath. With his shepherd’s sling and five small pebbles he goes forth and defeats the giant.
2. Relations with Saul. —We now enter on a new aspect of David’s life. The victory over Goliath had been a turning point of his career. Saul inquired his parentage, and took him finally to his court. Jonathan was inspired by the romantic friendship which bound the two youths together to the end of their lives. Unfortunately David’s fame proved the foundation of that unhappy jealousy of Saul towards him which, mingling with the king’s constitutional malady, poisoned his whole future relations to David. His position in Saul’s court seems to have been first armor-bearer,
1Sa 16:21; 18:2
then captain over a thousand,
and finally, on his marriage with Michal, the king’s second daughter, he was raised to the high office of captain of the king’s body-guard, second only, if not equal, to Abner, the captain of the host, and Jonathan, the heir apparent. David was not chiefly known for his successful exploits against the Philistines, by one of which he won his wife, and rove back the Philistine power with a blow from which it only rallied at the disastrous close of Saul’s reign. He also still performed from time to time the office of minstrel; but the successive attempts of Saul upon his life convinced him that he was in constant danger. He had two faithful allies, however, in the court —the son of Saul, his friend Jonathan, and the daughter of Saul, his wife Michal. Warned by the one and assisted by the other, he escaped by night, and was from thenceforward a fugitive. He at first found a home at the court of Achish, among the Philistines; but his stay was short. Discovered possibly by "the sword of Goliath," his presence revived the national enmity of the Philistines against their former conqueror, and he only escaped by feigning madness.
His first retreat was the cave of Adullam. In this vicinity he was joined by his whole family,
and by a motley crowd of debtors and discontented men,
which formed the nucleus of his army. David’s life for the next few years was made up of a succession of startling incidents. He secures an important ally in Abiathar,
his band of 400 at Adullam soon increased to 600,
he is hunted by Saul from place to place like a partridge.
1Sa 23:14,22,25-29; 24:1-22; 26
He marries Abigail and Ahinoam.
Finally comes the new of the battle of Gilboa and the death of Saul and Jonathan. 1Sam 31. The reception of the tidings of the death of his rival and of his friend, the solemn mourning, the vent of his indignation against the bearer of the message, the pathetic lamentation that followed, will close the second period of David’s life.
3. David’s reign.—
1. As king of Judah at Hebron, 7 1/2 years.
2Sa 2:1 ... 5:5
Here David was first formally anointed king.
To Judah his dominion was nominally confined. Gradually his power increased, and during the two years which followed the elevation of Ish-bosheth a series of skirmishes took place between the two kingdoms. Then rapidly followed the successive murders of Abner and of Ish-bosheth.
2Sa 3:30; 4:5
The throne, so long waiting for him, was now vacant, and the united voice of the whole people at once called him to occupy it. For the third time David was anointed king, and a festival of three days celebrated the joyful event.
One of David’s first acts after becoming king was to secure Jerusalem, which he seized from the Jebusites and fixed the royal residence there. Fortifications were added by the king and by Joab, and it was known by the special name of the "city of David."
2Sa 5:9; 1Ch 11:7
The ark was now removed from its obscurity at Kirjath-jearim with marked solemnity, and conveyed to Jerusalem. The erection of the new capital at Jerusalem introduces us to a new era in David’s life and in the history of the monarchy. He became a king on the scale of the great Oriental sovereigns of Egypt and Persia, with a regular administration and organization of court and camp; and he also founded an imperial dominion which for the first time realize the prophetic description of the bounds of the chosen people.
During the succeeding ten years the nations bordering on his kingdom caused David more or less trouble, but during this time he reduced to a state of permanent subjection the Philistines on the west,
the Moabites on the east,
by the exploits of Benaiah,
the Syrians on the northeast as far as the Euphrates,
on the south; and finally the Ammonites, who had broken their ancient alliance, and made one grand resistance to the advance of his empire.
2Sa 10:1-19; 12:26-31
Three great calamities may be selected as marking the beginning, middle and close of David’s otherwise prosperous reign, which appear to be intimated in the question of Gad,
"a three-years famine, a three-months flight or a three-days pestilence." a. Of these the first (the three-years famine) introduces us to the last notices of David’s relations with the house of Saul, already referred to. b. The second group of incidents contains the tragedy of David’s life, which grew in all its parts out of the polygamy, with its evil consequences, into which he had plunged on becoming king. Underneath the splendor of his last glorious campaign against the Ammonites was a dark story, known probably at that time only to a very few —the double crime of adultery with Bath-sheba and the virtual murder of Uriah. The clouds from this time gathered over David’s fortunes, and henceforward "the sword never departed from his house."
The outrage on his daughter Tamar, the murder of his eldest son Amnon, and then the revolt of his best-beloved Absalom, brought on the crisis which once more sent him forth as wanderer, as in the days when he fled from Saul.
The final battle of Absalom’s rebellion was fought in the "forest of Ephraim," and terminated in the accident which led to the young man’s death; and, though nearly heartbroken at the loss of his son, David again reigned in undisturbed peace at Jerusalem.
c. The closing period of David’s life, with the exception of one great calamity, may be considered as a gradual preparation for the reign of his successor. This calamity was the three-days pestilence which visited Jerusalem at the warning of the prophet Gad. The occasion which led to this warning was the census of the people taken by Joab at the king’s orders,
2Sa 24:1-9; 1Ch 21:1-7; 27:23,24
which was for some reason sinful in God’s sight. 2Sam 24. A formidable conspiracy to interrupt the succession broke out in the last days of David’s reign; but the plot was stifled, and Solomon’s inauguration took place under his father’s auspices.
By this time David’s infirmities had grown upon him. His last song is preserved —a striking union of the ideal of a just ruler which he had placed before him and of the difficulties which he had felt in realizing it.
His last words to his successor are general exhortations to his duty.
He died, according to Josephus, at the age of 70, and "was buried in the city of David." After the return from the captivity, "the sepulchres of David" were still pointed out "between Siloah and the house of the mighty men," or "the guard-house."
His tomb, which became the general sepulchre of the kings of Judah, was pointed out in the latest times of the Jewish people. The edifice shown as such from the Crusades to the present day is on the southern hill of modern Jerusalem commonly called Mount Zion, under the so-called "Coenaculum;" but it cannot be identified with the tomb of David, which was emphatically within the walls.
Da’vid, City of.
The variable length of the natural day at different seasons led in the very earliest times to the adoption of the civil day (or one revolution of the sun) as a standard of time. The Hebrews reckoned the day from evening to evening,
deriving it from
"the evening and the morning were the first day." The Jews are supposed, like the modern Arabs, to have adopted from an early period minute specifications of the parts of the natural day. Roughly, indeed, they were content to divide it into "morning, evening and noonday,"
but when they wished for greater accuracy they pointed to six unequal parts, each of which was again subdivided. These are held to have been —
1. "the dawn."
3. "Heat of the day," about 9 o’clock.
4. "The two noons,"
Ge 43:16; De 28:29
5. "The cool (lit. wind) of the day," before sunset,
—so called by the Persians to this day.
6. "Evening." Before the captivity the Jews divided the night into three watches,
Ps 63:6; 90:4
viz. the first watch, lasting till midnight,
the "middle watch," lasting till cockcrow,
and the "morning watch," lasting till sunrise.
In the New Testament we have allusions to four watches, a division borrowed from the Greeks and Romans. These were —
1. From twilight till 9 o/clock,
Mr 11:11; Joh 20:19
2. Midnight, from 9 till 12 o’clock,
3 Macc 5:23.
4. Till daybreak.
The word held to mean "hour" is first found in
Da 3:6,15; 5:5
Perhaps the Jews, like the Greeks, learned from the Babylonians the division of the day into twelve parts. In our Lord’s time the division was common.
an old English term meaning umpire or arbitrator.
The office described by this title appears in the New Testament as the correlative of bishop. [BISHOP] The two are mentioned together in
Phm 1:1; 1Ti 3:2,8
Its original meaning implied a helper, an assistant. The bishops were the "elders," the deacons the young active men, of the church. The narrative of Acts 6 is commonly referred to as giving an account of the institution of this office. The apostles, in order to meet the complaints of the Hellenistic Jews that their widows were neglected in the daily ministration, call on the body of believers to choose seven men "full of the Holy Ghost and of wisdom," whom they "may appoint over this business." It may be questioned, however, whether the seven were not appointed to higher functions than those of the deacons of the New Testament. Qualifications and duties. Special directions as to the qualifications for and the duties of deacons will be found in Acts 6 and
From the analogy of the synagogue, and from the scanty notices in the New Testament, we may think of the deacons or "young men" at Jerusalem as preparing the rooms for meetings, distributing alms, maintaining order at the meetings, baptizing new converts, distributing the elements at the Lord’s Supper.
The word diakonos is found in
(Authorized Version "servant") associated with a female name, and this has led to the conclusion that there existed in the apostolic age, as there undoubtedly did a little later, an order of women bearing that title, and exercising in relation to their own sex functions which were analogous to those of the deacons. On this hypothesis it has been inferred that the women mentioned in
belonged to such an order. The rules given as to the conduct of women in
1Ti 3:11, Tit 2:3
have in like manner been referred to them, and they have been identified even with the "widows" of
This name nowhere occurs in the Bible, and appears not to have existed until the second century after Christ. [See SEA, THE SALT]
(a sanctuary), the name of three places of Palestine.
1. A town in the mountains of Judah,
one of a group of eleven cities to the west of Hebron. The earlier name of Debir was Kirjath-sepher, "city of book,"
Jos 15:15; Jud 1:11
and Kirjath-sannah, "city of palm."
It was one of the cities given with their "suburbs" to the priests.
Jos 21:15; 1Ch 6:58
Debir has not been discovered with certainty in modern times; but about three miles to the west of Hebron is a deep and secluded valley called the Wady Nunkur, enclosed on the north by hills, of which one bears a name certainly suggestive of Debir—Dewir-ban.
2. A place on the north boundary of Judah, near the "valley of Achor."
A Wady Dabor is marked in Van de Velde’s map as close to the south of Neby Musa, at the northwest corner of the Dead Sea.
3. The "border of Debir" is named as forming part of the boundary of Gad,
and as apparently not far from Mahanaim.
king of Eglon; one of the five kings hanged by Joshua.
(a bee). (B.C. 1857.)
1. The nurse of Rebekah.
Deborah accompanied Rebekah from the house of Bethuel,
and is only mentioned by name on the occasion of her burial under the oak tree of Bethel, which was called in her honor Allon-bachuth.
2. A prophetess who judged Israel. Judges 4,5. (B.C, 1316.) She lived under the palm tree of Deborah between Ramah and Bethel in Mount Ephraim,
which, as palm trees were rare in Palestine, "is mentioned as a well-known and solitary landmark." She was probably a woman of Ephraim. Lapidoth was probably her husband, and not Barak as some say. She was not so much a judge as one gifted with prophetic command
Jud 4:6,14; 5:7
and by virtue of her inspiration "a mother in Israel." The tyranny of Jabin, a Canaanitish king, was peculiarly felt in the northern tribes, who were near his capital and under her jurisdiction. Under her direction Barak encamped on the broad summit of Tabor. Deborah’s prophecy was fulfilled,
and the enemy’s general perished among the "oaks of the wanderers" (Zaanaim), in the tent of the Bedouin Kenite’s wife,
in the northern mountains. Deborah’s title of "prophetess" includes the notion of inspired poetry, as in
and in this sense the glorious triumphal ode, Judges 5, well vindicates her claim to the office.
1. The name of a son of Raamah, son of Cush.
Ge 10:7; 1Ch 1:9
2. A son of Jokshan, son of Keturah.
Ge 25:3; 1Ch 1:32
(B.C. after 1988.)
descendants of Dedan I.
Dedication, Feast of the,
the festival instituted to commemorate the purging of the temple and the rebuilding of the altar after Judas Maccabbeus had driven out the Syrians, B.C. 164. 1 Macc. 4:52-59. It is named only once in the canonical Scriptures.
It commenced on the 25th of Chisleu (early in December), the anniversary of the pollution of the temple by Antiochus Epiphanes, B.C. 167. Like the great Mosaic feasts, it lasted eight days, but it did not require attendance at Jerusalem. It was an occasion of much festivity, and was celebrated in nearly the same manner as the feast of tabernacles, with the carrying of branches of trees and with much singing. In the temple at Jerusalem the "Hallel" was sung every day of the feast.
Degrees, Songs of,
a title given to fifteen Psalms, from 120 to 134 inclusive. Four of them are attributed to David, one is ascribed to the pen of Solomon, and the other ten give no indication of their author. With respect to the term rendered in the Authorized Version "degrees" a great diversity of views prevails, but the most probable opinion is that they were pilgrim songs, sung by the people as they went up to Jerusalem.
mentioned only once in Scripture,
among the colonists planted in Samaria after the completion of the captivity of Israel. They are probably the Dai or Dahi, mentioned by Herodotus (i. 125) among the nomadic tribes of Persia.
(a lancer). The son of Dekar, i.e. Ben Dekar, was Solomon’s commissariat officer in the western part of the hill-country of Judah and Benjamin, Shaalbim and Bethshemesh.
(B.C. before 1014.)
(freed by Jehovah).
1. A priest in the time of David, leader of the twenty-third course of priests.
2. "Children of Delaiah" were among the people of uncertain pedigree who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel.
Ezr 2:60; Ne 7:62
3. Son of Mehetabeel and father of Shemaiah.
(B.C. before 410.)
4. Son of Shemaiah, one of the "princes" about the court of Jehoiakim.
(languishing) a woman who dwelt in the valley Of Sorek, beloved by Samson.
There seems to be little doubt that she was a Philistine courtesan. [SAMS0N] (B.C. 1141.)
(governor of the people), most probably a contraction from Demetrius or perhaps from Demarchus, a companion of St. Paul,
Phm 1:24; Col 4:14
during his first imprisonment at Rome. (A.D. 57.) At a later period,
we find him mentioned as having deserted the apostle through love of this present world, and gone to Thessalonica.
(belonging to Ceres).
1. A maker of silver shrines of Artemis at Ephesus.
(about A.D. 52). These were small models of the great temple of the Ephesian Artemis, with her statue, which it was customary to carry on journeys, and place on houses as charms.
2. A disciple,
mentioned with commendation (about A.D. 90). Possibly the first Demetrius,converted; but this is very doubtful.
In the Gospels generally, in
and in Reve 16:14 the demons are spoken of as spiritual beings, at enmity with God, and having power to afflict man not only with disease, but, as is marked by the frequent epithet "un-clean," with spiritual pollution also. They "believe" the power of God "and tremble,"
they recognized the Lord as the Son of God,
Mt 8:29; Lu 4:41
and acknowledged the power of his name, used in exorcism. In the place of the name of Jehovah, by his appointed messengers,
and looked forward in terror to the judgment to come.
The description is precisely that of a nature akin to the angelic in knowledge and powers, but with the emphatic addition of the idea of positive and active wickedness.
This word is frequently used in the New Testament, and applied to persons suffering under the possession of a demon or evil spirit, such possession generally showing itself visibly in bodily disease or mental derangement. It has been maintained by many persons that our Lord and the evangelists, in referring to demonical possession, spoke only in accommodation to the general belief of the Jews, without any assertion as to its truth or its falsity. It is concluded that, since the symptoms of the affliction were frequently those of bodily disease (as dumbness,
), or those seen in cases of ordinary insanity (as ill)
Mt 8:28; Mr 5:1-5
the demoniacs were merely persons suffering under unusual diseases of body and mind. But demoniacs are frequently distinguished from those afflicted with bodily sickness, see
Mr 1:32; 16:17,18; Lu 6:17,18
the same outward signs are sometimes referred to possession sometimes merely to disease, comp.
with Matt 17:15;
with Mark 7:32 etc.; the demons are represented as speaking in their own persons with superhuman knowledge.
Mt 8:29; Mr 1:24; 5:7; Lu 4:41
etc. All these things speak of a personal power of evil. Twice our Lord distinctly connects demoniacal possession with the power of the evil one.
Lastly, the single fact recorded of the entrance of the demons at (Gadara
into the herd of swine, and the effect which that entrance caused is sufficient to overthrow the notion that our Lord and the evangelists do not assert or imply any objective reality of possession. We are led, therefore, to the ordinary and literal interpretation of these passages, that there are evil spirits, subjects of the evil one, who, in the days of the Lord himself and his apostles especially, were permitted by (God to exercise a direct influence over the souls and bodies of certain men.
(containing ten), Authorized Version "penny,"
Mt 18:28; 20:2,9,13
a Roman silver coin in the time of our Saviour and the Apostles, worth about 15 cents. It took its name from its being first equal to ten "asses," a number afterwards increased to sixteen. It was the principal silver coin of the Roman commonwealth. From the parable of the laborers in the vineyard it would seem that a denarius was then the ordinary pay for a day’s labor.
Ac 13:7,8,12; 19:38
The Greek word signifies proconsul, the title of the Roman governors who were appointed by the senate.
Ac 14:20,21; 16:1; 20:4
The exact position of this town has not yet been ascertained, but its general situation is undoubted. It was in the eastern part of the great upland plain of Lycaonia, which stretched from Iconium eastward along the north side of the chain of Taurus. (Rev. L. H. Adams, a missionary, identifies it with the modern Divle, a town of about 4500 inhabitants, on the ancient road between Tarsus and Lystra.—ED.)
Not a stretch of sand, an utterly barren waste, but a wild, uninhabited region. The words rendered in the Authorized Version by "desert," when used in the historical books denote definite localities.
1. ARABAH. This word means that very depressed and enclosed region—the deepest and the hottest chasm in the world—the sunken valley north and south of the Dead Sea, but more particularly the former. [ARABAH] Arabah in the sense of the Jordan valley is translated by the word "desert" only in
2. MIDBAR. This word, which our translators have most frequently rendered by "desert," is accurately "the pasture ground." It is most frequently used for those tracts of waste land which lie beyond the cultivated ground in the immediate neighborhood of the towns and villages of Palestine, and which are a very familiar feature to the traveller in that country.
Ex 3:1; 6:3; 19:2
3. CHARBAH appears to have the force of dryness, and thence of desolation. It is rendered "desert" in Psal 102:6; Isai 48:21; Ezek 13:4 The term commonly employed for it in the Authorized Version is "waste places" or "desolation."
4. JESHIMON, with the definite article, apparently denotes the waste tracts on both sides of the Dead Sea. In all these cases it is treated as a proper name in the Authorized Version. Without the article it occurs in a few passages of poetry in the following of which it is rendered; "desert:"
Ps 78:40; 106:14; Isa 43:19,20
(invocation of God), father of Eliasaph, the "captain" of the tribe of Gad at the time of the numbering of the people at Sinai.
Nu 1:14; 7:42,47; 10:20
(B.C. 1491.) The same man is mentioned again in
but here the name appears as Ruel.
—which means "the repetition of the law" —consists chiefly of three discourses delivered by Moses shortly before his death. Subjoined to these discourses are the Song of Moses the Blessing of Moses, and the story of his death.
1. The first discourse.
De 1:1 ... 4:40
After a brief historical introduction the speaker recapitulates the chief events of the last forty years in the wilderness. To this discourse is appended a brief notice of the severing of the three cities of refuge on the east side of the Jordan.
2. The second discourse is introduced like the first by an explanation of the circumstances under which it was delivered.
It extends from chap.
19 and contains a recapitulation, with some modifications and additions of the law already given on Mount Sinai.
3. In the third discourse,
20 the elders of Israel are associated with Moses. The people are commanded to set up stones upon Mount Ebal, and on them to write "all the words of this law." Then follow the several curses to be pronounced by the Levites on Ebal,
and the blessings on Gerizim.
4. The delivery of the law as written by Moses (for its still further preservation) to the custody of the Levites, and a charge to the people to hear it read once every seven years, Deut. 31; the Song of Moses spoken in the ears of the people,
De 31:30 ... 32:44
and the blessing of the twelve tribes.
The book closes, Deut 34, with an account of the death of Moses, which is first announced to him ch.
The book bears witness to its own authorship,
and is expressly cited in the New Testament as the work of Moses.
Mt 19:7,8; Mr 10:3; Ac 3:22; 7:37
The last chapter, containing an account of the death of Moses, was of course added by a later hand, and probably formed originally the beginning of the book of Joshua. [PENTATEUCH]
(slanderer). The name describes Satan as slandering God to man and man to God. The former work is of course, a part of his great work of temptation to evil and is not only exemplified but illustrated as to its general nature and tendency by the narrative of Gen. 3. The other work, the slandering or accusing men before God, is the imputation of selfish motives,
and its refutation is placed in the self-sacrifice of those "who loved not their own lives unto death." [SATAN; DEMON]
DEMON -See 6174
This in the summer is so copious in Palestine that it supplies to some extent the absence of rain and becomes important to the agriculturist. Thus it is coupled in the divine blessing with rain, or mentioned as a prime source of fertility,
Ge 27:28; De 33:13; Zec 8:12
and its withdrawal is attributed to a curse.
2Sa 1:21; 1Ki 17:1; Hag 1:10
It becomes a leading object in prophetic imagery by reason of its penetrating moisture without the apparent effort of rain,
De 32:2; Job 29:19; Ps 133:3; Ho 14:5
while its speedy evanescence typifies the transient goodness of the hypocrite.
Ho 6:4; 13:3
What the "diadem" of the Jews was we know not. That of other nations of antiquity was a fillet of silk, two inches broad, bound round the head and tied behind. Its invention is attributed to Liber. Its color was generally white, sometimes, however, it was of blue, like that of Darius; and it was sown with pearls or other gems,
and enriched with gold.
It was peculiarly the mark of Oriental sovereigns. In
Es 1:11; 2:17
we have cether for the turban worn by the Persian king, queen or other eminent persons to whom it was conceded as a special favor. The diadem of the king differed from that of others in having an erect triangular peak. The words in
mean long and flowing turbans of gorgeous colors. [CROWN]
"An instrument for showing the time of day from the shadow of a style or gnomon on a graduated arc or surface; "rendered" steps" in Authorized Version,
Ex 20:26; 2Ki 10:19
2Ki 20:9,10,11; Isa 38:8
where to give a consistent rendering we should read with the margin the "degrees" rather than the "dial" of Ahaz. It is probable that the dial of Ahaz was really a series of steps or stairs, and that the shadow (Perhaps of some column or obelisk on the top) fell on a greater or smaller number of them according as the sun was low or high. The terrace of a palace might easily be thus ornamented.
(Heb. yahalom), a gem crystallized carbon, the most valued and brilliant of precious stones, remarkable for its hardness, the third precious stone in the second row on the breastplate of the high priest,
Ex 28:18; 39:11
and mentioned by Ezekiel,
among the precious stones of the king of Tyre. Some suppose yahalom to be the "emerald." Respecting shamir, which is translated "Diamond" in
see under ADAMANT.
This Latin word, properly denoting a Roman divinity, is the representative of the Greek Artemus, the tutelary goddess of the Ephesians, who plays so important a part in the narrative of Acts 19. The Ephesian Diana was, however, regarded as invested with very different attributes, and is rather to be identified with Astarte and other female divinities of the East. The head wore a mural crown, each hand held a bar of metal, and the lower part ended in a rude block covered with figures of animals and mystic inscriptions. This idol was regarded as an object of peculiar sanctity, and was believed to have fallen down from heaven.
(double cake), mother of Hosea’s wife Gomer.
(B.C. before 725.)
(accurately DIBLAH), a place named only in
Probably only another form of RIBLAH.
1. A town on the east side of Jordan, in the rich pastoral country, which was taken possession of and rebuilt by the children of Gad.
From this circumstance it possibly received the name of DIBON-GAD.
Its first mention is in
and from this it appears to have belonged originally to the Moabites. We find Dibon counted to Reuben in the lists of Joshua.
In the time of Isaiah and Jeremiah, however, it was again in possession of Moab.
Isa 15:2; Jer 48:18,22
comp. Jere 48:24 In modern times the name Dhiban has been discovered as attached to extensive ruins on the Roman road, about three miles north of the Arnon (Wady Modjeb).
2. One of the towns which were reinhabited by the men of Judah after the return from captivity,
identical with DIMONAH.
a Danite, father of Shelomith.
SHEKEL -See 8898
(the twin), a surname of the apostle Thomas.
Joh 11:16; 20:24; 21:2
Ge 10:27; 1Ch 1:21
a son of Joktan, whose settlements, in common with those of the other sons of Joktan, must be looked for in Arabia. It is thought that Diklah is a part of Arabia containing many palm trees.
(gourd), one of the cities in the lowlands of Judah.
It has not been identified with certainty.
(dung), a city int he tribe of Zebulun, given to the Merarite Levites.
(river bed),The waters of, some streams on the east of the Dead Sea, in the land of Moab, against which Isaiah uttered denunciation.
Gesenius conjectures that the two names Dimon and Dibon are the same.
a city in the south of Judah,
perhaps the same as DIBON in
(judged, acquitted), the daughter of Jacob by Leah.
(B.C. about 1751.) She accompanied her father from Mesopotamia to Canaan, and, having ventured among the inhabitants, was violated by Shechem the son of Hamor, the chieftain of the territory in which her father had settled. Gen. 34. Shechem proposed to make the usual reparation by paying a sum to the father and marrying her.
This proposal was accepted, the sons of Jacob demanding, as a condition of the proposed union, the circumcision of the Shechemites. They therefore assented; and on the third day, when the pain and fever resulting from the operation were at the highest, Simeon and Levi, own brothers of Dinah, attacked them unexpectedly, slew all the males, and plundered their city.
the name of some of the Cuthaean colonists who were placed in the cities of Samaria after the captivity of the ten tribes.
Ge 36:32; 1Ch 1:43
the capital city, and probably the birthplace, of Bela, son of Beor king of Edom.
(devoted to Dionysus, i.e., Bacchus)the Areop’agite,
an eminent Athenian, converted to Christianity by the preaching of St. Paul. (A.D. 52.) He is said to have been first bishop of Athens. The writings which were once attributed to him are now confessed to be the production of some neo-Platonists of the sixth century.
(nourished by Jove), a Christian mentioned in
but of whom nothing is known.
(antelope), the youngest son of Seir the Horite.
Ge 36:21,28,30; 1Ch 1:38,42
1. The fifth son of Seir.
Ge 36:21,26,30; 1Ch 1:38
Dispersion, The Jews of the,
or simply THE DISPERSION, was the general title applied to those Jews who remained settled in foreign countries after the return from the Babylonian exile, and during the period of the second temple. At the beginning of the Christian era the Dispersion was divided into three great sections, the Babylonian, the Syrian, the Egyptian. From Babylon the Jews spread throughout Persia, Media and Parthia. Large settlements of Jews were established in Cyprus, in the islands of the AEgean, and on the western coast of Asia Minor. Jewish settlements were also established at Alexandria by Alexander and Ptolemy I. The Jewish settlements in Rome, were consequent upon the occupation of Jerusalem by Pompey, B.C. 63. The influence of the Dispersion on the rapid promulgation of Christianity can scarcely be overrated. The course of the apostolic preaching followed in a regular progress the line of Jewish settlements. The mixed assembly from which the first converts were gathered on the day of Pentecost represented each division of the Dispersion.
(1) Parthians...Mesopotamia; (2) Judea (i.e. Syria)...Pamphylia; (3) Egypt...Greece; (4) Romans..., and these converts naturally prepared the way for the apostles int he interval which preceded the beginning of the separate apostolic missions. St. James and St. Peter wrote to the Jews of the Dispersion.
Jas 1:1; 1Pe 1:1
is a "foretelling future events, or discovering things secret by the aid of superior beings, or other than human means." It is used in Scripture of false systems of ascertaining the divine will. It has been universal in all ages, and all nations alike civilized and savage. Numerous forms of divination are mentioned, such as divination by rods,
divination by arrows,
divination by cups,
consultation of teraphim,
1Sa 15:23; Eze 21:21; Zec 10:2
[TERAPHIM]; divination by the liver,
divination by dreams,
De 13:2,3; Jud 7:13; Jer 23:32
consultation of oracles.
Isa 41:21-24; 44:7
Moses forbade every species of divination, because a prying into the future clouds the mind with superstition, and because it would have been an incentive to idolatry. But God supplied his people with substitutes for divination which would have rended it superfluous, and left them in no doubt as to his will in circumstances of danger, had they continued faithful. It was only when they were unfaithful that the revelation was withdrawn.
1Sa 28:6; 2Sa 2:1; 5:23
etc. Superstition not unfrequently goes hand in hand with skepticism, and hence, amid the general infidelity prevalent throughout the Roman empire at our Lord’s coming, imposture was rampant. Hence the lucrative trade of such men as Simon Magus,
the slave with the spirit of Python,
the vagabond jews, exorcists,
Lu 11:19; Ac 19:13
2Ti 3:13; Re 19:20
etc., as well as the notorious dealers in magical books at Ephesus.
"a legal dissolution of the marriage relation." The law regulating this subject is found
and the cases in which the right of a husband to divorce his wife was lost are stated ibid.,
The ground of divorce is appoint on which the Jewish doctors of the period of the New Testament differed widely; the school of Shammai seeming to limit it to a moral delinquency in the woman, whilst that the Hillel extended it to trifling causes, e.g., if the wife burnt the food she was cooking for her husband. The Pharisees wished perhaps to embroil our Saviour with these rival schools by their question,
by his answer to which, as well as by his previous maxim,
he declares that he regarded all the lesser causes than "fornication" as standing on too weak ground, and declined the question of how to interpret the words of Moses.
(region of gold), a place in the Arabian desert, mentioned
is identified with Dahab, a cape on the western shore of the Gulf of Akabah.
(loving, amorous), an Ahohite who commanded the course of the second month.
It is probable that he is the same as DODO. 2.
Ge 10:4; 1Ch 1:7
a family or race descended from Javan, the son of Japhet.
Ge 10:4; 1Ch 1:7
Dodanim is regarded as identical with the Dardani, who were found in historical times in Illyricum and Troy.
(love of the Lord), a man of Maresha in Judah; father of Eliezer, who denounced Jehoshaphat’s alliance with Ahaziah.
1. A man of Bethlehem, father of Elhanan, who was one of David’s thirty captains.
2Sa 23:24; 1Ch 11:26
He is a different person from
2. DODO THE AHOHITE, father of Eleazar, the second of the three mighty men who were over the thirty.
2Sa 23:9; 1Ch 11:12
(B.C. before 1046).
(fearful), an Idumean, chief of Saul’s herdmen. (B.C. 1062.) He was at Nob when Ahimelech gave David the sword of Goliath, and not only gave information to Saul, but when others declined the office, himself executed the king’s order to destroy the priests of Nob, with their families, to the number of 85 persons, together with all their property.
1Sa 21:7; 22:9,18,22; Ps 52
an animal frequently mentioned in Scripture. It was used by the hebrews as a watch for their houses,
and for guarding their flocks.
Then also, as now troops of hungry and semi-wild dogs used to wander about the fields and the streets of the cities, devouring dead bodies and other offal,
1Ki 14:11; 21:19,23; 22:38; Ps 59:6
and thus became so savage and fierce and such objects of dislike that fierce and cruel enemies are poetically styled dogs in
moreover the dog being an unclean animal,
the epithets dog, dead dog, dog’s head, were used as terms of reproach or of humility in speaking of one’s self.
1Sa 24:14; 2Sa 3:8; 9:8; 16:9; 2Ki 8:13
(cattle-driving), a place mentioned
as a station in the desert where the Israelites encamped. [WILDERNESS OF THE WANDERING]
WANDERING -See 9443
Jos 17:11; 1Ki 4:11
an ancient royal city of the Canaanites,
whose ruler was an ally of Jabin king of Hazor against Joshua.
It appears to have been within the territory of the tribe of Asher, though allotted to Manasseh,
Jos 17:11; Jud 1:27
Solomon stationed at Dor one of his twelve purveyors.
jerome places it on the coast, "in the ninth mile from Caesarea, on the way to Ptolemais." Just at the point indicated is the small village of Tantura, probably an Arab corruption of Dora, consisting of about thirty houses, wholly constructed of ancient materials.
a "priest and Levite" who carried the translation of Esther to Egypt.
(two wells), a place first mentioned
in connection with the history of Joseph, and apparently as in the neighborhood of Shechem. It next appears as the residence of Elisha.
It was known to Eusebius, who places it 12 miles to the north of Sebaste (Samaria); and here it has been discovered in our own times, still bearing its ancient name unimpaired.
The first menton of this bird occurs in Gen. 8. The dove’s rapidity of flight is alluded to in
the beauty of its plumage in
its dwelling int he rocks and valleys in
and Ezek 7:16 its mournful voice in
Isa 38:14; 59:11; Na 2:7
its harmlessness in
its simplicity in
and its amativeness in
So 1:15; 2:14
Doves are kept in a domesticated state in many parts of the East. In Persia pigeon-houses are erected at a distance from the dwellings, for the purpose of collecting the dung as manure. There is probably an allusion to such a custom in
Various explanations have been given of the passage in
Bochart has labored to show that it denotes a species of cicer, "chick-pea," which he says the Arabs call usnan, and sometimes improperly "dove’s" or "sparrow’s dung." Great quantities of these are sold in Cairo to the pilgrims going to Mecca. Later authorities incline to think it the bulbous root of the Star of Bethlehem (ornithogalum, i.e. bird-milk), a common root in Palestine, and sometimes eaten. —ED. It can scarcely be believed that even in the worst horrors of a siege a substance so vile as is implied by the literal rendering should have been used for food.
2 Macc 4:19; 10:20; 12:43, a Greek silver coin, varying in weight on account of the use of different talents. In Luke denarii (Authorized Version "piece of silver") seem to be intended. [MONEY; SILVER]
SILVER -See 9054
The translators of the Authorized Version, apparently following the Vulgate, have rendered by the same word "dragon" the two Hebrew words tan and tannin, which appear to be quite distinct in meaning.
1. The former is used, always in the plural, in
Job 30:29; Ps 44:19; Isa 34:13; 43:20; Jer 9:11
It is always applied to some creatures inhabiting the desert, and we should conclude from this that it refers rather to some wild beast than to a serpent. The syriac renders it by a word which, according to Pococke, means a "jackal."
2. The word tannin seems to refer to any great monster, whether of the land or the sea, being indeed more usually applied to some kind of serpent or reptile, but not exclusively restricted to that sense.
Ex 7:9,10,12; De 32:33; Ps 91:13
In the New Testament it is found only in the Apocalypse,
etc., as applied metaphorically to "the old serpent, called the devil, and Satan."
The Scripture declares that the influence of the Spirit of God upon the soul extends to its sleeping as well as its waking thoughts. But, in accordance with the principle enunciated by St. Paul in
dreams, in which the understanding is asleep, are placed below the visions of prophecy, in which the understanding plays its part. Under the Christian dispensation, while we read frequently of trances and vision, dreams are never referred to as vehicles of divine revelation. In exact accordance with this principle are the actual records of the dreams sent by God. The greater number of such dreams were granted, for prediction or for warning, to those who were aliens to the Jewish covenant. And where dreams are recorded as means of God’s revelation to his chosen servants, they are almost always referred to the periods of their earliest and most imperfect knowledge of him. Among the Jews, "if any person dreamed a dream which was peculiarly striking and significant, he was permitted to go to the high priest in a peculiar way, and see if it had any special import. But the observance of ordinary dreams and the consulting of those who pretend to skill in their interpretation are repeatedly forbidden.
De 13:1-5; 18:9-14
This subject includes the following particulars:
2. Color and decoration;
3. Name, form, and mode of wearing the various articles;
4. Special usages relating thereto.
1. Materials.—After the first "apron" of fig leaves,
the skins of animals were used for clothing.
Such was the "mantle" worn by Elijah. Pelisses of sheepskin still form an ordinary article of dress in the East. The art of weaving hear was known to the Hebrews at an early period,
Ex 25:4; 26:7
and wool was known earlier still.
Their acquaintance with linen and perhaps cotton dates from the captivity in Egypt,
silk was introduced much later.
The use of mixed material, such as wool and flax, was forbidden.
Le 19:19; De 22:11
2. Color and decoration. —The prevailing color of the Hebrew dress was the natural white of the materials employed, which might be brought to a high state of brilliancy by the art of the fuller.
The notice of scarlet thread,
implies some acquaintance with dyeing. The elements of ornamentation were — (1) weaving with threads previously dyed,
(2) the introduction of gold thread or wire,
ff; (3) the addition of figures. Robes decorated with gold,
and with silver thread, cf.
were worn by royal personages; other kinds of embroidered robes were worn by the wealthy,
Jud 5:30; Ps 45:14; Eze 16:13
as well as purple,
Pr 31:22; Lu 16:19
3. The names, forms, and modes of wearing the robes.— The general characteristics of Oriental dress have preserved a remarkable uniformity in all ages: the modern Arab dresses much as the ancient Hebrew did. The costume of the men and women was very similar; there was sufficient difference, however, to mark the sex, and it was strictly forbidden to a woman to wear the appendages, such as the staff, signet-ring, and other ornaments, of a man; as well as to a man to wear the outer robe of a woman.
We shall first describe the robes which were common to the two sexes, and then those which were peculiar to women. (1) The inner garment was the most essential article of dress. It was a closely-fitting garment, resembling in form and use our shirt, though unfortunately translate "coat" in the Authorized Version. The material of which it was made was either wool, cotton or linen. It was without sleeves, and reached only to the knee. Another kind reached to the wrists and ankles. It was in either case kept close to the body by a girdle, and the fold formed by the overlapping of the robe served as an inner pocket. A person wearing the inner garment alone was described as naked. (2) There was an upper or second tunic, the difference being that it was longer than the first. (3) the linen cloth appears to have been a wrapper of fine linen, which might be used in various ways, but especially as a night-shirt.
(4) The outer garment consisted of a quadrangular piece of woollen cloth, probably resembling in shape a Scotch plaid. The size and texture would vary with the means of the wearer. It might be worn in various ways, either wrapped round the body or thrown over the shoulders like a shawl, with the ends or "skirts" hanging down in front; or it might be thrown over the head, so as to conceal the face.
2Sa 15:30; Es 6;12
The ends were skirted with a fringe and bound with a dark purple ribbon,
it was confined at the waist by a girdle. The outer garment was the poor man’s bed clothing.
The dress of the women differed from that of the men in regard to the outer garment, the inner garment being worn equally by both sexes.
Among their distinctive robes we find a kind of shawl,
Ru 3:15; Isa 3:22
light summer dresses of handsome appearance and ample dimensions,a nd gay holiday dresses.
The garments of females were terminated by an ample border of fringe (skirts, Authorized Version), which concealed the feet.
Isa 47:2; Jer 13:22
The travelling cloak referred to by St. Paul,
is generally identified with the Roman paenula. It is, however, otherwise explained as a travelling-case for carrying clothes or books. The coat of many colors worn by Joseph,
is variously taken to be either a "coat of divers colors" or a tunic furnished with sleeves and reaching down to the ankles. The latter is probably the correct sense.
4. Special usages relating to dress. —The length of the dress rendered it inconvenient for active exercise; hence the outer garments were either left in the house by a person working close by,
or were thrown off when the occasion arose,
or, if this were not possible, as in the case of a person travelling, they were girded up.
1Ki 18:46; 1Pe 1:13
On entering a house the upper garment was probably laid aside, and resumed on going out.
In a sitting posture, the garments concealed the feet; this was held to be an act of reverence.
The number of suits possessed by the Hebrews was considerable: a single suit consisted of an under and upper garment. The presentation of a robe in many instances amounted to installation or investiture,
Ge 41:42; Es 8:15; Isa 22:21
on the other hand, taking it away amounted to dismissal from office. 2 Macc. 4:38. The production of the best robe was a mark of special honor in a household.
The number of robes thus received or kept in store for presents was very large, and formed one of the main elements of wealth in the East,
Job 22:6; Mt 6:19; Jas 5:2
so that to have clothing implied the possession of wealth and power.
On grand occasions the entertainer offered becoming robes to his guests. The business of making clothes devolved upon women in a family.
Pr 31:22; Ac 9:39
little art was required in what we may term the tailoring department; the garments came forth for the most part ready made from the loom, so that the weaver supplanted the tailor.
The Hebrew term shecar, in its etymological sense, applies to any beverage that had intoxicating qualities. With regard to the application of the term in later times we have the explicit statement of Jerome, as well as other sources of information, from which we may state the that following beverages were known to the Jews:—
1. Beer, which was largely consumed in Egypt under the name of zythus, and was thence introduced into Palestine. It was made of barley; certain herbs, such as lupine and skirret, were used as substitutes for hops.
2. Cider, which is noticed in the Mishna as apple wine.
3. Honey wine, of which there were two sorts, one consisting of a mixture of wine, honey and pepper; the other a decoction of the juice of the grape, termed debash (honey) by the Hebrews, and dibs by the modern Syrians.
4. Date wine, which was also manufactured in Egypt. It was made by mashing the fruit in water in certain proportions.
5. Various other fruits and vegetables are enumerated by Pliny as supplying materials for factitious or home-made wine, such as figs, millet, the carob fruit, etc. It is not improbable that the Hebrews applied raisins to this purpose in the simple manner followed by the Arabians, viz., by putting them in jars of water and burying them in the ground until fermentation took place.
(watered by the dew), daughter of herod Agrippa *.,
ff., and Cypros. Born A.D. 38. She was at first betrothed to Antiochus Epiphanes, prince of Commagene, but was married to Azizus, king of Emesa. Soon after, Felix, procurator of Judea, brought about her seduction by means of the Cyprian sorcerer Simon, and took her as his wife. In
we find her in company with Felix at Caesarea. Felix who, together with his mother, perished in the eruption of Vesuvius under Titus.
(Heb. sumphoniah) a musical instrument, mentioned in
probably the bagpipe. The same instrument is still in use amongst peasants in the northwest of Asia and in southern Europe, where it is known by the similar name sampogna or zampogna.
1. A son of Ishmael, most probably the founder of the Ishmaelite tribe of Arabia, and thence the name of the principal place of district inhabited by that tribe.
Ge 25:14; 1Ch 1:30; Isa 21:11
2. A city in the mountainous district of Judah, near Hebron,
represented by the ruins of a village called ed-Daumeh, six miles southwest of Hebron.
The uses of dung were two-fold —as manure and as fuel. The manure consisted either of straw steeped in liquid manure,
or the sweepings,
of the streets and roads, which were carefully removed from about the houses, and collected in heaps outside the walls of the towns at fixed spots —hence the dung-gate at Jerusalem —and thence removed in due course to the fields. The difficulty of procuring fuel in Syria, Arabia and Egypt has made dung in all ages valuable as a substitute. It was probably used for heating ovens and for baking cakes,
the equable heat which it produced adapting it pecularily for the latter operation. Cow’s and camels dung is still used for a similar purpose by the Bedouins.
(a circle), the plain where Nebuchadnezzar set up the golden image,
has been sometimes identified with a tract a little below Tekrit, on the left bank of the Tigris, where the name Dur is still found. M. Oppert places the plain (or, as he calls it, the "valley") of Dura to the southeast of Babylon, in the vicinity of the mound of Dowair or Duair, where was found the pedestal of a huge statue.
MOURNING -See 8069