(Heb. strong). There is much difficulty in determining the exact meanings of the several varieties of the term mentioned above. Sometimes, evidently, the terebinth or elm is intended and at others the oak. There are a number of varieties of oak in Palestine. (Dr. Robinson contends that the oak is generally intended, and that it is a very common tree in the East. Oaks grow to a large size, reach an old age and are every way worthy the venerable associations connected with the tree. —ED.) Two oaks, Quercus pseudo-coccifera and Q. aegilops, are well worthy of the name of mighty trees; though it is equally true that over a greater part of the country the oaks of Palestine are at present merely bushes.
The principle on which an oath is held to be binding is incidentally laid down in
viz. as an ultimate appeal to divine authority to ratify an assertion. On the same principle, that oath has always been held most binding which appealed to the highest authority, as regards both individuals and communities. As a consequence of this principle, appeals to God’s name on the one hand, and to heathen deities on the other, are treated in scripture as tests of allegiance.
Ex 23:13; 34:6; De 29:12
etc. So also the sovereign’s name is sometimes used as a form of obligation.
Ge 42:15; 2Sa 11:11; 14:19
Other forms of oath, serious or frivolous, are mentioned, some of which are condemned by our Lord.
Mt 6:33; 23:16-22
(There is, however, a world-wide difference between a solemn appeal to God and profane swearing.) The forms of adjuration mentioned in Scripture are —
1. Lifting up the hand. Witnesses laid their hands on the head of the accused.
Ge 14:22; Le 24:14; De 17:7; Isa 3:7
2. Putting the hand under the thigh of the person to whom the Promise was made.
Ge 24:2; 47:29
3. Oaths were sometimes taken before the altar, or, as some understand the passage, if the persons were not in Jerusalem, in a position looking toward the temple.
1Ki 8:31; 2Ch 6:22
4. Dividing a victim and passing between or distributing the pieces.
Ge 15:10,17; Jer 34:18
As the sanctity of oaths was carefully inculcated by the law, so the crime of perjury was strongly condemned; and to a false witness the same punishment was assigned which was due for the crime to which he testified.
Ex 20:7; Le 19:12
(servant of the Lord),
1. A man whose sons are enumerated in the genealogy of the tribe of Judah.
2. A descendant of Issachar and a chief man of his tribe.
3. One of the six sons of Azel, a descendant of Saul.
1Ch 8:33; 9:44
4. A Levite, son of Shemaiah, and descended from Jeduthun.
1Ch 9:16; Ne 12:25
5. The second of the lion-faced Gadites who joined David at Ziklag.
6. One of the Princes of Judah in the reign of Jehoshaphat.
7. The son of Jehiel, of the sons of Joab, who came up in the second caravan with Ezra.
8. A priest, or family of priests, who settled the covenant with Nehemiah.
9. The fourth of the twelve minor prophets. We know nothing of him except what we can gather from the short book which bears his name. The question of his date must depend upon the interpretation of the 11th verse of his prophecy. He there speaks of the conquest of Jerusalem and the captivity of Jacob as having occurred, He probably refers to the captivity by Nebuchadnezzar, B.C. 688. It must have been uttered at some time in the five years which intervened between B.C. 588 and 583. The book of Obadiah is a sustained denunciation of the Edomites, melting into a vision of the future glories of Zion when the arm of the Lord should have wrought her deliverance and have repaid double upon her enemies.
10. An officer of high rank in the court of Ahab.
He was a devout worshipper of Jehovah, and at the peril of his life concealed over a hundred prophets during the persecution by Jezebel;
11. The father of Ishmaiah who was chief of the tribe of Zebulun in David’s reign.
(B.C. before 1014.)
12. A Merarite Levite in the reign of Josiah, and one of the overseers of the workmen in the restoration of the temple.
(stripped bare), son of Joktan, and, like the rest of family, apparently the founder of an Arab tribe.
the name is written EBAL.
1. Son of Boaz and Ruth the Moabitess and father of Jesse.
(B.C. 1360.) The circumstances of his birth which make up all that we know about him are given with much beauty in the book of Ruth. The name of Obed occurs only
and in the four genealogies,
Ru 4:21,22; 1Ch 2:12; Mt 1:5; Lu 3:32
2. A descendant of Jarha, the Egyptian slave of Sheshan, in the line of Jerahmeel.
(B.C. after 1014.)
3. One of David’s mighty men.
4. One of the gate-keepers of the temple; son of Shemaiah the first-born of Obed-edom.
5. Father of Azariah, one of the captains of hundreds who joined with Jehoiada in the revolution by which Athaliah fell.
(B.C. before 876.)
(servant of Edom).
1. A Levite, described as a Gittite,
that is, probably, a native of the Levitical city of Gath-rimmon in Manasseh, which was assigned to the Kohathites.
(B.C. 1045.) After the death of Uzzah, the ark, which was being conducted from the house of Abinadab in Gibeah to the city of David, was carried aside into the house of Obed edom, where it continued three months. It was brought thence by David.
2Sa 6:12; 1Ch 15:25
2. "Obed-edom the son of Jeduthun"
a Merarite Levite, appears to be a different person from the last mentioned. He was a Levite of the second degree and a gate-keeper for the ark,
appointed to sound "with harps on the Sheminith to excel."
1Ch 15:21; 16:5
(chief of the camels), a keeper of the herds of camels in the reign of David.
(bottles), one of the encampments of the Israelites, east of Moab.
Nu 21:10; 33:43
Its exact site is unknown but it was probably south of the Dead Sea, on the boundary between Moab and Edom. —ED).
(troubled), an Asherite, father of Pagiel.
Nu 1:13; 2:27; 7:72,77; 10:26
(B.C. before 1658.)
1. The father of Azariah the prophet, in the reign of Asa.
(B.C. before 953.)
2. A prophet of Jehovah in Samaria, at the time of Pekah’s invasion of Judah.
It is obvious that most, if not all, of the Hebrew words rendered "officer" are either of an indefinite character or are synonymous terms for functionaries known under other and more specific names, as "scribe," "eunuch" etc. The two words so rendered in the New Testament denote —
1. An inferior officer of a court of justice, a messenger or bailiff, like the Roman viator or lictor.
Mt 5:25; Ac 5:22
2. Officers whose duty it was to register and collect fines imposed by courts of justice.
(giant, literally long-necked), an Amoritish king of Bashan, whose rule extended over sixty cities.
He was one of the last representatives of the giant race of Rephaim, and was, with his children and his people, defeated and exterminated by the Israelites at Edrei immediately after the conquest of Sihon.
Nu 32:33; De 3:1-13
De 1:4; 4:47; 31:4; Jos 2:10; 9:10; 13:12,30
The belief in Og’s enormous stature is corroborated by an allusion to his iron bedstead preserved in "Rabbath of the children of Ammon."
Of the numerous substances, animal and vegetable, which were known to the ancients as yielding oil, the olive berry is the one of which most frequent mention is made in the Scriptures.
1. Gathering, —The olive berry was either gathered by hand or shaken off carefully with a light reed or stick.
2. Pressing. —In order to make oil the fruit, was either bruised in a mortar crushed in a press loaded with wood or stones, ground in a mill, or trodden with the feet. The "beaten" oil of
Ex 27:20; 29:40 Le 24:2; Nu 28:6
was probably made by bruising in a mortar, It was used— (1) As food. Dried wheat, boiled with either butter or oil, but generally the former, is a common dish for all classes in Syria.
(2) Cosmetic. Oil was used by the Jews for anointing the body, e.g. after the bath, and giving to the skin and hair a smooth and comely appearance, e.g. before an entertainment. (3) Funereal. The bodies of the dead were anointed with oil.
(4) Medicinal. Isaiah alludes to the use of oil in medical treatment.
see also Mark 6:13; Jame 6:14 (5) For light. The oil for "the light" was expressly ordered to be olive oil, beaten.
(6) Ritual. Oil was poured on or mixed with the flour or meal used in offerings.
Kings, priests and prophets were anointed with oil or ointment. (7) In offerings. As so important a necessary of life, the Jew was required to include oil among his firstfruit offerings.
Ex 22:29; 23:16; Nu 18:12
Tithes of oil were also required.
(Heb. ets shemen). The Hebrew words occur in
(Authorized Version "pine branches"),
("olive tree") and in
("oil tree"). From the passage in Nehemiah, where the ets shemen is mentioned as distinct from the olive tree, if may perhaps be identified with the zackum tree of the Arabs, the Balanites aegyptiaca, a well-known and abundant shrub or small tree in the plain of Jordan. The zackum oil is held in high repute by the Arabs for its medicinal properties. [OLIVE]
(An oily or unctuous substance, usually compounded of oil with various spices and resins and aromatics, and preserved in small alabaster boxes or cruses, in which the delicious aroma was best preserved. Some of the ointments have been known to retain their: fragrance for several hundred years. They were a much-coveted luxury, and often very expensive. —ED.)
1. Cosmetic. —The Greek and Roman practice of anointing the head and clothes on festive occasions prevailed also among the Egyptians, and appears to have had place among the Jews.
2. Funereal. —Ointments as well as oil were used to anoint dead bodies and the clothes in which they were wrapped.
3. Medicinal. —Ointment formed an important feature in ancient medical treatment.
Isa 1:6; Jer 8:22; Joh 9:6; Re 3:18
4. Ritual.—Besides the oil used in many ceremonial observances, a special ointment was appointed to be used in consecration.
Ex 30:23,33; 29:7; 37:29; 40:9,15
A person whose business it was to compound ointments in general was called an "apothecary."
The work was sometimes carried on by woman "confectionaries."
I. TEXT OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. —
1. History of the text. -A history of the text of the Old Testament should properly commence from the date of the completion of the canon. As regards the form in which the sacred writings were little doubt that the text was ordinarily were preserved, there can be written on skins, rolled up into volumes, like the modern synagogue rolls.
Ps 40:7; Jer 36:14; Eze 2:9; Zec 5:1
The original character in which the text was expressed is that still preserved to us, with the exception of four letters, on the Maccabaean coins, and having a strong affinity to the Samaritan character. At what date this was exchanged for the present Aramaic or square character is still as undetermined as it is at what the use of the Aramaic language Palestine superseded that of the Hebrew. The old Jewish tradition, repeated by Origen and Jerome, ascribed the change to Ezra. [WRITING] Of any logical division, in the written text, of the rose of the Old Testament into Pesukim or verses, we find in the Tulmud no mention; and even in the existing synagogue rolls such division is generally ignored. In the poetical books, the Pesukim mentioned in the Talmud correspond to the poetical lines, not to our modern verses. Of the documents which directly bear upon the history of the Hebrew text, the earliest two are the Samaritan copy of the Pentateuch and the Greek translation of the LXX. [SAMARITAN PENTATEUCH; SEPTUAGINT] In the (translations of Aquila and the other Greek interpreters, the fragments of whose works remain to us in the Hexapla, we have evidence of the existence of a text differing but little from our own; so also (in the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan. A few centuries later we have, in the Hexapla, additional evidence to the same effect in Origin’s transcriptions of the Hebrew text. And yet more important are the proofs of the firm establishment of the text, and of its substantial with our own, supplied by the translation of Jerome, who was instructed by the Palestinian Jews, and mainly relied upon their authority for acquaintance not only with the text itself, but also with the traditional unwritten vocalization of brings us to the middle of the Talmudic period. The care of the Talmudic doctors for the text is shown by the pains with which they counted no the number of verses in the different books and computed which were the middle verses, words and letters in the Pentateuch and in the Psalms. The scrupulousness with which the Talmudists noted what they deemed the truer readings, and yet abstained from introducing them into the text, indicates at once both the diligence with which they scrutinized the text and also the care with which even while knowledging its occasional imperfections, they guarded it. Critical procedure is also evinced in a mention of their rejection of manuscripts which were found not to agree with others in their readings; and the rules given with refer once to the transcription and adoption of manuscripts attest the care bestowed upon them. It is evident from the notices of the Talmud that a number of oral traditions had been gradually accumulating respecting both the integrity of particular passages of the text itself and also the manner in which if was to be read. This vast heterogeneous mass of traditions and criticisms, compiled and embodied in writing, forms what is known as the Masorah, i.e. Tradition. From the end of the Masoretic period onward, the Masorah became the great authority by which the text given in all the Jewish MSS. was settled.
SAMARITAN -See 8725
PENTATEUCH -See 8372
SEPTUAGINT -See 8807
2. Manuscripts. —The Old Testament MSS. known to us fall into two main classes: synagogue rolls and MSS. for private use of the latter, some are written in the square, others in the rabbinic or cursive, character. The synagogue rolls contain separate from each other, the Pentateuch, the Haphtaroth or appointed sections of the prophets, and the so-called Megilloth, viz. Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes and Esther. Private MSS. in the square character are in the book form, either on parchment or on paper, and of various sizes, from folio to 12mo. Some contain the Hebrew text alone; others add the Targum, or an Arabic or other translation, either interspersed with the text or in a separate column, occasionally in the margin. The upper and lower margins are generally occupied by the Masorah, sometimes by rabbinical commentaries, etc. The date of a MS. is ordinarily given in the subscription but as the subscriptions are often concealed in the Masorah or elsewhere, it is occasionally difficult to find them: occasionally also it is difficult to decipher them. No satisfactory criteria have been yet established by which the ages of MSS. are to be determined. Few existing MSS. are supposed to be older than the twelfth century. Kennicott and Bruns assigned one of their collation (No. 590) to the tenth century; De Rossi dates if A.D. 1018; on the other hand. one of his own (No. 634) he adjudges to the eighth century. Since the days of Kennicott and De Rossi modern research has discovered various MSS. beyond the limits of Europe. Of many of these there seems no reason to suppose that they will add much to our knowledge of the Hebrew text. It is different with the MSS. examined by Pinner at Odessa. One of these MSS. (A, No. 1), a Pentateuch roll, unpointed, brought from Derbend in Daghestan, appears by the subscription to have been written previous to A.D. 580 and if so is the oldest known biblical Hebrew MS. in existence. The forms of the letters are remarkable. Another MS. (B, No. 3) containing the prophets, on parchment, in small folio, although only dating, according to the inscription, from A.D. 916 and furnished with a Masorah, is a yet greater treasure. Its vowels and accents are wholly different from those now in use, both in form and in position, being all above the letters: they have accordingly been the theme of much discussion among Hebrew scholars.
3. Printed text. —The history of the printed text of the Hebrew Bible commences with the early Jewish editions of the separate books. First appeared the Psalter, in 1477, probably at Bologna, in 4to, with Kimchi’s commentary interspersed among the verses. Only the first four psalms had the vowel-points, and these but clumsily expressed. At Bologna, there subsequently appeared in 1482, the Pentateuch, in folio, pointed, with the Targum and the commentary of Rashi; and the five Megilloth (Ruth—Esther), in folio with the commentaries of Rashi and Aben Ezra. From Soncino, near Cremona, issued in 1486 the Prophetae priores (Joshua—Kings), folio, unpointed with Kimchi’s commentary. The honor of printing the first entire Hebrew Bible belongs to the above-mentioned town of Soncino. The edition is in folio, pointed and accentuated. Nine copies only of it are now known, of which one belongs to Exeter College, Oxford. This was followed, in 1494, by the 4to or 8vo edition printed by Gersom at Brescia, remarkable as being the edition from which Luther’s German translation was made. After the Brescian, the next primary edition was that contained in the Complutensian Polyglot, published at Complutum (Alcala) in Spain, at the expense of Cardinal Ximenes, dated 1514-17 but not issued till 1522. To this succeeded an edition which has had more influence than any on the text of later times the Second Rabbinical Bible, printed by Bomberg al Venice, 4 vols. fol., 1525-6. The editor was the learned Tunisian Jew R. Jacob hen Chaim. The great feature of his work lay in the correction of the text by the precepts of the Masorah, in which he was profoundly skilled, and on which, as well as on the text itself, his labors were employed. The Hebrew Bible which became the standard to subsequent generations was: that of Joseph Athiais, a learned rabbi and printer at Amsterdam. His text Was based on a comparison of the previous editions with two MSS.; one bearing date 1299, the other a Spanish MS. boasting an antiquity of 900 years. It appeared at Amsterdam 2 vols. 8 vo, 1661.
4. Principles of criticism. —The method of procedure required in the criticism of the Old Testament is widely different from that practiced in the criticism of the New Testament. Our Old Testament textus receptus is a far more faithful representation of the genuine Scripture; but, on the other hand, the means of detecting and correcting the errors contained in it are more precarious, the results are more uncertain, and the ratio borne by the value of the diplomatic evidence of MSS. to that of a good critical judgment and sagacity is greatly diminished. It is indeed to the direct testimony of the MSS. that, in endeavoring to establish the true text, we must first have recourse. The comparative purity of the Hebrew text is probably different in different parts of the Old Testament. In the revision of Dr. Davidson, who has generally restricted himself to the admission of corrections warranted by MS., Masoretic or Talmudic authority, those in the book of Genesis do not exceed eleven; those in the Psalms are proportionately three times as numerous; those in the historical books and the Prophets are proportionately more numerous than those in the Psalms. II. QUOTATIONS FROM THE OLD TESTAMENT IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. —The New Testament quotations from the Old form one of the outward bonds of connection between the two parts of the Bible. They are manifold in kind. In the quotations of all kinds from the Old Testament in the New. We find a continual variation from the letter of the older Scriptures. To this variation three causes may be specified as having contributed: First, all the New Testament writers quoted from the Septuagint; correcting it indeed more or less by the Hebrew, especially when it was needful for their purpose occasionally deserting it altogether; still abiding by it to so large an extent as to show that it was the primary source whence their quotations were drawn. Secondly, the New Testament writers must have frequently quoted from memory. Thirdly, combined with this there was an alteration of conscious or unconscious design. Sometimes the object of this was to obtain increased force. Sometimes an Old Testament passage is abridged, and in the abridgment so adjusted, by a little alteration, as to present an aspect of completeness, and yet omit what is foreign to the immediate purpose.
Ac 1:20; 1Co 1:31
At other times a passage is enlarged by the incorporation of a passage from another source: thus in
although the contents are professedly those, read by our Lord from
... we have the words "to set at liberty them that are bruised," introduced from
(Sept.); similarly in
Ro 11:8, De 29:4
is combined with
In some cases still greater liberty of alteration assumed. In someplaces,again, the a words of the original are taken up, but employed with a new meaning. Almost more remarkable than any alteration in the quotation itself is the circumstance that in
Jeremiah should be named as the author of a prophecy really delivered by Zechariah; the being that the prophecy is based upon that in
Jer 18:1 ..., 19:1
... and that without a reference to this original source the most essential features of the fulfillment of Zechariah’s prophecy would be misunderstood.
The olive was among the most abundant and characteristic vegetation of Judea. The olive tree grows freely almost everywhere on the shores of the Mediterranean, but it was peculiarly abundant in Palestine. See
De 6:11; 8:8; 28:40
Oliveyards are a matter of course in descriptions of the country like vines and cornfields.
Jud 15:5; 1Sa 8:14
The kings had very extensive ones.
Even now the is very abundant in the country. Almost every village has its olive grove. Certain districts may be specified where at various times this tree been very luxuriant. The cultivation of the olive tree had the closest connection with the domestic life of the Israelites
Eze 27:17; Ho 12:1
and even their Public ceremonies and religious worship. In Solomon’s temple the cherubim were "of olive tree,"
as also the doors, vs.
and posts. ver.
For the various uses of olive oil see OIL. The wind was dreaded by the cultivator of the olive for the least ruffling of a breeze is apt to cause the flowers to fall.
It is needless to add that the locust was a formidable enemy of the olive. It happened not unfrequently that hopes were disappointed, and that "the labor of the olive failed."
As to the growth of the tree, it thrives best in warm and sunny situations. It is of moderate height, with knotty gnarled trunk and a smooth ash-colored bark. It grows slowly, but lives to an immense age. Its look is singularly indicative of tenacious vigor, and this is the force of what is said in Scripture of its "greenness, as emblematic of strength and prosperity. The leaves, too, are not deciduous. Those who see olives for the first time are occasionally disappointed by the dusty color of their foilage; but those who are familiar with them find an inexpressible charm in the rippling changes of their slender gray-green leaves. (See Ruskin’s "Stones of Venice," iii. 175-177.) The olive furnishes the basis of one of Paul’s allegories.
The Gentiles are the "wild olive" grafted in upon the "good olive," to which once the Jews belonged, and with which they may again be incorporated, (The olive grows from 20 to 40 feet high. In general appearance it resembles the apple tree; in leaves and sterns, the willow. The flowers are white and appear in June, The fruit is like a plum in shape and size, and at first is green, but gradually becomes purple, and even black, with a hard stony kernel, and is remarkable from the outer fleshy part being that in which much oil is lodged, and not, as is usual, in the almond of the seed. The fruit ripens from August to September. It is sometimes eaten green, but its chief value is in its oil. The wood is hard, fine beautifully veined, and is open used for cabinet work. Olive trees were so abundant in Galilee that at the siege of Jotapata by Vespasian the Roman army were driven from the ascent of the walls by hot olive oil poured upon them and scalding them underneath their armor. —Josephus, Wars, 3; 7:28. —ED.)
Olives, Mount of.
"The Mount of Olives" occurs in the Old Testament in
it is called "Olivet;" in other places simply "the mount,"
"the mount facing Jerusalem"
or "the mountain which is on the east aide of the city."
In the New Testament the usual form is "the Mount of Olives." It is called also "Olivet."
This mountain is the well-known eminence on the east of Jerusalem, intimately connected with some of the gravest events of the history of the Old Testament and the New Testament, the scene of the flight of David and the triumphal progress of the Son of David, of the idolatry-of Solomon, and the agony and betrayal of Christ. It is a ridge of rather more than a mile in length, running in general direction north and south, covering the whole eastern side of the city. At its northern end the ridge bends round to the west so as to form an enclosure to the city on that side also. On the north a space of nearly a mile of tolerably level surface intervenes between the walls of the city and the rising ground; on the east the mount is close to the walls, parted only by the narrow ravine of the Kidron. It is this portion which is the real Mount of Olives of the history. In general height it is not very much above-the city: 300 feet higher than the temple mount, hardly more than 100 above the so-called Zion. It is rounded, swelling and regular in form. Proceeding from north to south there occur four independent summits, called — 1, "Viri Galilaei:" 2, "Mount of Ascension;" 3, "Prophets" —subordinate to the last and almost a part of it; 4, "Mount of Offence."
1. Of these the central one -the "Mount of Ascension"—is the most important. Three paths lead from the valley to the summit-one on the north, in the hollow between the two crests of the hill another over the summit, and a third winding around the southern shoulder still the most frequented and the best. The central hill, which we are now considering, purports to contain the sites of some of the most sacred and impressive events of Christian history. The majority of these sacred spots now command little or no attention; but three still remain, sufficiently sacred—if authentic—to consecrate any place. These are— (1) Gethsemane, at the foot of the mount; (2) The spot from which our Saviour ascended on the summit; (3) The place of the lamentation of Christ over Jerusalem, halfway up. Of these, Gethsemane is the only one which has any claim to be authentic. [GETHSEMANE]
2. Next to the central summit, on the southern side is a hill remarkable only for the fact that it contains the "singular catacomb" known as the "Tombs of the Prophets," probably in allusion to the words of Christ.
3. The most southern portion of the Mount of Olives is that usually known as the "Mount of Offence," Mons Offensionis. It rises next to that last mentioned. The title "Mount of Offence," or "Scandal," was bestowed on the supposition that it is the "Mount of Corruption" on which Solomon erected the high places for the gods of his foreign wives.
2Ki 23:13; 1Ki 11:7
The southern summit is considerably lower than the centre one.
4. There remains the "Viri Galilaei," about 400 yards from the "Mount of Ascension." It stands directly opposite the northeast corner of Jerusalem, and is approached by the path between it and the "Mount of Ascension." The presence of a number of churches and other edifices must have rendered the Mount of Olives, during the early and middle ages of Christianity, entirely unlike what it was in the time of the Jewish kingdom or of our Lord. Except the high places on the summit, the only buildings then to be seen were probably the walls of the vineyards and gardens and the towers and presses which were their invariable accompaniment. But though the churches are nearly all demolished, there must be a considerable difference between the aspect of the mountain now and in those days when it received its name from the abundance of its olive proves. It does not now stand so pre-eminent in this respect among the hills in the neighborhood of Jerusalem. It is only in the deeper and more secluded slope leading up to the northernmost summit that these venerable trees spread into anything like a forest. The cedars commemorated by the Talmud sad the date-palms implied in the name Bethany have fared still worse; there is not one of either to be found within many miles. Two religious ceremonies performed there must have done much to increase the numbers who resorted to the mount. The appearance of the new moon was probably watched for, certainly proclaimed, from the summit. The second ceremony referred to was the burning of the red heifer. This solemn ceremonial was enacted on the central mount, and in a spot so carefully specified that it would seem not difficult to fix it. It was due east of the sanctuary, and at such an elevation on the mount that the officiating priest, as he slew the animal and sprinkled blood, could see the facade of the sanctuary through the east gate of the temple.
(place of olives).
2Sa 15:30; Ac 1:12
[OLIVES, MOUNT OF]
MOUNT -See 8066
MOUNT -See 8067
(heavenly), a Christian at Rome.
(eloquent, talkative), son of Eliphaz the first-born of Esau.
Ge 36:11,15; 1Ch 1:38
The last letter of the Greek alphabet. It is used metephorically to denote the end of anything
[WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.)
MEASURES -See 7886
(pupil of Jehovah).
1. Originally "captain of the host" to Elah, was afterward himself king of Israel, and founder of the third dynasty. (B.C. 926.) Omri was engaged in the siege of Gibbethon situated in the tribe of Dan, which had been occupied by the Philistines. As soon as the army heard of Elah’s death they proclaimed Omri king. Thereupon he broke up the siege of Gibbethon and attacked Tirzah, where Zimri was holding his court as king of Israel. The city was taken, and Zimri perished in the flames of the palace, after a reign of seven days. Omri, however, was not allowed to establish his dynasty without a struggle against Tibni, whom "half the people,"
desired to raise to the throne. The civil war lasted four years. Comp.
with 1Kin 16:23 After the defeat sad death of Tibni, Omri reigned for six years in Tirzah. At Samaria Omri reigned for six years more. He seems to have been a vigorous and unscrupulous ruler, anxious to strengthen his dynasty by intercourse and alliances with foreign states.
2. One of the sons of Becher the son of Benjamin.
3. A descendant of Pharez the son of Judah,
4. Son of Michael, and chief of the tribe of Issachar in the reign of David.
the son of Peleth and one of the chiefs of the tribe of Reuben, who took part with Korah, Dathan and Abiram in their revolt against Moses.
(B.C. 1491.) His name does not again appear in the narrative of the conspiracy, nor is he alluded to when reference is made to the final catastrophe.
(abode or city of the sun), a town of lower Egypt, called BETH-SHEMESH in
On is better known under its Greek name Heliopolis. It was situated on the east side of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, just below the point of the Delta, and about twenty miles northeast of Memphis. The chief object of worship at Heliopolis was the sun, whose temple, described by Strabo, is now only represented by the single beautiful obelisk, of red granite so feet 2 inches high above the pedestal which has stood for more than 4000 years, having been erected by Usirtesen, the second king of the twelfth dynasty. Heliopolis was anciently famous for its learning, and Eudoxus and Plato studied under its priests. The first mention of this place in the Bible is in the history of Joseph, to whom we read Pharaoh gave "to wife Asenath the daughter of Potipherah priest of On."
comp. ver, Gene 41:60 and Gene 46:20 (On is to be remembered not only as the home of Joseph, but as the traditional place to which his far-off namesake took Mary and the babe Jesus in the flight to Egypt. The two famous obelisks, long called "Cleopatra’s Needles," one of which now stands in London and the other in Central Park in New York city, once stood before this city, and were seen by the children of Israel before the exodus, having been quarried at Syene on the Nile, erected at On (Heliopolis) by Thothmes III., B.C. 1500, and inscriptions added by Rameses II. (Sesostris) two hundred years later. They were taken to Alexandria by Augustus Caesar A.D. 23, from which they were removed to their present places. —ED.)
1. One of the sons of Shobal the son of Seir.
Ge 36:23; 1Ch 1:40
2. The son of Jerahmeel by his wife Atarah.
(strong), the second son of Judah by the Canaanitess, "the daughter of Shua."
Ge 38:4; 1Ch 2:3
"What he did was evil in the eyes of Jehovah and he slew him also, as he had slain his elder brother.
His death took place before the family of Jacob went down into Egypt.
Ge 46:12; Nu 26:19
(profitable, useful), the name of the servant or slave in whose behalf Paul wrote the Epistle to Philemon. He was a native, or certainly an inhabitant, of Colosse.
(A.D. 58.) He fled from his master end escaped to Rome, where he was led to embrace the gospel through Paul’s instrumentality. After his conversion the most happy and friendly relations sprung up between the teacher and disciple. Whether Paul desired his presence as a personal attendant or as a minister of the gospel is not certain from verse 13 of the epistle.
(bringing profit) is named twice only in the New Testament, viz.
and 2Tim 4:19 Paul mentions him in terms of grateful love as having a noble courage and generosity in his behalf, amid his trials as a prisoner at Rome, when others from whom he expected better things had deserted him.
Probably other members of the family were also active Christians.
It is evident from
that Onesiphorus had his home at Ephesus. (A.D. 64.)
the name of five high priests in the period between the Old and the New Testament.
This product is mentioned only in
as one of the good things of Egypt of which the Israel regretted the loss. Onions have been from time immemorial a favorite article of food among the Egyptians, The onions of Egypt are much milder in flavor and less pungent than those of this country.
(strong), one of the towns of Benjamin, is first found in
A plain was attached to the town called "the plain of Ono"
perhaps identical with the valley of craftsmen"
spoken of in
was one of the ingredients of the sacred perfume. It consists of the shells of several kinds of mussels, which when burned emit a strong odor.
(a nail) is the translation of the Hebrew shoham; but there is some doubt as to its signification. Some writers believe that the "beryl" is intended; but the balance of authority is in favor of some variety of the onyx. ("The onyx is not a transparent stone, but as the color of the flesh appears through the nail (Greek onyx) on the human body, so the reddish mass which is below shines delicately through the whitish surface of the onyx. There are several varieties. White and reddish stripes alternating form the sardonyx; white and reddish gray, the chalcedony. When polished it has a fine lustre, and is easily wrought into a gem of great beauty."-Rosenmiller.
(hill), a part of ancient Jerusalem. Ophel was the swelling declivity by which the mount of the temple slopes on its southern side into the valley of Hinnom—a long, narrowish rounded spur or promontory, which intervenes between the mouth of the central valley of Jerusalem (the Tyropoeon) and the Kidron, or valley of Jehoshaphat. Halfway down it on its eastern face is the ("Fount of the Virgin," so called; and at its foot the lower outlet of the same spring—the Pool of Siloam. In
Jotham is said to have built much "on the wall of Ophel." Manasseh, among his other defensive works, "compassed about Ophel." Ibid.
It appears to have been near the "water-gate,"
and the "great tower that lieth out." ver.
It was evidently the residence of the Levites.
1. The eleventh in order of the sons of Joktan.
Ge 10:29; 1Ch 1:23
(B.C. after 2450.)
2. A seaport or region from which the Hebrews in the time of Solomon obtained gold. The gold was proverbial for its fineness, so that "gold of Ophir" is several times used as an expression for fine gold,
1Ch 29:4; Job 28:16; Ps 45:9; Isa 13:12
and in one passage
the word "Ophir" by itself is used for gold of Ophir, and for gold generally. In addition to gold, the vessels brought from Ophir almug wood and precious stones. The precise geographical situation of Ophir has long been a subject of doubt and discussion. The two countries which have divided the opinions of the learned have been Arabia and India, while some have placed it in Africa. In five passages Ophir is mentioned by name -
1Ki 9:28; 10:11; 22:18; 2Ch 8:18; 9:10
If the three passages of the book of Kings are carefully examined, it will be seen that all the information given respecting Ophir is that it was a place or region accessible by sea from Ezion-geber on the Red Sea, from which imports of gold, almug trees and precious stones were brought back by the Tyrian and Hebrew sailors. The author of the tenth chapter of Genesis certainly regarded Ophir as the name of some city, region or tribe in Arabia. It is almost certain that the Ophir of Genesis is the Ophir of the book of Kings. There is no mention, either in the Bible or elsewhere, of any other Ophir; and the idea of there having been two Ophirs evidently arose from a perception of the obvious meaning of the tenth chapter of Genesis on the one hand, coupled with the erroneous opinion, on the other that the Ophir of the book of Kings could not have been in Arabia. (Hence we conclude that Ophir was in southern Arabia, upon the border of the Indian Ocean; for even if all the things brought over in Solomon’s ships are not now found in Arabia, but are found in India, yet, there is evidence that they once were known in Arabia and, moreover, Ophir may not have been the original place of production of some of them, but the great market for traffic in them.)
(mouldy), a town of Benjamin, mentioned in
the same as the Gophna of Josephus a place which at the time of Vespasian’s invasion was apparently so important as to be second only to Jerusalem. It still survives in the modern Jifna or Jufna, 23 miles northwest of Bethel.
1. A town in the tribe of Benjamin.
Jos 18:23; 1Sa 13:17
Jerome places it five miles east of Bethel. It is perhaps et-Taiyibeh, a small village on the crown of a conspicuous hill, four miles east-northeast of Beitin (Bethel).
2. More fully, OPHRAH OF THE ABIEZRITES, the native place of Gideon
and the scene of his exploits against Baal, ver.
his residence after his accession to power ch.
and the place of his burial in the family sepulchre. ch.
It was probably In Manasseh, ch.
and not far distant from Shechem,
3. The son of Meonothai.
1. The Authorized Version rendering in
for what is literally "skillful in whisper or incantation."
2. The title applied to Tertullus, who appeared as the advocate of the Jewish accusers of St. Paul before Felix,
(raven), one of the chieftains of the Midianite host which invaded Israel, and was defeated and driven back by Gideon.
(B.C. 1362.) Isaiah,
refers to the magnitude of this disaster. Comp.
O’reb, The rock,
the "raven’s crag," the spot, east of Jordan, at which the Midianite chieftain Oreb with thousands of his countrymen, fell by the hand of the Ephraimites, and which probably acquired its name therefrom. It is mentioned in
Jud 7:25; Isa 10:26
Perhaps the place called ’Orbo which in the Bereshith Rabba is stated to have been in the neighborhood of Bethshean, may have some connection with it.
(pine tree), one of the sons of Jerahmeel, the first-born of Hezron.
Ge 4:21; Job 21:12; 30:31; Ps 150:4
The Hebrew word thus rendered probably denotes a pipe or perforated wind-instrument. In
it appears to be a general term for all wind-instruments. In
are enumerated three kinds of musical instruments which are possible under the general terms of the timbrel harp and oryan. Some identify it with the pandean pipe or syrinx an instrument of unquestionably ancient origin, and common in the East. [See Music]
(the giant), a large and bright constellation of 80 stars, 17 large ones, crossed by the equinoctial line. It is named after a mythical personage of the Greeks, of gigantic stature and "the handsomest man in the world." The Arabs called it" the giant," referring to Nimrod, the mighty hunter who was fabled to have been bound in the sky for his impiety.
Also alluded to in
The number, variety and weight of the ornaments ordinarily worn upon the person form one of the characteristic features of Oriental costume, in both ancient and modem times. The monuments of ancient Egypt exhibit the persons of ladies load with rings, earrings Of vary great size, anklets, armlets, bracelets of the most varied forms, richly-ornamented necklaces, and chains of various kinds. There is sufficient evidence in the Bible that the inhabitants of Palestine were equally devoted to finery. In the Old Testament. Isaiah,
supplies us with a detailed description of the articles with which the luxurious women of his day were decorated. Eliezer decorated Rebekah with "a golden nose-ring of half a shekel (1/4 oz.) weight, and two bracelets for her hands of ten shekels (4 1/2 oz.) weight of gold."
Earrings were worn by Jacob’s wives.
The number of personal ornaments worn by the Egyptians, particularly by the females, 19 incidentally noticed in
1Ch 21:15; 2Ch 3:1
(a gazelle), a Moabite woman wife of Chilion son of Naomi, and thereby sister-in-law to Ruth.
The Hebrew word occurs in
and Deut 14:12 so the name of some unclean bird. It’s probably either the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) or the white-tailed eagle (Haliaetus albicella).
(the bone-breaker). The Hebrew word occurs, as the name of an unclean bird, in
and Deut 14:12 It is probably the lammergeyer, or bearded vulture as it is sometimes called, one of the largest of the birds of prey. It well deserves its name ossifrage, bone breaker, for "not only does he push kids and lambs and even men off the rocks, but he takes the bones of animals that other birds of prey have denuded of the flesh high up into the air and lets them fall upon a stone in order to crack them and render them more digestible even for his enormous powers of deglutition. Marrow-bones are the dainties he loves. This is probably the bird that dropped a tortoise on the bald head of poor old AEschylus." —N. H. Simpson.
a large bird, native of African and Arabia, nearly ten feet high, having s long neck and short wings. It seeks retired places,
Job 30:29; La 4:13
and has a peculiar mournful cry that is sometimes mistaken by the Arabs for that of the lion.
will be found a description of the bird’s habits. Ostriches are polygamous; the hens lay their eggs promiscuously in one nest, which is merely a hole scratched in the sand; the eggs are then covered over to the depth of about a foot, and are, in the case of those birds which are found within the tropics, generally left for the greater part of the day to the heat of the sun, the parent-birds taking their turns at incubation during the night. The habit of the ostrich leaving its eggs to be matured by the sun’s heat is usually appealed to in order to confirm the scriptural account, "she leaveth her eggs to the earth;" but this is probably the case only with the tropical birds. We believe that the true explanation of this passage is that some of the eggs are left exposed around the nest for the nourishment of the young birds. It is a general belief among the Arabs that the ostrich is a very stupid bird; indeed they have a proverb, "stupid as an ostrich." As is well known, the ostrich will swallow almost any substance, iron, stones, and even has been known to swallow "several leaden bullets scorching hot from the mould." But in many other respects the ostrich is not as stupid as this would indicate, and is very hard to capture. It is the largest of all known birds, and perhaps the swiftest of all cursorial animals. -The feathers so much prized are the long white plumes of the wings. The best are brought from Barbary and the west coast of Africa.
(lion of Jehovah), son of Shemaiah, the first-horn of Obed-edom.
(lion of God), son of Kenaz and younger brother of Caleb.
Jos 15:17; Jud 1:13; 3:9 1Ch 4:13
(B.C. 1460.) The first mention of Othniel is on occasion of the taking of Kirjath-sepher, or Debir as it was afterward called. Caleb promised to give his daughter Achsah to whosoever should assault and take the city. Othniel won the prize. The next mention of him is in
where he appears as the first judge of Israel after the death of Joshua, and the deliverer of his countrymen from the oppression of Chushahrishathaim
The eastern oven is of two kinds —fixed and portable. The former is found only in towns, where regular bakers are employed.
The latter ia adapted to the nomad state, it consists of a large jar made of clay, about three feet high and widening toward the bottom, with a hole for the extraction of the ashes. Each household possessed such an article,
and it was only in times of extreme dearth that the same oven sufficed for several families.
It was heated with dry twigs and grass,
and the loaves were placed both inside and outside of it.
A number of species of the owl are mentioned in the Bible,
Le 11:17; De 14:16 Isa 14:23; 34:15; Zep 2:14
and in several other places the same Hebrew word is used where it is translated ostrich.
Job 30:29; Jer 50:39
Some of these species were common in Palestine, and, as is well known, were often found inhabiting ruins.
There was no animal in the rural economy of the Israelites, or indeed in that of the ancient Orientals generally, that was held in higher esteem than the ox and deservedly so, for the ox was the animal upon whose patient labors depended all the ordinary operations of farming. Oxen were used for ploughing,
De 22:10; 1Sa 14:14
etc.; for treading out corn,
De 25:4; Ho 10:11
etc.; for draught purposes, when they were generally yoked in pairs,
Nu 7:3; 1Sa 6:7
etc.; as beasts of burden,
their flesh was eaten,
De 14:4; 1Ki 1:9
etc.; they were used in the sacrifices; cows supplied milk, butter, etc.
De 32:14; 2Sa 17:29; Isa 7:22
Connected with the importance of oxen in the rural economy of the Jews is the strict code of laws which was mercifully enacted by God for their protection and preservation. The ox that threshed the corn was by no means to be muzzled; he was to enjoy rest on the Sabbath as well as his master.
Ex 23:12; De 5:14
The ox was seldom slaughtered.
It seems clear from
and 1Kin 4:23 that cattle were sometimes stall-fed though as a general rule it is probable that they fed in the plains or on the hills of Palestine. The cattle that grazed at large in the open country would no doubt often become fierce and wild, for it is to be remembered that in primitive times the lion and other wild beasts of prey roamed about Palestine. Hence the force of the Psalmist’s complaint of his enemies.
1. The sixth son of Jesse, the next eldest above David.
2. Son of Jerahmeel.
(strength from the Lord).
1. Uzzi, one of the ancestors of Ezra. 2, Esd. 2:2.
2. Uzziah, king of Judah.
(hearing), one of the sons of Gad
and founder of the family of the Oznites.