(contempt), son of Ebed, aided the Shechemites in their rebellion against Abimelech.
... (B.C. 1206.)
(earthquake), a hill of Ephraim, where Joshua was buried. The brooks or valley of Gaash,
2Sa 23:30; 1Ch 11:32
were probably at the foot of the hill.
The same name as GEBA, which see.
(tax gatherer), apparently the head of an important family of Benjamin resident at Jerusalem.
(B.C. before 536.)
(elevated; a platform) the Hebrew or Chaldee appellation of a place, also called "Pavement," where the judgment-seat or bema was planted, from his place on which Pilate delivered our Lord to death.
It was a tessellated platform outside the praetorium, on the western hill of Jerusalem, for Pilate brought Jesus forth from thence to it.
(man of God), an angel sent by God to announce to Zacharias the birth of John the Baptist, and to Mary the birth of Christ. He was also sent to Daniel to explain his visions.
Da 8:16; 9:21
1. Jacob’s seventh son, the first-born of Zilpah, Leah’s maid, and whole-brother to Asher.
Ge 30;11-13; 46:16,18
2. "The seer," or "the king’s seer," i.e. David’s
1Ch 29:29; 2Ch 29:25
was a "prophet" who appears to have joined David when in the old.
(B.C. 1061.) He reappears in connection with the punishment inflicted for the numbering of the people.
2Sa 24:11-19; 1Ch 21:9-19
He wrote a book of the Acts of David,
and also assisted in the arrangements for the musical service of the "house of God."
Gad, The tribe of.
The country allotted to the tribe of Gad appears, speaking roughly, to have lain chiefly about the centre of the land east of Jordan. The sought of that district —from the Arnon (Wady Mojeb), about halfway down the Dead Sea, to Heshbon, nearly due east of Jerusalem —was occupied by Reuben, and at or about Heshbon the possessions of Gad commenced. They embraced half Gilead,
or half the land of the children of Ammon,
probably the mountainous district which is intersected by the torrent Jabbok, including, as its most northern town, the ancient sanctuary of Mahanaim. On the east the furthest landmark given is "Aroer that is before Rabbah," the present Amman.
West was the Jordan. ver.
The character of the tribe is throughout strongly marked —fierce and warlike.
the descendants of Gad, and members of his tribe.
a strong city situated near the river Hieromax, six miles southeast of the Sea of Galilee, over against Scythopolis and Tiberias, and 16 Roman miles distant from each of those places. Josephus calls it the capital of Peraea. The ruins of this city, now called Um Keis, are about two miles in circumference. The most interesting remains of Gadara are its tombs, which dot the cliffs for a considerable distance around the city. Godet says there is still a population of 200 souls in these tombs. Gadara was captured by Vespasian on the first outbreak of the war with the Jews, all its inhabitants were massacred, and the town itself, with the surrounding villages, was reduced to ashes.
Gadarenes’, Girgesenes’, Gerasenes’.
(These three names are used indiscriminately to designate the place where Jesus healed two demoniacs. The first two are in the Authorized Version.
Mt 8:28; Mr 5:1; Lu 8:26
In Gerasenes in place of Gadarenes. The miracle referred to took place, without doubt, near the town of Gergesa, the modern Kersa, close by the eastern shore of the Sea of Galilee, and hence in the country of Gergesenes. But as Gergesa was a small village, and little known, the evangelists, who wrote for more distant readers, spoke of the event as taking place in the country of the Gadarenes, so named from its largest city, Gadara; and this country included the country of the Gergesenes as a state includes a county. The Gerasenes were the people of the district of which Gerasa was the capital. This city was better known than Gadara or Gergesa; indeed in the Roman age no city of Palestine was better known. "It became one of the proudest cities of Syria." It was situated some 30 miles southeast of Gadara, on the borders of Peraea and a little north of the river Jabbok. It is now called Jerash and is a deserted ruin. The district of the Gerasenes probably included that of the Gadarenes; so that the demoniac of Gergesa belonged to the country of the Gadarenes and also to that of the Gerasenes, as the same person may, with equal truth, be said to live in the city or the state, or in the United States. For those near by the local name would be used; but in writing to a distant people, as the Greeks and Romans, the more comprehensive and general name would be given. —ED.)
(fortunate), son of Susi; the Manassite spy sent by Moses to explore Canaan.
(fortune of God) a Zebulunite, one of the twelve spies.
A Gadite, father of Menahem a king of Israel.
(sunburnt), son of Nahor Abraham’s brother, by his concubine Reumah.
(B.C. about 1900.)
(hiding-place) The Bene-Gahar were among the families of Nethinim who returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel.
Ezr 2:47; Ne 7:49
(B.C. before 536.)
1. A Macedonian who accompanied Paul in his travels, and whose life was in danger from the mob at Ephesus.
2. Of Derbe. He went with Paul from Corinth in his last journey to Jerusalem.
3. Of Corinth, whom Paul baptized and who was his host in his second journey in that city.
1Co 1:14; Ro 16:23
(These are supposed by some to be only one person.)
4. John’s third epistle is addressed to Christian of this name. We may possibly identify him with No. 2.
the Greek form of the word Gilead.
1. A Levite, one of the sons of Asaph.
2. Another Levite, of the family of Elkanah.
3. A third Levite, son of Jeduthun.
(land of the Galli, Gauls). The Roman province of Galatia may be roughly described as the central region of the peninsula of Asia Minor, bounded on the north by Bithynia and Paphlagonia; on the east by Pontus; on the south by Cappadocia and Lycaonia; on the west by Phrygia. —Encyc. Brit. It derived its name from the Gallic or Celtic tribes who, about 280 B.C., made an irruption into Macedonia and Thrace. It finally became a Roman province. The Galatia of the New Testament has really the "Gaul" of the East. The people have always been described as "susceptible of quick impressions and sudden changes, with a fickleness equal to their courage and enthusiasm, and a constant liability to that disunion which is the fruit of excessive vanity. —The Galatian churches were founded by Paul at his first visit, when he was detained among, them by sickness,
during his second missionary journey, about A.D 51. He visited them again on his third missionary tour.
Gala’tians, The Epistle to the,
was written by the apostle St. Paul not long after his journey through Galatia and Phrygia,
and probably in the early portion of his two-and-a-half-years stay at Ephesus, which terminated with the Pentecost of A.D. 57 or 58. The epistle appears to have been called forth by the machinations of Judaizing teachers, who, shortly before the date of its composition, had endeavored to seduce the churches of this province into a recognition of circumcision,
Ga 5:2,11,12; 6:12
seq., and had openly sought to depreciate the apostolic claims of St. Paul. Comp.
"Since the days of Luther the Epistle to the Galatians has always been held in high esteem as the gospel’s banner of freedom. To it and the Epistle to the Romans we owe most directly the springing up and development of the ideas and energies of the Reformation." —Meyer.
one of the perfumes employed in the preparation of the sacred incense.
The galbanum of commerce is brought chiefly from India and the Levant. It is a resinous gum of a brownish-yellow color and strong disagreeable smell, usually met with in masses, but sometimes found in yellowish tear-like drops. But, though galbanum itself is well known, the plant which yields it has not been exactly determined.
(the heap of witness), the name given by Jacob to the heap which he and Laban made on Mount Gilead in witness of the masses, but sometimes found in yellowish tear-like drops. But, though galbanum itself is well known, the plant which yields it has not been exactly determined.
(the heap of witness), the name given by Jacob to the heap which he and Laban made on Mount Gilead in witness of the covenant then entered into between them.
comp. Gene 31:23,25
the inhabitants of Galilee, the northern province of Palestine. The apostles were all Galileans by either birth or residence.
It appears also that the pronunciation of those Jews who resided in Galilee had become peculiar, probably from their contact with their Gentile neighbors.
(circuit). This name, which in the Roman age was applied to a large province, seems to have been originally confined to a little "circuit" of country round Kedesh-Naphtali, in which were situated the twenty towns given by Solomon to Hiram king of Tyre as payment for his work in conveying timber from Lebanon to Jerusalem.
Jos 20:7; 1Ki 9:11
In the time of our Lord all Palestine was divided into three provinces, Judea, Samaria and Galilee.
Lu 17:11; Ac 9:31
Joseph. B.J. iii. 3. The latter included the whole northern section of the country, including the ancient territories of Issachar, Zebulun, Asher and Naphtali. On the west it was bounded by the territory of Ptolemais, which probably included the whole plain of Akka to the foot of Carmel. The southern border ran along the base of Carmel and of the hills of Samaria to Mount Gilboa, and then descended the valley of Jezreel by Scythopolis to the Jordan. The river Jordan, the Sea of Galilee, and the upper Jordan to the fountain at Dan, formed the eastern border; and the northern ran from Dan westward across the mountain ridge till it touched the territory of the Phoenicians. Galilee was divided into two sections, "Lower" and "Upper." Lower Galilee included the great plain of Esdraelon with its offshoots, which ran down to the Jordan and the Lake of Tiberias, and the whole of the hill country adjoining it on the north to the foot of the mountain range. It was thus one of the richest and most beautiful sections of Pales-tine. Upper Galilee embraced the whole mountain range lying between the upper Jordan and Phoenicia. To this region the name "Galilee of the Gentiles" is given in the Old and New Testaments.
Isa 9:1; Mt 4:16
Galilee was the scene of the greater part of our Lord’s private life and public acts. It is a remarkable fact that the first three Gospels are chiefly taken up with our Lord’s ministrations in this province, while the Gospel of John dwells more upon those in Judea. (Galilee in the time of Christ. —From Rev. Selah Merrill’s late book (1881) with this title, we glean the following facts: Size. —It is estimated that of the 1000 square miles in Palestine west of the Jordan, nearly one-third, almost 2000 square miles, belongs to Galilee. Population —The population is between 2,000,000 and 3,000,000. Dr. Merrill argues for the general correctness of Josephus’ estimates, who says there were 204 cities and villages in Galilee, the smallest of which numbered 15,000 inhabitants. Character of the country. Galilee was a region of great natural fertility. Such is the fertility of the soil that it rejects no plant, for the air is so genial that it suits every variety. The walnut, which delights above other trees in a wintry climate, grows here luxuriantly together with the palm tree, which is flourished by heat. It not only possesses the extraordinary virtue of nourishing fruits of opposite climes, but also maintains a continual supply of them. Here were found all the productions which made Italy rich and beautiful. Forests covered its mountains and hills, while its uplands, gentle slopes and broader valleys were rich in pasture, meadows, cultivated fields, vineyards, olive groves and fruit trees of every kind. Character of the Galileans.—They were thoroughly a Jewish people. With few exceptions they were wealthy and in general an influential class. If one should say the Jews were bigoted in religion, he should remember at the same time that in regard to social, commercial and political relations none were more cosmopolitan in either sentiment or practice than they. The Galileans had many manufactures, fisheries, some commerce, but were chiefly an agricultural people. They were eminent for patriotism and courage, as were their ancestors, with great respect for law and order.—ED.)
Gal’ilee, Sea of.
So called from the province of Galilee, which bordered on the western side.
It was also called the "Sea of Tiberias," from the celebrated city of that name.
At its northwestern angle was a beautiful and fertile plain called "Gennesaret," and from that it derived the name of "Lake of Gennesaret."
It was called in the Old Testament "the Sea of Chinnereth" or "Cinneroth,"
Nu 34:11; Jos 12:3
from a town of that name which stood on or near its shore.
Its modern name is Bahr Tubariyeh. Most of our Lord’s public life was spent in the environs of this sea. The surrounding region was then the most densely peopled in all Palestine. no less than nine very populous cities stood on the very shores of the lake. The Sea of Galilee is of an oval long and six broad. It is 60 miles northeast of Jerusalem and 27 east of the Mediterranean Sea. The river Jordan enters it at its northern end and passes out at its southern end. In fact the bed of the lake is just a lower section of the Great Jordan valley. Its more remarkable feature is its deep depression, being no less than 700 feet below the level of the ocean. The scenery is bleak and monotonous, being surrounded by a high and almost unbroken wall of hills, on account of which it is exposed to frequent sudden and violent storms. The great depression makes the climate of the shores almost tropical. This is very sensibly felt by the traveller in going down from the plains of Galilee. In summer the heat is intense, and even in early spring the air has something of an Egyptian balminess. The water of the lake is sweet, cool and transparent; and as the beach is everywhere pebbly is has a beautiful sparkling look. It abounds in fish now as in ancient times. There were large fisheries on the lake, and much commerce was carried on upon it.
1. Mereerah, denoting "that which is bitter;" hence the term is applied to the "bile" or "gall" (the fluid secreted by the liver), from its intense bitterness,
Job 16:13; 20:25
it is also used of the "poison" of serpents,
which the ancients erroneously believed was their gall.
2. Rosh, generally translated "gall" in the English Bible, is in
rendered "hemlock:" in
and Job 20:16 rosh denotes the "poison" or "venom" of serpents. From
and Lame 3:19 compared with Hose 10:4 it is evident that the Hebrew term denotes some bitter and perhaps poisonous plant. Other writers have supposed, and with some reason, from
that some berry-bearing plant must be intended. Gesenius understands poppies; in which case the gall mingled with the wine offered to our Lord at his crucifixion, and refused by him, would be an anaesthetic, and tend to diminish the sense of suffering. Dr. Richardson, "Ten Lectures on Alcohol," p. 23, thinks these drinks were given to the crucified to diminish the suffering through their intoxicating effects.
an architectural term describing the porticos or verandas which are not uncommon in eastern houses. It is doubtful, however, whether the Hebrew words so translated have any reference to such an object. (According to the latest researches, the colonnade or else wainscoting is meant.
So 1:17; Eze 41:15
(fountains). This is given as the native place of the man to whom Michal, David’s wife, was given.
There is no clue to the situation of the place. The name occurs again in the catalogue of places terrified at the approach of Sennacherib.
(one who lives on milk), Junius Annaeus Gallio, the Roman proconsul of Achaia when St. Paul was at Corinth, A.D. 53, under the emperor Claudius.
He was brother to Lucius Annaeus Seneca, the philosopher. Jerome in the Chronicle of Eusebius says that he committed suicide in 65 A.D. Winer thinks he was put to death by Nero.
(recompense of God).
1. Son of Pedahzur; prince or captain of the tribe of Manasseh at the census at Sinai,
Nu 1:10; 20:20; 7:54,59
and at starting on the march through the wilderness. ch.
2. A pharisee and celebrated doctor of the law, who gave prudent worldly advice in the Sanhedrin respecting the treatment of the followers of Jesus of Nazareth.
ff. (A.D. 29.) We learn from
that he was the preceptor of St. Paul. He is generally identified with the very celebrated Jewish doctor Gamaliel, grandson of Hillel, and who is referred to as authority in the Jewish Mishna.
Among the Greeks the rage for theatrical exhibitions was such that every city of any size possessed its theatre and stadium. At Ephesus an annual contest was held in honor of Diana. It is probable that St. Paul was present when these games were proceeding. A direct reference to the exhibitions that I took place on such occasions is made in
St. Paul’s epistles abound with allusions to the Greek contests, borrowed probably from the Isthmian games, at which he may well have been present during his first visit to Corinth. These contests,
1Ti 6:12; 2Ti 4:7
were divided into two classes, the pancratium, consisting of boxing and wrestling, and the pentathlon, consisting of leaping, running, quoiting, hurling the spear and wrestling. The competitors,
1Co 9:25; 2Ti 2:5
required a long and severe course of previous training,
during which a particular diet was enforced.
In the Olympic contests these preparatory exercises extended over a period of ten months, during the last of which they were conducted under the supervision of appointed officers. The contests took place in the presence of a vast multitude of spectators,
the competitors being the spectacle.
1Co 4:9; Heb 10:33
The games were opened by the proclamation of a herald,
whose office it was to give out the name and country of each candidate, and especially to announce the name of the victor before the assembled multitude. The judge was selected for his spotless integrity;
his office was to decide any disputes,
and to give the prize,
1Co 9:24; Phm 3:14
consisting of a crown,
2Ti 2:6; 4:8
of leaves of wild olive at the Olympic games, and of pine, or at one period ivy, at the Isthmian games. St. Paul alludes to two only out of the five contests, boxing and running, more frequently to the latter. The Jews had no public games, the great feasts of religion supplying them with anniversary occasions of national gatherings.
This word occurs only in
A variety of explanations of the term have been offered.
1. One class renders it "pygmies."
2. A second treats it as a geographical or local term.
3. A third gives a more general sense to the word "brave warriors." Hitzig suggests "deserters." After all, the rendering in the LXX. —"guards"— furnishes the simplest explanation.
(weaned), a priest, the leader of the twenty-second course in the service at the sanctuary.
Gardens in the East, as the Hebrew word indicates, are enclosures on the outskirts of towns, planted with various trees and shrubs. From the allusions in the Bible we learn that they were surrounded by hedges of thorn,
or walls of stone.
For further protection lodges,
Isa 1:8; La 2:6
were built in them, in which sat the keeper,
to drive away the wild beasts and robbers, as is the case to this day. The gardens of the Hebrews were planted with flowers and aromatic shrubs,
So 6:2; 4:16
besides olives, fig trees, nuts or walnuts,
pomegranates, and others for domestic use.
Ex 23:11; Jer 29:5; Am 9:14
Gardens of herbs, or kitchen gardens, are mentioned in
and 1Kin 21:2 The rose garden in Jerusalem, said to have been situated westward of the temple mount, it is remarkable as having been one of the few gardens which, from the time of the prophets, existed within the city walls. The retirement of gardens rendered them favorite places for devotion.
(scabby), one of the heroes of David’s army.
Ga’reb, The hill,
in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, named only in
is the Allium sativum of Linnaeus, which abounds in Egypt.
Keilah the Garmite, i.e. the descendant of Gerem, is mentioned in the obscure genealogical lists of the families of Judah.
a variation of the name GESHEM.
(a burnt valley), the fourth son of Eliphaz the son of Esau,
Ge 36:11; 1Ch 1:36
and one of the "dukes" of Eliphaz.
(B.C. after 1760.)
The Hebrew words so rendered in the Authorized Version are derivatives from the root natsab, to "place, erect," which may be applied to a variety of objects.
1. Mattsab and mattsabah undoubtedly mean a "garrison" or fortified post.
1Sa 13:23; 14:14, 12, 15; 2Sa 23:14
2. Netsib is also used for a "garrison" in
but elsewhere for a "column" erected in an enemy’s country as a token of conquest.
3. The same word elsewhere means "officers" placed over a vanquished people.
2Sa 8:6,14; 1Ch 18:13; 2Ch 17:2
4. Mattsebah in
means a "pillar."
The gate and gateways of eastern cities anciently held and still hold an important part, not only in the defence but in the public economy of the place. They are thus sometimes taken as representing the city itself.
Ge 22:17; 24:60; De 12:12; Jud 5:8; Ru 4:10; Ps 87:2;
Among the special purposes for which they were used may be mentioned.
1. As places of public resort.
Ge 19:1; 23:10; 34:20, 24; 1Sa 4:18
2. Places for public deliberation, administration of Justice, or of audience for kings and rulers or ambassadors.
De 16:18; 21:19; 25:7; Jos 20:4; Jud 9:35
3. Public markets.
In heathen towns the open spaces near the gates appear to have been sometimes used as places for sacrifice.
comp 2Kin 23:8 Regarded therefore as positions of great importance, the gates of cities were carefully guarded, and closed at nightfall.
De 3:5; Jos 2:5,7; Jud 9:40,44
They contained chambers over the gateway.
The doors themselves of the larger gates mentioned in Scripture were two leaved, plated with metal, closed with locks and fastened with metal bars.
De 3:6; Ps 107:16; Isa 46:1,2
Gates not defended by iron were of course liable to be set on fire by an enemy.
The gateways of royal palaces and even of private houses were often richly ornamented. Sentences from the law were inscribed on and above the gates.
De 6:9; Isa 64:12; Re 21:21
The gates of Solomon’s temple were very massive and costly, being overlaid with gold and carving.
1Ki 6:34,35; 2Ki 18:16
Those of the holy place were of olive wood, two-leaved and overlaid with gold; those of the temple of fir.
1Ki 6:31,32,34; Eze 41:23,24
(a wine press), one of the five royal cities of the Philistines;
Jos 13:3; 1Sa 6:17
and the native place of the giant Goliath.
It probably stood upon the conspicuous hill now called Tell-es-Safieh, upon the side of the plain of Philistia, at the foot of the mountains of Judah; 10 miles east of Ashdod, and about the same distance south by east of Ekron. It is irregular in form, and about 200 feet high. Gath occupied a strong position,
on the border of Judah and Philistia,
1Sa 21:10; 1Ch 18:1
and from its strength and resources forming the key of both countries, it was the scene of frequent struggles, and was often captured and recaptured.
2Ki 12:17; 2Ch 11:8; 26:6; Am 6:2
The ravages of war to which Gath was exposed appear to have destroyed it at a comparatively early period, as it is not mentioned among the other royal cities by the later prophets.
Zep 2:4; Zec 9:5,6
It is familiar to the Bible student as the scene of one of the most romantic incidents in the life of King David.
Gath-he’pher, or Git’tah-he’pher
(wine-press on the hill), a town on the border of the territory of Zebulun, not far from Japhia, now ’Yafa,
celebrated as the native place of the prophet Jonah.
El-Meshhad, a village two-miles east of Sefurieh, is the ancient Gath-hepher.
(press of the pomegranate)
1. A city given out of the tribe of Dan to the Levites.
Jos 21:24; 1Ch 6:69
situated on the plain of Philistia, apparently not far from Joppa.
2. A town of the half tribe of Manasseh west of the Jordan, assigned to the Levites.
The reading Gath-rimmon is probably an error of the transcribers.
(the fortified; the strong) (properly Azzah), one of the five chief cities of the Philistines. It is remarkable for its continuous existence and importance from the very earliest times. The secret of this unbroken history is to be found in the situation of Gaza. It is the last town in the southwest of Palestine, on the frontier towards Egypt. The same peculiarity of situation has made Gaza important in a military sense. Its name means "the strong;" and this was well elucidated in its siege by Alexander the Great, which lasted five months. In the conquest of Joshua the territory of Gaza is mentioned as one which he was not able to subdue.
Jos 10:41; 11:22; 13:3
It was assigned to the tribe of Judah,
and that tribe did obtain possession of it,
but did not hold it long,
Jud 3:3; 13:1
and apparently it continued through the time of Samuel, Saul and David to be a Philistine city. 1Sam 6:17; 14:52; 31:1; 2Sam 21:15 Solomon became master of "Azzah,"
but in after times the same trouble with the Philistines recurred.
2Ch 21:16; 26:6; 28:18
The passage where Gaza is mentioned in the New Testament
is full of interest. It is the account of the baptism of the Ethiopian eunuch on his return from Jerusalem to Egypt. Gaza is the modern Ghuzzeh, a Mohammedan town of about 16,000 inhabitants, situated partly on an oblong hill of moderate height and partly on the lower ground. The climate of the place is almost tropical, but it has deep wells of excellent water. There are a few palm trees in the town, and its fruit orchards are very productive; but the chief feature of the neighborhood is the wide-spread olive grove to the north and northeast
the inhabitants of Gaza.
2Sa 5:25; 1Ch 14:16
(shearer), a name which occurs twice in
—first as son of Caleb by Ephah his concubine, and second as son of Haran, the son of the same woman. The second is possibly only a repetition of the first (B.C. after 1688.)
Inhabitants of Gaza.
(devouring). The Bene-Gazzam were among the familiar of the Nethinim who returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel.
Ezr 2:48; Ne 7:51
(a hill), a city of Benjamin, with "suburbs," allotted to the priests.
Jos 21:17; 1Ch 6:60
It is named amongst the first group of the Benjamite towns —apparently those lying near to and along the north boundary.
Here the name is given as GABA. During the wars of the earlier part of the reign of Saul, Geba was held as a garrison by the Philistines,
but they were ejected by Jonathan. It is now the modern village of Jeba, which stands picturesquely on the top of its steep terraced hill, six miles north of Jerusalem, on the very edge of the great Wady Suweinit, looking northward to the opposite village of ancient Michmash, which also retains its old name of Mukhmas.
(mountain), a maritime town of Phoenicia, near Tyre,
known by the Greeks as Byblus. It is called Jebail by the Arabs, thus reviving the old biblical name.
1. The son of Geber resided in the fortress of Ramoth-gilead, and had charge of Havoth-jair and the district of Argob.
2. Geber the son of Uri had a district south of the former —the "land of Gilead."
(grasshoppers), a village north of Jerusalem,
apparently between Anathoth (the modern Anata) and the ridge on which Nob was situated.
(God is my greatness), son of Ahikam (Jeremiah’s protector,
and grandson of Shaphan the secretary of King Josiah. After the destruction of the temple, B.C. 588, Nebuchadnezzar departed from Judea, leaving Gedaliah with a Chaldean guard,
at Mizpah to govern the vinedressers and husbandmen,
who were exempted from captivity. Jeremiah jointed Gedaliah; and Mizpah became the resort of Jews from various quarters.
He was murdered by Ishmael two months after his appointment.
The Greek form of the Hebrew name GIDEON.
(a wall). The king of Geder was one of the thirty-one kings who were overcome by Joshua on the west of the Jordan.
(B.C. 1445.) It is possible that it may be the same place as the Geder named in
(a sheepfold), a town of Judah in the lowland country,
apparently in its eastern part. No town bearing this name has, however, been yet discovered in this hitherto little-explored district.
the native of a place called Gederah, apparently in Benjamin.
the native of some place named Geder or Gederah.
(sheepfolds), a town in the low country of Judah.
Jos 15:41; 2Ch 28:18
(two sheepfolds), a town in the low country of Judah,
named next in order to Gederah.
(a wall), a town int he mountainous part of Judah,
a few miles north of Hebron. Robinson discovered a Jedur halfway between Bethlehem and Hebron, about two miles west of the road.
(valley of vision), the servant or boy of Elisha. He was sent as the prophet’s messenger on two occasions to the good Shunammite,
... (B.C. 889-887); obtained fraudulently money and garments from Naaman, was miraculously smitten with incurable leprosy, and was dismissed from the prophet’s service.
... Later in the history he is mentioned as being engaged in relating to King Joram all the great things which Elisha had done.
(circuit), a place named among the marks of the south boundary line of the tribe of Benjamin.
The name Geliloth never occurs again in this locality, and it therefore seems probable that Gilgal is the right reading.
(camel-driver), the father of Ammiel, the Danite spy.
(perfected by Jehovah).
1. Son of Shaphan the scribe, and father of Michaiah. He was one of the nobles of Judah, and had a chamber int he house of the Lord, from which Baruch read Jeremiah’s alarming prophecy in the ears of all the people, B.C. 606.
2. Son of Hilkiah, was made the bearer of Jeremiah’s letter to the captive Jews.
In Hebrew the term for genealogy or pedigree is "the book of the generations;" and because the oldest histories were usually drawn up on a genealogical basis, the expression often extended to the whole history, as is the case with the Gospel of St. Matthew, where "the book of the generation of Jesus Christ" includes the whole history contained in that Gospel. The promise of the land of Canaan to the seed of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob successively, and the separation of the Israelites from the Gentile world; the expectation of Messiah as to spring from the tribe of Judah; the exclusively hereditary priesthood of Aaron with its dignity and emoluments; the long succession of kings in the line of David; and the whole division and occupations of the land upon genealogical principles by the tribes, occupation of the land upon genealogical principles by the tribes, families and houses of fathers, gave a deeper importance to the science of genealogy among the Jews than perhaps any other nation. When Zerubbabel brought back the captivity from Babylon, one of his first cares seems to have been to take a census of those that returned, and to settle them according to their genealogies. Passing on to the time of the birth of Christ, we have a striking incidental proof of the continuance of the Jewish genealogical economy in the fact that when Augustus ordered the census of the empire to be taken, the Jews in the province of Syria immediately went each one to his own city. The Jewish genealogical records continued to be kept till near the destruction of Jerusalem. But there can be little doubt that the registers of the Jewish tribes and families perished at the destruction of Jerusalem, and not before. It remains to be said that just notions of the nature of the Jewish genealogical records are of great importance with a view to the right interpretation of Scripture. Let it only be remembered that these records have respect to political and territorial divisions as much as to strictly genealogical descent, and it will at once be seen how erroneous a conclusion it may be that all who are called "sons" of such or such a patriarch or chief father must necessarily be his very children. Of any one family or house became extinct, some other would succeed to its place, called after its own chief father. Hence of course a census of any tribe drawn up at a later period would exhibit different divisions from one drawn up at an earlier. The same principle must be borne in mind in interpreting any particular genealogy Again, when a pedigree was abbreviated, it would naturally specify such generations as would indicates from what chief houses the person descended. Females are named in genealogies when there is anything remarkable about them, or when any right or property is transmitted through them. See
Ge 11:29; 22:23; 25:1-4; 35:22-26; Ex 6:23; Nu 26:33
Genealogy of Jesus Christ.
The New Testament gives us the genealogy of but one person, that of our Saviour. This is given because it was important to prove that Jesus fulfilled the prophecies spoken of him. Only as the son and heir of David should he be the Messiah. The following propositions will explain the true construction of these genealogies:—
1. They are both the genealogies of Joseph, i.e. of Jesus Christ as the reputed and legal son of Joseph and Mary.
2. The genealogy of St. Matthew is Joseph’s genealogy as legal successor to the throne of David. St. Luke’s is Joseph’s private Genealogy, exhibiting his real birth as David’s son, and thus showing why he was heir to Solomon’s crown. The simple principle that one evangelist exhibits that genealogy which contained the successive heir to David’s and Solomon’s throne, while the other exhibits the paternal stem of him who was the heir, explains all the anomalies of the two pedigrees, their agreements as well as their discrepancies, and the circumstance of there being two at all.
3. Mary, the mother of Jesus, was in all probability the daughter of Jacob, and first cousin to Joseph her husband. Thus: Matthan or Matthat father of Jacob, Heli Jacob father of Mary = Jacob’e heir was (Joseph) Heli father of Joseph JESUS, called Christ. (Godet, Lange and many others take the ground that Luke gives the genealogy of Mary, rendering
thus: Jesus "being (as was suppposed) the son of Joseph, (but in reality) the son of Heli." In this case Mary, as declared in the Targums, was the daughter of Heli, and Heli was the grandfather of Jesus. Mary’s name was omitted because "ancient sentiment did not comport with the mention of the mother as the genealogical link." So we often find in the Old Testament the grandson called the son. This view has this greatly in its favor, that it shows that Jesus was not merely the legal but the actual descendant of David; and it would be very strange that in the gospel accounts, where so much is made of Jesus being the son and heir of David and of his kingdom his real descent from David should not be given.—ED.)
In the long-lived patriarchal age a generation seems to have been computed at 100 years,
comp. Gene 15:13 and Eccl 12:40 but subsequently the reckoning was the same which has been adopted by modern civilized nations, viz. from thirty to forty years
(Generation is also used to signify the men of an age or time, as contemporaries,
Ge 6:9; Isa 53:8
posterity, especially in legal formulae,
etc.; fathers, or ancestors.
(origin), the first book of the law or Pentateuch, so called from its title ia the Septuagint, that is, Creation. Its author was Moses. The date of writing was probably during the forty-years wanderings in the wilderness, B.C. 1491-1451. Time. —The book of Genesis covered 2369 years,—from the creation of Adam, A.M 1, to the death of Joseph, A.M. 2369, or B.C. 1635. Character and purpose. —The book of Genesis (with the first chapters of Exodus) describes the steps which led to the establishment of the theocracy. It is a part of the writer’s plan to tell us what the divine preparation of the world was in order to show, first, the significance of the call of Abraham, and next, the true nature of the Jewish theocracy. He begins with the creation of the world, because the God who created the world and the God who revealed himself to the fathers is the same God. The book of Genesis has thus a character at once special and universal. Construction. —It is clear that Moses must have derived his knowledge of the events which he records in Genesis either from immediate divine revelation or from oral tradition or written documents. The nature of many of the facts related, and the minuteness of the narration, render it extremely improbable that immediate revelation was the source from whence they were drawn. That his knowledge should have been derived from oral tradition appears morally impossible when we consider the great number of names, ages, dates and minute events which are recorded. The conclusion then, seems fair that he must have obtained his information from written documents coeval, or nearly so, with the events which they recorded, and composed by persons intimately acquainted with the subjects to which they relate. He may have collected these, with additions from authentic tradition or existing monuments under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, into a single book. Certain it is that several of the first chapters of Genesis have the air of being made up of selections from very ancient documents, written by different authors at different periods. The variety which is observable in the names and titles of the Supreme Being is appealed to among the most striking proofs of this fact. This is obvious in the English translation, but still more so in the Hebrew original. In Gen 1 to 2:3, which is really one piece of composition, as the title, v. 4, "These are the generations," shows, the name of the Most High is uniformly Elohim, God. In ch.
to ch. 3, which may be considered the second document, the title is uniformly Yehovah Elohim, Lord God; and in the third, including ch. 4, it is Yehovah, Lord, only; while in ch. 5 it is Elohim, God only, except in v. 29, where a quotation is made, and Yehovah used. It is hardly conceivable that all this should be the result of mere accident. The changes of the name correspond exactly to the changes in the narratives and the titles of the several pieces." Now, do all these accurate quotations," says Professor Stowe, "impair the credit of the Mosaic books, or increase it? Is Marshall’s Life of Washington to be regarded as unworthy of credit because it contains copious extracts from Washington’s correspondence and literal quotations from important public documents? Is not its value greatly enhanced by this circumstance? The objection is altogether futile. In the common editions of the Bible the Pentateuch occupies about one hundred and fifty pages, of which perhaps ten may be taken up with quotations. This surely is no very large proportion for an historical work extending through so long a period."—Bush. On the supposition that writing was known to Adam, Gen. 1-4, containing the first two of these documents, formed the Bible of Adam’s descendants, or the antediluvians. Gen 1 to 11:9, being the sum of these two and the following three, constitutes the Bible of the descendants of Noah. The whole of Genesis may be called the Bible of the posterity of Jacob; and the five Books of the Law were the first Bible of Israel as a nation.—Canon Cook.
(garden of the prince),Land of. It is generally believed that this term was applied to the fertile crescent-shaped plain on the western shore of the lake, extending from Khan Minyeh (two or three miles south of Capernaum (Tel-Hum) on the north to the steep hill behind Mejdel (Magdala) on the south, and called by the Arabs el-Ghuweir, "the little Ghor." Mr. Porter gives the length as three miles, and the greatest breadth as about one mile. Additional interest is given to the land of Gennesaret, or el-Ghuweir, by the probability that its scenery suggested the parable of the sower. It is mentioned only twice in Scripture -
Mt 14:34; Mr 6:53
Compare Luke 5:1
Gennes’aret, Sea of.
[See GALILEE, SEA OF]
Inaccurately written for [GENNESARET]
(nations). All the people who were not Jews were so called by them, being aliens from the worship, rites and privileges of Israel. The word was used contemptuously by them. In the New Testament it is used as equivalent to Greek. This use of the word seems to have arisen from the almost universal adaption of the Greek language.
the son of Hadad, an Edomite of the royal family, by an Egyptian princess, the sister of Tahpenes, the queen of the Pharaoh who governed Egypt in the latter part of the reign of David.
comp. 1Kin 11:16 (B.C. 1015.)
(a grain), one of the "sons," i.e. descendants, of Benjamin.
Gera, who is named,
as the ancestor of Ehud, and in
as the ancestor of Shimei who cursed David, is probably also the same person (though some consider them different persons).
[WEIGHTS AND MEASURES]
MEASURES -See 7886
(a lodging-place), a very ancient city south of Gaza. It occurs chiefly in Genesis,
Ge 10:19; 20:1; 26:17
also incidentally in
It must have trenched on the "south" or "south country" of later Palestine. From a comparison of
with Gene 26:23,26 Beersheba would seem to be just on the verge of this territory, and perhaps to be its limit towards the northeast.
Revised Version; [See GADARENES]
(cutters), a limestone mountain, 2855 feet high (800 feet above the valley at its foot), in Ephraim, near Shechem (Sychar), from which the blessings were read to the Israelites on entering Canaan. [See EBAL] According to the traditions of the Samaritans it was here that Abraham sacrificed Isaac, that Melchizedek met the patriarch, that Jacob built an altar, and at its base dug a well, the ruins of which are still seen. Some scholars think there is ground for the first belief (so Smith); but careful observers of the locality discredit it and believe Moriah to be the spot. [See MORIAH] Gerizim was the site of the Samaritan temple, which was built there after the captivity, in rivalry with the temple at Jerusalem. [See SAMARITANS] Gerizim is still to the Samaritans what Jerusalem is to the Jews and Mecca to the Mohammedans.
MORIAH -See 8059
SAMARITANS -See 8724
(a stranger or exile).
1. The first-born son of Moses and Zipporah.
Ex 2:22; 18:3
2. The form under which the name GERSHON—the eldest son of Levi—is given in several passages of Chronicles, viz.,
1Ch 6:16,17,20,43,62,71; 15:7
3. The representative of the priestly family of Phinehas, among those who accompanied Ezra from Babylon.
(exile). The eldest of the three sons of Levi, born before the descent of Jacob’s family into Egypt.
Ge 46:11; Ex 6:16
(B.C. before 1706.) But, though the eldest born, the families of Gershon were outstripped in fame by their younger brethren of Kohath, from whom sprang Moses and the priestly line of Aaron.
the family descended from Gershon or Gershom, the son of Levi. "THE GERSH0NITE," as applied to individuals, occurs in
The sons of Gershon (the Gershonites) had charge of the fabrics of the tabernacle—the coverings, curtains, hangings and cords.
Nu 3:25,26; 4:25,26
(dwellers in the desert),The, a tribe who with the Geshurites and the Amalekites occupied the land between the south of Palestine and Egypt in the time of Saul.
In the name of Mount Gerizim we have the only remaining trace of the presence of this old tribe of Bedouins in central Palestine.
(filthy) (sometimes written GESHAN), one of the sons of Judah, in the genealogy of Judah and family of Caleb.
andGash’mu (rain), an Arabian, mentioned in
and Nehe 6:1,2,6 (B.C. 446.) We may conclude that he was an inhabitant of Arabia Petraea or of the Arabian desert, and probably the chief of a tribe." Gashum said it" made him a type of those who create a common report.
(a bridge), a little principality of Syria, northeast of Bashan.
De 3:14; 2Sa 15:8
It ia highly probable that Geshur was a section of the wild and rugged region now called el-Lejah, still a refuge for criminals and outlaws. [ARGOB]
1. The inhabitants of Geshur.
De 3:14; Jos 12:5; 13:11
2. An ancient tribe which dwelt in the desert between Arabia and Philistia.
Jos 13:2; 1Sa 27:8
(fear), the third in order of the sons of Aram.
No satisfactory trace of the people sprung from this stock has been found.
(an oil-press), a small "farm,"
Mt 26:36; Mr 14:32
situated across the brook Kedron
probably at the foot of Mount Olivet,
to the northwest and about one-half or three quarters of a mile English from the walls of Jerusalem, and 100 yards east of the bridge over the Kedron. There was a "garden," or rather orchard, attached to it, to which the olive, fig and pomegranate doubtless invited resort by their hospitable shade. And we know from the evangelists
that our Lord ofttimes resorted thither with his disciples. But Gethsemane has not come down to us as a scene of mirth; its inexhaustible associations are the offspring of a single event—the agony of the Son of God on the evening preceding his passion. A garden, with eight venerable olive trees, and a grotto to the north detached from it, and in closer connection with the church of the sepulchre of the Virgin, are pointed out as the Gethsemane. Against the contemporary antiquity of the olive trees it has been urged that Titus cut down all the trees about Jerusalem. The probability would seem to be that they were planted by Christian hands to mark the spot unless, like the sacred olive of the Acropolis, they may have reproduced themselves.
(majesty of God), son of Machi the Gadite spy.
(a precipice), an ancient city of Canaan, whose king, Hiram or Elam, coming to the assistance of Lachish, was killed with all his people by Joshua.
Jos 10:33; 12:12
It formed one of the landmarks on the north boundary of Ephraim, between the lower Beth-horon and the Mediterranean,
the western limit of the tribe
It was allotted with its suburbs to the Kohathite Levites,
Jos 21:21; 1Ch 6:67
but the original inhabitants were not dispossessed,
and even down to the reign of Solomon the Canaanites were still dwelling there, and paying tribute to Israel
It was burned by Pharaoh in Solomon’s time,
and given to Solomon’s Egyptian wife, and rebuilt by him.
The word which the Jewish critics have substituted in the margin of the Bible for the ancient reading, "the Gerizite."
(a waterfall), a place named only in
to designate the position of the hill Ammah.
men of extraordinary size or height.
1. They are first spoken of in
under the name Nephilim. We are told in
that "there were Nephilim in the earth," and that afterwards the "sons of God" mingling with the beautiful "daughters of mens produced a race of violent and insolent Gibborim (Authorized Version "mighty men").
2. The Rephalim, a name which frequently occurs. The earliest mention of them is the record of their defeat by Chedorlaomer and some allied kings at Ashteroth Karnaim. The "valley of Rephaim,"
2Sa 5:18; 1Ch 11:15; Isa 17:5
a rich valley southwest of Jerusalem, derived its name from them. They were probably an aboriginal people of which the EMIM, ANAKIM and ZUZIM [which see] were branches. [See also GOLIATH]
ZUZIM -See 9640
GOLIATH -See 6724
(gigantic), the father of some who returned with Zerubbabel from Babylon.
(a hill), a town allotted to the tribe of Dan,
and afterwards given with its "suburbs" to the Kohathite Levites. ch.
(a hill). Sheva "the father of Macbenah" and "father of Gibea" is mentioned with other names, unmistakably those of places and not persons, among the descendants of Judah.
comp. 1Chr 2:42 This would seem to point out Gibea.
a word employed in the Bible to denote a hill. Like most words of this kind it gave its name to several towns and places in Palestine, which would doubtless be generally on or near a hill. They are —
1. Gibeah, a city in the mountain district of Judah, named with Maon and the southern Carmel,
and comp. 1Chr 2:49 etc.
2. Gibeah of Benjamin first appears in the tragical story of the Levite and his concubine.
It was then a "city," with the usual open street or square,
and containing 700 "chosen men," ch.
probably the same whose skill as slingers is preserved in the next verse. In many particulars Gibeah agrees very closely with Tuleil-el-Ful, a conspicuous eminence just four mlles north of Jerusalem, to the right of the road. We next meet with Glbeah of Benjamin during the Philistine wars of Saul and Jonathan.
It now bears its full title. As "Gibeah of Benjamin" this place is referred to in
(comp. 1Chr 11:31 ), and as "Gibeah" it is mentioned by Hosea,
Ho 5:8; 9:9; 10:9
but it does not again appear in the history. It is, however, almost without doubt identical with
3. Gibeah of Saul. This is not mentioned as Saul’s city till after his anointing,
when is said to have gone "home" to Gibeah. In the subsequent narrative the town bears its full name. ch
4. Gibeah in Kirjath-jearim was no doubt a hill in that city, and the place in which the ark remained from the time of its return by the Philistines till its removal by David.
comp. 1Sam 7:1,2
5. Gibeah in the field, named only in
as the place to which one of the "highways" led from Gibeah of Benjamin. It is probably the same as Geba. The "meadows of Gaba" (Authorized Version Gibeah),
have no connection with the "field," the Hebrew word being entirely different.
probably the same as, GIBEAH OF BENJAMIN.
BENJAMIN -See 5677
(hill city), one of the four , cities of the Hivites, the inhabitants of which made a league with Joshua,
and thus escaped the fate of Jericho and Ai. Comp. ch.
Gibeon lay within the territory of Benjamin, ch.
and with its "suburbs" was allotted to the priests, ch.
of whom it became afterwards a principal station. It retains its ancient name almost intact, el-Jib. Its distance from Jerusalem by the main road is about 6 1/2 miles; but there is a more direct road reducing it to five miles.
the people of Gibeon, and perhaps also of the three cities associated with Gibeon,
—Hivites; and who, on the discover of the stratagem by which they had obtained the protection of the Israelites, were condemned to be perpetual bondmen, hewers of wood and drawers of water for the congregation and for the house of God and altar of Jehovah.
Saul appears to have broken this covenant, and in a fit of enthusiasm or patriotism to have killed some and devised a general massacre of the rest.
This was expiated many years after by giving up seven men of Saul’s descendants to the Gibeonites, who hung them or crucified them "before Jehovah" —as a kind of sacrifice— in Gibeah, Saul’s own town. ch.
(I have trained up), one of the sons of Heman, the king’s seer.
1. Children of Giddel were among the Nethinim who returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel.
Ezr 2:47; Ne 7:49
2. Bene-Giddel were also among the "servants of Solomon" who returned to Judea in the name caravan.
Ezr 2:56; Ne 7:58
(he that cuts down), youngest son of Joash of the Abiezrites, an undistinguished family who lived at Ophrah, a town probably on the west of Jordan,
in the territory of Manasseh, near Shechem. He was the fifth recorded judge of Israel, and for many reasons the greatest of them all. When we first hear of him he was grown up and had sons,
Jud 6:11; 8:20
and from the apostrophe of the angel, ch.
we may conclude that he had already distinguished himself in war against the roving bands of nomadic robbers who had oppressed Israel for seven years. When the angel appeared, Gideon was threshing wheat with a flail in the wine-press, to conceal it from the predatory tyrants. His call to be a deliverer, and his destruction of Baal’s altar, are related in Judges 6. After this begins the second act of Gideon’s life. Clothed by the Spirit of God,
comp. 1Chr 12:18; Luke 24:49 he blew a trumpet, and was joined by Zebulun, Naphtali and even the reluctant Asher. Strengthened by a double sign from God, he reduced his army of 32,000 by the usual proclamation.
comp. 1 Macc. 3:56. By a second test at "the spring of trembling the further reduced the number of his followers to 300.
seq. The midnight attack upon the Midianites, their panic, and the rout and slaughter that followed are told in
... The memory of this splendid deliverance took deep root in the national traditions.
1Sa 12:11; Ps 83:11; Isa 9:4; 10:26; Heb 11:32
After this there was a peace of forty years, and we see Gideon in peaceful possession of his well-earned honors, and surrounded by the dignity of a numerous household.
It is not improbable that, like Saul, he owed a part of his popularity to his princely appearance.
In this third stage of his life occur alike his most noble and his most questionable acts viz., the refusal of the monarchy on theocratic grounds, and the irregular consecration of a jewelled ephod formed out of the rich spoils of Midian, which proved to the Israelites a temptation to idolatry although it was doubtless intended for use in the worship of Jehovah.
(a cutting down), a Benjamite, father of Abidan.
Nu 1:11; 7:60,65; 10:24
(desolation), a place named only in
It would appear to have been situated between Gibeah (Tuliel-el-Ful) and the cliff Rimmon.
an unclean bird mentioned in
and Deut 14:17 identical in reality as in name with the racham, of the Arabs, viz., the Egyptian vulture.
The giving and receiving of presents has in all ages been not only a more frequent but also a more formal and significant proceeding in the East than among ourselves. We cannot adduce a more remarkable proof of the important part which presents play in the social life of the East than the fact that the Hebrew language possesses no less than fifteen different expressions for the one idea. The mode of presentation was with as much parade as possible. The refusal of a present was regarded us a high indignity. No less an insult was it not to bring a present when the position of the parties demanded it.
1. The second river of Paradise.
2. A place near Jerusalem, memorable as the scene of the anointing and proclamation of Solomon as king.
(weighty), one of the priests’ sons at the consecration of the wall of Jerusalem.
(a bubbling spring) a mountain range on the eastern side of the plain of Esdraelon, rising over the city of Jezreel. Comp.
with 1Sam 29:1 It is mentioned in Scripture only in connection with one event in Israelitish history, the defeat and death of Saul and Jonathan by the Philistines.
1Sa 31:11; 2Sa 1:6; 21:12; 1Ch 10:1,8
Of the identity of Gilboa with the ridge which stretches eastward from the ruins of Jezreel no doubt can be entertained. The village is now called Jelbou.
1. A mountainous region bounded on the west by the Jordan, on the north by Bashan, on the east by the Arabian plateau, and on the south by Moab and Ammon.
Ge 31:21; De 3:12-17
It is sometimes called "Mount Gilead,"
sometimes "the land of Gilead,"
and sometimes simply "Gilead."
Ps 60:7; Ge 37:25
The name Gilead, as is usual in Palestine, describes the physical aspect of the country: it signifies "a hard rocky region." The mountains of Gilead, including Pisgah, Abarim and Peor, have a real elevation of from 2000 to 3000 feet; but their apparent elevation on the western side is much greater, owing to the depression of the Jordan valley, which averages about 3000 feet. Their outline is singularly uniform, resembling a massive wall running along the horizon. Gilead was specially noted for its balm collected from "balm of Gilead" trees, and worth twice its weight in silver.
2. Possibly the name of a mountain west of the Jordan, near Jezreel.
We are inclined, however, to think that the true reading in this place should be GILBOA.
3. Son of Machir, grandson of Manasseh.
4. The father of Jephthah.
Nu 26:29; Jud 10:3; 12:4,5
, a branch of the tribe of Manasseh, descended from Gilead.
(a wheel; rolling).
1. The site of the first camp of the Israelites on the west of the Jordan, the place at which they passed the first night after crossing the river, and where the twelve stones were set up which had been taken from the bed of the stream,
comp. Josh 4:3 where also they kept the first passover in the land of Canaan ch.
It was "in the east border of Jericho," apparently on a hillock or rising ground,
comp. Josh 5:9 in the Arboth-Jericho (Authorized Version "the plains"), that is, the hot depressed district of the Ghor which lay between the town and the Jordan. ch.
Here Samuel was judge, and Saul was made king. We again have a glimpse of it, some sixty years later, in the history of David’s return to Jerusalem.
A Gilgal is spoken of in
in describing the north border of Judah. In
it is given as Geliloth. Gilgal near Jericho is doubtless intended.
2Ki 2:1,2; 4:38
is named a Gilgal visited by Elijah and Elisha. This could not be the Gilgal of the low plain of the Jordan, for the prophets are said to have gone down to Bethel, which is 3000 feet above the plain. It haa been identified with Jiljilia, about four miles from Bethel and Shiloh respectively.
3. The "king of the nations of Gilgal" or rather perhaps the "king of Goim at Gilgal," is mentioned in the catalogue of the chiefs overthrown bv Joshua.
Possibly the site of this place is marked by the modern village Jiljulieh, about four miles south of Antipatris, which lies 16 miles northeast of Joppa. But another Gilgal, under the slightly-different form of Kilkilieh, lies about two miles east of Antipatris.
(exile), a town in the mountainous part of Judah, named in the first group with Debir and Eshtemoh,
it was the native place of the famous Ahithophel.
native of Giloh.
2Sa 15:12; 23:34
(fertile in sycamores), a town which with its dependent villages was taken possession of by the Philistines in the reign of Ahaz.
The name (Jimzu) still remains attached to a large village between two and three miles southwest of Lydda, south of the road between Jerusalem and Jaffa.
a trap for birds or beasts; it consisted of a net,
and a stick to act as a spring.
(protection), father of Tibni.
(gardner), one of the chief of the priests and Levites who returned to Judea with Zerubbabel.
He is doubtless the same person as
(gardener), a priest who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah
an essential article of dress in the East, and worn by both men and women. The common girdle was made of leather,
2Ki 1:8; Mt 3:4
like that worn by the Bedouins of the present day. A finer girdle was made of linen,
Jer 13:1; Eze 16:10
embroidered with silk, and sometimes with gold and silver thread,
Da 10:5; Re 1:13; 15:6
and frequently studded with gold and precious stones or pearls. The military girdle was worn about the waist; the sword or dagger was suspended from it.
Jud 3:16; 2Sa 20:8; Ps 45:3
Hence girding up the loins denotes preparation for battle or for active exertion. Girdles were used as pockets, as they still are among the Arabs, and as purses, one end of the girdle being folded back for the purpose.
Mt 10:9; Mr 6:8
or NEXT ENTRY ...
(dwelling on a clayey soil), The, one of the nations who were in possession of Canaan east of the Sea of Galilee before the entrance thither of the children of Israel.
Ge 10:16; 15:21; De 7:1
(caress), one of the overseers of the Nethinim, in "the Ophel," after the return from captivity.
(belonging to Gath), the 600 men who followed David from Gath, under Ittai the Gittite,
and who probably acted as a kind of body-guard. Obed-edom "the Gittite" may have been so named from the town of Gittaim in Benjamin,
2Sa 4:3; Ne 11:33
or from Gath-rimmon.
a musical instrument, by some supposed to have been used by the people of Gath, and by others to have been employed at the festivities of the vintage. Psal 8,81,84.
(inhabitant of Gizoh). "The sons of Hashem the Gizonite "are named amongst the warriors of David’s guard.
Kennicott concludes that the name should be Gouni.
The Hebrew word occurs only in
where in the Authorized Version it is rendered "crystal." In spite of the absence of specific allusion to glass in the sacred writings, the Hebrews must have been aware of the invention from paintings representing the process of glass-blowing, which have been discovered at Beni-hassan, and in tombs at other places, we know that the invention vas known at least 3500 years ago. Fragments too of wine-vases as old as the exodus have been discovered in Egypt. The art was also known to the ancient Assyrians. In the New Testament glass is alluded to as an emblem of brightness.
Re 4:6; 15:2; 21:18
The gleaning of fruit trees, as well as of corn-fields, was reserved for the poor. [CORNER]
the old name for the common kite (Milvus ater), occurs only in
among the unclean birds of prey.
a species of mosquito mentioned only in the proverbial expression used by our Saviour in
Jud 3:31; 1Sa 13:21
The Hebrew word in the latter passage probably means the point of the plough-share. The former word does probably refer to the goad, the long handle of which might be used as a formidable weapon. The instrument, as still used in countries of southern Europe and western Asia, consists of a rod about eight feet long, brought to a sharp point and sometimes cased with iron at the head.
There appear to be two or three varieties of the common goat, Hircus agagrus, at present bred in Palestine and Syria, but whether they are identical with those which were reared by the ancient Hebrews it is not possible to say. The most marked varieties are the Syrian goat(Capra mammorica, Linn.) and the Angora goat (Capra angorensis, Linn.), with fine long hair. As to the "wild goats,"
1Sa 24:2; Job 39:1; Ps 104:18
it is not at all improbable that some species of ibex is denoted.
[ATONEMENT, DAY OF]
DAY -See 6152
(lowing), a place apparently in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, and named, in connection with the hill Gareb, only in
(cistern), a place mentioned only in
as the scene of two encounters between David’s warriors and the Philistines. In the parallel account in
the name is given as GEZER.
a circular vessel for wine or other liquid.
(good). Throughout the Hebrew Scriptures two chief names are used for the one true divine Being—ELOHIM, commonly translated God in our version, and JEHOVAH, translated Lord. Elohim is the plural of Eloah (in Arabic Allah); it is often used in the short form EL (a word signifying strength, as in EL-SHADDAI, God Almighty, the name by which God was specially known to the patriarchs.
Ge 17:1; 28:3, Ex 6:3
The etymology is uncertain, but it is generally agreed that the primary idea is that of strength, power of effect, and that it properly describes God in that character in which he is exhibited to all men in his works, as the creator, sustainer and supreme governor of the world. The plural form of Elohim has given rise to much discussion. The fanciful idea that it referred to the trinity of persons in the Godhead hardly finds now a supporter among scholars. It is either what grammarians call the plural of majesty, or it denotes the fullness of divine strength, the sum of the powers displayed by God. Jehovah denotes specifically the one true God, whose people the Jews were, and who made them the guardians of his truth. The name is never applied to a false god, nor to any other being except one, the ANGEL-JEHOVAH who is thereby marked as one with God, and who appears again in the New Covenant as "God manifested in the flesh." Thus much is clear; but all else is beset with difficulties. At a time too early to be traced, the Jews abstained from pronouncing the name, for fear of its irreverent use. The custom is said to have been founded on a strained interpretation of
and the phrase there used, "THE NAME" (Shema), is substituted by the rabbis for the unutterable word. In reading the Scriptures they substituted for it the word ADONAI (Lord), from the translation of which by Kurios in the LXX., followed by the Vulgate, which uses Dominus, we have the LORD of our version. The substitution of the word Lord is most unhappy, for it in no way represents the meaning of the sacred name. The key to the meaning of the name is unquestionably given in God’s revelation of himself to Moses by the phrase "I AM THAT I AM,"
Ex 3:14; 6:3
We must connect the name Jehovah with the Hebrew substantive verb to be, with the inference that it expresses the essential, eternal, unchangeable being of Jehovah. But more, it is not the expression only, or chiefly, of an absolute truth: it is a practical revelation of God, in his essential, unchangeable relation to this chosen people, the basis of his covenant.
1. A Reubenite,
son of Shemaiah.
(circle), a city of Bashan,
allotted out of the half tribe of Manasseh to the Levites,
and one of the three cities of refuge east of the Jordan. ch
Its very site is now unknown. It gave its name to the province of Gaulanitis. It lay east of Galilee and north of Gadaritis [GADARA], and corresponds to the modern province of Jaulan.
Gold was known from the very earliest times.
It was at first used chiefly for ornaments, etc.
Coined money was not known to the ancients till a comparatively late period; and on the Egyptian tombs gold is represented as being weighed in rings for commercial purposes. Comp.
Gold was extremely abundant in ancient times,
1Ch 22:14; 2Ch 1:15; 9:9; Da 3:1; Na 2:9
but this did not depreciate its value, because of the enormous quantities consumed by the wealthy in furniture, etc.
Es 1:6; So 3:9,10; Jer 10:9
The chief countries mentioned as producing gold are Arabia, Sheba and Ophir.
1Ki 9:28; 10:1; Job 28:16
(skull), the Hebrew name of the spot at which our Lord was crucified.
Mt 27:33; Mr 15:22; Joh 19:17
By these three evangelists it is interpreted to mean the "place of a skull." Two explanations of the name are given: (1) that it was a spot where executions ordinarily took place, and therefore abounded in skulls; or(2) it may come from the look or form of the spot itself, bald, round and skull-like, and therefore a mound or hillock, in accordance with the common phrase —for which there is no direct authority— "Mount Calvary." Whichever of these is the correct explanation, Golgotha seems to have been a known spot.
(splendor), a famous giant of Gath, who "morning and evening for forty days" defied the armies of Israel.
... (B.C. 1063.) He was possibly descended from the old Rephaim [GIANTS], of whom a scattered remnant took refuge with the Philistines after their dispersion by the Ammonites.
De 2:20,21; 2Sa 21:22
His height was "six cubits and a span," which taking the cubit at 21 inches, would make him 10 1/2 feet high. The scene of his combat with David, by whom he was slain, was the "valley of the terebinth," between Shochoh and Arekah, probably among the western passes of Benjamin. In
we find that another Goliath of Gath was slain by Elhanan, also a Bethlehemite.
1. The eldest son of Japheth,
the progenitor of the early Cimmerians, of the later Cimbri and the other branches of the Celtic family, and of the modern Gael and Cymri.
2. The wife of Hosea.
(submersion), one of the five "cities of the plain" or "vale of Siddim" that under the irrespective kings joined battle there with Chedorlaomer
and his allies by whom they were discomfited till Abraham came to the rescue. Four out of the five were afterwards destroyed by the Lord with fire from heaven.
One of them only, Zoar (or Bela; which was its original name), was spared at the request of Lot, in order that he might take refuge there. The geographical position of these cities is discussed under SODOM.
(pitch) wood. Only once mentioned —
Two principal conjectures have been proposed —
1. That the "trees of gopher" are any trees of the resinous kind, such as pine, fir, etc.
2. That Gopher is cypress.
1. The name of a part of Egypt where the Israelites dwelt during the whole period of their sojourn in that country. It was probably situated on the eastern border of the Nile, extending from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea. It contained the treasure-cities of Rameses and Pittim. It was a pasture land, especially suited to a shepherd people, and sufficient for the Israelites, who there prospered, and were separate from the main body of the Egyptians.
2. A district in southern Palestine conquered by Joshua.
It lay between Gaza and Gibeon.
3. A town in the mountains of Judah, probably in a part of the country of Goshen.
The name Gospel (from god and spell, Ang. Sax. good message or news, which is a translation of the Greek euaggelion) is applied to the four inspired histories of the life and teaching of Christ contained in the New Testament, of which separate accounts are given in their place. They were all composed during the latter half of the first century: those of St. Matthew and St. Mark some years before the destruction of Jerusalem; that of St. Luke probably about A.D. 64; and that of St. John towards the close of the century. Before the end of the second century, there is abundant evidence that the four Gospels, as one collection, were generally used and accepted. As a matter of literary history, nothing can be better established than the genuineness of the Gospels. On comparing these four books one with another, a peculiar difficulty claims attention, which has had much to do with the controversy as to their genuineness. In the fourth Gospel the narrative coincided with that of the other three in a few passages only. The received explanation is the only satisfactory one namely, that John, writing last, at the close of the first century had seen the other Gospels, and purposely abstained from writing anew what they had sufficiently recorded. In the other three Gospels there is a great amount of agreement. If we suppose the history that they contain to be divided into 89 sections, in 42 of these all the three narratives coincide, 12 more are given by Matthew and Mark only, 5 by Mark and Luke only, and 14 by Matthew and Luke. To these must be added 5 peculiar to Matthew, 2 to Mark and 9 to Luke, and the enumeration is complete. But this applies only to general coincidence as to the facts narrated: the amount of verbal coincidence, that is, the passages either verbally the same or coinciding in the use of many of the same words, is much smaller. It has been ascertained by Stroud that "if the total contents of the several Gospels be represented by 100, the following table is obtained: Matthew has 42 peculiarities and 58 coincidences. Mark has 7 peculiarities and 93 coincidences. Luke has 59 peculiarities and 41 coincidences. John has 92 peculiarities and 8 coincidences. Why four Gospels. —
1. To bring four separate independent witnesses to the truth.
2. It is to give the Lord’s life from every point of view, four living portraits of one person. There were four Gospels because Jesus was to be commended to four races or classes of men, or to four phases of human thought,—the Jewish, Roman, Greek and Christian. Had not these exhausted the classes to be reached, there would doubtless have been more Gospels. In all ages, the Jewish, Roman and Greek natures reappear among men, and, in fact, make up the world of natural men, while the Christian nature and wants likewise remain essentially the same. The FIRST GOSPEL was prepared by Matthew for the Jew. He gives us the Gospel of Jesus, the Messiah of the Jews, the Messianic royalty of Jesus. He places the life and character of Jesus, as lived on earth, alongside the life and character of the Messiah, as sketched in the prophets, showing Christianity as the fulfillment of Judaism. Mark wrote the SECOND GOSPEL. It was substantially the preaching of Peter to the Romans. The Gospel for him must represent the character and career of Jesus from the Roman point of view, as answering to the idea of divine power, work, law, conquest and universal sway; must retain its old significance and ever-potent inspiration at the battle-call of the almighty Conqueror. Luke wrote the THIRD GOSPEL in Greece for the Greek. It has its basis in the gospel which Paul and Luke, by long preaching to the Greeks, had already thrown into the form best suited to commend to their acceptance Jesus as the perfect divine man. It is the gospel of the future, of progressive Christianity, of reason and culture seeking the perfection of manhood. John, "the beloved disciple," wrote the FOURTH GOSPEL for the Christian, to cherish and train those who have entered the new kingdom of Christ, into the highest spiritual life. —Condensed from, Prof. Gregory.
1. Kikayan only in
The plant which is intended by this word, and which afforded shade to the prophet Jonah before Nineveh, is the Ricinus commnunis, or castor-oil plant, which, a native of Asia, is now naturalized in America, Africa and the south of Europe. This plant varies considerably n size, being in India a tree, but in England seldom attaining a greater height than three or four feet. The leaves are large and palmate, with serrated lobes, and would form un excellent shelter for the sun-stroken prophet. The seeds contain the oil so well known under the name of "castor oil," which has for ages been in high repute as a medicine. It is now thought by many that the plant meant is a vine of the cucumber family, a gemline gourd, which is much used for shade in the East.
2. The wild gourd of
which one of "the sons of the prophets" gathered ignorantly, supposing them to be good for food, is a poisonous gourd, supposed to be the colocynth, which bears a fruit of the color and size of an orange, with a hard, woody shell. As several varieties of the same family, such as melons, pumpkins, etc., are favorite articles of refreshing food amongst the Orientals, we can easily understand the cause of the mistake.
In the Authorized Version this one English word is the representative of no less than ten Hebrew and four Greek words.
1. The chief of a tribe or family.
2. A ruler in his capacity of lawgiver and dispenser of justice.
3. A ruler consider especially as having power over the property and persons of his subjects.
Ge 24:2; Jos 12:2; Ps 100:20
The "governors of the people," in
appear to have been the king’s body-guard; cf.
4. A prominent personage, whatever his capacity. It is applied to a king as the military and civil chief of his people,
2Sa 5:2; 6:21; 1Ch 29:22
to the general of an army,
and to the head of a tribe.
It denotes an officer of high rank in the palace, the lord high chamberlain.
It is applied in
to the petty chieftains who were tributary to Solomon,
to the military commander of the Syrians,
2Ki 18:24; 23:8
and the Medes.
Under the Persian viceroys, during the Babylonian captivity, the land of the Hebrews appears to have been portioned out among "governors" (pachoth) inferior in rank to the satraps,
like the other provinces which were under the dominion of the Persian king.
It is impossible to determine the precise limits of their authority or the functions which they had to perform. It appears from
that these governors were intrusted with the collection of the king’s taxes; and from
Ne 5:18; 12:26
that they were supported by a contribution levied upon the people, which was technically termed "the bread of the governor" comp.
They were probably assisted in discharging their official duties by A council.
Ezr 4:7; 6:6
The "governor" beyond the river had a judgment-seat beyond Jerusalem, from which probably he administered justice when making a progress through his province.
At the time of Christ Judea was a Roman province, governed by a procurator (governor) appointed by Rome.
seems in the Authorized Version of
to be the name of a river, but in
and 2Kin 18:11 it is evidently applied not to a river but a country. Gozan was the tract to which the Israelites were carried away captive by Pul, Tiglathpileser and Shalmaneser, or possibly Sargon. It is probably identical with the Gauzanitis of Ptolemy, and I may be regarded as represented by the Mygdonia of other writers. It was the tract watered by the Habor, the modern Khabour, the great Mesopotamian affluent of the Euphrates.
a piece of defensive armor which reached from the foot to the knee and thus protected the shin of the wearer. It was made of leather or brass.
Greece, Greeks, Gre’cians.
The histories of Greece and Palestine are little connected with each other. In
Moses mentions the descendants of Javan as peopling the isles of the Gentiles; and when the Hebrews came into contact with the Ionians of Asia Minor, and recognized them as the long-lost islanders of the western migration, it was natural that they should mark the similarity of sound between Javan and Iones. Accordingly the Old Testament word which is Grecia, in Authorized Versions Greece, Greeks, etc., is in Javan
Da 8:21; Joe 3:6
the Hebrew, however, is sometimes regained.
Isa 66:19; Eze 27;13
The Greeks and Hebrews met for the first time in the slave-market. The medium of communication seems to have been the Tyrian slave-merchants. About B.C. 800 Joel speaks of the Tyrians as, selling the children of Judah tot he Grecians,
and in Ezek 27:13 the Greeks are mentioned as bartering their brazen vessels for slaves. Prophetical notice of Greece occurs in
etc., where the history of Alexander and his successors is rapidly sketched. Zechariah,
foretells the triumphs of the Maccabees against the Greco-Syrian empire, while Isaiah looks forward to the conversion of the Greeks, amongst other Gentiles, through the instrumentality of Jewish missionaries.
The name of the country, Greece occurs once in the New Testament,
as opposed to Macedonia. [GENTILES]
The term Grecian, or Hellenist, denotes a Jew by birth or religion who spoke Greek. It is used chiefly of foreign Jews and proselytes in contrast with the Hebrews speaking the vernacular Hebrew or Aramaean. —Bible Dictionary of Tract Society.
the translation in the text of the Authorized Version,
of the Hebrew word zarzir mothnayin; i.e. "one girt about the loins." Various are the opinions as to what animal "comely in going" is here intended Some think "a leopard," others "an eagle," or "a man girt with armor," or "a zebra," or "a war-horse girt with trappings." But perhaps the word means "a wrestler," when girt about the loins for a contest.
1. A word used in the Authorized Version, with two exceptions, to translate the mysterious Hebrew term Asherah, which is not a grove, but probably an idol or image of some kind. [ASHERAH] It is also probable that there was a connection between this symbol or image, whatever it was, and the sacred symbolic tree, the representation of which occurs so frequently on Assyrian sculptures.
2. The two exceptions noticed above are
and 1Sam 22:6 (margin). In the religions of the ancient heathen world groves play a prominent part. In the old times altars only were erected to the gods. It was thought wrong to shut up the gods within walls, and hence trees were the first temples; and from the earliest times groves are mentioned in connection with religious worship.
Ge 12:6,7; De. 11:30
Authorized Version "plain." the groves were generally found connected with temples, and often had the right of affording an asylum.
1. A son of Naphtali,
Ge 46:24; 1Ch 7:13
the founder of the family of the Gunites.
2. A descendant of Gad.
the descendants of Guni, son of Naphtali.
(abode), The going up to, an ascent or rising ground, at which Ahaziah received his death-blow while flying from jehu after the slaughter of Joram.
(abode of Baal), a place or district in which dwelt Arabians, as recorded in
It appears from the context to have been in the country lying between Palestine and the Arabian peninsula; but this, although probable, cannot be proved.