Haahash’tari

(the courier), a man or a family immediately descended from Ashur. "father of Tekoa," by his second wife Naarah.

1Ch 4:6

(B.C. after 1450.)

Habai’ah, or Haba’jah

(whom Jehovah hides). Bene-Habaiah were among the sons of the priests who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel.

Ezr 2:61; Ne 7:63

(B.C. before 459).

Hab’akkuk or Habakkuk

(embrace), the eighth in order of the minor prophets. Of the facts of the prophet’s life we have no certain information. He probably lived about the twelfth or thirteenth year of Josiah, B.C. 630 or 629.

Hab’akkuk, Prophecy of,

consists of three chapters, in the first of which he foreshadows the invasion of Judea by the Chaldeans, and in the second he foretells the doom of the Chaldeans. The whole concludes with the magnificent psalm in ch. 3, a composition unrivalled for boldness of conception, sublimity of thought and majesty of diction.

Habazini’ah

(light of Jehovah), apparently the head of one of the families of the Rechabites.

Jer 35:3

(B.C. before 589.)

Habergeon,

a coat of mail covering the neck and breast. [ARMS]

ARMS - See 5412

Ha’bor

(beautiful banks), the "river of Gozan,"

2Ki 17:6

and 2Kin 18:11 is identified beyond all reasonable doubt with the famous affluent of the Euphrates, which is called Aborrhas and Chaboras by ancient writers, and now Khabour.

Hachali’ah

(whom Jehovah enlightens), the father of Nehemiah.

Ne 1:1; 10:1

Hach’ilah, The hill,

a hill apparently situated in a wood in the wilderness or waste land in the neighborhood of Ziph, in Judah, in the fastnesses or passes of which David and his six hundred followers were lurking when the Ziphites informed Saul of his whereabouts.

1Sa 23:19

comp. 1Sam 23:14,15,18

Hach’moni

(wise) Son of, and The Hach’monite.

1Ch 11:11; 27:32

Hachmon or Hachmoni was no doubt the founder of a family to which these men belonged: the actual father of Jashobeam was Zabdiel,

1Ch 27:2

and he is also said to have belonged to the Korhites.

1Ch 12:6

(B.C. before 1046.)

Ha’dad

(mighty), originally the indigenous appellation of the sun among the Syrians, and thence transferred to the king as the highest of earthly authorities. The title appears to have been an official one, like Pharaoh. It is found occasionally in the altered form Hadar.

Ge 25:15; 36:39

compared with 1Chr 1:30,50

1. Son of Ishmael.

Ge 25:15; 1Ch 1:30

2. A king of Edom who gained an important victory over the Midianites on the field of Moab.

Ge 36:35; 1Ch 1:46

3. Also a king of Edom, with Pau for his capital.

1Ch 1:50

4. A member of the royal house Or Edom.

1Ki 11:14

ff. In his childhood he escaped the massacre under Joab, and fled with a band of followers into Egypt. Pharaoh, the predecessor of Solomon’s father-in-law, treated him kindly, and gave him his sister-in-law in marriage. After David’s death Hadad resolved to attempt the recovery of his dominion. He left Egypt and returned to his own country.

Hadade’zer.

2Sa 8:3-12; 1Ki 11:23

. [HADAREZER]

HADAREZER - See 6762

Ha’dad-rim’mon

is, according to the ordinary interpretation of

Zec. 12:11

a place in the valley of Megiddo (a part of the plain of Esdraelon, six miles from Mount Carmel and eleven from Nazareth), where a national lamentation was held for the death of King Josiah. It was named after two Syrian idols.

Ha’dar.

[HADAD]

HADAD - See 6758

Hadare’zer

(Hadad’s help), son of Rehob,

2Sa 8:3

the king of the Aramite state of Zobah, who was pursued by David and defeated with great loss.

1Ch 18:3,4

(B.C. 1035.) After the first repulse of the Ammonites and their Syrian allies by Joab, Hadarezer sent his army to the assistance of his kindred the people of Maachah, Rehob and Ishtob.

1Ch 19:16; 2Sa 10:15

comp. 2Sam 10:8 Under the command of Shophach or Shobach, the captain of the host, they crossed the Euphrates, joined the other Syrians, and encamped at a place called Helam. David himself came from Jerusalem to take the command of the Israelite army. As on the former occasion, the route was complete.

Had’ashah

(new), one of the towns of Judah, in the maritime low country,

Jos 16:37

only, probably the ADASA of the Maccabean history.

ADASA - See 5098

Hadas’sah

(myrtle), probably the earlier name of Esther.

Es 2:7

Hadat’tah

(new). According to the Authorized Version, one of the towns of Judah in the extreme south.

Jos 15:25

Ha’des

in Revised Version. [See HELL]

HELL - See 6934

Ha’did

(sharp), a place named, with Lod (Lydda) and Ono, only in the later books of the history.

Ezr 2:33; Ne 7:37; 11:34

In the time of Eusebius a town called Aditha or Adatha existed to the east of Diospolis (Lydda). This was probably Hadid.

Had’la-i

(rest of God), a man of Ephraim.

2Ch 28:12

Hado’ram

(noble honor).

1. The fifth son of Joktan.

Ge 10:27; 1Ch 1:21

His settlements, unlike those of many of Joktan’s sons, have not been identified.

2. Son of Tou or Toi king of Hamath; his father’s ambassador to congratulate David on his victory over Hadarezer king of Zobah.

1Ch 18:10

(B.C. 1035.)

3. The form assumed in Chronicles by the name of the intendant of taxes under David, Solomon and Rehoboam.

2Ch 10:18

In Kings the name is given in the longer form of ADONIRAM, but in Samuel,

ADONIRAM - See 5120

2Sa 20:24

as ADORAM.

ADORAM - See 5125

Ha’drach

(dwelling), a country of Syria, mentioned once only, by the prophet Zechariah.

Zec 9:1

The addition of the district, with its borders, is here generally stated; but the name itself seems to have wholly disappeared. It still remains unknown.

Ha’gab

(locust). Bene-Hagab were among the Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel.

Ezr 2:46

(B.C. before 536.)

Hag’aba

(locust). Bene Hagaba were among the Nethinim who came back from captivity with Zerubbabel.

Ne 7:48

The name is slightly different in form from

Hag’a bah,

under which it is found in the parallel list of

Ezr 2:45

Ha’gar

(flight), an Egyptian woman, the handmaid or slave of Sarah,

Ge 16:1

whom the latter gave as a concubine to Abraham, after he had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan and had no children by Sarah. ch

Ge 16:2,3

(B.C. 1912.) When Hagar saw that she had conceived, "her mistress was despised in her eyes," v. 4, and Sarah, with the anger, we may suppose, of a free woman rather than of a wife, reproached Abraham for the results of her own act. Hagar fled, turning her steps toward her native land through the great wilderness traversed by the Egyptian road. By the fountain in the way to Shur the angel of the Lord found her, charged her to return and submit herself under the hands of her mistress, and delivered the remarkable prophecy respecting her unborn child recorded in vs. 10-12. On her return she gave birth to Ishmael, and Abraham was then eighty-six years old. When Ishmael was about sixteen years old, he was caught by Sarah making sport of her young son Isaac at the festival of his weaning, and Sarah demanded the expulsion of Hagar and her son. She again fled toward Egypt, and when in despair at the want of water, an angel again appeared to her, pointed out a fountain close by, and renewed the former promises to her.

Ge 21:9-21

St. Paul,

Ga 4:25

refers to her as the type of the old covenant of the law.

Hagarenes’, Ha’garites

(named after Hagar), a people dwelling to the east of Palestine, with whom the tribes of Reuben made war in the time of Saul.

1Ch 5:10,18-20

The same people, as confederate against Israel, are mentioned in

Ps 83:6

It is generally believed that they were named after Hagar, and that the important town and district of Hejer, on the borders of the Persian Gulf, represent them.

Ha’gerite, The.

Jaziz the Hagerite, i.e. the descendant of Hagar, had the charge of David’s sheep.

1Ch 27:31

Hag’ga-i

(festive), the tenth in order of the minor prophets, and first of those who prophesied after the captivity. With regard to his tribe and parentage history and tradition are alike silent.

Hag’gai, Prophecy of.

The style of Haggai is generally tame and prosaic, though at times it rises to the dignity of severe invective when the prophet rebukes his countrymen for their selfish indolence and neglect of God’s house. But the brevity of the prophecies is so great, and the poverty of expression which characterizes them so striking, as to give rise to a conjecture, not without reason, that in their present form they are but the outline or summary of the original discourses. They were delivered in the second year of Darius Hystaspes (B.C. 620), at intervals from the 1st day of the 6th month to the 24th day of the 9th month in the same year.

Hag’geri

(wanderer) was one of the mighty men of David’s guard, according to

1Ch 11:38

The parallel passage —

2Sa 23:36

—has "Bani the Gadite," which is probably the correct reading. (B.C. 1046.)

Hag’gi

(festive), second son of Gad.

Ge 46:16; Nu 26:15

Haggi’ah

(festival of Jehovah), a Merarite Levite.

1Ch 6:30

Hag’gites, The,

a Gadite family sprung from Haggi.

Nu 26:15

Hag’gith

(festive; a dancer), one of David’s wives, the mother of Adonijah.

2Sa 3:4; 1Ki 1:6

(B.C. 1053.)

Ha’i.

Same as AI.

AI - See 5196

Hair.

The Hebrews were fully alive to the importance of the hair as an element of personal beauty. Long hair was admired in the case of young men.

2Sa 14:26

In times of affliction the hair was altogether cut off.

Isa 3:17,24; 15:2; Jer 7:29

Tearing the hair

Ezr 9:3

and letting it go dishevelled were similar tokens of grief. The usual and favorite color of the hair was black,

So 5:11

as is indicated in the comparisons in

So 1:5; 4:1

a similar hue is probably intended by the purple of

So 7:6

Pure white hair was deemed characteristic of the divine Majesty.

Da 7:9; Re 1:14

The chief beauty of the hair consisted in curls, whether of a natural or an artificial character. With regard to the mode of dressing the hair, we have no very precise information; the terms used are of a general character, as of Jezebel,

2Ki 9:30

and of Judith, ch. 10:3, and in the New Testament,

1Ti 2:9; 1Pe 3:3

The arrangement of Samson’s hair into seven locks, or more properly braids,

Jud 16:13,19

involves the practice of plaiting, which was also familiar to the Egyptians and Greeks. The locks were probably kept in their place by a fillet, as in Egypt. The Hebrews like other nations of antiquity, anointed the hair profusely with ointments, which were generally compounded of various aromatic ingredients,

Ru 3:3; 2Sa 14:2; Ps 23:6; 92:10; Ec 9:8

more especially on occasions of festivity or hospitality.

Lu 7:46

It appears to have been the custom of the Jews in our Saviour’s time to swear by the hair,

Mt 5:36

much as the Egyptian women still swear by the side-locks, and the men by their beards.

Hak’katan

(young). Johanan son ,of Hakkatan, was the chief of the Bene-Azgad who returned from Babylon with Ezra.

Ezr 8:12

Hak’koz

(thorn), a priest, the chief of the seventh course in the service of the sanctuary, as appointed by David.

1Ch 24:10

In

Ezr 2:61

and Nehe 3:4,21 the name occurs again as Koz in the Authorized Version.

Haku’pha

(bent). Bene-Hakupha were among the Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel.

Ezr 2:61; Ne 7:63

Ha’lah

is probably a different place from the Calah of

Ge 10:11

It may be identified with the Chalcitis of Ptolemy.

Ha’lak

(smooth), The mount, a mountain twice, and twice only, named, was the southern limit of Joshua’s conquests,

Jos 11:17; 12:7

but which has not yet been identified.

Hal’hul

(trembling), a town of Judah in the mountain district.

Jos 16:68

The name still remains unaltered attached to a conspicuous hill a mile to the left of the road from Jerusalem to Hebron, between three and four miles from the latter.

Ha’li

(necklace), a town on the boundary of Asher, named between Helkath and Beten.

Jos 19:25

Hall,

used of the court of the high priest’s house.

Lu 22:55

In

Mt 27:27

and Mark 15:16 "hall" is synonymous with "praetorium," which in

Joh 18:28

is in Authorized Version "judgment hall."

Hallelujah

(praise ye the Lord). [ALLELUIA]

ALLELUIA - See 5222

Hallo’hesh

(enchanter), one of the chief of the people who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah.

Ne 10:24

(B.C. 410.)

Halo’hesh.

Shallum, son of Halohesh was "ruler of the half part of Jerusalem" at the time of the repair of the wall by Nehemiah.

Ne 3:12

(B.C. 446.)

Ham

(hot; sunburnt).

1. The name of one of the three sons of Noah, apparently the second in age. (B.C. 2448.) Of the history of Ham nothing is related except his irreverence to his father and the curse which that patriarch pronounced. The sons of Ham are stated, to have been "Cush and Mizraim and Phut and Canaan."

Ge 10:6

comp. 1Chr 1:8 Egypt is recognized as the "land of Ham" in the Bible.

Ps 78:51; 105:23; 106:22

The other settlements of the sons of Ham are discussed under their respective names. The three most illustrious Hamite nations—the Cushites, the Phoenicians and the Egyptians—were greatly mixed with foreign peoples. Their architecture has a solid grandeur that we look for in vain elsewhere.

2. According to the present text,

Ge 14:5

Chedorlaomer and his allies smote the Zuzim in a place called Ham, probably in the territory of the Ammonites (Gilead), east of the Jordan.

Ha’man

(magnificent), the chief minister or vizier of King Ahasuerus.

Es 3:1

(B.C. 473.) After the failure of his attempt to cut off all the Jews in the Persian empire, he was hanged on the gallows which he had erected for Mordecai. The Targum and Josephus interpret the inscription of him—the Agagite —as signifying that he was of Amalekitish descent. The Jews hiss whenever his name is mentioned on the day of Purim.

Ha’math

(fortress), the principal city of upper Syria, was situated in the valley of the Orontes, which it commanded from the low screen of hills which forms the water-shed between the source of the Orontes and Antioch. The Hamathites were a Hamitic race, and are included among the descendants of Canaan.

Ge 10:18

Nothing appears of the power of Hamath until the time of David.

2Sa 8:9

Hamath seems clearly to have been included in the dominions of Solomon.

1Ki 4:21-24

The "store-cities" which Solomon "built in Hamath,"

2Ch 8:4

were perhaps staples for trade. In the Assyrian inscriptions of the time of Ahab (B.C. 900) Hamath appears as a separate power, in alliance with the Syrians of Damascus, the Hittites and the Phoenicians. About three-quarters of a century later Jeroboam the Second "recovered Hamath."

2Ki 14:28

Soon afterwards the Assyrians took it,

2Ki 18:34; 19:13

etc., and from this time it ceased to be a place of much importance. Antiochus Epiphanes changed its name to Epiphaneia. The natives, however, called it Hamath even in St. Jerome’s time, and its present name, Hamah, is but slightly altered from the ancient form.

Ha’math-zo’bah

(fortress of Zobah),

2Ch 8:3

has been conjectured to be the same as Hamath. But the name Hamath-Zobah would seem rather suited to another Hamath which was distinguished from the "Great Hamath" by the suffix "Zobah."

Ham’athite, The,

one of the families descended from Canaan, named last in the list.

Ge 10:18; 1Ch 1:16

Ham’math

(warm springs), one of the fortified cities in the territory allotted to Naphtali.

Jos 19:35

It was near Tiberias, one mile distant, and had its name Chammath, "hot baths," because it contained those of Tiberias. In the list of Levitical cities given out of Naphtali,

Jos 21:32

the name of this place seems to be given as HAMMOTH-DOR.

HAMMOTHDOR - See 6807

Hammed’atha

(double), father of the infamous Haman.

Es 3:1,10; 8:5; 9;24

Ham’melech,

lit. "the king," unnecessarily rendered in the Authorized Version as a proper name.

Jer 36:26; 38:6

Hammol’eketh

(the queen), a daughter of Machir and sister of Gilead.

1Ch 7:17,18

(B.C. between 1706 and 1491.)

Ham’mon

(warm springs).

1. A city in Asher,

Jos 19:28

apparently not far from Zidon-rabbah.

2. A city allotted out of the tribe of Naphtali to the Levites,

1Ch 6:76

and answering to the somewhat similar names HAMMATH and HAMMOTH-DOR in Joshua.

HAMMATH - See 6802

HAMMOTHDOR - See 6807

Ham’moth-dor

(dwelling of the warm springs). [HAMMATH]

HAMMATH - See 6802

Ham’onah

(multitude), the name of a city mentioned in Ezekiel.

Eze 39:16

Ha’mon-gog

(the multitude of God), The valley of, the name to be bestowed on the ravine or glen, previously known as "the ravine of the passengers on the east of the sea," after the burial there of "God and all his multitude."

Eze 39:11,15

Ha’mor

(an ass), a Hivite who at the time of the entrance of Jacob on Palestine was prince of the land and city of Shechem.

Ge 33:19; 34:2,4,6,8,13,18,20,24,26

(B.C. 1737.) [DINAH]

DINAH - See 6200

Hamu’el

(heat, i.e. wrath, of God), a man of Simeon, of the family of Shaul.

1Ch 4:26

Ha’mul

(pitied), the younger son of Pharez, Judah’s son by Tamar.

Ge 46:12; 1Ch 2:5

(B.C. between 1706-1688.)

Ha’mulites, The,

the family of the preceding.

Nu 26:21

Hamu’tal

(akin to the dew), daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah; one of the wives of King Josiah.

2Ki 23:31; 24:18; Jer 52:1

(B.C. 632-619.)

Hanam’e-el

(whom God graciously gave), son of Shallum and cousin of Jeremiah.

Jer 32:7,8,9,12

and comp. Jere 32:44 (B.C. 589.)

Ha’nan

(merciful).

1. One of the chief people of the tribe of Benjamin.

1Ch 8:23

2. The last of the six sons of Azel, a descendant of Saul.

1Ch 8:38; 9:44

(B.C. 588.)

3. "Son of Maachah," i.e. possibly a Syrian of Aram-maachah, one of the heroes of David’s guard.

1Ch 11:43

(B.C. 1046).

4. The sons of Hanan were among the Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel.

Ezr 2:46; Ne 7:49

(B.C. 536).

5. One of the Levites who assisted Ezra in his public exposition of the law.

Ne 8:7

(B.C. 446.) The same person is probably mentioned in ch.

Ne 10:10

6. One of the "heads" of "the people," who also sealed the covenant.

Ne 10:22

(B.C. 410.)

7. Another of the chief laymen on the same occasion.

Ne 10:26

8. Son of Zaccur, son of Mattaniah, whom Nehemiah made one of the store. keepers of the provisions collected as tithes.

Ne 13:13

9. Son of Igdaliah.

Jer 35:4

(B.C. 410.)

Hanan’e-el

(whom God graciously gave), The tower of, a tower which formed part of the wall of Jerusalem

Ne 3:1; 12:39

From these two passages, particularly from the former, it might almost be inferred that Hananeel was but another name for the tower of Meah; at any rate they were close together, and stood between the sheep-gate and the fish-gate. This tower is further mentioned in

Jer 31:38

The remaining passage in which it is named,

Zec 14:10

also connects this tower with the "corner-gate," which lay on the other side of the sheep-gate.

Hana’ni

(gracious).

1. One of the sons of Heman, and head of the eighteenth course of the service.

1Ch 25:4,25

2. A seer who rebuked (B.C. 941) Asa king of Judah.

2Ch 16:7

For this he was imprisoned. ver. 10 He or another Hanani was the father of Jehu the seer, who testified against Baasha,

1Ki 16:1,7

and Jehoshaphat.

2Ch 19:2; 20:34

3. One of the priests who in the time of Ezra had taken strange wives.

Ezr 10:20

4. A brother of Nehemiah,

Ne 1:2

who was made governor of Jerusalem under Nehemiah. Ch.

Ne 7:2

5. A priest mentioned in

Ne 12:36

Hanani’ah

(gift of God).

1. One of the fourteen sons of Heman, and chief of the sixteenth course of singers.

1Ch 25:4,5,23

(B.C. 1014.)

2. A general in the army of King Uzziah.

2Ch 26:11

3. Father of Zedekiah, in the reign of Jehoiakim. (B.C. before 605.)

4. Son of Azur, a Benjamite of Gibeon and a false prophet in the reign of Zedekiah king of Judah. In the fourth year of his reign, B.C. 595, Hananiah withstood Jeremiah the prophet, and publicly prophesied in the temple that within two years Jeconiah and all his fellow captives with the vessels of the Lord’s house, should be brought back to Jerusalem.

Jer 28:1

... Hananiah corroborated his prophecy by taking from off the neck of Jeremiah the yoke which he wore by divine command.

Jer 27:1

... and breaking it. But Jeremiah was bidden to go tell Hananiah that for the wooden yokes which he had broken he should make yokes of iron, so firm was the dominion of Babylon destined to he for seventy years. The prophet Jeremiah added to this rebuke the prediction of Hananiah’s death, the fulfillment of which closes the history of this false prophet.

5. Grandfather of Irijah, the captain of the ward at the gate of Benjamin who arrested Jeremiah on the charge of deserting to the Chaldeans.

Jer 37:13

(B.C. before 589.)

6. Head of a Benjamite house.

1Ch 8:24

7. The Hebrew name of Shadrach. He was of the house of David, according to Jewish tradition

Da 1:3,6,7,11,19; 2:17

8. Son of Zerubbabel,

1Ch 3:19

from whom Christ derived his descent. He is the same person who is by St. Luke called Joanna. (B.C. after 536.)

9. One of the sons of Bebai who returned with Ezra from Babylon

Ezr 10:28

(B.C. 459.)

10. A priest, one of the makers of the sacred ointments and incense, who built a portion of the wall of Jerusalem in the days of Nehemiah.

11. Head of the priestly course of Jeremiah in the days of Joiakim.

Ne 12:12

(B.C. 610.)

12. Ruler of the palace at Jerusalem under Nehemiah. The arrangements for guarding the gates of Jerusalem were intrusted to him with Hanani the Tirshatha’s brother.

Ne 7:2,3

(B.C. 446.)

13. An Israelite.

Ne 10:23

Handicraft.

Ac 18:3; 19:25; Re 18:22

A trade was taught to ail the Jewish boys as a necessary part of their education. Even the greatest rabbis maintained themselves by trades (Delitzsch). Says Rabbi Jehuda, "He who does not teach his son a trade is much the same as if he taught him to be a thief". In the present article brief notice only can be given of such handicraft trades as are mentioned in Scripture.

1. Smiths or metal-workers. —The preparation of iron for use either in war, in agriculture or for domestic purposes was doubtless one of the earliest applications of labor; and together with iron, working in brass, or rather copper alloyed with tin (bronze), is mentioned as practiced in antediluvian times.

Ge 4:22

After the establishment of the Jews in Canaan, the occupation of a smith became recognized as a distinct employment-

1Sa 13:19

The smith’s work and its results are often mentioned in Scripture.

2Sa 12:31; 1Ki 6:7; 2Ch 26:14; Isa 44:12; 54:16

The worker in gold and silver must have found employment among both the Hebrews and the neighboring nations in very early times.

Ge 24:22,53; 35:4; 38:18

Various processes of the goldsmith’s work are illustrated by Egyptian monuments. After the conquest frequent notices are found of both moulded and wrought metal, including soldering.

2. Carpenters are often mentioned in Scripture.

Ge 6:14; Ex 37; Isa 44:13

In the palace built by David for himself the workmen employed were chiefly foreigners.

2Sa 5:11

That the Jewish carpenters must have been able to carve with some skill is evident from

Isa 41:7; 44:13

In the New Testament the occupation of a carpenter is mentioned in connection with Joseph the husband of the Virgin Mary, and ascribed to our Lord himself.

Mt 13:55; Mr 6:3

The trade included our cabinet work as well as carpentering.

3. The masons employed by David and Solomon, at least the chief of them, were Phoenicians.

1Ki 5:18; Eze 27:9

The large stones used in Solomon’s temple are said by Josephus to have been fitted together exactly without either mortar or clamps, but the foundation stones to have been fastened with lead. For ordinary building mortar was used; sometimes, perhaps, bitumen, as was the case at Babylon.

Ge 11:3

The wall "daubed with untempered mortar" of

Eze 13:10

was perhaps a sort of cob-wall of mud or clay without lime, which would give way under heavy rain. The use of whitewash on tombs is remarked by our Lord.

Mt 23:27

4. Ship-building must have been exercised to some extent for the fishing-vessels on the Lake of Gennesaret.

Mt 8:23; 9:1; Joh 21:3,8

Solomon built ships for his foreign trade.

1Ki 9:26,27; 22:48; 2Ch 20:36,37

5. Apothecaries or perfumers appear to have formed a guild or association.

Ex 30:25,35; 2Ch 16:14; Ne 3:8; Ec 7:1; 10:1

Ecclus 38:8.

6. Weavers. —The arts of spinning and weaving both wool and linen were carried on in early times, as they usually are still among the Bedouins, by women.

Ex 35:20,26; Le 19:19; De 22:11; 2Ki 23:7; Eze 16:16; Pr

31:13,14

The loom with its beam,

1Sa 17:7

pin,

Jud 16:14

and shuttles

Job 7:6

was perhaps introduced later, but as early as David’s time.

1Sa 17:7

7. Dyeing and dressing cloth were practiced in Palestine, as were also tanning and dressing leather.

Jos 2:15-18; 2Ki 1:8; Mt 3:4; Ac 9:43

8. Barbers.

Nu 6:5,19; Eze 5:1

9. Tentmakers are noticed in

Ac 18:3

10. Potters are frequently alluded to.

Jer 18:2-6

11. Bakers are noticed in Scripture,

Jer 37:21; Ho 7:4

and the well-known valley Tyropoeon probably derived its name from the occupation of the cheese-makers, its inhabitants.

12. Butchers, not Jewish, are spoken of

1Co 10:25

Shoemakers, tailors, glaziers and glass vessels painters and gold workers are mentioned in the Mishna. Chel. viii. 9; xxix. 3,4; xxx. 1.

Handkerchief, Napkin, Apron.

Lu 19:20; Joh 11:44; 20:7; Ac 19:12

These terms were used in much the same manner and having much the same significance as at the present.

Ha’nes

a place in Egypt mentioned only in

Isa 30:4

We think that the Chald Paraphr. is right in identifying it with Tahpanhes, a fortified town on the eastern frontier.

Hanging, Hangings.

1. The "hanging" was a curtain or ‘covering’ to close an entrance; one was placed before the door of the tabernacle. Exod 26:36,37; 39:38

2. The "hangings"; were used for covering, the walls of the court of the tabernacles just as tapestry is used in modern times.

Ex 27:9; 35:17; 38:9; Nu 3:26; 4:26

Han’iel

(grace of God), one of the sons of Ulla of the tribe of Asher.

1Ch 7:39

Han’nah

(grace), one of the wives of Elkanah, and mother of Samuel. 1Sam 1,2 (B.C. 1141.) A hymn of thanks giving for the birth of her son is in the highest order of prophetic poetry, its resemblance to that of the Virgin Mary comp.

1Sa 2:1-10

with Luke 1:46-55 see also

Ps 113:1

... has been noticed.

Han’nathon

(gracious), one of the cities of Zebulun.

Jos 19:14

Hananiel

(the favor of God), son of Ephod and prince of Manasseh.

Nu 34:23

Ha’noch

(dedicated).

1. The third in order of the children of Midian.

Ge 25:4

2. Eldest son of Reuben,

Ge 46:9; Ex 6:14; Nu 26:5; 1Ch 5:3

and founder of the family of the Hanochites.

Nu 26:5

Ha’nun

(favored).

1. Son of Nahash

2Sa 10:1,2; 1Ch 19:1,2

king of Ammon, who dishonored the ambassadors of David,

2Sa 10:4

and involved the Ammonites in a disastrous war,

2Sa 12:31; 1Ch 19:6

(B.C. 1035.)

2. A man who, with the people of Zanoah, repaired the ravine gate in the wall of Jerusalem.

Ne 3:13

(B.C. 446).

3. The sixth son of Zalalph, who also assisted in the repair of the wall, apparently on the east side.

Ne 3:30

(B.C. 446.)

Haphra’im

(two pits), a city of Issachar, mentioned next to Shunem.

Jos 19:19

About 6 miles northeast of Lejjun, and two miles west of Solam (the ancient Shunem), stands the village of el’ Afuleh, which may possibly be the representative of Haphraim.

Ha’ra

(mountain land),

1Ch 5:26

only, is either a place utterly unknown or it must be regarded as identical with Haran or Charran.

Har’adah

(fear), a desert station of the Israelites,

Nu 33:24,25

its position is uncertain.

Ha’ran

(a mountaineer).

1. The third son of Terah, and therefore youngest brother of Abram.

Ge 11:26

(B.C. 1926.) Three children are ascribed to him —Lot, vs.

Ge 11:27,31

and two daughters, viz., Milcah, who married her uncle Nahor, ver.

Ge 11:29

and Iscah. ver.

Ge 11:29

Haran was born in Ur of the Chaldees, and he died there while his father was still living. ver.

Ge 11:28

2. A Gershonite Levite in the time of David, one of the family of Shimei.

1Ch 23:9

3. A son of the great Caleb by his concubine Ephah.

1Ch 2:46

4. HARAN or CHARRAN,

CHARRAN - See 5949

Ac 7:2,4

name of the place whither Abraham migrated with his family from Ur of the Chaldees, and where the descendants of his brother Nahor established themselves. Comp.

Ge 24:10

with Gene 27:43 It is said to be in Mesopotamia,

Ge 24:10

or more definitely in Padan-aram, ch.

Ge 25:20

the cultivated district at the foot of the hills, a name well applying to the beautiful stretch of country which lies below Mount Masius between the Khabour and the Euphrates. Here, about midway in this district, is a small village still called Harran. It was celebrated among the Romans, under the name of Charrae, as the scene of the defeat of Crassus.

Ha’rarite

(the mountaineer), The. The destination of three of David’s guard.

1. Agee, a Hararite

2Sa 23:11

2. Shammah the Hararite.

2Sa 23:33

3. Sharar,

2Sa 23:33

or Sacar,

1Ch 11:35

the Hararite, was the father of Ahiam, another member of the guard.

Har’bona

(ass-driver), the third of the seven chamberlains or eunuchs who served King Ahasuerus.

Es 1:10

(B.C. 483-475.)

Har’bonah,

Es 7:9

the same as the preceding.

Hare

(Heb. arnebeth) occurs only in

Le 11:6

and Deut 14:7 amongst the animals disallowed as food by the Mosaic law. The hare is at this day called arnel by the Arabs in Palestine and Syria. It was erroneously thought by the ancient Jews to have chewed the cud. They were no doubt misled as in the case of the shaphfan (hyrax), by the habit these animals have of moving the jaw about.

Harem.

[HOUSE]

HOUSE - See 7048

Ha’reph

(a plucking off), a name occurring in the genealogies of Judah as a son of Caleb and as "father of Bethgader."

1Ch 2:51

only.

Ha’reth

(thicket), The forest of, in which David took refuge, after at the instigation of the prophet Gad, he had quitted the "hold" or fastness of the cave of Adullam.

1Sa 22:6

Harhai’ah

(the Lord is angry), father of Uzziel.

Ne 3:8

(B.C. before 446.)

Hur’hai

(very poor), an ancestor of Shallum the husband of Huldah.

2Ki 22:14

(B.C. before 623.)

Har’hur

(inflammation). The sons of Harhur were among the Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel.

Ezr 2:51 Ne 7:53

(B.C. 623.)

Ha’rim

(flat-nosed).

1. A priest who had charge of the third division in the house of God.

1Ch 24:8

(B.C. 1014.)

2. Bene-Harim, probably descendants of the above, to the number of 1017, came from Babylon with Zerubbabel.

Ezr 2:39; Ne 7:42

(B.C. 536.)

3. It further occurs in a list of the families of priests "who went up with Zerubbabel and Jeshua," and of those who were their descendants in the next generation.

Ne 12:16

4. Another family of Bene-Harim, 320 in number, came from the captivity in the same caravan.

Ezr 2:82; Ne 7:35

(B.C. 536.) They also appear among those who had married foreign wives,

Ezr 10:31

as well as those who sealed the covenant-

Ne 10:27

(B.C. 410.)

Ha’riph

(a plucking-off). A hundred and twelve of the Bene-Hariph returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel.

Ne 7:24

The name occurs again among the "heads of the people" who sealed the covenant. ch.

Ne 10:19

Harlot.

That this class of persons existed in the earliest states of society is clear from

Ge 38:15

Rahab,

Jos 2:1

is said by the Chald. Paraphr. to have been an innkeeper; but if there were such persons, considering what we know of Canaanitish morals,

Le 18:27

we may conclude that they would, if women, have been of this class. The "harlots" are classed with "publicans," as those who lay under the ban of society, in the New Testament.

Mt 21:32

Har’-magedon

(hill of Megiddo),

Re 16:16

in the Revised Version for Armageddon. The change is chiefly Har, hill, in place of Ar, city.

Har’nepher

(panting), one of the sons of Zophah, of the tribe of Asher.

1Ch 7:36

Ha’rod

(fear), The well of, a spring by which Gideon and his great army encamped on the morning of the day which ended in the rout of the Midianites.

Jud 7:1

and where the trial of the people by their mode of drinking apparently took place. The Ain Jalud is very suitable to the circumstances, as being at present the largest spring in the neighborhood.

Ha’rodite, The,

the designation of two of the thirty-seven warriors of David’s guard, Shammah and Elika,

2Sa 23:25

doubtless denied from a place named Harod.

Har’oeh,

a name occurring in the genealogical lists of Judah.

1Ch 2:52

Ha’rorite

(the same as Harodite) The, the title given to Shammoth, one of the warriors of David’s guard.

1Ch 11:27

Har’osheth

(workmanship) "of the Gentiles" so called from the mixed races that inhabited it —a city in the north of the land of Canaan, supposed to have stood on the west coast of the lake Merom from which the Jordan issues forth in one unbroken stream. It was the residence of Sisera captain of Jabin king of Canaan,

Jud 4:2

and it was the point to which the victorious Israelites under Barak pursued the discomfited host and chariots of the second potentate of that name.

Jud 4:16

Harp.

The harp was the national instrument of the Hebrews, and was well known throughout Asia. Moses assigns its invention to Jubal during the antediluvian period.

Ge 4:21

Josephus records that the harp had ten strings, and that it was played on with the plectrum. Sometimes it was smaller having only eight strings, and was usually played with the fingers.

Harrow.

The word so rendered,

2Sa 12:31; 1Ch 20:3

is probably a threshing-machine. The verb rendered "to harrow,"

Job 39:10; Isa 28:24; Ho 10:11

expresses apparently the breaking of the clods, and is so far analogous to our harrowing —but whether done by any such machine as we call a "harrow" is very doubtful.

Har’sha

(deaf). Bene-Harsha were among the families of Nethinim who came back from Babylon with Zerubbabel.

Ezr 2:52; Ne 7:54

Hart,

the male stag. The word denotes some member of the deer tribe either the fallow deer or the Barbary deer. The hart is reckoned among the clean animals,

De 12:15; 14:5; 15:22

and seems from the passages quoted, as well as from

1Ki 4:23

to have been commonly killed for food.

Ha’rum

(lofty), father of Aharhel, in one of the most obscure genealogies of Judah.

1Ch 4:8

Haru’maph

(slit-nosed) father or ancestor of Jedaiah.

Ne 3:10

Har’phite

(native of Hariph), The, the designation of Shephatiah, one of the Korhites who repaired to David at Ziklag.

1Ch 12:5

(B.C. 1064.)

Ha’ruz

(zealous), a man of Jotbah, father of Meshullemeth queen of Manasseh.

2Ki 21:9

(B.C. before 644.)

Harvest.

[AGRICULTURE]

AGRICULTURE - See 5148

Hasadi’ah

(loved by Jehovah) one of a group of five persons among the descendants of the royal line of Judah,

1Ch 3:20

apparently sons of Zerubbabel. (B.C. about 536.)

Hasenu’ah

(the hated), a Benjamite, of one of the chief families in the tribe.

1Ch 9:7

Hashabi’ah

(whom God regards).

1. A Merarite Levite.

1Ch 6:45

2. Another Merarite Levite.

1Ch 9:14

3. The fourth of the six sons of Jeduthun,

1Ch 25:3

who had charge of the twelfth course. ver. 19. (B.C. 1014.)

4. One of the descendants of Hebron the son of Kohath-

1Ch 26:30

5. The son of Kemuel, who was prince of the tribe of Levi in the time of David

1Ch 27:17

(B.C. 1014.)

6. A Levite one of the "chiefs" of his tribe, who officiated for King Josiah at his great Passover feast.

2Ch 35:9

(B.C. 623).

7. A Merarite Levite who accompanied Ezra from Babylon.

Ezr 8:19

8. One of the chiefs of the priests who formed part of the same caravan.

Ezr 8:24

(B.C. 536.)

9. Ruler of half the circuit or environs of Keilah; he repaired a portion of the wall of Jerusalem under Nehemiah.

Ne 3:17

(B.C. 446.)

10. One of the Levites who sealed the covenant of reformation after the return from the captivity.

Ne 10:11; 12:24

comp. Nehe 12:26 (B.C. 446-410.)

11. Another Levite, son of Bunni.

Ne 11:15

12. A Levite, son of Mattaniah.

Ne 11:22

13. A priest of the family of Hilkiah in the days of Joiakim son of Jeshua.

Ne 12:21

Hashab’nah

(whom Jehovah regards), one of the chief of the "people" who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah.

Ne 10:25

(B.C. 410.)

Hashabni’ah

(whom Jehovah regards).

1. Father of Hattush.

Ne 3:10

2. A Levite who was among those who officiated at the great fast under Ezra and Nehemiah when the covenant was sealed.

Ne 9:5

(B.C. 410.)

Hashbad’ana

(considerate judge), one of the men (probably Levites) who stood on Ezra’s left hand while he read the law to the people in Jerusalem.

Ne 8:4

(B.C.410.)

Ha’shem

(fat). The sons of Hashem the Gizonite are named amongst the members of David’s guard in

1Ch 11:34

(B.C. before 1014.)

Hashmo’nah

(fatness), a station of the Israelites, mentioned

Nu 33:29

as next before Moseroth.

Ha’shub

(intelligent).

1. A son of Pahath-moab, who assisted in the repair of the wall of Jerusalem.

Ne 3:11

(B.C. 446.)

2. Another who assisted in the same work.

Ne 3:23

3. One of the heads of the people who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah.

Ne 10:23

(B.C. 410.)

4. A Merarite Levite.

Ne 11:15

Hashu’bah

(intelligent), the first of a group of five men, apparently the latter half of the family of Zerubbabel.

1Ch 3:20

Ha’shum

(rich).

1. Bene-Hashum, 223 in number, came back from Babylon with Zerubbabel.

Ezr 2:19; 10:33; Ne 7:22

(B.C. before 536.) The chief man of the family was among these who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah.

Ne 10:18

(B.C. 410.)

2. One of the priests or Levites who stood on Ezra’s left hand while he read the law to the congregation.

Ne 8:4

(B.C. 410.)

Hashu’pha

(stripped), one of the families of Nethinim who returned from captivity in the first caravan

Ne 7:46

Called HASUPHA in

HASUPHA - See 6878

Ezr 2:43

(B.C. 536.)

Has’rah

(very poor), the form in which the name Harhas is given in

2Ch 34:22

comp. 2Kin 22:14

Hassena’ah.

The Bene-Hassenaah rebuilt the fish-gate in the repair of the wall of Jerusalem.

Ne 3:3

(B.C. 446.)

Has’shub.

[See HASHUB]

HASHUB - See 6871

Hasu’pha.

[See HASHUPHA]

HASHUPHA - See 6874

Ha’tach

(verily), one of the eunuchs in the court of Ahasuerus.

Es 4:5,6,9,10

(B.C. 474.)

Ha’thath

(fearful), one of the sons of Othniel the Kenazite.

1Ch 4:13

Hat’ipha

(captive). Bene-Hatipha (i.e. sons of Hatipha) were among the Nethinim who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel.

Ezr 2:54; Ne 7:56

(B.C. 536.)

Hat’ita

(exploring). Bene-Hatita (i.e. sons of Hatita) were among the "porters" (i.e. the gate-keepers) who returned from the captivity with Zerubbabel.

Ezr 2:42; Ne 7:45

(B.C. 536.)

Hal’til

(doubtful). Bene-Hattil were among the children of Solomon’s slaves "who came back from captivity with Zerubbabel.

Ezr 2:57; Ne 7:59

(B.C. 536.)

Hat’tuph

(assembled).

1. A descendant of the kings of Judah apparently one of the sons of Shechaniah,

1Ch 3:22

in the fourth or fifth generation from Zerubbabel. A person of the same name accompanied Ezra from Babylon to Jerusalem.

Ezr 8:2

In another statement Hattush is said to have returned with Zerubbabel.

Ne 12:2

2. Son of Hashabniah. one-of those who assisted Nehemiah in the repair of the wall of Jerusalem.

Ne 3:10

(B.C. 446.)

Hau’ran

(caverns), a province of Palestine twice mentioned by Ezekiel.

Eze 47:16,17

There can be little doubt that it is identical with the well-known Greek province of Auranitis and the modern Hauran east of the Sea of Galilee, on the borders of the desert, in the tetrarchy of Philip.

Hav’ilah

(circle).

1. A son of Cush.

Ge 10:7

2. A son of Joktan.

Ge 10:29

Hav’ilah.

Ge 2:11

1. A part of Eden through which flowed the river Pison (Araxes). It was probably the Grecian Colchis, in the northeast corner of Asia Minor, near the Caspian Sea.

2. A district in Arabia Felix,

Ge 10:7

named from the second son of Cush; probably the district of Kualan, in the northwestern part of Yemen.

Havoth-ja’ir

(villages of Jair), certain villages on the east of Jordan, in Gilead or Bashan, which were taken by Jair the son of Manasseh, and called after his name.

Nu 32:41; De 3:14

In the records of Manasseh in

Jos 13:30

and 1Chr 2:23 the Havoth-jair are reckoned with other districts as making up sixty "cities." Comp.

1Ki 4:13

There is apparently some confusion in these different statements as to what the sixty cities really consisted of. No less doubtful is the number of the Havoth-Jair. In

1Ch 2:22

they are specified as twenty-three, but in

Jud 10:4

as thirty.

Hawk.

Le 11:16; De 14:15; Job 39:26

The hawk includes various species of the Falconidae. With respect to the passage in Job (l.c.) which appears to allude to the migratory habits of hawks, it is curious to observe that of the ten or twelve lesser raptors (hawk tribe) of Palestine, nearly all are summer migrants. The kestrel remains all the year, but the others are all migrants from the south.

Hay

(Heb. chatsir), the rendering of the Authorized Version in

Pr 27:25

and Isai 15:6 of the Hebrew term, which occurs frequently in the Old Testament, and denotes "grass" of any kind. It is quite probable that the modern Orientals do not make hay in our sense of the term; but it is certain that the ancients did mow their grass, and probably made use of the dry material. See

Ps 37:2

We may remark that there is an express Hebrew term for "dry grass" or "hay," viz. chashash, which, in the only two places where the word occurs,

Isa 5:24; 33:11

is rendered "chaff" in the Authorized Version.

Haz’a-el

(whom God sees), a king of Damascus who reigned from about B.C. 886 to B.C. 840. He appears to have been previously a person in a high position at the court of Ben-hadad, and was sent by his master to Elisha to inquire if he would recover from the malady under which he was suffering. Elisha’s answer led to the murder of Ben-hadad by his ambitious servant, who forthwith mounted the throne.

2Ki 8:7-15

He was soon engaged in war with the kings of Judah and Israel for the possession of the city of Ramoth-gilead. Ibid.

2Ki 8:28

Towards the close of the reign of Jehu, Hazael led the Syrians against the Israelites (about B.C. 860), whom he "smote in all their coasts,"

2Ki 10:32

thus accomplishing the prophecy of Elisha. Ibid .

2Ki 8:12

At the close of his life, having taken Gath, ibid.

2Ki 12:17

comp. Amos 6:2 he proceeded to attack Jerusalem,

2Ch 24:24

and was about to assault the city when Joash bribed him to retire.

2Ki 12:18

Hazael appears to have died about the year B.C. 840,

2Ki 13:24

having reigned forty-six years.

Haza’iah

(whom Jehovah sees), a man of Judah of the family of the Shilonites, or descendants of Shelah.

Ne 11:5

Ha’zar-ad’ar,

etc. [HAZER]

HAZER - See 6897

Hazarma’veth

(court of death), the third in order of the sons of Joktan

Ge 10:26

The name is preserved in the Arabic Hadramawt and Hadrumawl, the appellation of a province and an ancient people of southern Arabia. The capital is Satham, a very ancient city, and its chief ports are Mirbat, Zafari and Kisheem, from whence a great trade was carried on in ancient times with India and Africa.

Hazel.

The Hebrew term luz occurs only in

Ge 30:37

Authorities are divided between the hazel and the almond tree as representing the luz. The latter is most probably correct.

Hazelelpo’ni

(shade coming upon me), the sister of the sons of Etam in the genealogies of Judah.

1Ch 4:3

Ha’zer,

topographically, seems generally employed for the villages of people. As a proper name it appears in the Authorized Version —

1. In the plural, HAZERIM and HAZEBOTH, for which see below.

HAZERIM - See 6898

2. In the slightly different form of HAZOR.

HAZOR - See 6903

3. In composition with other words:

1. HAZAR-ADDAR (village of Addar), a place named as one of the landmarks on the southern boundary of the land promised to Israel.

Nu 34:4

ADAR

ADAR - See 5096

Jos 15:3

2. HAZAR-ENAN (village of fountains), the place at which the northern boundary of the land promised to the children of Israel was to terminate.

Nu 34:9,10

comp. Ezek 47:17; 48:1

3. HAZAB GADDAH (village of fortune), one of the towns in the southern district of Judah,

Jos 15:27

named between Moladah and Heshmon.

4. HAZAR-SHUAL (village of jackals), a town in the southern district of Judah, lying between Hazar-gaddah and Beersheba.

Jos 15:28; 19:3; 1Ch 4:28

5. HAZAR-SUSAH (village of horses), one of the "cities" allotted to Simeon in the extreme south of the territory of Judah.

Jos 19:5

Haze’rim

(villages). The Avim, or more accurately the Avvim, are said to have lived "in the villages (Authorized Version ‘Hazerim’) as far as Gaza,"

De 2:23

before their expulsion by the Caphtorim.

Haze’roth

(villages),

Nu 11:35; 12:16; 33:17; De 1:1

a station of the Israelites in the desert, and perhaps recognizable in the Arabic Ain Hudhera, forty miles northeast of Sinai.

Haz’ezon-ta’mar

and Haz’azon-ta’mar (pruning of palm trees), the ancient name of Engedi.

Ge 14:7

The name occurs in the records of the reign of Hezekiah.

2Ch 20:2

Ha’zi-el

(union of God), a Levite in the time of David, of the family of Shi-mei or Shimi, the younger branch of the (Gershonites.

1Ch 23:9

(B.C. 1014.)

Ha’zo

(vision), a son of Nahor, by Milcah his wife.

Ge 22:22

(B.C. about 1900.)

Ha’zor

(castle).

1. A fortified city, which on the occupation of the country was allotted to Naphtali.

Jos 19:36

Its position was apparently between Ramah and Kedesh, ibid.

Jos 12:19

on the high ground overlooking the Lake of Merom. There is no reason for supposing it a different place from that of which Jabin was king.

Jos 11:1; Jud 4:2,17; 1Sa 12:9

It was the principal city of the whole of north Palestine.

Jos 11:10

It was fortified by Solomon,

1Ki 9:15

and its inhabitants were carried captive by Tiglath-pileser.

2Ki 15:29

The most probable site of Hazor is Tell Khuraibeh.

2. One of the "cities" of Judah in the extreme south, named next in order to Kedesh.

Jos 15:23

3. Hazor-Hadattah = "new Hazor" another of the southern towns of Judah.

Jos 15:25

4. A place in which the Benjamites resided after their return from the captivity.

Ne 11:33

Head-dress.

The Hebrews do not appear to have regarded a covering for the head as an essential article of dress. Hats were unknown. The earliest notice we have of such a thing is in connection with the sacerdotal vestments.

Ex 28:40

The tsaniph (something like a turban) is noticed as being worn by nobles,

Job 29:14

ladies,

Isa 3:23

and kings,

Isa 62:3

while the peer was an article of holiday dress,

Isa 61:3

Authorized Version "beauty;"

Eze 24:17,23

and was worn at weddings.

Isa 61:10

The ordinary head-dress of the Bedouin consists of the keffieh, a square handkerchief, generally of red and yellow cotton or cotton and silk, folded so that three of the corners hang down over the back and shoulders, leaving the face exposed, and bound round the head by a cord. It is not improbable that a similar covering was used by the Hebrews on certain occasions. The Assyrian head-dress is described in

Eze 23:15

under the terms "exceeding in dyed attire." The word rendered "hats" in

Da 3:21

properly applies to a cloak.

Hearth.

One way of baking much practiced in the East is to place the dough on an iron plate, either laid on or supported on legs above the vessel sunk in the ground, which forms the oven. The cakes baked "on the hearth"

Ge 18:6

were probably baked in the existing Bedouin manner, on hot stones covered with ashes. The "hearth" of King Jehoiakim’s winter palace,

Jer 36:23

was possibly a pan or brazier of charcoal. From this we see that the significance of the Hebrew words translated hearth is not the same as with us.

Heath.

Jer 17:6

was some species of juniper, probably the savin, a dwarf, stunted juniper which grows in the most sterile parts of the desert.

Hea’then.

[GENTILES]

GENTILES - See 6648

Heaven.

There are four Hebrew words thus rendered in the Old Testament which we may briefly notice.

1. Raki’a, Authorized Version, firmament. [FIRMAMENT]

FIRMAMENT - See 6531

2. Shamayim. This is the word used in the expression "the heaven and the earth," or "the upper and lower regions."

Ge 1:1

3. Marom, used for heaven in

Ps 18:16; Isa 24:18; Jer 25:30

. Properly speaking it means a mountain as in

Ps 102:19; Eze 17:23

4. Shechakim, "expanses," with reference to the extent of heaven.

De 33:26; Job 35:5

St. Paul’s expression "third heaven,"

2Co 12:2

had led to much conjecture. Grotius said that the Jews divided the heaven into three parts, viz.,

1. The air or atmosphere, where clouds gather;

2. The firmament, in which the sun, moon and stars are fixed;

3. The upper heaven, the abode of God and his angels, the invisible realm of holiness and happiness the home of the children of God.

He’ber

(alliance).

1. Grandson of the patriarch Asher,

Ge 46:17; Nu 26:45; 1Ch 7:31

from whom came the Heberites.

Nu 26:45

2. The patriarch Eber.

Lu 3:35

[EBER]

EBER - See 6257

3. The father of Socho; a Judite.

1Ch 4:18

4. A Benjamite.

1Ch 8:17

5. A Benjamite.

1Ch 8:22

6. A Gadite.

1Ch 5:13

7. The husband of Jael, who slew Sisera by driving a nail into his temple.

Jud 4:21,22

He’brew.

This word first occurs as given to Abram by the Canaanites,

Ge 4:13

because he had crossed the Euphrates. The name is also derived from Eber, "beyond, on the other side," Abraham and his posterity being called Hebrews in order to express a distinction between the races east and west of the Euphrates. It may also be derived from Heber, one of the ancestors of Abraham.

Ge 10:24

The term Israelite was used by the Jews of themselves among themselves; the term Hebrew was the name by which they were known to foreigners. The latter was accepted by the Jews in their external relations; and after the general substitution of the word Jew, it still found a place in that marked and special feature of national contradistinction, the language.

He’brew Language

The books of the Old Testament are written almost entirely in the Hebrew language. It is a branch of the Shemitic language, one of the three great divisions into which all languages have been reduced. It is one of the earliest of known languages, and some suppose that it was the original language of man.

He’brews, Epistle to the.

1. The author —There has been a wide difference of opinion respecting the authorship of this epistle. For many years Paul was considered the author; others think it may have been Luke, Barnabas, or Apollos. Much of the theology and the language are similar to Paul’s, but the authorship of the epistle ia still disputed.

2. To whom written. —The epistle was probably addressed to the Jews in Jerusalem and Palestine. The argument of the epistle is such as could he used with most effect to a church consisting exclusively of Jews by birth, personally familiar with and attached to the temple service.

3. Date. —It was evidently written before the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70, probably about A.D. 62-64.

4. Place. —It was probably written in Italy, while Paul was a prisoner at Rome.

5. Contents. —With respect to the scope of the epistle, it should be recollected that while the numerous Christian churches scattered throughout Judea,

Ac 9:31; Ga 1:22

were continually exposed to persecution from the Jews,

1Th 2:14

there was in Jerusalem one additional weapon in the hands of the predominant oppressors of the Christians. The magnificent national temple might be put against the Hebrew Christian; and even if this affliction were not often laid upon him, yet there was a secret burden which he bore within him, the knowledge that the end of all the beauty and awfulness of Zion was rapidly approaching. The writer of this epistle meets the Hebrew Christians on their own ground, showing that the new faith gave them Christ the Son of God, more prevailing than the high priest as an intercessor; that his Sabbath awaited them, his covenant, his atonement, his city heavenly not made with hands. Having him, believe in him with all your heart, with a faith in the unseen future strong as that of the saints of old, patient under present and prepared for coming woe, full of energy and hope and holiness and love. Such was the teaching of the Epistle to the Hebrews.

He’bron

(alliance).

1. The third son of Kohath, who was the second son of Levi.

Ex 6:18; Nu 3:19; 1Ch 6:2,18; 23:12

He was the founder of a family of Hebronites,

Nu 3:27; 26:58; 1Ch 26:23,30,31

, or Bene-Hebron.

1Ch 15:9; 23:19

2. A city of Judah,

Jos 15:54

situated among the mountains,

Jos 20:7

20 Roman miles south of Jerusalem, and the same distance north of Beersheba. Hebron is one of the most ancient cities in the world still existing; and in this respect it is the rival of Damascus. It was a well-known town when Abraham entered Canaan, 3800 years ago.

Ge 13:18

Its original name was Kirjath-arba,

Jud 1:10

"the city of Arba;" so called from Arba the father of Anak.

Jos 15:13,14; 21:13

Sarah died at Hebron; and Abraham then bought from Ephron the Hittite the field and cave of Machpelah, to serve as a family tomb

Ge 23:2-20

The cave is still there, and the massive walls of the Haram or mosque, within which it lies, form the most remarkable object in the whole city. Abraham is called by Mohammedans el-Khulil, "the Friend," i.e. of God, and this is the modern name of Hebron. Hebron now contains about 5000 inhabitants, of whom some fifty families are Jews. It is picturesquely situated in a narrow valley, surrounded by rocky hills. The valley runs from north to south; and the main quarter of the town, surmounted by the lofty walls of the venerable Haram, lies partly on the eastern slope.

Ge 37:14

comp. Gene 23:19 About a mile from the town, up the valley, is one of the largest oak trees in Palestine. This, say some, is the very tree beneath which Abraham pitched his tent, and it still bears the name of the patriarch.

3. One of the towns in the territory of Asher,

Jos 19:28

probably Ebdon or Abdom.

He’bronites, The.

A family of Kohathite Levites, descendants of Hebron the son of Kohath.

Nu 3:27; 26:58; 1Ch 26:23

Hedge.

The Hebrew words thus rendered denote simply that which surrounds or encloses, whether it be a stone wall, geder,

Pr 24:31; Eze 42:10

or a fence of other materials. The stone walls which surround the sheepfolds of modern Palestine are frequently crowned with sharp thorns.

Hega’i

(eunuch), one of the eunuchs of the court of Ahasuerus.

Es 2:8,15

(B.C. 474.)

He’ge,

another form of the preceding

Es 2:3

Heifer.

1Sa 6:7-12; Job 21:10; Isa 7:21

The heifer or young cow was not commonly used for ploughing, but only for treading out the corn.

Ho 10:11

but see Judg 14:18 when it ran about without any headstall,

De 26:4

hence the expression an "unbroken heifer,"

Ho 4:16

Authorized Version "backsliding" to which Israel is compared.

Heir.

The Hebrew institutions relative to inheritance were of a very simple character. Under the patriarchal system the property was divided among the sons of the legitimate wives,

Ge 21:10; 24:36; 25:5

a larger portion being assigned to one, generally the eldest, on whom devolved the duty of maintaining the females of the family. The sons of concubines were portioned off with presents.

Ge 25:6

At a later period the exclusion of the sons of concubines was rigidly enforced.

Jud 11:1

ff. Daughters had no share in the patrimony,

Ge 21:14

but received a marriage portion. The Mosaic law regulated the succession to real property thus: it has to be divided among the sons, the eldest receiving a double portion,

De 21:17

the others equal shares; if there were no sons, it went to the daughters,

Nu 27:8

on the condition that they did not marry out of their own tribe,

Nu 36:6

ff.; otherwise the patrimony was forfeited. If there were no daughters it went to the brother of the deceased; if no brother, to the paternal uncle; and, failing these to the next of kin.

Nu 27:9-11

He’lah

(rust), one of the two wives of Ashur, father of Tekoa.

1Ch 4:5

He’lam

(stronghold), a place east of the Jordan but west of the Euphrates at which the Syrians were collected by Hadarezer, and where David met and defeated them.

2Sa 10:16,17

Hel’bah

(fertile), a town of Asher, probably on the plain of Phoenicia not far from Sidon.

Jud 1:31

Hel’bon

(fertile), a place mentioned only in

Eze 27:18

Geographers have hitherto represented Helbon as identical with the city of Aleppo, called Haleb by the Arabs; but there are strong reasons against this, and the ancient city must be identified with a village within a few miles of Damascus still bearing the ancient name Helbon, and still celebrated as producing the finest grapes in the country.

Hel’da-i

(worldly).

1. The twelfth captain of the monthly courses for the temple service.

1Ch 27:15

(B.C. 1014.)

2. An Israelite who seems to have returned from the captivity.

Zec 6:10

(B.C. 520.)

He’leb

(milk), or He’led (transient) son of Baanah the Netophathite, one of the heroes of King David’s guard.

2Sa 23:29; 1Ch 11:30

He’lek

(portion), one of the descendants of Manasseh, and second son of Gilead,

Nu 26:30

and founder of the Helekites. (B.C. 1445.)

He’lem

(strength).

1. A descendant of Asher.

1Ch 7:35

2. A man mentioned only in

Zec 6:14

Apparently the same as Heldai.

He’leph

(exchange), the place from which the boundary of the tribe of Naphtali started.

Jos 19:33

He’lez

(strength).

1. One of "the thirty" of David’s guard,

2Sa 23:26; 1Ch 11:27

an Ephraimite, and captain of the seventh monthly course.

1Ch 27:10

(B.C. 1016.)

2. A man of Judah, son of Azariah.

1Ch 2:39

He’li

(ascending), the father of Joseph the husband of the Virgin Mary,

Lu 13:23

perhaps the grandfather of Mary herself. [See GENEALOGY OF JESUS CHRIST]

GENEALOGY - See 6642

Heliop’olis.

[See ON]

ON - See 8259

Hel’hath

(portion), the town named as the starting-point for the boundary of the tribe of Asher,

Jos 19:25

and allotted with its "suburbs" to the Gershonite Levites. ch.

Jos 21:31

Perhaps Yerka, seven miles from Acre.

Hel’kath-haz’zurim

(field of rock), a smooth piece of ground, apparently close to the pool of Gibeon, where the combat took place between the two parties of Joab’s men and Abner’s men which ended in the death of the whole of the combatants, and brought on a general battle.

2Sa 2:16

Hell.

In the Old Testament this is the word generally and unfortunately used by our translators to render the Hebrew Sheol. It really means the place of the dead, the unseen world, without deciding whether it be the place of misery or of happiness. It is clear that in many passages of the Old Testament Sheol can only mean "the grave," and is rendered in the Authorized Version; see, for example,

Ge 37:35; 42:38; 1Sa 2:6; Job 14:13

In other passages, however, it seems to Involve a notion of punishment, and is therefore rendered in the Authorized Version by the word "hell." But in many cases this translation misleads the reader. In the New Testament "hell" is the translation of two words, Hades and Gehenna. The word Hades, like Sheol sometimes means merely "the grave,"

Ac 2:31; 1Co 15:55, Re 20:13

or in general "the unseen world." It is in this sense that the creeds say of our Lord, "He went down into hell," meaning the state of the dead in general, without any restriction of happiness or misery. Elsewhere in the New Testament Hades is used of a place of torment,

Mt 11:23; Lu 16:23; 2Pe 2:4

etc.; consequently it has been the prevalent, almost the universal, notion that Hades is an intermediate state between death and resurrection, divided into two parts one the abode of the blest and the other of the lost. It is used eleven times in the New Testament, and only once translated "grave."

1Co 15:55

The word most frequently used (occurring twelve times) in the New Testament for the place of future punishment is Gehenna or Gehenna of fire. This was originally the valley of Hinnom, south of Jerusalem, where the filth and dead animals of the city were cast out and burned; a fit symbol of the wicked and their destruction. [See HINNOM]

HINNOM - See 6995

Hel’lenist

(Grecian), the term applied in the New Testament to Greek-speaking or "Grecian" Jews. The Hellenists as a body included not only the proselytes of Greek (or foreign) parentage, but also those. Jews who, by settling in foreign countries, had adopted the prevalent form of the current Greek civilization, and with it the use of the common Greek dialect.

Ac 6:1; 9:29

Helmet.

[ARMS]

ARMS - See 5412

He’lon

(strong), father of Eliab, of the tribe of Zebulun.

Nu 1:9; 2:7; 7:24,29; 10:16

(B.C. 1491.)

Hem of garment.

The importance which the later Jews, especially the Pharisees,

Mt 23:5

attached to the hem or fringe of their garments was founded upon the regulation in

Nu 15:38,39

which gave a symbolical meaning to it. [See DRESS]

DRESS - See 6233

He’mam

(exterminating). Hori and Hemam were sons of Lotan, the eldest son of Seir.

Ge 36:22

He’man

(faithful)

1. Son of Zerah.

1Ch 2:6; 1Ki 4:31

2. Son of Joel and grandson of Samuel the prophet, a Kohathite. He is called "the singer," rather the musician,

1Ch 6:33

and was the first of the three Levites to whom was committed the vocal and instrumental music of the temple service in the reign of David.

1Ch 15:16-22

The 88th Psalm is ascribed to him. (B.C. 1014.)

He’math

(heat), a person or place named in the genealogical lists of Judah, as the origin of the Kenites, and the "father" of the house of Rechab.

1Ch 2:55

(B.C. 1445.)

Hem’dan

(pleasant), the eldest son of Dishon, son of Anah the Horite.

Ge 36:26

[AMRAM, 2] (B.C. about 1500.)

AMRAM - See 5287

Hemlock,

the common ground or dwarf hemlock, a bitter, poisonous plant. The Hebrew rosh is rendered "hemlock" in two passages,

Ho 10:4; Am 6:12

but elsewhere "gall." [GALL] (It is possible that the plant is rather the poppy than an hemlock. —Cook.)

GALL - See 6593

Hen

(rest), probably a son of Zephaniah, and apparently the same who is called JOSIAH in

JOSIAH - See 7495

Zec 6:10

Hen.

The hen is nowhere noticed in the Bible except in

Mt 23:37; Lu 13:34

That a bird so common in Palestine should receive such slight notice is certainly peculiar.

He’na

(troubling), a city the Assyrian kings had reduced shortly before the time of Sennacherib.

2Ki 19:13; Isa 37:13

At no great distance from Sippara (now Mosaib) is an ancient town called And or Anah, which may be the same as Hena. It is 20 miles from Babylon on the Euphrates.

Hen’adad

(grace of Hadad), the head of a family of the Levites who took a prominent part in the rebuilding of the temple.

Ezr 3:9

He’noch.

1. Enoch, 2.

1Ch 1:3

2. Hanoch, 1.

1Ch 1:33

He’pher

(a well).

1. The youngest of the sons of Gilead,

Nu 26:32

and head of the family of the Hepherites. (B.C. before 1450.)

2. Son of Ashur, the "father of Tekoa."

1Ch 4:6

(B.C. about 1445.)

3. The Mecherathite, one of the heroes of David’s guard.

1Ch 11:36

(B.C. 1046.)

He’pher

a place in ancient Canaan which occurs in the lists of conquered kings.

Jos 12:17

It was on the west of Jordan. Comp.

Jos 12:7

and 1Kin 4:10

Hepherites, The,

the family of Hepher the son of Gilead.

Nu 26:32

Heph’zi-bah.

1. A name signifying "my delight in her," which is to be borne by the restored Jerusalem.

Isa 62:4

2. The queen of King Hezekiah and the mother of Manasseh.

2Ki 21:1

(B.C. 709-696.)

Herald,

one who makes public proclamation. The only notice of this officer in the Old Testament occurs in

Da 3:4

The term "herald" might be substituted for "preacher" in

1Ti 2:7; 2Ti 1:11; 2Pe 2:5

Herd

(a collection of cattle), Herdsmen. The herd was greatly regarded in both the patriarchal and the Mosaic period. The ox was the most precious stock next to horse and mule. The herd yielded the most esteemed sacrifice,

Nu 7:3; Ps 69:31; Isa 66:3

also flesh meat, and milk, chiefly converted probably, into butter and cheese.

De 32:14; 2Sa 17:29

The agricultural and general usefulness of the ox in ploughing, threshing, and as a beast of burden,

1Ch 12:40; Isa 46:1

made a slaughtering of him seem wasteful. Herdsmen, etc., in Egypt were a low, perhaps the lowest, caste; but of the abundance of cattle in Egypt, and of the care there bestowed on them, there is no doubt.

Ge 47:6,17; Ex 9:4,20

So the plague of hail was sent to smite especially the cattle,

Ps 78:48

the firstborn of which also were smitten.

Ex 12:29

The Israelites departing stipulated for,

Ex 10:26

and took "much cattle" with them. ch.

Ex 12:38

Cattle formed thus one of the traditions of the Israelitish nation in its greatest period, and became almost a part of that greatness. The occupation of herdsman was honorable in early times.

Ge 47:6; 1Sa 11:5, 1Ch 27:29; 28:1

Saul himself resumed it in the interval of his cares as king, also Doeg was certainly high in his confidence

1Sa 21:7

Pharaoh made some of Joseph’s brethren "rulers over his cattle." David’s herd-masters were among his chief officers of state. The prophet Amos at first followed this occupation.

He’res

(the sun),

Jud 1:35

a city of Dan, in Mount Ephraim, near Ajalon; possibly identical with Mount Jearim (Ir-shemesh, city of the gun).

He’resh

(artificer), a Levite attached to the tabernacle

1Ch 9:15

(B.C. 536.)

Her’mas

(Mercury), the name of a Christian resident at Rome to whom St. Paul sends greetings in his Epistle to the Romans.

Ro 16:14

(A.D. 55.) Irenaeus, Tertullian and Origen agree in attributing to him the work called The shepherd. It was never received into the canon, but yet was generally cited with respect only second to that which was paid to the authoritative books of the New Testament.

Her’mes

(Mercury), a Christian mentioned in

Ro 16:14

According to tradition he was one of the seventy disciples, and afterward bishop of Dalmatia. (A.D. 55.)

Hermog’enes,

a person mentioned by St. Paul in the latest of all his epistles,

2Ti 1:15

when all in Asia had turned away from him. (A.D. 64.)

Her’mon

(a peak, summit), a mountain on the northeastern border of Palestine,

De 3:8; Jos 12:1

over against Lebanon,

Jos 11:17

adjoining the plateau of Bashan.

1Ch 5:23

It stands at the southern end, and is the culminating point of the anti-Libanus range; it towers high above the ancient border city of Dan and the fountains of the Jordan, and is the most conspicuous and beautiful mountain in Palestine or Assyria. At the present day it is called Jebel esh-Sheikh, "the chief mountain," and Jebel eth-Thelj, "snowy mountain." When the whole country is parched with the summer sun, white lines of snow streak the head of Hermon. This mountain was the great landmark of the Israelites. It was associated with their northern border almost as intimately as the sea was with the western. Hermon has three summits, situated like the angles of a triangle, and about a quarter of a mile from each other. In two passages of Scripture this mountain is called Baal-hermon,

Jud 3:3; 1Ch 5:23

possibly because Baal was there worshipped. (It is more than probable that some part of Hermon was the scene of the transfiguration, as it stands near Caesarea Philippi, where we know Christ was just before that event —ED.) The height of Hermon has never been measured, though it has often been estimated. It may safely be reckoned at 10,000 feet.

Her’monites, The.

Properly "the Hermons," with reference to the three summits of Mount Hermon.

Ps 42:6

( Psal 42:7 ).

Her’od

(hero-like). This family though of Idumean origin and thus alien by race, was Jewish in faith. I. HEROD THE GREAT was the second son of Antipater, an Idumean, who was appointed procurator of Judea by Julius Caesar, B.C. 47. Immediately after his father’s elevation when only fifteen years old, he received the government of Galilee and shortly afterward that of Coele-Syria. Though Josephus says he was 15 years old at this time, it is generally conceded that there must be some mistake, as he lived to be 69 or 70 years old, and died B.C. 4; hence he must have been 25 years old at this time.—ED.) In B.C. 41 he was appointed by Antony tetrarch of Judea. Forced to abandon Judea the following year, he fled to Rome, and received the appointment of king of Judea. In the course of a few years, by the help of the Romans he took Jerusalem (B.C. 37), and completely established his authority throughout his dominions. The terrible acts of bloodshed which Herod perpetrated in his own family were accompanied by others among his subjects equally terrible, from the number who fell victims to them. According to the well-known story) he ordered the nobles whom he had called to him in his last moment to be executed immediately after his decease, that so at least his death might be attended by universal mourning. It was at the time of his fatal illness that he must have caused the slaughter of the infants at Bethlehem.

Mt 2:16-18

He adorned Jerusalem with many splendid monuments of his taste and magnificence. The temple, which he built with scrupulous care, was the greatest of these works. The restoration was begun B.C. 20, and the temple itself was completed in a year and a half. But fresh additions were constantly made in succeeding years, so that it was said that the temple was "built in forty and six years,"

Joh 2:20

the work continued long after Herod’s death. (Herod died of a terrible disease at Jericho, in April, B.C. 4, at the age of 69, after a long reign of 37 years.—ED.) II. HEROD ANTIPAS was the son of Herod the Great by Malthake, a Samaritan. He first married a daughter of Aretas, "king of Arabia Petraea," but afterward Herodias, the wife of his half-brother, Herod Philip. Aretas, indignant at the insult offered to his daughter, found a pretext for invading the territory of Herod, and defeated him with great loss. This defeat, according to the famous passage in Josephus, was attributed by many to the murder of John the Baptist, which had been committed by Antipas shortly before, under the influence of Herodias.

ANTIPAS - See 5328

ANTIPAS - See 5329

Mt 14:4

ff.; Mark 6:17 ff.; Luke 3:19 At a later time the ambition of Herodias proved the cause of her husband’s ruin. She urged him to go to Rome to gain the title of king, cf.

Mr 6:14

but he was opposed at the court of Caligula by the emissaries of Agrippa, and condemned to perpetual banishment at Lugdunum, A.D. 39. Herodias voluntarily shared his punishment, and he died in exile. Pilate took occasion from our Lord’s residence in Galilee to bend him for examination,

Lu 23:6

ff., to Herod Antipas, who came up to Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover. The city of Tiberias, which Antipas founded and named in honor of the emperor, was the most conspicuous monument of his long reign. III. HEROD PHILIP I. (Philip,)

Mr 6:17

was the son of Herod the Great and Mariamne. He married Herodias the sister of Agrippa I by whom he had a daughter, Salome. He was excluded from all share in his father’s possessions in consequence of his mother’s treachery, and lived afterward in a private station. IV. HEROD PHILIP II. was the son of Herod the Great and Cleopatra. He received as his own government Batanea Trachonitis, Auramtis (Gaulanitis), and some parts about Jamnia, with the title of tetrarch. Luke 3:1. He built a new city on the site of Paneas, near the sources of the Jordan, which be called Caesarea Philippi,

Mt 16:13; Mr 8:27

and raised Bethsaida to the rank of a city under the title of Julias and died there A.D. 34. He married Salome, the daughter of Herod Philip I. and Herodias. V. HEROD AGRIPPA I. was the son of Aristobulus and Berenice, and grandson of Herod the Great. He was brought up at Rome, and was thrown into prison by Tiberius, where he remained till the accession of Caligula, who made him king, first of the tetrarchy of Philip and Lysanias; afterward the dominions of Antipas were added, and finally Judea and Samaria. Unlike his predessors, Agrippa was a strict observer of the law, and he sought with success the favor of the Jews. It is probable that it was with this view he put to death James the son of Zebedee, and further imprisoned Peter.

Ac 12:1

ff. But his sudden death interrupted his ambitious projects.

Ac 12:21,23

VI. HEROD AGRIPPA II —was the son of Herod Agrippa I. In A.D. 62 the emperor gave him the tetrarches formerly held by Philip and Lysanias, with the title of king.

Ac 25:13

The relation in which he stood to his sister Berenice,

Ac 25:13

was the cause of grave suspicion. It was before him that Paul was tried.

Ac 26:28

Hero’dians

(from Herod).

Mt 22:15

ff.; Mark 12:13 ff. Canon Cook describes these persons as "that party among the Jews who were supporters of the Herodian family as the last hope of retaining for the Jews a fragment of national government, as distinguished from absolute dependence upon Rome as a province of the empire. Supporters of the family of Herod, who held their dominions by the grant of the Roman emperor, would be in favor of paying tribute to the supreme power.

Mt 22:16

Hero’dias,

daughter of Aristobulus, one of the sons of Mariamne and Herod the Great, and consequently sister of Agrippa I. She first married Herod Philip I.; then she eloped from him to marry Herod Antipas her step-uncle. The head of John the Baptist was granted at the request of Herodias.

Mt 14:8-11; Mr 6:24-28

(A.D. 29.) She accompanied Antipas into exile to Lugdunum

Hero’dion,

a relative of St. Paul, to whom he sends his salutation amongst the Christians of the Roman church.

Ro 16:11

(A.D. 55.)

H’eron,

Le 11:19; De 14:18

a common large, wading, unclean bird. Nearly all of the species known in English ornithology are found in the vicinity of Palestine. Canon Cook and others think the bird intended is the plover (Charadrius aedicnemus), a greedy, thick kneed, high-flying migratory bird, very common in the East, on the banks of rivers and shores of lakes. —ED.

He’sed

(kindness), the son of Hesed or Ben-Chesed, was commissary for Solomon.

1Ki 4:10

(B.C. about 995.)

Hesh’bon

(stronghold), the capital city of Sihon king of the Amorites.

Nu 21:26

It stood on the western border of the high plain —Mishor,

Jos 13:17

—and on the boundary line between the tribes of Reuben and Gad. The ruins of Hesban, 20 miles east of the Jordan, on the parallel of the northern end of the Dead Sea mark the site, as they bear the name; of the ancient Heshbon. There are many cisterns among the ruins. Comp.

So 7:4

Hesh’mon

(rich soil), a place named, with others, as lying in the extreme south of Judah.

Jos 15:27

Hes’ron, Hez’ron

(enclosed), the son of Reuben,

Nu 26:6

and ancestor of the Hezronites. (B.C. about 1700.)

Heth

(terror), the forefather of the nation of the Hittites. In the genealogical tables of

Ge 10:15

and 1Chr 1:13 Heth is a son of Canaan.

Ge 24:3,4; 28:1,2

Heth’lon

(hiding-place), the name of a place on the northern border of Palestine.

Eze 47:15; 48:1

In all probability the "way of Hethlon" is the pass at the northern end of Lebanon, and is thus identical with "the entrance of Hamath" in

Nu 34:8

etc.

Hez’eki

(strong), a Benjamite, one of the Bene-Elpaal, a descendant of Shaaraim.

1Ch 8:17

(B.C. 598.)

Hezeki’ah

(the might of Jehovah).

1. Twelfth king of Judah, son of the apostate Ahaz and Abi or Abijah, ascended the throne at the age of 25, B.C. 726. Hezekiah was one of the three most perfect kings of Judah.

2Ki 18:5

Ecclus. 49:4. His first act was to purge and repair and reopen with splendid sacrifices and perfect ceremonial the temple. He also destroyed a brazen serpent, said to have been the one used by Moses in the miraculous healing of the Israelites,

Nu 21:9

which had become an object of adoration. When the kingdom of Israel had fallen, Hezekiah invited the scattered inhabitants to a peculiar passover, which was continued for the unprecedented period of fourteen days.

2Ch 29:30,31

At the head of a repentant and united people, Hezekiah ventured to assume the aggressive against the Philistines and in a series of victories not only rewon the cities which his father had lost,

2Ch 28:18

but even dispossessed them of their own cities except Gaza,

2Ki 18:8

and Gath. He refused to acknowledge the supremacy of Assyria.

2Ki 18:7

Instant war was imminent and Hezekiah used every available means to strengthen himself.

2Ki 20:20

It was probably at this dangerous crisis in his kingdom that we find him sick and sending for Isaiah, who prophesies death as the result.

2Ki 20:1

Hezekiah’s prayer for longer life is heard. The prophet had hardly left the palace when he was ordered to return and promise the king immediate recovery and fifteen years more of life.

2Ki 20:4

An embassy coming from Babylon ostensibly to compliment Hezekiah on his convalescence, but really to form an alliance between the two powers, is favorably received by the king, who shows them the treasures which he had accumulated. For this Isaiah foretells the punishment that shall befall his house.

2Ki 20:17

The two invasions of Sennacherib occupy the greater part of the scripture records concerning the reign of Hezekiah. The first of these took place in the third year of Sennacherib, B.C. 702, and occupies only three verses.

2Ki 18:13-16

Respecting the commencement of the second invasion we have full details in

2Ki 18:17

seq.; 2Chr 32:9 seq.; Isai 36:1 ... Sennacherib sent against Jerusalem an army under two officers and his cupbearer, the orator Rabshakeh, with a blasphemous and insulting summons to surrender; but Isaiah assures the king he need not fear, promising to disperse the enemy.

2Ki 19:6,7

Accordingly that night "the angel of the Lord went out, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians a hundred fourscore and five thousand." Hezekiah only lived to enjoy for about one year more his well-earned peace and glory. He slept with his fathers after a reign of twenty-nine years, in the 56th year of his age, B.C. 697.

2. Son of Neariah, one of the descendants of the royal family of Judah.

1Ch 3:23

3. The same name, though rendered in the Authorized Version HIZKIAH, is found in

HIZKIAH - See 7001

Zep 1:1

4. Ater of Hezekiah. [ATER]

ATER - See 5493

He’zion

(vision), a king of Aram (Syria), father of Tabrimon and grandfather of Ben-hadad I.

1Ki 15:18

He is probably identical with REZON, the contemporary of Solomon, in

REZON - See 8648

1Ki 11:23

(B.C. before 928.)

He’zir

(Swine).

1. A priest in the time of David, leader of the seventeenth monthly course in the service.

1Ch 24:15

(B.C. 1014.)

2. One of the heads of the people (lay-men) who sealed the solemn covenant with Nehemiah.

Ne 10:20

(B.C. 410.)

Hez’ra-i

(enclosed), one of the thirty heroes of David’s guard.

2Sa 23:35

(B.C. 1046.) In the parallel list,

1Ch 11:37

the name appears as HEZRO.

Hez’ron

(surrounded by a wall).

1. A son of Reuben.

Ge 46:9; Ex 6:14

2. A son of Pharez.

Ge 46:12; Ru 4:18

Hez’ronites

(descendants of Hezron), The.

1. Descendants of Hezron the son of Reuben.

Nu 26:6

2. A branch of the tribe of Judah, descendants of Hezron the son of Pharez.

Nu 26:21

Hid’da-i

(for the rejoicing of Jehovah), one of the thirty-seven heroes of David’s guard.

2Sa 23:30

(B.C. 1046.)

Hid’dekel

(rapid), one of the rivers of Eden, the river which "goeth eastward to Assyria,"

Ge 2:14

and which Daniel calls "the great river,"

Da 10:4

seems to have been rightly identified by the LXX. with the Tigris. Dekel is clearly an equivalent of Digla or Dighath, a name borne by the Tigris in all ages. The name now in use among the inhabitants of Mesopotamia is Dijleh.

Hi’el

(God liveth), a native of Bethel, who rebuilt Jericho in the reign of Ahab,

1Ki 16:34

(B.C. after 915), and in whom was fulfilled the curse pronounced by Joshua,

Jos 6:26

five hundred years before.

Hi-erap’olis

(holy city), a city of Phrygia, situated above the junction of the rivers Lycus and Maeander, near Colossae and Laodicea mentioned only in

Col 4:13

as the seat of a church probably founded by Epaphras.

Higga’ion

(meditation), a word which occurs three times in the book of Psalms —

Ps 9:16; 19:14; 92:3

(margin). The word has two meanings, one of a general character, implying thought; reflection, and another, in

Ps 9:16

and Psal 92:3 of a technical nature, the precise meaning of which cannot at this distance of time be determined. (Canon Cook says that it probably means an interlude giving musical expression to the feelings suggested by the preceding words.—ED.)

High places.

from the earliest times it was the custom among all nations to ere

High priest.

The first distinct separation of Aaron to the office of the priesthood, which previously belonged to the first-born was that recorded

Ex 28:1

... We find from the very first the following characteristic attributes of Aaron and the high priests his successors, as distinguished from the other priests: Aaron alone was anointed,

Le 8:12

whence one of the distinctive epithets of the high priest was "the anointed priest."

Le 4:3,5,16; 21:10

see

Nu 35:25

The anointing of the sons of Aaron, i.e. the common priests seems to have been confined to sprinkling their garments with the anointing oil.

Ex 29:21; 28:41

etc. The high priest had a peculiar dress, which passed to his successor at his death. This dress consisted of eight parts: (a) The breastplate, or, as it is further named, vs.

Ex 28:15,29,30

the breastplate of judgment. The breastplate was originally two spans long and one span broad, but when doubled it was square, the shape in which it was worn. On it were the twelve precious stones, set in four rows, three in a row, thus corresponding to the twelve tribes—each stone having the name of one of the children of Israel engraved upon it. (b) The ephod. This consisted of two parts, of which one covered the back and the other the front, i.e. the breast and upper part of the body. These parts were clasped together on the shoulder with two large onyx stones, each having engraved on it six of the names of the tribes of Israel. They were further united by a "curious girdle" of gold blue purple, scarlet and fine twined linen round the waist. [EPHOD; GIRDLE]

EPHOD - See 6414

GIRDLE - See 6700

(c) The robe of the ephod. This was of inferior material to the ephod itself being all of blue, ver. 31, which implied its being only of "woven work." ch.

Ex 39:22

It was worn immediately under the ephod, and was longer than it. The skirt of this robe had a remarkable trimming of pomegranates in blue, red and crimson, with a bell of gold between each pomegranate alternately. The bells were to give a sound when the high priest went in and came out of the holy place. (d) The mitre or upper turbin, with its gold plate, engraved with "Holiness to the Lord," fastened to it by a ribbon of blue. (e) The broidered coat was a tunic or long skirt of linen with a tessellated or diaper pattern, like the setting of stone. (f) The girdle, also of linen, was wound round the body several times from the breast downward, and the ends hung down to the ankles. (g) The breeches or drawers, of linen, covered the loins and thighs; and (h) The bonnet was a turban of linen, partially covering the head, but not in the form of a cone like that of the high priest when the mitre was added to it. These last four were common to all priests. The high priest alone was permitted to enter the holy of holies, which he did once a year, on the great day of atonement, when he sprinkled the blood of the sin offering on the mercy seat, and burnt incense within the veil

Le 16:1

... The manslayer might not leave the city of refuge during the lifetime of the existing high priest. It was also forbidden to the high priest to follow a funeral, or rend his clothes for the dead. It does not appear by whose authority the high priests were appointed to their office before there were kings of Israel. After this the office seems to have been used for political rather than religious purposes. Though at first chosen for life, we find that Solomon deposed Abiathar,

1Ki 2:35

and that Herod appointed a number of high priests, which may account for there being at least two living in Christ’s time, Annas and Caiaphas.

Lu 3:2

The usual are for entering upon the functions of the priesthood, according to

2Ch 31:17

is considered to have been 20 years, though a priest or high priest was not actually incapacitated if he had attained to puberty. Again, according to

Le 21:17-21

no one that had a blemish could officiate at the altar. The theological view of the high priesthood does not fall within the scope of this work. It must suffice therefore to indicate that such a view would embrace the consideration of the office, dress, functions and ministrations of the high priest considered as typical of the priesthood of our Lord Jesus Christ, and as setting forth under shadows the truths which are openly taught under the gospel. This had been done to a great extent in the Epistle to the Hebrews. It would also embrace all the moral and spiritual teaching supposed to be intended by such symbols.

Highways.

Though during the sway of the Romans over Palestine they made a few substantial roads for their carts and chariots, yet for the most of the time, as today, the Jews had nothing such as we call roads, but only footpaths through which animals walk in single file. These are never cared for, no repairs are made or obstacles removed. This fact brings into striking prominence the figure of repairing a highway for the return Of the captives, or the coming of the great King. On special occasions kings had roads prepared for the progress of their armies, or their own going from place to place. —ED.

Hi’len

(place of caves), the name of city of Judah allotted with its suburbs to the priests.

1Ch 6:58

Hilki’ah

(God is my portion)

1. Father of Eliakim.

2Ki 18:37; Isa 22:20; 36:22

[ELIAKIM]

ELIAKIM - See 6309

2. High priest in the reign of Josiah.

2Ki 22:4

seq. 2Chr 34:9 seq.; 1 Esd. 1:8. (B.C. 623.) His high priesthood was rendered particularly illustrious by the great reformation effected under it by King Josiah, by the solemn Passover kept at Jerusalem in the 18th year of that king’s reign, and above all by the discovery which he made of the book of the law of Moses in the temple.

3. A Merarite Levite, son of Amzi

1Ch 6:45

hebr. 30.

4. Another Merarite Levite, second son of Hosah.

1Ch 26:11

5. One of those who stood on the right hand of Ezra when he read the law to the people; doubtless a Levite, and probably a priest.

Ne 8:4

(B.C 410.)

6. A priest of Anathoth, father of the prophet Jeremiah.

Jer 1:1

(B.C. before 628.)

7. Father of Gemariah, who was one of Zedekiah’s envoys to Babylon.

Jer 29:3

(B.C. long before 587.)

Hil’lel

(praise), a native of Pirathon in Mount Ephraim, father of Abdon, one of the judges of Israel.

Jud 12:13,15

Hills.

From the Hebrew Gibeah, meaning a curved round hill. But our translators have also employed the same English word for the very different term har, which has a much more extended sense than gibeah, meaning a whole district. For instance, in

Ex 24:4

the "hill" is the same which is elsewhere in the same chapter, vs.

Ex 24:12,13,18

etc., and book consistently and accurately rendered "mount" and "mountain." The "country of the hills," in

De 1:7; Jos 9:1; 10:40; 11:16

is the elevated district of Judah, Benjamin and Ephraim, which is correctly called "the mountain" in the earliest descriptions of Palestine,

Nu 13:29

and in many subsequent passages.

Hin.

[WEIGHTS AND MEASURES]

WEIGHTS - See 9455

MEASURES - See 7886

Hind,

the female of the common stag or Cervus elaphus. It is frequently noticed in the poetical parts of Scripture as emblematic of activity,

Ge 49:21; Ps 18:33

gentleness,

Pr 5:19

feminine modesty,

So 2:7; 3:5

earnest longing,

Ps 42:1

and maternal affection.

Jer 14:5

Its shyness and remoteness from the haunts of men are also alluded to,

Job 39:1

and its timidity, causing it to cast its young at the sound of thunder.

Ps 29:9

Hinge.

Both ancient Egyptian and modern Oriental doors were and are hung by means of pivots turning in sockets on both the upper and lower sides.

1Ki 7:50

In Syria, and especially the Hauran, there are many ancient doors consisting of stone slabs with pivots carved out of the same piece, inserted in sockets above and below, and fixed during the building of the house. The allusion in

Pr 26:14

is thus clearly explained.

Hin’nom

(lamentation), Valley of, otherwise called "the valley of the son" or "children of Hinnom," a deep and narrow ravine, with steep, rocky sides, to the south and west of Jerusalem, separating Mount Zion to the north from the "hill of evil counsel," and the sloping rocky plateau of the "plain of Rephaim" to the south. The earliest mention of the valley of Hinnom is in

Jos 15:8; 18:16

where the boundary line between the tribes of Judah and Benjamin is described as passing along the bed of the ravine. On the southern brow, overlooking the valley at its eastern extremity Solomon erected high places for Molech,

1Ki 11:7

whose horrid rites were revived from time to time in the same vicinity the later idolatrous kings. Ahaz and Manasseh made their children "pass through the fire" in this valley,

2Ki 16:3; 2Ch 28:3; 33:6

and the fiendish custom of infant sacrifice to the fire-gods seems to have been kept up in Tophet, which was another name for this place. To put an end to these abominations the place was polluted by Josiah, who renders it ceremonially unclean by spreading over it human bones and other corruptions,

2Ki 23:10,13,14; 2Ch 34:4,5

from which time it appears to have become the common cesspool of the city, into which sewage was conducted, to be carried off by the waters of the Kidron. From its ceremonial defilement, and from the detested and abominable fire of Molech, if not from the supposed ever-burning funeral piles, the later Jews applied the name of this valley —Ge Hinnom, Gehenna (land of Hinnom)—to denote the place of eternal torment. In this sense the word is used by our Lord.

Mt 5:29; 10:28; 23:15; Mr 9:43; Lu 12:5

Hippopotamus.

[BEHEMOTH]

BEHEMOTH - See 5654

Hi’rah

(a noble race), an Adullamite, the friend of Judah.

Ge 38:1,12

and see Gene 38:20

Hi’ram, or Hu’ram

(noble).

1. The king of Tyre who sent workmen and materials to Jerusalem, first,

2Sa 5:11; 1Ch 14:1

to build a palace for David (B.C. 1064), whom he ever loved,

1Ki 5:1

and again, 1Kin 5:10; 7:13; 2Chr 2:16 to build the temple for Solomon, with whom he had a treaty of peace and commerce

1Ki 5:11,12

He admitted Solomon’s ships issuing from Joppa, to a share in the profitable trade of the Mediterranean,

1Ki 10:22

and the Jewish sailors, under the guidance of Tyrians, were taught to bring the gold of India,

1Ki 9:26

to Solomon’s two harbors on the Red Sea.

2. Hiram was the name of a man of mixed race,

1Ki 7:13,40

the principal architect and engineer sent by King Hiram to Solomon.

Hit’tits

(descendans of Heth), The, the nation descended from Cheth (Authorized Version HETH), the second son of Canaan. Abraham bought from the "children of Heth" the field and the cave of Machpelah, belonging to Ephron the Hittite. ‘They were then settled at the town which was afterwards, under its new name of Hebron, to become one of the most famous cities of Palestine, and which then bore the name of Kir-jath-arba.

HETH - See 6971

Ge 23:19; 25:9

When the Israelites entered the promised land, we find the Hittites taking part against the invader, in equal alliance with the other Canaanite tribes.

Jos 9:1; 11:3

etc. Henceforward the notices of the Hittites are very few and faint. We meet with two individuals, both attached to the person of David —

1. "Ahimelech the Hittite,"

1Sa 26:6

2. Uriah the Hittite," one of "the thirty" of David’s body-guard.

2Sa 23:39; 1Ch 11:41

Hi’vites

(villagers), The, descendants —the six in order— of Canaan the son of Ham.

Ge 10:17; 1Ch 1:15

We first encounter the actual people of the Hivites at the time of Jacob’s return to Canaan.

Ge 34:2

We next meet with the Hivites during the conquest of Canaan.

Jos 9:7; 11:19

The main body of the Hivites were at this time living in the northern confines of western Palestine— "under Hermon, in the land of Mizpeh,"

Jos 11:3

—"in Mount Lebanon, from Mount Baal Hermon to the entering in of Hamath."

Jud 3:3

comp. 2Sam 24:7

Hizki’ah

(might of Jehovah), an ancestor of Zephaniah the prophet.

Zep 1:1

(B.C. before 635.)

Hizkl’jah

(might of Jehovah), one of those. who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah.

Ne 10:17

(B.C. 410.)

Ho’bab

(beloved). This name is found in two places only

Nu 10:29; Jud 4:11

Hobab was brother-in-law to Moses. (B.C. 1530.)

Ho’bah

(hiding-place), the place to which Abraham pursued the kings who had pillaged Sodom.

Ge 14:15

It was situated "to the north of Damascus."

Hod

(splendor), one of the sons of Zophah, among the descendants of Asher.

1Ch 7:37

Hoda’iah

(Praise ye Jehovah), son of the royal line of Judah.

1Ch 3:24

(B.C. about 406.)

Hodavi’ah

(Praise ye Jehovah).

1. A man of Manasseh, one of the heads of the half tribe on the east of Jordan

1Ch 5:24

(B.C. 720.)

2. A man of Benjamin, son of Has-senuah.

1Ch 9:7

3. A Levite, who seems to have given his name to an important family in the tribe.

Ezr 2:40

(B.C. before 536.)

Ho’desh

(new moon), a woman named in the genealogies of Benjamin,

1Ch 8:9

as the wife of Shaharaim.

Hode’vah

(praise ye Jehovah).

Ne 7:43

[HODAVIAH]

HODAVIAH - See 7007

Hodi’ah

(majesty of Jehovah), one of the two wives of Ezra, a man of Judah.

1Ch 4:19

She is doubtless the same person as Jehudijah in ver. 18.

Hodi’jah

(majesty of Jehovah).

1. A Levite in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah.

Ne 8:7

and probably also

Ne 9:5; 10:10

(B.C. 410.)

2. Another Levite at the same time.

Ne 10:13

3. A layman; one of the "heads" of the people at the same time.

Ne 10:18

Hog’lah

(partridge), the third of the five daughters of Zelophehad.

Nu 26:33; 27:1; 36:11; Jos 17:3

(B.C. 1450.)

Ho’ham

(whom Jehovah impels), king of Hebron at the time of the conquest of Canaan.

Jos 10:3

(B.C. 1450.)

Holofer’nes,

or more correctly OLOFERNES, was, according to the book of Judith, a general of Nebuchadnezzar king of the Assyrians., Judith 2:4, who was slain by the Jewish heroine Judith during the siege of Bethulia. (B.C. 350.)

Ho’lon

(sandy).

1. A town in the mountains of Judah. One of the first group, of which Debir was apparently the most considerable.

Jos 15:51; 21:15

[HILEN]

HILEN - See 6988

2. A city of Moab.

Jer 48:21

only. No identification of it has yet taken place.

Ho’mam

(destruction), the form under which, in

1Ch 1:39

an Edomite name appears which in

Ge 36:22

is given HEMAM.

HEMAM - See 6939

Homer

[WEIGHTS AND MEASURES]

WEIGHTS - See 9455

MEASURES - See 7886

Honey.

The Hebrew debash in the first place applied to the product of the bee, to which exclusively we give the name of honey. All travellers agree in describing Palestine as a land "flowing with milk and honey,"

Ex 3:8

bees being abundant even in the remote parts of the wilderness, where they deposit their honey in the crevices of rocks or in hollow trees. In some parts of northern Arabia the hills are so well stocked with bees that no sooner are hives placed than they are occupied. In the second place the term debash applies to a decoction of the juice of the grape, which is still called dibs, and which forms an article of commerce in the East, it was this, and not ordinary bee-honey, which Jacob sent to Joseph,

Ge 43:11

and which the Tyrians purchased from Palestine.

Eze 27:17

A third kind has been described by some writers as a "vegetable" honey, by which is meant the exudations of certain trees and shrubs, such as the Tamarix mannifera, found in the peninsula of Sinai, or the stunted oaks of Luristan and Mesopotamia . The honey which Jonathan ate in the wood,

1Sa 14:25

and the "wild honey" which supported John the Baptist,

Mt 3:42

have been referred to this species. But it was probably the honey of wild bees.

Hook, Hooks.

Various kinds of hooks are noticed in the Bible, of which the following are the most important:

1. Fishing hooks.

Job 41:2; Isa 19:8

; Habb 1:15

2. A ring, such as in our country is placed through the nose of a bull, and similarly used in the East for leading about lions —

Eze 19:4

where the Authorized Version has "with chains —camels and other animals. Called "thorn" in

Job 41:2

A similar method was adopted for leading prisoners.

2Ch 33:11

3. The hooks of the pillars of the tabernacle.

Ex 26:32,37; 27:10

ff.; Exod 38:13 ff.

4. A vinedressers pruning-hook.

Isa 2:4; 18:5; Mic 4:3; Joe 3:10

5. A flesh-hook for getting up the joints of meat out of the boiling-pot.

Ex 27:3; 1Sa 2:13,14

6. Probably "hooks" used for the purpose of hanging up animals to flay them.

Eze 40:43

Hoph’ni

(pugilist) and PHINEHAS (brazen mouth), the two sons of Eli, who fulfilled their hereditary sacerdotal duties at Shiloh. Their brutal rapacity and lust,

PHINEHAS - See 8429

1Sa 2:12-17,22

filled the people with disgust and indignation, and provoked the curse which was denounced against their father’s house, first by an unknown prophet,

1Sa 2:27-36

and then by Samuel. ch.

1Sa 3:11-14

They were both cut off in one day in the flower of their age, and the ark which they had accompanied to battle against the Philistines was lost on the same occasion.

1Sa 4:10,11

(B.C. 1130.)

Hor

(mountain), Mount.

1. The mountain on which Aaron died.

Nu 20:25,27

It was "on the boundary line,"

Nu 20:23

or "at the edge," ch.

Nu 33:37

of the land of Edom. It was the halting-place of the people next after Kadesh, ch.

Nu 20:22; 33:37

and they quitted it for Zalmonah, ch.

Nu 33:41

in the road to the Red Sea. ch.

Nu 21:4

It was during the encampment at Kadesh that Aaron was gathered to his fathers. Mount Hor is situated on the eastern side of the great valley of the Arabah, the highest and most conspicuous of the whole range of the sandstone mountains of Edom, having close beneath it on its: eastern side the mysterious; city of Petra. It is now the Jebel Nebi-Harim "the mountain of the prophet Aaron." Its height is 4800 feet above the Mediterranean; that is to say, about 1700 feet above the town of Petra, 4800 above the level of the Arabah, and more than 6000 above the Dead Sea. The mountain is marked far and near by its double top, which rises like a huge castellated building from a lower base, and is surmounted by a circular dome of the tomb of Aaron, a distinct white spot on the dark red surface of the mountain. The chief interest of Mount Hor consists in the prospect from its summit, the last view of Aaron —that view which was to him what Pisgah was to his brother.

2. A mountain, entirely distinct from the preceding, named in

Nu 34:7,8

only, as one of the marks of the northern boundary of the land which the children of Israel were about to conquer. This Mount Hor is the great chain of Lebanon itself.

Ho’ram

(mountainous), king of Gezer at the time of the conquest of the southwestern part of Palestine.

Jos 10:33

Ho’reb

(desert). [SINAI]

SINAI - See 9064

Ho’rem

(sacred), one of the fortified places in the territory of Naphtali; named with Iron and Migdalel.

Jos 19:38

Van de Velde suggests Hurah as the site of Horem.

Hor-hagid’gad

(conspicous mountain), the name of the desert station where the Israelites encamped,

Nu 33:32

probably the same as Gudgodah.

De 10:7

Ho’ri

(cave-dweller).

1. A Horite, son of Lotan the son of Seir.

Ge 36:22; 1Ch 1:39; Ge 36:30

2. A man of Simeon, father of Shaphat.

Nu 13:5

Ho’rim

and Ho’rites (descendants of Hori), the aboriginal inhabitants of Mount Seir,

Ge 14:6

and probably allied to the Emim and Raphaim. The name Horite appears to have been derived from their habits as "cave-dwellers" Their excavated dwellings are still found in hundreds in the sandstone cliffs and mountains of Edom, and especially in Petra.

Hor’mah

(a place laid waste), or ZEPHATH,

ZEPHATH - See 9562

Jud 1:17

was the chief town of a king of a Canaanitish tribe on the south of Palestine, which was reduced by Joshua, and became a city of the territory of Judah,

Jos 15:30; 1Sa 30:30

but apparently belonged to Simeon.

1Ch 4:30

Horn.

The word "horn" is often used metaphorically to signify strength and honor, because horns are the chief weapons and ornaments of the animals which possess them; hence they are also used as a type of victory. Of strength the horn of the unicorn was the most frequent representative,

De 33:17

etc., but not always; comp.

1Ki 22:11

where probably horns of iron, worn defiantly and symbolically on the head, are intended. Among the Druses upon Mount Lebanon the married women wear silver horns on their heads. In the sense of honor, the word horn stands for the abstract "my horn,"

Job 16:16

"all the horn of Israel,"

1Sa 2:3

and so for the supreme authority. It also stands for the concrete, whence it comes to mean king, kingdom.

Da 8:2

etc.; Zech 1:18 Out of either or both of these last two metaphors sprang the idea of representing gods with horns.

Hornet.

The hornet bears a general resemblance to the common wasp, only it is larger. It is exceedingly fierce and voracious, especially in hot climates and its sting is frequently dangerous. In Scripture the hornet is referred to only by the means which Jehovah employed for the extirpation of the Canaanites.

Ex 23:28; De 7:20; Jos 24:12

Wisd. 12:8. (It is said that the Phaselitae, a Phoenician people, were driven from their locality by hornets; and other examples are given in Paxton’s "Illustrations of Scripture," 1:303.—ED.)

Horona’im

(two caverns), a town of Moab, possibly a sanctuary, named with Zoar and Luhith.

Isa 15:5; Jer 48:3,5,34

Hor’onite

(native of Horonaim), The, the designation of Sanballat.

Ne 2:10,19; 13:28

It is derived by Gesenius from Horonaim.

Horse.

The most striking feature in the biblical notices of the horse is the exclusive application of it to warlike operations; in no instance is that useful animal employed for the purposes of ordinary locomotion or agriculture, if we except

Isa 28:28

The animated description of the horse in

Job 39:19-25

applies solely to the war-horse. The Hebrews in the patriarchal age, as a pastoral race, did not stand in need of the services Of the horse, and for a long period after their settlement in Canaan they dispensed with it, partly in consequence of the hilly nature of the country, which only admitted of the use of chariots in certain localities,

Jud 1:19

and partly in consequence to the prohibition in

De 17:16

which would be held to apply at all periods. David first established a force of cavalry and chariots,

2Sa 8:4

but the great supply of horses was subsequently effected by Solomon through his connection with Egypt.

1Ki 4:26

Solomon also established a very active trade in horses, which were brought by dealers out of Egypt and resold, at a profit, to the Hittites. With regard to the trappings and management of the horse we have little information. The bridle was placed over the horse’s nose,

Isa 30:28

and a bit or curb is also mentioned.

2Ki 19:28; Ps 32:9; Pr 26:3; Isa 37:29

In the Authorized Version it is incorrectly given "bridle," with the exception of

Ps 32:1

... Saddles were not used until a late period. The horses were not shod, and therefore hoofs are hard "as flint,"

Isa 5:28

were regarded as a great merit. The chariot-horses were covered with embroidered trappings

Eze 27:20

Horses and chariots were used also in idolatrous processions, as noticed in regard to the sun.

2Ki 23:11

Horse-leech,

Heb. ’alukah, occurs once only, viz.

Pr 30:16

There is little doubt that ’alukah denotes some species of leech, or rather is the generic term for any blood-sucking annelid.

Ho’sah

(refuge), a city of Asher,

Jos 19:29

The next landmark on the boundary to Tyre.

Ho’sah,

a Merarite Levite, chosen by David to be one of the first doorkeepers to the ark after its arrival in Jerusalem.

1Ch 16:38

(B.C. 1014.)

Hosanna

(save now). "Save, we pray!" the cry of the multitudes as they thronged in our Lord’s triumphal procession into Jerusalem.

Mt 21:9,15; Mr 11:9,10; Joh 12:13

The Psalm from which it was taken, the 118th, was one with which they were familiar from being accustomed to recite the 25th and 26th verses at the feast of tabernacles, forming a part of the great hallel. Ps. 113-118.

Hose’a

(salvation), son of Beeri, and first of the minor prophets. Probably the life, or rather the prophetic career, of Hosea extended from B.C. 784 to 723, a period of fifty-nine years. The prophecies of Hosea were delivered in the kingdom of Israel. Jeroboam II was on the throne, and Israel was at the height of its earthly splendor. Nothing is known of the prophet’s life excepting what may be gained from his book.

Hose’a, Prophecies of,

This book consists of fourteen chapters. It is easy to recognize two great divisions in the book: (1) ch. 1 to 3; (2) ch. 4 to end. The subdivision of these several parts is a work of greater difficulty—

1. The first division should probably be subdivided into three separate poems, each originating in a distinct aim, and each after its own fashion attempting to express the idolatry of Israel by imagery borrowed from the matrimonial relation.

2. Attempts have been made to subdivide the second part of the book. These divisions are made either according to reigns of contemporary kings or according to the subject-matter of the poem. The prophecies were probably collected by Hosea himself toward the end of his career. Of his style Eichhorn says, "His discourse is like a garland woven of a multiplicity of flowers; images are woven upon images, metaphor strung upon metaphor. Like a bee he flies from one flower-bed to another, that he may suck his honey from the most varied pieces....Often he is prone to approach to allegory; often he sinks down in obscurity."

Hoshai’ah

(whom Jehovah aids).

1. A man who assisted in the dedication of the wall of Jerusalem after it had been rebuilt by Nehemiah.

Ne 12:32

(B.C. 446.).

2. The father of a certain Jezaniah or Azariah, who was a man of note after, the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezsar.

Jer 42:1; 43:2

(B.C. after 588.)

Hosh’ama

(whom Jehovah hears), one of the sons of Jeconiah or Jehoiachin, the last king but one of Judah.

1Ch 3:18

Hoshe’a

(salvation).

1. The nineteenth, last and best king of Israel. He succeeded Pekah, whom he slew in a successful conspiracy, thereby fulfilling a prophecy of Isaiah.

Isa 7:16

In the third year of his reign (B.C. 726) Shalmaneser cruelly stormed the strong caves of Beth-arbel,

Ho 8:14

and made cruel tributary,

2Ki 17:3

for three years. At the end of this period Hoshea entered into a secret alliance with So, king, of Egypt, to throw off the Assyrian yoke. The alliance did him no good; it was revealed, to the court of Nineveh by the Assyrian party in Ephraim, and Hoshea was immediately seized as a rebellious vasal, shut up in prison, and apparently treated with the utmost indignity.

Mic 5:1

Of the subsequent fortunes of Hoshea nothing is known.

2. The son of Nun, i.e. Joshua,

De 32:44

and also in Numb 13:8 though to there the Authorized Version has OSHEA.

OSHEA - See 8283

3. Shon of Azaziah,

1Ch 27:20

like his great namesake, a man of Ephraim, ruler of his tribe in the time of King David. (B.C. 1019.)

4. One of the heads of the people who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah.

Ne 10:23

(B.C. 410.)

Hospitality.

Hospitality was regarded by most nations of the ancient world as one of the chief virtues. The Jewish laws respecting strangers

Le 19:33,34

and the poor,

Le 23:14

seq. Deut 15:7 and concerning redemption

Le 25:23

seq., etc. are framed in accordance with the spirit of hospitality. In the law compassion to strangers is constantly enforced by the words "for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt."

Le 19:34

And before the law, Abraham’s entertainment of the angels,

Ge 18:1

seq., and Lot’s,

Ge 19:1

are in exact agreement with its precepts, and with modern usage. Comp.

Ex 2:20; Jud 13:15; 19:17,20,21

In the New Testament hospitality is yet more markedly enjoined; and in the more civilized state of society which then prevailed, its exercise became more a social virtue than a necessity of patriarchal life. The good Samaritan stands for all ages as an example of Christian hospitality. The neglect of Christ is symbolized by inhospitality to our neighbors.

Mt 25:43

The apostles urged the Church to "follow after hospitality,"

Ro 12:13

cf. 1Tim 5:10 to remember Abraham’s example,

Heb 13:2

to "use hospitality one to another without grudging,"

1Pe 4:9

while a bishop must be a "lover of hospitality

Tit 1:8

cf. 1Tim 3:2 The practice of the early Christians was in accord with these precepts. They had all things in common, and their hospitality was a characteristic of their belief. In the patriarchal ages we may take Abraham’s example as the most fitting, as we have of it the fullest account. "The account," says Mr. Lane, "of Abraham’s entertaining the three angels related in the Bible, presents a perfect picture of the manner in which a modern Bedawee sheikh receives travellers arriving at his encampment." The Oriental respect for the covenant of bread and salt, or salt alone, certainly sprang from the high regard in which hospitality was held.

Ho’tham

(signet ring), a man of Asher, son of Heber, of the family Of Beriah.

1Ch 7:32

(B.C. 1490.)

Ho’than

(signet ring), a man of Aroer, father of Shamu and Jehiel.

1Ch 11:44

(B.C. 1046.)

Ho’thir

(fullness),the thirteenth son of Heman, "the king’s seer,"

1Ch 25:4,28

and therefore a Kohathite Levite. (B.C. 1014.)

Hour.

The ancient Hebrews were probably unacquainted with the division of the natural day into twenty-four parts; but they afterwards parcelled out the period between sunrise and sunset into a series of divisions distinguished by the sun’s course. The early Jews appear to have divided the day into four parts,

Ne 9:3

and the night into three watches,

Jud 7:19

and even in the New Testament we find a trace of this division in

Mt 20:1-5

At what period the Jews first became acquainted with the division of the day into twelve hours is unknown, but it is generally supposed they learned it from the Babylonians during the captivity. It was known to the Egyptians at a very early period. They had twelve hours of the day and of the night. There are two kinds of hours, viz. (1) the astronomical or equinoctial hour, i.e. the 24th part of a civil day, and (2) the natural hour, i.e. the 12th part of the natural day, or of the time between sunrise and sunset. These are the hours meant in the New Testament,

Joh 11:9

etc., and it must be remembered that they perpetually vary in length, so as to be very different at different times of he year. For the purpose of prayer the old division of the day into four portions was continued in the temple service. as we see from

Ac 2:15; 3:1; 10:9

House.

The houses of the rural poor in Egypt, as well as in most parts of Syria, Arabia and Persia, are generally mere huts of mud or sunburnt bricks. In some parts of Palestine and Arabia stone is used, and in certain districts caves in the rocks are used as dwellings.

Am 5:11

The houses are usually of one story only, viz., the ground floor, and often contain only one apartment. Sometimes a small court for the cattle is attached; and in some cases the cattle are housed in the same building, or the live in a raised platform, and, the cattle round them on the ground.

1Sa 28:24

The windows are small apertures high up in the walls, sometimes grated with wood. The roofs are commonly but not always flat, and are usually formed of plaster of mud and straw laid upon boughs or rafters; and upon the flat roofs, tents or "booths" of boughs or rushes are often raised to be used as sleeping-places in summer. The difference between the poorest houses and those of the class next above them is greater than between these and the houses of the first rank. The prevailing plan of eastern houses of this class presents, as was the case in ancient Egypt, a front of wall, whose blank and mean appearance is usually relieved only by the door and a few latticed and projecting windows. Within this is a court or courts with apartments opening into them. Over the door is a projecting window with a lattice more or less elaborately wrought, which, except in times of public celebrations is usually closed.

2Ki 9:30

An awning is sometimes drawn over the court, and the floor is strewed with carpets on festive occasions. The stairs to the upper apartments are in Syria usually in a corner of the court. Around part, if not the whole, of the court is a veranda, often nine or ten feet deep, over which, when there is more than one floor, runs a second gallery of like depth, with a balustrade. When there is no second floor, but more than one court, the women’s apartments —hareems, harem or haram —are usually in the second court; otherwise they form a separate building within the general enclosure, or are above on the first floor. When there is an upper story, the ka’ah forms the most important apartment, and thus probably answers to the "upper room," which was often the guest-chamber.

Lu 22:12; Ac 1:13; 9:37; 20:8

The windows of the upper rooms often project one or two feet, and form a kiosk or latticed chamber. Such may have been "the chamber in the wall."

2Ki 4:10,11

The "lattice," through which Ahasiah fell, perhaps belonged to an upper chamber of this kind,

2Ki 1:2

as also the "third loft," from which Eutychus fell.

Ac 20:9

comp. Jere 22:13 Paul preached in such a room on account of its superior rise and retired position. The outer circle in an audience in such a room sat upon a dais, or upon cushions elevated so as to be as high as the window-sill. From such a position Eutychus could easily fall. There are usually no special bed-rooms in eastern houses. The outer doors are closed with a wooden lock, but in some cases the apartments are divided from each other by curtains only. There are no chimneys, but fire is made when required with charcoal in a chafing-dish; or a fire of wood might be made in the open court of the house

Lu 22:65

Some houses in Cairo have an apartment open in front to the court with two or more arches and a railing, and a pillar to support the wall above. It was in a chamber of this size to be found in a palace, that our Lord was being arraigned before the high priest at the time when the denial of him by St. Peter took place. He "turned and looked" on Peter as he stood by the fire in the court,

Lu 22:56,61; Joh 18:24

whilst he himself was in the "hall of judgment." In no point do Oriental domestic habits differ more from European than in the use of the roof. Its flat surface is made useful for various household purposes, as drying corn, hanging up linen, and preparing figs and raisins. The roofs are used as places of recreation in the evening, and often as sleeping-places at night.

1Sa 9:25,26; 2Sa 11:2; 16:22; Job 27:18; Pr 21:9; Da

4:29

They were also used as places for devotion and even idolatrous worship.

2Ki 23:12; Jer 19:13; 32:29; Zep 1:6; Ac 10:9

At the time of the feast of tabernacles booths were erected by the Jews on the top of their houses. Protection of the roof by parapets was enjoined by the law.

De 22:8

Special apartments were devoted in larger houses to winter and summer uses.

Jer 36:22; Am 3:15

The ivory house of Ahab was probably a palace largely ornamented with inlaid ivory. The circumstance of Samson’s pulling down the house by means of the pillars may be explained by the fact of the company being assembled on tiers of balconies above each other, supported by central pillars on the basement; when these were pulled down the whole of the upper floors would fall also.

Jud 16:26

Huk’kok

(incised), a place on the boundary of Naphtali.

Jos 19:34

It has been recovered in Yakuk, a village in the mountains of Naphtali west of the upper end of the Sea of Galilee.

Hu’kok,

a name which in

1Ch 6:75

is erroneously used for HELKATH, which see.

Hul

(circle), the second son of Aram, and grandson of Shem.

Ge 10:23

The strongest evidence is in favor of the district about the roots of Lebanon.

Hul’dah

(weasel), a prophetess, whose husband, Shallum, was keeper of the wardrobe in the time of King Josiah. It was to her that Josiah had recourse, when Hilkiah found a book of the law, to procure an authoritative opinion on it.

2Ki 22:14; 2Ch 34:22

(B.C. 623.)

Hum’tah

(place of lizards), a city of Judah one of those in the mountain districts the next to Hebron.

Jos 15:54

Hunting.

Hunting, as a matter of necessity, whether for the exterminatiOn of dangerous beasts or for procuring sustenance betokens a rude and semi-civilized state; as an amusement, it betokens an advanced state. The Hebrews as a pastoral and agricultural people, were not given to the sports of the field; the density of the population, the earnestness of their character, and the tendency of their ritual regulations, particularly those affecting food, all combined to discourage the practice of hunting. The smaller of catching animals was, first, either by digging a pitfall; or, secondly, by a trap which was set under ground,

Job 18:10

in the run of the animal,

Pr 22:5

and caught it by the leg,

Job 18:9

or lastly by the use of the net, of which there were various kinds, as or the gazelle,

Isa 51:20

Authorized Version, "wild bull," and other animals of that class.

Hu’pham

(coast-man), a son of Benjamin, founder of the family of the Huphamites.

Nu 26:39

(B.C. 1688.)

Huphamites, The,

descendants of Hupham, of the tribe of Benjamin.

Nu 26:39

Hup’pah

(protected), a priest in the time of David.

1Ch 24:13

Hup’pim

(protected), head of a Benjamite family

Ge 46:21; 1Ch 7:12

Hur (hole).

1. A man who is mentioned with Moses and Aaron on the occasion of the battle with Amalek at Raphidim,

Ex 17:10

when with Aaron he stayed up the hands of Moses. ver.

Ex 17:12

(B.C. 1491.) He is mentioned again in ch.

Ex 24:14

as being, with Aaron, left in charge of the people by Moses during his ascent of Sinai. The Jewish tradition is that he was the husband of Miriam, and that he was identical with

2. The grandfather of Bezaleel, the chief artificer of the tabernacle.

Ex 31:2; 35:30; 38:22

3. The fourth of the five kings of Midian who were slain with Balaam after the "matter of Peor."

Nu 31:8

(B.C. 1451.) In a later mention of them,

Jos 13:21

they are called princes of Midian and dukes.

4. Father of Rephaiah, who was ruler of half of the environs of Jerusalem, and assisted Nehemiah in the repair of the wall.

Ne 3:9

(B.C. before 446.)

5. The "son of Hur" —Ben-Hur —was commissariat officer for Solomon in Mount Ephraim.

1Ki 4:8

(B.C. 995.)

Hu’ra-i, or Hura’i

(linon-weaver), one of David’s guard —Hurai of the torrents of Gaash, according to the list of

1Ch 11:32

[HIDDAI]

HIDDAI - See 6980

Hu’ram

(noble born).

1. A Benjamite; son of Bela, the first-born of the patriarch.

1Ch 8:5

2. The form in which the name of the king of Tyre in alliance with David and Solomon —and elsewhere given as HIRAM— appears in Chronicles.

HIRAM - See 6998

1Ch 14:1; 2Ch 2:3,11,12; 8:2,18; 9:10,21

3. The same Change occurs in Chronicles in the name of Hiram the artificer, which is given as HURAM in

HURAM - See 6998

2Ch 2:13; 4:11,16

[HIRAM]

HIRAM - See 6998

Hu’ri

(linen-weaver), a Gadite; father of Abihail-

1Ch 5:14

Husband.

[MARRIAGE]

MARRIAGE - See 7847

Hu’shah

(haste), a name which occurs in the genealogies of the tribe of Judah

1Ch 4:4

Hu’sha-i, or Husha’i

(hasting) an Archite i.e. possibly an inhabitant of a place called Erec.

2Sa 15:32

ff.;

2Sa 16:16

ff. He is called the "friend" of David.

2Sa 15:37

comp. 1Chr 27:33 To him David confided the delicate and dangerous part of a pretended adherence to the cause of Absalom. (B.C. about 1023.) He was probably the father of Baana.

1Ki 4:16

Ho’sham

(haste), one of the early kings of Edom. Gene 36:34,36; 1Chr 1:45,46

Hu’shathite

(inhabitant of Hushah), The, the designation of two of the heroes of David’s guard.

1. SIBBECHAI.

SIBBECHAI - See 9035

2Sa 21:18; 1Ch 11:29; 20:4; 27:11

Josephus, however, called him a Hittite.

2. MEBUNNAI,

MEBUNNAI - See 7889

2Sa 23:27

a mere corruption of SIBBECHAI.

SIBBECHAI - See 9035

Hu’shim

(who makes haste).

1. In

Ge 46:23

"the children of Dan" are said to have been Hushim. The name is plural, as if of a tribe rather than an individual. In

Nu 26:42

the name is changed to Shuham.

2. A Benjamite,

1Ch 7:12

and here again apparently the plural nature of the name is recognized, and Hushim are stated to be "the sons of Aher."

3. One of the two wives of Shaharaim.

1Ch 8:8

(B.C. 1450.)

Husks.

This word in

Lu 16:16

describes really the fruit of a particular kind of tree, viz. the carob or Ceratonia siliqua of botanists. It belongs to the locust family. This tree is very commonly met with in Syria and Egypt, it produces pods, shaped like a horn, varying in length from six to ten inches, and about a finger’s breadth, or rather more; it is dark-brown, glossy, filled with seeds and has a sweetish taste. It is used much for food by the poor, and for the feeding of swine.

Huz

(light, sandy soil), the eldest son of Nahor and Milcah.

Ge 22:21

(B.C. about 1900).

Huz’zab

(fixed), according to the general opinion of the Jews, was the queen of Nineveh at the time when Nahum delivered his prophecy.

Na 2:7

(B.C. about 700.) The moderns follow the rendering in the margin of our English Bible —"that which was established." Still it is not improbable that after all Huzzab may really be a proper name. It may mean "the Zab country," or the fertile tract east of the Tigris, watered by the upper and lower Zab rivers.

Hyacinth,

used in the Revised Version for jacinth in

Re 9:17

It is simply another English spelling of the same Greek word.

Hyaena.

Authorities differ as to whether the term tzabu’a in

Jer 12:9

means a "hyaena" or a "speckled bird." The only other instance in which it occurs is as a proper name, Zeboim,

1Sa 13:18

"the valley of hyaenas, "Aquila;

Ne 11:34

The striped hyaena (Hyaena striata) is found in Africa, Asia Minor, Arabia and Persia, and is more common in Palestine than any other carnivorous animals except perhaps the jackal. The hyaena is among the mammals what the vulture is among birds, —the scavenger of the wilderness, the woods and the shore. —It often attacks animals, and Sometimes digs up the dead bodies of men and beasts. From this last habit the hyaena has been regarded as a horrible and mysterious creature. Its teeth are so powerful that they can crack the bones of an ox with ease. —Appelton’s Encyc. The hyaena was common in ancient as in modern Egypt, and is constantly depicted upon monuments; it must therefore have been well known to the Jews.

Hymenae’us

(belonging to marriage), the name of a person occurring twice in the correspondence between St. Paul and Timothy; the first time classed with Alexander,

1Ti 1:20

and the second time classed with Philetus.

2Ti 2:17,18

(A.D. 66-7.) He denied the true doctrine of the resurrection.

Hymn

a religious song or psalm.

Eph 5:19; Col 3:16

Our Lord and his apostles sung a hymn after the last supper. In the jail at Philippi, Paul and Silas "sang hymns" (Authorized Version "praises") unto God, and so loud was their song that their fellow prisoners heard them.

Hyssop.

(Heb. ezob.) The ezob was used for sprinkling in some of the sacrifices and purifications of the Jews. In consequence of its detergent qualities, or from its being associated with the purificatory Services, the psalmist makes use of the expression, "Purge me with ezob."

Ps 51:7

It is described in

1Ki 4:33

as growing on or near walls. (Besides being thus fit for sprinkling, having cleansing properties and growing on walls, the true hyssop should be a plant common to Egypt, Sinai and Palestine, and capable of producing a stick three or four feet long since on a stalk of hyssop the sponge of vinegar was held up to Christ on the cross.

Joh 19:29

it is impossible to precisely identify the plant because the name was given not to a particular plant but to a family of plants associated together by Hyssop, qualities easily noticed rather than by close botanical affinities. Different species of the family may have been used at different times. The hyssop of the Bible is probably one (or all) of three plants:—

1. The common hyssop is "a shrub with low, bushy stalks 1 1/2 feet high, small pear shaped, close-setting opposite leaves all the stalks and branches terminated by erect whorled spikes of flowers of different colors in the varieties. It is a hardy plant, with an aromatic smell and a warm, pungent taste; a native of the south of Europe and the East."—ED.)

2. Bochart decides in favor of marjoram, or some plant like it, and to this conclusion, it must be admitted, all ancient tradition points. (This is the Origanum maru, the z’atar of the Arabs. The French consul at Sidon exhibited to Dr. Thomson ("The Land and the Book," i. 161) a specimen of this "having the fragrance of thyme, with a hot, pungent taste, and long slender stems." Dr. Post of Beirut, in the American edition of Smith’s large Dictionary, favors this view.—ED.)

3. But Dr.Royle, after a careful investigation of the subject, arrives at the conclusion that the hyssop is no other than the caperplant, or Capparis spinosa of Linnaeus. The Arabic name of this plant, asuf, by which it is sometimes though not commonly, described, bears considerable resemblance to the Hebrew. "It is a bright-green creeper, which climbs from the fissures of the rocks, is supposed to possess cleansing properties, and is capable of yielding a stick to which a sponge might be attached." —Stanky, "Sinai and Palestine,"

23. —It produces a fruit the size of a walnut, called the mountain pepper.