(sandy), an ancient Canaanitish city whose king is enumerated among the thirty-one kings conquered by Joshua.
It came into the half tribe of Manasseh,
Jos 17:11; 21:25; 1Ch 7:29
and was bestowed on the Kohathite Levites.
Taanach is almost always named in company with Megiddo, and they were evidently the chief towns of that fine rich district which forms the western portion of the great plain of Esdraelon.
It is still called Ta’annuk, and) stands about four miles southeast of Lejjun and 13 miles southwest of Nazareth.
(approach to Shiloh), a place named once only —
—as one of the landmarks of the boundary of Ephraim. Perhaps Taanath was the ancient Canaanite name of the place, and Shiloh the Hebrew name.
(rings). The children of Tabbaoth were a family of Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel.
Ezr 2:43; Ne 7:46
(B.C. before 536.)
(celebrated), a place mentioned only in
in describing the flight of the Midianite host after Gideon’s night attack; (probably the present Tubukhat-Fahil, a very striking natural bank 600 feet high, with a long horizontal top, embanked against the western face of the mountains east of the Jordan, and descending with a steep front to the river. —Robinson, Bib. Res.)
(God is good). The son of Tabeal was apparently an Ephraimite in the army of Pekah the son of Remaliah, or a Syrian in the army of Rezin, when they went up to besiege Jerusalem in the reign of Ahaz.
The Aramaic form of the name favors the latter supposition. (B.C. before 738.)
(God is good), an officer of the Persian government in Samaria in the reign of Artaxerxes.
His name appears to indicate that he was a Syrian. (B.C.519.)
the name of a place in the wilderness of Paran.
Nu 11:3; De 9:22
It has not been identified.
an obsolete English word used in the Authorized Version of
The Hebrew word connects itself with toph, "a timbrel." The Authorized Version reproduces the original idea. The "tabour" or "tabor" was a musical instrument of the drum type which with the pipe formed the band of a country village. To "tabour," accordingly, is to beat with loud strokes, as men beat upon such an instrument.
The tabernacle was the tent of Jehovah, called by the same name as the tents of the people in the midst of which it stood. It was also called the sanctuary and the tabernacle of the congregation. The first ordinance given to Moses, after the proclamation of the outline of the law from Sinai, related to the ordering of the tabernacle, its furniture and its service as the type which was to be followed when the people came to their own home and "found a place" for the abode of God. During the forty days of Moses’ first retirement with God in Sinai, an exact pattern of the whole was shown him, and all was made according to it.
Ex 25:9,40; 26:30; 39:32,42,43; Nu 8:4; Ac 7:44; Heb
The description of this plan is preceded by an account of the freewill offerings which the children of Israel were to be asked to make for its execution. I. THE TABERNACLE ITSELF.—
1. Its name. —It was first called a tent or dwelling,
because Jehovah as it were, abode there. It was often called tent or tabernacle from its external appearance.
2. Its materials. —The materials were— (a) Metals: gold, silver and brass. (b) Textile fabrics: blue, purple, scarlet and fine (white) linen, for the production of which Egypt was celebrated; also a fabric of goat’s hair, the produce of their own flocks. (c) Skins: of the ram, dyed red, and of the badger. (d) Wood the shittim wood, the timber of the wild acacia of the desert itself, the tree of the "burning bush." (e) Oil, spices and incense for anointing the priests and burning in the tabernacle. (f) Gems: onyx stones and the precious stones for the breastplate of the high priest. The people gave jewels, and plates of gold and silver and brass; wood, skins, hair and linen; the women wove; the rulers offered precious stones, oil, spices and incense; and the artists soon had more than they needed.
Ex 25:1-8; 35:4-29; 36:5-7
The superintendence of the work was intrusted to Bezaleel, of the tribe of Judah, and to Aholiab, of the tribe of Dan, who were skilled in "all manner of workmanship."
Ex 31:2,6; 35:30,34
3. Its structure. —The tabernacle was to comprise three main parts, —the tabernacle more strictly so called, its tent and its covering.
Ex 35:11; 39:33,34; 40:19,34; Nu 3:25
etc. These parts are very clearly distinguished in the Hebrew, but they are confounded in many places of the English version. The tabernacle itself was to consist of curtains of fine linen woven with colored figures of cherubim, and a structure of boards which was to contain the holy place and the most holy place; the tent was to be a true tent of goat’s hair cloth, to contain and shelter the tabernacle; the covering was to be of red ram-skins and seal-skins,
and was spread over the goat’s hair tent as an additional protection against the weather. It was an oblong rectangular structure, 30 cubits in length by 10 in width (45 feet by 15), and 10 in height; the interior being divided into two chambers, the first or outer, of 20 cubits in length, the inner, of 10 cubits, and consequently and exact cube. The former was the holy place, or first tabernacle,
containing the golden candlestick on one side, the table of shew-bread opposite, and between them in the centre the altar of incense. The latter was the most holy place, or the holy of holies, containing the ark, surmounted by the cherubim, with the two tables inside. The two sides and the farther or west end were enclosed by boards of shittim wood overlaid with gold, twenty on the north and twenty on the south side, six on the west side, and the corner-boards doubled. They stood upright, edge to edge, their lower ends being made with tenons, which dropped into sockets of silver, and the corner-boards being coupled at the tope with rings. They were furnished with golden rings, through which passed bars of shittim wood, overlaid with gold, five to each side, and the middle bar passing from end to end, so as to brace the whole together. Four successive coverings of curtains looped together were placed over the open top and fell down over the sides. The first or inmost was a splendid fabric of linen, embroidered with figures of cherubim in blue, purple and scarlet, and looped together by golden fastenings. It seems probable that the ends of this set of curtains hung down within the tabernacle, forming a sumptuous tapestry. The second was a covering of goats’ hair; the third, of ram-skins dyed red and the outermost, of badger-skins (so called in our version; but the Hebrew word probably signifies seal-skins). It has been commonly supposed that these coverings were thrown over the wall, as a pall is thrown over a coffin; but this would have allowed every drop of rain that fell on the tabernacle to fall through; for, however tightly the curtains might be stretched, the water could never run over the edge, and the sheep-skins would only make the matter worse as when wetted their weight would depress the centre and probably tear any curtain that could be made. There can be no reasonable doubt that the tent had a ridge, as all tents have had from the days of Moses down to the present time. The front of the sanctuary was closed by a hanging of fine linen, embroidered in blue, purple and scarlet, and supported by golden hooks on five pillars of shittim wood overlaid with gold and standing in brass sockets; and the covering of goat’s hair was so made as to fall down over this when required. A more sumptuous curtain of the same kind, embroidered with cherubim hung on four such pillars, with silver sockets, divided the holy from the most holy place. It was called the veil, (Sometimes the second veil, either is reference to the first, at the entrance of the holy place, or as below the vail of the second sanctuary;)
as it hid from the eyes of all but the high priest the inmost sanctuary, where Jehovah dwells on his mercy-seat, between the cherubim above the ark. Hence "to enter within the veil" is to have the closest access to God. It was only passed by the high priest once a year, on the Day of Atonement in token of the mediation of Christ, who with his own blood hath entered for us within the veil which separates God’s own abode from earth.
In the temple, the solemn barrier was at length profaned by a Roman conqueror, to warn the Jews that the privileges they had forfeited were "ready to vanish away;" and the veil was at last rent by the hand of God himself, at the same moment that the body of Christ was rent upon the cross, to indicate that the entrance into the holiest of all is now laid open to all believers by the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way which he hath consecrated for us, through the veil, that is to say, his flesh."
The holy place was only entered by the priests daily, to offer incense at the time of morning and evening prayer, and to renew the lights on the golden candlesticks; and on the sabbath, to remove the old shew-bread, and to place the new upon the table. II. THE SACRED FURNITURE AND INSTRUMENTS OF THE TABERNACLE. —These are described in separate articles, and therefore it is only necessary to give a list of them here.
1. In the outer court. The altar of burnt offering and the brazen laver. [ALTAR; LAVER]
LAVER -See 7650
2. In the holy place. The furniture of the court was connected with sacrifice; that of the sanctuary itself with the deeper mysteries of mediation and access to God. The first sanctuary contained three objects: the altar of incense in the centre, so as to be directly in front of the ark of the covenant
the table of shew-bread on its right or north side, and the golden candlestick on the left or south side. These objects were all considered as being placed before the presence of Jehovah, who dwelt in the holiest of all, though with the veil between. [ALTAR; SHEW-BREAD; CANDLESTICK]
SHEWBREAD -See 8944
CANDLESTICK -See 5883
CANDLESTICK -See 5884
3. In the holy of holies, within the veil, and shrouded in darkness, there was but one object, the ark of the covenant, containing the two tables of stone, inscribed with the Ten Commandments. [ARK]
III. THE COURT OF THE TABERNACLE, in which the tabernacle itself stood, was an oblong space, 100 cubits by 50 (i.e. 150 feet by 75), having its longer axis east and west, with its front to the east. It was surrounded by canvas screens—in the East called kannauts— 5 cubits in height, and supported by pillars of brass 5 cubits apart, to which the curtains were attached by hooks and filets of silver.
etc. This enclosure was broken only on the east side by the entrance, which was 20 cubits wide, and closed by curtains of fine twined linen wrought with needlework and of the most gorgeous colors. In the outer or east half of the court was placed the altar of burnt offering, and between it and the tabernacle itself; the laver at which the priests washed their hands and feet on entering the temple. The tabernacle itself was placed toward the west end of this enclosure. IV. HISTORY. —"The tabernacle, as the place in which Jehovah dwelt, was pitched in the centre of the camp,
as the tent of a leader always is in the East; for Jehovah was the Captain of Israel.
During the marches of Israel, the tabernacle was still in the centre.
... The tribes camped and marched around it in the order of a hollow square. In certain great emergencies led the march.
Upon the tabernacle, abode always the cloud, dark by day and fiery red by night,
giving the signal for the march,
Ex 40:36,37; Nu 9:17
and the halt.
It was always the special meeting-place of Jehovah and his people.
Nu 11:24,25; 12:4; 14:10; 16:19,42; 20:6; 27:2; De
"During the conquest of Canaan the tabernacle at first moved from place to place,
Jos 4:19; 8:30-35; 9:6; 10:15
was finally located at Shiloh.
Jos 9:27; 18:1
Here it remained during the time of the judges, till it was captured by the Philistines, who carried off the sacred ark of the covenant.
From this time forward the glory of the tabernacle was gone. When the ark was recovered, it was removed to Jerusalem, and placed in a new tabernacle
2Sa 6:17; 1Ch 15:1
but the old structure still had its hold on the veneration of the community and the old altar still received their offerings.
1Ch 16:39; 21:29
It was not till the temple was built, and a fitting house thus prepared for the Lord, that the ancient tabernacle was allowed to perish and be forgotten. V. SIGNIFICANCE. —(The great underlying principles of true religion are the same in all ages and for all men; because man’s nature and needs are the same, and the same God ever rules over all. But different ages require different methods of teaching these truths, and can understand them in different degrees. As we are taught in the Epistle to the Hebrews, the tabernacle was part of a great system of teaching by object-lessons, and of training the world to understand and receive the great truths which were to be revealed in Jesus Christ and thus really to save the Jews from sin By Jesus dimly seen in the future, as we clearly see him in the past. (1) The tabernacle and its services enabled the Jews, who had no visible representation of God, to feel the reality of God and of religion. (2) The tabernacle as the most beautiful and costly object in the nation and ever in the centre of the camp, set forth the truth that religion was the central fact and the most important, in a persons life. (3) The pillar of cloud and of fire was the best possible symbol of the living God,—a cloud, bright, glowing like the sunset clouds, glorious, beautiful, mysterious, self-poised, heavenly; fire, immaterial, the source of life and light and comfort and cheer, but yet unapproachable, terrible, a consuming fire to the wicked. (4) The altar of burnt offering, standing before the tabernacle was a perpetual symbol of the atonement,—the greatness of sin, deserving death, hard to be removed and yet forgiveness possible, and offered freely, but only through blood. The offerings, as brought by the people were a type of consecration to God, of conversion and new life, through the atonement. (6) This altar stood outside of the tabernacle, and must be passed before we come to the tabernacle itself; a type of the true religious life. Before the tabernacle was also the laver, signifying the same thing that baptism does with us, the cleansing of the heart and life. (8) Having entered the holy place, we find the three great means and helps to true living, —the candlestick, the light of God’s truth; the shew-bread, teaching that the soul must have its spiritual food and live in communion with God; and the altar of incense, the symbol of prayer. The holy of holies, beyond, taught that there was progress in the religious life, and that progress was toward God, and toward the perfect keeping of the law till it was as natural to obey the law as it is to breathe; and thus the holy of holies was the type of heaven. —ED.)
Tabernacles, The Feast of
("the feast of ingathering"), the third of the three great festivals: of the Hebrews, which lasted from the 15th till the 22d of Tisri.
1. The following are the principal passages in the Pentateuch which refer to it:
Ex 23:16; Le 23:34-36, 39-43; Nu 29:12-38; De 16:13-15;
In Nehe 8, there is an account of the observance of the feast by Ezra.
2. The time of the festival fell in the autumn, when the whole of the chief fruits of the ground, the corn, the wine and the oil, were gathered in.
Ex 23:16; Le 23:39; De 15:13-15
Its duration was strictly only seven days,
De 16:13; Eze 45:25
but it was followed by a day of holy convocation, distinguished by sacrifices of its own, which was sometimes spoken of as an eighth day.
Le 23:36; Ne 8:18
During the seven days the Israelites were commanded to dwell in booths or huts formed of the boughs of trees. The boughs were of the olive palm, pine, myrtle and other trees with thick foliage.
According to rabbinical tradition each Israelite used to tie the branches into a bunch, to be carried in his hand to which the name lulab was given. The burnt offerings of the Feast of Tabernacles were by far more numerous than those of any other festival. There were offered on each day two rams, fourteen lambs and a kid for a sin offering. But what was most peculiar was the arrangement of the sacrifices of bullocks, in amounting to seventy.
The eighth day was a day of holy convocation of peculiar solemnity. On the morning of this day the Hebrews left their huts and dismantled them, and took up their abode again in their houses. The special offerings of the day were a bullock a ram, seven lambs and a goat for a sin offering.
When the Feast of Tabernacles fell on a sabbatical year, portions of the law were read each day in public, to men, women, children and strangers.
We find Ezra reading the law during the festival "day by day, from the first day to the last day."
3. There are two particulars in the observance of the Feast of Tabernacles which appear to be referred to in the New Testament, but are not noticed in the Old. These were the ceremony of pouring out some water of the pool of Siloam and the display of some great lights in the court of the women. We are told that each Israelite, in holiday attire, having made up his lulab, before he broke his fast repaired to the temple with the lulab in one hand and the citron in the other, at the time of the ordinary morning sacrifice. The parts of the victim were laid upon the altar. One of the priests fetched some water in a golden ewer from the pool of Siloam, which he brought into the court through the water-gate. As he entered the trumpets sounded, and he ascended the slope of the altar. At the top of this were fixed two silver basins with small openings at the bottom. Wine was poured into that on the eastern side, and the water into that on the western side, whence it was conducted by pipes into the Cedron. In the evening, both men and women assembled in the court of the women, expressly to hold a rejoicing for the drawing of the water of Siloam. At the same time there were set up in the court two lofty stands, each supporting four great lamps. These were lighted on each night of the festival. It appears to be generally admitted that the words of our Saviour,
—"If a man thirst, let him come unto me drink. He that believeth on me as the Scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water" —were suggested by the pouring out of the water of Siloam. But it is very doubtful what is meant by "the last day, that great day of the feast." It would seem that either the last day of the feast itself, that is, the seventh, or the last day of the religious observances of the series of annual festivals, the eighth, must be intended. The eighth day may be meant and then the reference of our Lord would be to an ordinary and well-known observance of the feast, though it was not, at the very time, going on. We must resort to some such explanation if we adopt the notion that our Lord’s words
—"I am the light of the world "— refer to the great lamps of the festival.
4. Though all the Hebrew annual festivals were seasons of rejoicing, the Feast of Tabernacles was, in this respect, distinguished above them all. The huts and the lulabs must have made a gay end striking spectacle over the city by day, and the lamps, the flambeaux, the music and the joyous gatherings in the court of the temple must have given a still more festive character to the night. The main purposes of the Feast of Tabernacles are plainly set forth in
and Levi 23:43 It was to be at once a thanksgiving for the harvest and a commemoration of the time when the Israelites dwelt in tents during their passage through the wilderness. In one of its meanings it stands in connection with the Passover. as the Feast of Abib, and with Pentecost, as the feast of harvest; in its other meaning, it is related to the Passover as the great yearly memorial of the deliverance from the destroyer and from the tyranny of Egypt. But naturally connected with this exultation in their regained freedom was the rejoicing in the more perfect fulfillment of God’s promise in the settlement of his people in the holy blessing. But the culminating point of was the establishment of the central spot of the national worship in the temple at Jerusalem. Hence it was evidently fitting that the Feast of Tabernacles should be kept with an unwonted degree of observance at the dedication of Solomon’s temple,
Joseph. Ant. viii. 4,5; again, after the rebuilding of the temple by Ezra,
and a third time by Judas Maccabaeus when he had driven out the Syrians and restored the temple to the worship of Jehovah. 2 Macc. 10:5-8.
(gazelle), also called Dorcas by St. Luke, a female disciple of Joppa, "full of good works" among which that of making clothes for the poor is specifically mentioned. While St. Peter was at the neighboring town of Lydda, Tabitha, died; upon which the disciples at Joppa sent an urgent message to the apostle begging him to come to them without delay. Upon his arrival Peter found the deceased already prepared for burial, and laid out in an upper chamber, where she was surrounded by the recipients and the tokens of her charity after the example of our Saviour in the house of Jairus,
Mt 9:25; Mr 5:40
"Peter put them all forth," prayed for the divine assistance, and then commanded Tabitha to arise. Comp.
Mr 5:41; Lu 8:51
She opened-her eyes and sat up, and then, assisted by the apostle, rose from her couch. This great miracle, as we are further told produced an extraordinary effect in Joppa, and was the occasion of many conversions there.
The name "Tabitha" is an Aramaic word signifying a "female gazelle." St. Luke gives "Dorcas" as the Greek equivalent of the name.
(a mound), or Mount Tabor, one of the most interesting and remarkable of the single mountains in Palestine. It rises abruptly from the northeastern arm of the plain of Esdraelon, and stands entirely insulated, except on the west where a narrow ridge connects it with the hills of Nazareth. It presents to the eye, as seen from a distance, a beautiful appearance, being symmetrical in its proportions and rounded off like a hemisphere or the segment of a circle, yet varying somewhat as viewed from different directions. The body of the mountain consists of the peculiar limestone of the country. It is now called Jebel-et-Tur. It lies about six or eight miles almost due east from Nazareth. The ascent is usually made on the west side, near the little village of Deburieh —probably the ancient Daberath,
—though it can be made with entire ease in other places. It requires three quarters of an hour or an hour to reach the to the top. The top of Tabor consists of an irregular platform, embracing a circuit of half an hour’s walk, and commanding wide views of the subjacent plain from end to end. Tabor does not occur in the New Testament, but makes a prominent figure in the Old. The book of Joshua
mentions it as the boundary between Issachar and Zebulun, See ver.
12. Barak, at the command of Deborah, assembled his forces on Tabor, and descended thence, with "ten thousand men after him," into the plain, and conquered Sisera on the banks of the Kishon.
The brothers of Gideon each of whom "resembled the children of a king," were murdered here by Zebah and Zalmunna.
There are at present the ruins of a fortress round all the summit of Tabor. The Latin Christians have now an altar here at which their priests from Nazareth perform an annual mass. The Greeks also have a chapel, where, on certain festivals they assemble for the celebration of religious rites. The idea that our Saviour was transfigured on Tabor prevailed extensively among the early Christians, and still reappears often in popular religious works. It is impossible, however, to acquiesce in the correctness of this opinion. It can be proved from the Old Testament and from later history that a fortress or town existed on Tabor from very early times down to B.C. 53 or 50; and as Josephus says that he strengthened the fortifications there about A.D. 60, it is morally certain that Tabor must have been inhabited during the intervening Period that is in the days of Christ. Tabor, therefore, could not have been the Mount of Transfiguration [see HERMON]; for when it is said that Jesus took his disciples "up into a high mountain apart, and was transfigured before them
we must understand that he brought them to the summit of the mountain, where they were alone by themselves.
is mentioned in the lists of 1Chr 6 as a city of the Merarite Levites, in the tribe of Zebulun. ver.
The list of the towns of Zebulun. Josh 19 contains the name of Chisloth-tabor. ver.
It is, therefore, possible, either that Chisloth-tabor is abbreviated into Tabor by the chronicler, or that by the time these later lists were compiled the Merarites had established themselves on the sacred mountain, and that Tabor is Mount Tabor.
Tabor, The plain of.
This is an incorrect translation, and should be THE OAK OF TABOR. It is mentioned in
TABOR -See 9184
TABOR -See 9185
only, as one of the points in the homeward journey of Saul after his anointing by Samuel.
(properly Tabrimmon, i.e. good is Rimmon, the Syrian god) the father of Ben-hadad I., king of Syria in the reign of Asa.
(B.C. before 928.)
The word thus rendered occurs only in the description of the structure of the tabernacle and its fittings,
Ex 26:6,11,33; 35:11; 36:13; 39:33
and appears to indicate the small hooks by which a curtain is suspended to the rings from which it hangs, or connected vertically, as in the case of the veil of the holy of holies, with the loops of another curtain.
"The Tachmonite that sat in the seat," chief among David’s captains,
Isa in 1Chr 11:11 called "Jashobeam an Hachmonite," or, as the margin gives it, "son of Hachmoni." Kennicott has shown that the words translated "he that sat in the seat" are a corruption of Jashobeam, and that "the Tachmonite" is a corruption of the "son of Hachmoni," which was the family or local name of Jashobeam. Therefore he concludes "Jashobeam the Hachmonite" to have been the true reading.
(city of palms), called "Tadmor in the wilderness," is the same as the city known to the Greeks and Romans under the name of Palmyra. It lay between the Euphrates and Hamath, to the southeast of that city, in a fertile tract or oasis of the desert. Being situated at a convenient distance from both the Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf, it had great advantages for caravan traffic. It was built by Solomon after his conquest of Hamath-zobah.
1Ki 9:18; 2Ch 8:4
As the city is-nowhere else mentioned in the Bible, it would be out of place to enter into a detailed history of it. In the second century A.D. it seems to have been beautified by the emperor Hadrian. In the beginning of the third century —211-217 A.D.— it became a Roman colony under Caracalla. Subsequently, in the reign of Gallienus, the Roman senate invested Odenathus, a senator of Palmyra, with the regal dignity, on account of his services in defeating Sapor, king of Persia. On the assassination of Odenathus, his wife, Zenobia, seems to have conceived the design of erecting Palmyra into an independent monarchy; and in prosecution of this object, she for a while successfully resisted the Roman arms. She was at length defeated and taken captive by the emperor Aurelian, A.D. 273, who left a Roman garrison in Palmyra. This garrison was massacred in a revolt; and Aurelian punished the city by the execution not only of those who were taken in arms, but likewise of common peasants, of old men, women and children. From this blow Palmyra never recovered, though there are proofs of its having continued to be inhabited until the downfall of the Roman empire. The grandeur and magnificence of the ruins of Palmyra cannot be exceeded, and attest its former greatness. Among the most remarkable are the Tombs, the Temple of the Sun and the Street of Columns.
(camp), a descendant of Ephraim.
he appears as the son of Telah.
1. A Kohathite Levite, ancestor of Samuel and Heman.
1Ch 6:22,37, 9:22
(B.C. about 1415.)
2. According to the present text, son of Bered, and great-grandson of Ephraim.
Burrington, however, identifies Tahath with Tahan, the son of Ephraim.
3. Grandson of the preceding, as the text now stands.
But Burrington considers him as a son of Ephraim.
the name of a desert station of the Israelites between Makheloth and Tarah.
The site has not been identified.
Tah’panhes, Tehaph’nehes, Tahap’anes,
a city of Egypt, mentioned in the time of the prophets Jeremiah and Ezekiel. The name is evidently Egyptian, and closely resembles that of the Egyptian queen Tahpenes. It was evidently a town of lower Egypt, near or on the eastern border. When Johanan and the other captains went into Egypt "they came to Tahpanhes."
The Jews in Jeremiah’s time remained here.
It was an important town, being twice mentioned by the latter prophet with Noph or Memphis.
Jer 2:16; 46:14
Here stood a house of Pharaoh-hophra before which Jeremiah hid great stones.
an Egyptian queen, was wife of the Pharaoh who received Hadad the Edomite, and who gave him her sister in marriage.
(B.C. about 1000.)
(cunning), son of Micah and grandson of Mephibosheth.
(B.C. after 1057.)
(lowlands of Hodshi?), The land of, one of the places visited by Joab during his census of the land of Israel. It occurs between Gilead and Dan-jaan.
The name has puzzled all the interpreters, (Kitto says it was probably a section of the upper valley of the Jordan, now called Ard el-Huleh, lying deep down at the western base of Hermon. —ED.)
[WEIGHTS AND MEASURES]
MEASURES -See 7886
two Syriac words,
signifying damsel, arise.
1. One of the three sons of "the Anak" who were slain by the men of Judah.
Nu 13:22; Jos 15:14; Jud 1:10
2. Son of Ammihud king of Geshur.
2Sa 3:3; 13:37; 1Ch 3:2
He was probably a petty chieftain, dependent on David. (B.C. 1040.)
(oppressor), the head of a family of door-keepers in the temple, "the porters for the camps of the sons: of Levi."
1Ch 9:17; Ne 11:19
(B.C. 1013.) Some of his descendants returned with Zerubbabel,
Ezr 2:43; Ne 7:45
and were employed in their hereditary office in the days of Nehemiah and Ezra.
(i.e. doctrine, from the Hebrew word "to learn") is a large collection of writings, containing a full account of the civil and religious laws of the Jews. It was a fundamental principle of the Pharisees, common to them with all orthodox modern Jews, that by the side of the written law, regarded as a summary of the principles and general laws of the Hebrew people, there was an oral law, to complete and to explain the written law. It was an article of faith that in the Pentateuch there was no precept, and no regulation, ceremonial, doctrinal or legal, of which God had not given to Moses all explanations necessary for their application, with the order to transmit them by word of mouth. The classical subject is the following in the Mishna on this wing: "Moses received the (oral) law from Sinai, and delivered it to Joshua, and Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the prophets and the prophets to the men of the Great Synagogue." This oral law, with the numerous commentaries upon it, forms the Talmud. It consists of two parts, the Mishna and Gemara.
1. The MISHNA, or "second law," which contains a compendium of the whole ritual law, was reduced to writing in its present form by Rabbi Jehuda the Holy, a Jew of great wealth and influence, who flourished in the second century of the Christian era. Viewed as a whole, the precepts in the Mishna treated men like children, formalizing and defining the minutest particulars of ritual observances. The expressions of "bondage," or "weak and beggarly elements," and of "burdens too heavy for men to bear," faithfully represent the impression produced by their multiplicity. The Mishna is very concisely written, and requires notes.
2. This circumstance led to the commentaries called GEMARA (i.e. supplement, completion), which form the second part of the Talmud, and which are very commonly meant when the word "Talmud" is used by itself. There are two Gemaras; one of Jerusalem, in which there is said to be no passage which can be proved to be later than the first half of the fourth century; and the other of Babylon, completed about 500 A.D. The latter is the more important and by far the longer.
(laughter). The children of Tamah or Thamah,
were among the Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel.
1. The wife successively of the two sons of Judah, Er and Onan.
(B.C. about 1718.) Her importance in the sacred narrative depends on the great anxiety to keep up the lineage of Judah. It seemed as if the family were on the point of extinction. Er and Onan had successively perished suddenly. Judah’s wife, Bathshuah, died; and there only remained a child, Shelah, whom Judah was unwilling to trust to the dangerous union as it appeared, with Tamar, lest he should meet with the same fate as his brothers. Accordingly she resorted to the desperate expedient of entrapping the father himself into the union which he feared for his son. The fruits of this intercourse were twins, Pharez and Zarah, and through Pharez the sacred line was continued.
2. Daughter of David and Maachah the Geshurite princess, and thus sister of Absalom.
2Sa 13:1-32; 1Ch 3:9
(B.C. 1033.) She and her brother were alike remarkable for their extraordinary beauty. This fatal beauty inspired a frantic passion in her half-brother Amnon, the oldest son of David by Ahinoam. In her touching remonstrance two points are remarkable: first, the expression of the infamy of such a crime "in Israel" implying the loftier standard of morals that prevailed, as compared with other countries at that time; and second, the belief that even this standard might be overborne lawfully by royal authority —"Speak to the king, for he will not withhold me from thee." The intense hatred of Amnon succeeding to his brutal passion, and the indignation of Tamar at his barbarous insult, even surpassing her indignation at his shameful outrage, are pathetically and graphically told.
3. Daughter of Absalom,
became, by her marriage with Uriah of Gibeah, the mother of Maachah, the future queen of Judah or wife of Abijah.
4. A spot on the southeastern frontier of Judah, named in
Eze 47:19, 48:28
only, evidently called from a palm tree. If not Hazazon-tamar, the old name of Engedi, it may he a place called Thamar in the Onamasticon [HAZAZON-TAMAR), a day’s journey south of Hebron.
(sprout of life), properly "the Tammuz," the article indicating that at some time or other the word had been regarded as an appellative.
Jerome identifies Tammuz with Adonis, of Grecian mythology, who was fabled to have lost his wife while hunting, by a wound from the tusk of a wild boar. He was greatly beloved by the goddess Venus, who was inconsolable at his loss. His blood according to Ovid produced the anemone, but according to others the adonium, while the anemone sprang from the tears of Venus. A festival in honor of Adonis was celebrated at Byblus in Phoenicia and in most of the Grecian cities, and even by the Jews when they degenerated into idolatry. It took place in July, and was accompanied by obscene rites.
a slight variation of the name TAANACH.
(consolation), the father of Seraiah in the time of Gedaliah.
2Ki 25:23; Jer 40:8
(B.C. before 582.)
(ornament), the daughter of Solomon, who was married to ben-Abinadab.
(B.C. about 1000.)
one of the cities in Judea fortified by Bacchides. 1 Macc. 9:50. It is probably the Beth-tappuah of the Old Testament.
1. A city of Judah, of the Shefelah or lowland.
2. A place on the boundary of the "children of Joseph."
Jos 16:8; 17:8
Its full name was probably En-tappuah.
("Around the city was a district called the land of Tappuah; the city belonged to Ephraim and the land to Manasseh.
3. One of the sons of Hebron, of the tribe of Judah.
It is doubtless the same as Beth-tappuah. (B.C. before 1450.)
(delay), a desert-station of the Israelites between Tahath and Mithcah.
(reeling), one of the towns in the allotment of Benjamin.
the same as Tahreah, the son of Micah.
There can be little doubt that the zizania of the parable,
denotes the weed called "darnel" (Lolium temulentum). The darnel before it comes into ear is very similar in appearance to wheat; hence the command that the zizania should be left to the harvest, lest while men plucked up the tares "they should root up also the wheat with them." Dr. Stanley, however, speaks of women and children picking up from the wheat in the cornfields of Samaria the tall green stalks, still called by the Arabs zuwan. "These stalks," he continues, "if sown designedly throughout the fields, would be inseparable from the wheat, from which, even when growing naturally and by chance, they are at first sight hardly distinguishable." See also Thomson ("The Land and the Book" p. 420): "The grain is in just the proper stage to illustrate the parable. In those parts where the grain has headed out, the tares have done the same, and then a child cannot mistake them for wheat or barley; but where both are less developed, the closest scrutiny will often fail to detect them. Even the farmers, who in this country generally weed their fields, do not attempt to separate the one from the other." The grains of the L. temulentum, if eaten, produce convulsions, and even death.
VERSIONS -See 9428
A race of Assyrian colonists who were planted int he cites of Samaria after the captivity of the northern kingdom of Israel.
They have not been identified with any certainty.
1. Probably Tartessus, a city and emporium of the Phoenicians in the south of Spain, represented as one of the sons of Javan.
Ge 10:4; 1Ki 10:22; 1Ch 1:7; Ps 48:7; Isa 2:16; Jer 10:9;
Eze 27:12,25; Jon 1:3; 4:2
The identity of the two places is rendered highly probable by the following circumstances: 1st. There is a very close similarity of name between them, Tartessus being merely Tarshish in the Aramaic form. 2nd. There seems to have been a special relation between Tarshish and Tyre, as there was at one time between Tartessus and Phoenicians. 3rd. The articles which Tarshish is stated by the prophet Ezekiel,
to have supplied to Tyre are precisely such as we know, through classical writers, to have been productions of the Spanish peninsula. In regard to tin, the trade of Tarshish in this metal is peculiarly significant, and, taken in conjunction with similarity of name and other circumstances already mentioned, is reasonably conclusive as to its identity with Tartessus. For even not when countries in Europe or on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea where tin is found are very few; and in reference to ancient times, it would be difficult to name any such countries except Iberia or Spain, Lusitania, which was somewhat less in extent than Portugal, and Cornwall in Great Britain. In the absence of positive proof, we may acquiesce in the statement of Strabo, that the river Baetis (now the Guadalquivir) was formerly called Tartessus, that the city Tartessus was situated between the two arms by which the river flowed into the sea, and that the adjoining country was called Tartessis.
2. From the book of Chronicles there would seem to have been a Tarshish accessible from the Red Sea, in addition to the Tarshish of the south of Spain. Thus, with regard to the ships of Tarshish, which Jehoshaphat caused to be constructed at Ezion-geber on the Elanitic Gulf of the Red Sea,
it is said in the Chronicles,
that they were made to go to Tarshish; and in like manner the navy of ships, which Solomon had previously made in Ezion-geber,
is said in the Chronicles,
to have gone to Tarshish with the servants of Hiram. It is not to be supposed that the author of these passages in the Chronicles contemplated a voyage to Tarshish in the south of Spain by going round what has since been called the Cape of Good Hope. The expression "ships of Tarshish" originally meant ships destined to go to Tarshish; and then probably came to signify large Phoenician ships, of a particular size the description, destined for long voyages, just as in English "East Indiaman" was a general name given to vessels, some of which were not intended to go to India at all. Hence we may infer that the word Tarshish was also used to signify any distant place, and in this case would be applied to one in the Indian Ocean. This is shown by the nature of the imports with which the fleet returned, which are specified as "gold, silver, ivory, apes, and peacocks."
The gold might possibly have been obtained form Africa, or from Ophir in Arabia, and the ivory and the apes might likewise have been imported from Africa; but the peacocks point conclusively, not to Africa, but to India. There are only two species known: both inhabit the mainland and islands of India; so that the mention of the peacock seems to exclude the possibility of the voyage having been to Africa.
the chief town of Cilicia, "no mean city" in other respects, but illustrious to all time as the birthplace and early residence of the apostle Paul.
Ac 9:11; 21:39; 22:3
Even in the flourishing period of Greek history it was a city of some considerable consequence. In the civil wars of Rome it took Caesar’s aide, sad on the occasion of a visit from him had its name changed to Juliopolis. Augustus made it a "free city." It was renowned as a place of education under the early Roman emperors. Strabo compares it in this respect to Athens unto Alexandria. Tarsus also was a place of much commerce. It was situated in a wild and fertile plain on the banks of the Cydnus. No ruins of any importance remain.
(prince of darkness), one of the gods of the Avite or Avvite colonists of Samaria.
According to rabbinical tradition, Tartak is said to have been worshipped under the form of an ass.
which occurs only in
and Isai 20:1 has been generally regarded as a proper name; like Rabsaris and Rabshakeh, it is more probably an official designation, and indicates the Assyrian commander-in-chief.
(gift), satrap of the province west of the Euphrates in the time of Darius Hystaspes.
Ezr 5:3,6; 6:6,13
(B.C. 520.) The name is thought to be Persian.
Taverns, The three.
I. Under the judges, according to the theocratic government contemplated by the law, the only payments incumbent upon the people as of permanent obligation were the Tithes, the Firstfruits, the Redemption-money of the first-born, and other offerings as belonging to special occasions. The payment by each Israelite of the half-shekel as "atonement-money," for the service of the tabernacle, on taking the census of the people,
does not appear to have had the character of a recurring tax, but to have been supplementary to the freewill offerings of
levied for the one purpose of the construction of the sacred tent. In later times, indeed, after the return from Babylon, there was an annual payment for maintaining the fabric and services of the temple; but the fact that this begins by of a shekel,
shows that till then there was no such payment recognized as necessary. A little later the third became a half, and under the name of the didrachma,
was paid by every Jew, in whatever part of the world he might be living. II. The kingdom, with centralized government and greater magnificence, involved of course, a larger expenditure, and therefore a heavier taxation, The chief burdens appear to have been— (1) A tithe of the produce both of the soil and of live stock.
(2) Forced military service for a month every year.
1Sa 8:12; 1Ki 9:22; 1Ch 27:1
(3) Gifts to the king.
1Sa 10:27; 16:20; 17:18
(4) Import duties.
(5) The monopoly of certain-branches of commerce.
1Ki 9:28; 22:48; 10:28,29
(6) The appropriation to the king’s use of the early crop of hay.
At times, too, in the history of both the kingdoms there were special burdens. A tribute of fifty shekels a head had to be paid by Menahem to the Assyrian king,
and under his successor Hoshea this assumed the form of an annual tribute.
III. Under the Persian empire the taxes paid by the Jews were, in their broad outlines, the same in kind as those of other subject races. The financial system which gained for Darius Hystaspes the name of the "shopkeeper king" involved the payment by each satrap of a fixed sum as the tribute due from his province. In Judea, as in other provinces, the inhabitants had to provide in kind for the maintenance of the governor’s household, besides a money payment of forty shekels a day.
In Ezra 4:13,20; 7:24 we get a formal enumeration of the three great branches of the revenue. The influence of Ezra secured for the whole ecclesiastical order, from the priests down to the Nethinim, an immunity from all three
but the burden pressed heavily on the great body of the people. IV. Under the Egyptian and Syrian kings the taxes paid by the Jews became yet heavier. The "farming" system of finance was adopted in its worst form. The taxes were put up to auction. The contract sum for those of Phoenicia, Judea and Samaria had been estimated at about 8000 talents. An unscrupulous adventurer would bid double that sum, and would then go down to the province, and by violence and cruelty, like that of Turkish or Hindoo collectors, squeeze out a large margin of profit for himself. V. The pressure of Roman taxation, if not absolutely heavier, was probably more galling, as being more thorough and systematic, more distinctively a mark of bondage. The capture of Jerusalem by Pompey was followed immediately by the imposition of a tribute, and within a short time the sum thus taken from the resources of the country amounted to 10,000 talents. When Judea became formally a Roman province, the whole financial system of the empire came as a natural consequence. The taxes were systematically farmed, and the publicans appeared as a new curse to the country. The portoria were levied at harbors, piers and the gates of cities.
Mt 17:24; Ro 13:7
In addition to this there was the poll-tax paid by every Jew, and looked upon, for that reason, as the special badge of servitude. United with this, as part of the same system, there was also, in all probability, a property tax of some kind. In addition to these general taxes, the inhabitants of Jerusalem were subject to a special house duty about this period.
The English word now conveys to us more distinctly the notion of a tax or tribute actually levied; but it appears to have been used in the sixteenth century for the simple assessment of a subsidy upon the property of a given county, or the registration of the people for the purpose of a poll-tax. Two distinct registrations, or taxings, are mentioned in the New Testament, both of them by St. Luke. The first is said to have been the result of an edict of the emperor Augustus, that "all the world (i.e. the Roman empire) should be taxed,"
and is connected by the evangelist with the name of Cyrenius Quirinus. [CYRENIUS] The second and more important,
is distinctly associated, in point of time, with the revolt of Judas of Galilee.
(slaughter), eldest of the sons of Nahor by his concubine Reumah.
(purified), third son of Hosah of the children of Merari.
(supplication), the father or founder of Ir-nahash, the city of Nahash, and son of Eshton.
(B.C. about 1083.)
1. A town in the tribe of Judah.
on the range of hills which rise near Hebron and stretch eastward toward the Dead Sea. Jerome says that Tekoa was six Roman miles from Bethlehem, and that as he wrote he had that village daily before his eyes. The "wise woman" whom Joab employed to effect a reconciliation between David and Absalom was obtained from this place.
Here also Ira the son of Ikkesh, one of David’s thirty, "the mighty men," was born, and was called on that account "the Tekoite,"
It was one of the places which Rehoboam fortified, at the beginning of his reign, as a defence against invasion from the south.
Some of the people from Tekoa took part in building the walls of Jerusalem, after the return from the captivity.
the prophet exclaims, "Blow the trumpet in Tekoa, and set up a sign of fire in Bethhaccerem." But Tekoa is chiefly memorable as the birthplace
of the prophet Amos. Tekoa is still as Teku’a. It lies on an elevated hill, which spreads itself out into an irregular plain of moderate extent. Various ruins exist, such as the walls of houses, cisterns, broken columns and heaps of building-stones.
2. A name occurring in the genealogies of Judah,
1Ch 2:24; 4:5
as the son of Ashur. There is little doubt that the town of Tekoa is meant.
Ira ben-Ikkesh, one of David’s warriors, is thus designated.
2Sa 23:26; 1Ch 11:28; 27:8
The common people among the Tekoites displayed great activity in the repairs of the wall of Jerusalem under Nehemiah.
(cornhill) was probably a city of Chaldaea or Babylonia, not of upper Mesopotamia as generally supposed.
The whole scene of Ezekiel’s preaching and visions seems to have been Chaldaea proper; and the river Chebar, as already observed, was not the Khabour, but a branch of the Euphrates.
(vigor), a descendant of Ephraim, and ancestor of Joshua.
(B.C. before 1491.)
(lambs), the place at which Saul collected and numbered his forces before his attack on Amalek,
may be identical with TELEM, which see.
(Assyrian hill) is mentioned in
and in Isai 37:12 as a city inhabited by "the children of Eden," —which had been conquered and was held in the time of Sennacherib, by the Assyrians. it must have been in western Mesopotamia, in the neighborhood of Harran and Orfa.
1. One of the cities in the extreme south of Judah,
probably the same as Telaim. The name Dhullam is found in Van de Velde’s map, attached to a district immediately to the north of the Kubbet el-Baul, south of el Milh and Ar’arah —a position very suitable.
2. A porter or doorkeeper of the temple in the time of Ezra.
He is probably the same as TALMON in
(hill of the artificer), one of the Babylonian towns or villages mentioned in
Ezr 2:59; Ne 7:61
along with Tel-melah and Cherub, probably in the low country near the sea.
(a desert), the ninth son of Ishmael,
Ge 25:15; 1Ch 1:30
whence the tribe called after him, mentioned in
Job 6:19; Jer 25:23
and also the land occupied by this tribe.
(B.C. after 1850.) The name is identified with Teyma, a small town on the confines of Syria.
1. A son of Eliphaz, son of Esau by Adah.
Ge 36:11,15,41; 1Ch 1:36,53
(B.C. about 1792.)
2. A country, and probably a city, named after the Edomite phylarch, or from which the phylarch took his name. The Hebrew signifies "south," etc., see
Job 9:9; Isa 43:6
and it is probable that the land of Teman was a southern portion of the land of Edom, or, in a wider sense, that of the sons of the east. Teman is mentioned in five places by the prophets, in four of which it is connected with Edom and in two with Dedan.
Jer 49:7,8; Eze 25:13
Eusebius and Jerome mention Teman as a town in their day distant 15 miles from Petra, and a Roman post.
an inhabitant of Teman.
son of Ashur the father of Tekoa, by his wife Naarah.
(B.C. about 1450.)
There is perhaps no building of the ancient world which has excited so much attention since the time of its destruction as the temple which Solomon built by Herod. Its spoils were considered worthy of forming the principal illustration of one of the most beautiful of Roman triumphal arches, and Justinian’s highest architectural ambition was that he might surpass it. Throughout the middle ages it influenced to a considerable degree the forms of Christian churches, and its peculiarities were the watchwords and rallying-points of all associations of builders. When the French expedition to Egypt, int he first years of this century, had made the world familiar with the wonderful architectural remains of that country, every one jumped to the conclusion that Solomon’s temple must have been designed after an Egyptian model. The discoveries in Assyria by Botta and Layard have within the last twenty years given an entirely new direction to the researches of the restorers. Unfortunately, however, no Assyrian temple has yet been exhumed of a nature to throw much light on this subject, and we are still forced to have recourse to the later buildings at Persepolis, or to general deductions from the style of the nearly contemporary secular buildings at Nineveh and elsewhere, for such illustrations as are available. THE TEMPLE OF SOLOMON. —It was David who first proposed to replace the tabernacle by a more permanent building, but was forbidden for the reasons assigned by the prophet Nathan,
etc.; and though he collected materials and made arrangements, the execution of the task was left for his son Solomon. (The gold and silver alone accumulated by David are at the lowest reckoned to have amounted to between two and three billion dollars, a sum which can be paralleled from secular history. —Lange.) Solomon, with the assistance of Hiram king of Tyre, commenced this great undertaking int he fourth year of his reign, B.C. 1012, and completed it in seven years, B.C. 1005. (There were 183,000 Jews and strangers employed on it —of Jews 30,000, by rotation 10,000 a month; of Canaanites 153,600, of whom 70,000 were bearers of burdens, 80,000 hewers of wood and stone, and 3600 overseers. The parts were all prepared at a distance from the site of the building, and when they were brought together the whole immense structure was erected without the sound of hammer, axe or any tool of iron.
—Schaff.) The building occupied the site prepared for it by David, which had formerly been the threshing-floor of the Jebusite Ornan or Araunah, on Mount Moriah. The whole area enclosed by the outer walls formed a square of about 600 feet; but the sanctuary itself was comparatively small, inasmuch as it was intended only for the ministrations of the priests, the congregation of the people assembling in the courts. In this and all other essential points the temple followed the model of the tabernacle, from which it differed chiefly by having chambers built about the sanctuary for the abode of the priests and attendants and the keeping of treasures and stores. In all its dimensions, length, breadth and height, the sanctuary itself was exactly double the size of the tabernacle, the ground plan measuring 80 cubits by 40, while that of the tabernacle was 40 by 20, and the height of the temple being 30 cubits, while that of the tabernacle was 15. [The readers would compare the following account with the article TABERNACLE] As in the tabernacle, the temple consisted of three parts, the porch, the holy place, and the holy of holies. The front of the porch was supported, after the manner of some Egyptian temples, by the two great brazen pillars, Jachin and Boaz, 18 cubits high, with capitals of 5 cubits more, adorned with lily-work and pomegranates.
The places of the two "veils" of the tabernacle were occupied by partitions, in which were folding-doors. The whole interior was lines with woodwork richly carved and overlaid with gold. Indeed, both within and without the building was conspicuously chiefly by the lavish use of the gold of Ophir and Parvaim. It glittered in the morning sun (it has been well said) like the sanctuary of an El Dorado. Above the sacred ark, which was placed, as of old, in the most holy place, were made new cherubim, one pair of whose wings met above the ark, and another pair reached to the walls behind them. In the holy place, besides the altar of incense, which was made of cedar overlaid with gold there were seven golden candlesticks in stead of one, and the table of shew-bread was replaced by ten golden tables, bearing, besides the shew bread, the innumerable golden vessels for the service of the sanctuary. The outer court was no doubt double the size of that of the tabernacle; and we may therefore safely assume that if was 10 cubits in height, 100 cubits north and south, and 200 east and west. If contained an inner court, called the "court of the priests;" but the arrangement of the courts and of the porticos and gateways of the enclosure, though described by Josephus, belongs apparently to the temple of Herod. The outer court there was a new altar of burnt offering, much larger than the old one. [ALTAR] Instead of the brazen laver there was "a molten sea" of brass, a masterpiece of Hiram’s skill for the ablution of the priests. It was called a "sea" from its great size. [SEA, MOLTEN] The chambers for the priests were arranged in successive stories against the sides of the sanctuary; not, however, reaching to the top, so as to leave space for the windows to light the holy and the most holy place. We are told by Josephus and the Talmud that there was a superstructure on the temple equal in height to the lower part; and this is confirmed by the statement in the books of Chronicles that Solomon "overlaid the upper chambers with gold."
SEA -See 8774
Moreover, "the altars on the top of the upper chamber," mentioned in the books of the Kings,
were apparently upon the temple. The dedication of the temple was the grandest ceremony ever performed under the Mosaic dispensation. The temple was destroyed on the capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, B.C. 586. TEMPLE OF ZERUBBABEL. —We have very few particulars regarding the temple which the Jews erected after their return from the captivity (about B.C. 520), and no description that would enable us to realize its appearance. But there are some dimensions given in the Bible and elsewhere which are extremely interesting, as affording points of comparison between it and the temple which preceded it and the one erected after it. The first and most authentic are those given in the book of Ezra,
when quoting the decree of Cyrus, wherein it is said, "Let the house be builded, the place where they offered sacrifices and let the foundations thereof be strongly laid; the height thereof three-score cubits. and the breadth thereof three-score cubits, with three rows of great stones, and a row of new timber." Josephus quotes this passage almost literally, but in doing so enables us to translate with certainty the word here called row as "story" —as indeed the sense would lead us to infer. We see by the description in Ezra that this temple was about one third larger than Solomon’s. From these dimensions we gather that if the priests and Levites and elders of families were disconsolate at seeing how much more sumptuous the old temple was than the one which on account of their poverty they had hardly been able to erect,
it certainly was not because it was smaller; but it may have been that the carving and the gold and the other ornaments of Solomon’s temple far surpassed this, and the pillars of the portico and the veils may all have been far more splendid; so also probably were the vessels and all this is what a Jew would mourn over far more than mere architectural splendor. In speaking of these temples we must always bear in mind that their dimensions were practically very far inferior to those of the heathen. Even that of Ezra is not larger than an average parish church of the last century; Solomon’s was smaller. It was the lavish display of the precious metals, the elaboration of carved ornament, and the beauty of the textile fabrics, which made up their splendor and rendered them so precious in the eyes of the people. TEMPLE OF EZEKIEL. —The vision of a temple which the prophet Ezekiel saw while residing on the banks of the Chebar in Babylonia, in the twenty-fifth year of the captivity, does not add much to our knowledge of the subject. It is not a description of a temple that ever was built or ever could be erected at Jerusalem, and can consequently only be considered as the beau ideal of what a Shemitic temple ought to be.
TEMPLE OF HEROD. —Herod the Great announced to the people assembled at the Passover, B.C. 20 or 19, his intention of restoring the temple; (probably a stroke of policy on the part of Herod to gain the favor of the Jews and to make his name great.) if we may believe Josephus, he pulled down the whole edifice to its foundations, and laid them anew on an enlarged scale; but the ruins still exhibit, in some parts, what seem to be the foundations laid by Zerubbable, and beneath them the more massive substructions of Solomon. The new edifice was a stately pile of Graeco-Roman architecture, built in white marble gilded acroteria. It is minutely described by Josephus, and the New Testament has made us familiar with the pride of the Jews in its magnificence. A different feeling, however, marked the commencement of the work, which met with some opposition from the fear that what Herod had begun he would not be able to finish. he overcame all jealousy by engaging not to pull down any part of the existing buildings till all the materials for the new edifice were collected on its site. Two years appear to have been occupied in preparations —among which Josephus mentions the teaching of some of the priests and Levites to work as masons and carpenters —and then the work began. The holy "house," including the porch, sanctuary and holy of holies, was finished in a year and a half, B.C. 16. Its completion, on the anniversary of Herod’s inauguration, was celebrated by lavish sacrifices and a great feast. About B.C. 9 —eight years from the commencement —the court and cloisters of the temple were finished, and the bridge between the south cloister and the upper city (demolished by Pompey) was doubtless now rebuilt with that massive masonry of which some remains still survive. (The work, however, was not entirely ended till A.D. 64, under Herod Agrippa II. So the statement in
is correct. —Schaff.) The temple or holy "house" itself was in dimensions and arrangement very similar to that of Solomon, or rather that of Zerubbabel —more like the latter; but this was surrounded by an inner enclosure of great strength and magnificence, measuring as nearly as can be made out 180 cubits by 240, and adorned by porches and ten gateways of great magnificence; and beyond this again was an outer enclosure measuring externally 400 cubits each way, which was adorned with porticos of greater splendor than any we know of as attached to any temple of the ancient world. The temple was certainly situated in the southwest angle of the area now known as the Haram area at Jerusalem, and its dimensions were what Josephus states them to be —400 cubits, or one stadium, each way. At the time when Herod rebuilt it, he enclosed a space "twice as large" as that before occupied by the temple and its courts —an expression that probably must not be taken too literally at least, if we are to depend on the measurements of Hecataeus. According to them, the whole area of Herod’s temple was between four and five times greater than that which preceded it. What Herod did apparently, was to take in the whole space between the temple and the city wall on its east side, and to add a considerable space on the north and south to support the porticos which he added there. As the temple terrace thus became the principal defence of the city on the east side, there were no gates or openings in that direction, and being situated on a sort of rocky brow —as evidenced from its appearance in the vaults that bounded it on this side —if was at all later times considered unattackable from the eastward. The north side, too, where not covered by the fortress Antonia, became part of the defenses of the city, and was likewise without external gates. On the south side, which was enclosed by the wall of Ophel, there were notable gates nearly in the centre. These gates still exist at a distance of about 365 feet from the southwestern angle, and are perhaps the only architectural features of the temple of Herod which remain in situ. This entrance consists of a double archway of Cyclopean architecture on the level of the ground, opening into a square vestibule measuring 40 feet each way. From this a double funnel nearly 200 feet in length, leads to a flight of steps which rise to the surface in the court of the temple, exactly at that gateway of the inner temple which led to the altar, and is one of the four gateways on this side by which any one arriving from Ophel would naturally wish to enter the inner enclosure. We learn from the Talmud that the gate of the inner temple to which this passage led was called the "water gate;" and it is interesting to be able to identify a spot so prominent in the description of Nehemiah.
Toward the west there were four gateways to the external enclosure of the temple. The most magnificent part of the temple, in an architectural point of view, seems certainly to have been the cloisters which were added to the outer court when it was enlarged by Herod. The cloisters in the west, north and east sides were composed of double rows of Corinthian columns, 25 cubits or 37 feet 6 inches in height, with flat roof, and resting against the outer wall of the temple. These, however, were immeasurably surpassed in magnificence by the royal porch or Stoa Basilica, which overhung the southern wall. It consisted of a nave and two aisled, that toward the temple being open, that toward the country closed by a wall. The breadth of the centre aisle was 95 feet of the side aisles, 30 from centre to centre of the pillars; their height 50 feet, and that of the centre aisle 100 feet. Its section was thus something in excess of that of York Cathedral, while its total length was one stadium or 600 Greek feet, or 100 feet in excess of York or our largest Gothic cathedrals. This magnificent structure was supported by 162 Corinthian columns. The porch on the east was called "Solomon’s Porch." The court of the temple was very nearly a square. It may have been exactly so, for we have not the details to enable us to feel quite certain about it. To the eastward of this was the court of the women. The great ornament of these inner courts seems to have been their gateways, the three especially on the north end south leading to the temple court. These according to Josephus, were of great height, strongly fortified and ornamented with great elaboration. But the wonder of all was the great eastern gate leading from the court of the women to the upper court. It was in all probability the one called the "beautiful gate" in the New Testament. immediately within this gateway stood the altar of burnt offerings. Both the altar and the temple were enclosed by a low parapet, one cubit in height, placed so as to keep the people separate from the priests while the latter were performing their functions. Within this last enclosure, toward the westward, stood the temple itself. As before mentioned, its internal dimensions were the same as those of the temple of Solomon. Although these remained the same, however, there seems no reason to doubt that. the whole plan was augmented by the pteromata, or surrounding parts being increased from 10 to 20 cubits, so that the third temple, like the second, measured 60 cubits across and 100 cubits east and west. The width of the facade was also augmented by wings or shoulders projecting 20 cubits each way, making the whole breadth 100 cubits, or equal to the length. There is no reason for doubting that the sanctuary always stood on identically the same spot in which it had been placed by Solomon a thousand years before it was rebuilt by Herod. The temple of Herod was destroyed by the Romans under Titus, Friday, August 9, A.D. 70. A Mohammedan mosque now stands on its site.
The popular name in this, as in so many instances,is not that of Scripture. There we have the "TEN WORDS,"
Ex 34:28; De 4:13; 10:4
the "COVENANT," Ex., Deut. 11. cc.;
1Ki 8:21; 2Ch 6:11
etc., or, very often as the solemn attestation of the divine will, the "TESTIMONY."
Ex 25:16,21; 31:18
etc. The circumstances in which the Ten great Words were first given to the people surrounded them with an awe which attached to no other precept. In the midst of the cloud and the darkness and the flashing lightning and the fiery smoke and the thunder like the voice of a trumpet, Moses was called to Mount Sinai to receive the law without which the people would cease to be a holy nation.
Here, as elsewhere, Scripture unites two facts which men separate. God, and not man was speaking to the Israelites in those terrors, and yet, in the language of later inspired teachers, other instrumentality was not excluded. No other words were proclaimed in like manner. And the record was as exceptional as the original revelation. Of no other words could it be said that they were written as these were written, engraved on the Tables of Stone, not as originating in man’s contrivance or sagacity, but by the power of the Eternal Spirit, by the "finger of God."
Ex 31:18; 32:16
The number Ten was, we can hardly doubt, itself significant to Moses and the Israelites. The received symbol, then and at all times, of completeness, it taught the people that the law of Jehovah was perfect.
The term "Commandments" had come into use in the time of Christ.
Their division into two tables is not only expressly mentioned but the stress is upon the two leaves no doubt that the distinction was important, and that answered to that summary of the law which was made both by Moses and by Christ into two precepts; so that the first table contained Duties to God, and the second, Duties to our Neighbor. There are three principal divisions of the two tables:
1. That of the Roman Catholic Church, making the first table contain three commandments and the second the other seven.
2. The familiar division, referring the first four to our duty toward God and the six remaining to our duty toward man.
3. The division recognized by the old Jewish writers, Josephus and Philo, which places five commandments in each table. It has been maintained that the law of filial duty, being a close consequence of God’s fatherly relation to us, maybe referred to the first table. But this is to place human parents on a level with God, and, by purity of reasoning the Sixth Commandment might be added to the first table, as murder is the destruction of God’s image in man. Far more reasonable is the view which regards the authority of parents as heading the second table, as the earthly reflex of that authority of the Father of his people and of all men which heads the first, and as the first principle of the whole law of love to our neighbor; because we are all brethren and the family is, for good and ill the model of the state. "The Decalogue differs from all the other legislation of Moses: (1) It was proclaimed by God himself in a most public and solemn manner. (2) It was given under circumstances of most appalling majesty and sublimity. (3) It was written by the finger of God on two tables of stone.
(4) It differed from any and all other laws given to Israel in that it was comprehensive and general rather than specific and particular. (6) It was complete, being one finished whole to which nothing was to be added, from which nothing was ever taken away. (6) The law of the Ten Commandments was honored by Jesus Christ as embodying the substance of the law of God enjoined upon man. (7) It can scarcely be doubted that Jesus had his eye specially if not exclusively on this law,
as one never to be repealed from which not one jot or tittle should ever pass away. (8) It is marked by wonderful simplicity and brevity such a contrast to our human legislation, our British statute-book for instance, which it would need an elephant to carry and an OEdipus to interpret."
Among the leading characteristics of the nomad races, those two have always been numbered whose origin has been ascribed to Jabal the son of Lameth,
viz., to be tent-dwellers and keepers of cattle. The same may be said of the forefathers of the Hebrew race; nor was it until the return into Canaan from Egypt that the Hebrews became inhabitants of cities. An Arab tent is called beit, "house;" its covering consists of stuff, about three quarters of a yard broad, made of black goat’s-hair,
laid parallel with the tent’s length. This is sufficient to resist the heaviest rain. The tent-poles or columns are usually nine in number, placed in three groups; but many tents have only one pole, others two or three. The ropes which hold the tent in its place are fastened, not to the tent-cover itself, but to loops consisting of a leathern thong tied to the ends of a stick, round which is twisted a piece of old cloth, which is itself sewed to the tent-cover. The ends of the tent-ropes are fastened to short sticks or pins, which are driven into the ground with a mallet.
Round the back and sides of the tent runs a piece of stuff removable at pleasure to admit air. The tent is divided into two apartments, separated by a carpet partition drawn across the middle of the tent and fastened to the three middle posts. When the pasture near an encampment is exhausted, the tents are taken down, packed on camels and removed.
Ge 26:17,22,25; Isa 38:12
In choosing places for encampment, Arabs prefer the neighborhood of trees, for the sake of the shade and coolness which they afford.
(station), the father of Abram, Nahor and Haran, and through them the ancestor of the great families of the Israelites, Ishmaelites, Midianites, Moabites and Ammonites.
The account given of him in the Old Testament narrative is very brief. We learn from it simply that he was an idolater,
that he dwelt beyond the Euphrates in Ur of the Chaldees,
and that in the southwesterly migration, which from some unexplained cause he undertook in his old age, he went with his son Abram, his daughter-in-law Sarai, and his grandson Lot, "to go into the land of Canaan, and they came unto Haran, and dwelt there."
And finally, "the days of Terah were two hundred and five years; and Terah died in Haran."
This word occurs only in the plural, and denotes images connected with magical rites. The derivation of the name is obscure. In one case —
—a single statue seems to be intended by the plural. The teraphim, translated "images" in the Authorized Version, carried away from Laban by Rachel were regarded by Laban as gods, and it would therefore appear that they were used by those who added corrupt practices to the patriarchal religion. Teraphim again are included among Micah’s images.
Jud 17:3-5; 18:17,18,20
Teraphim were consulted for oracular answers by the Israelites,
comp. Judg 18:5,6; 1Sam 15:22,23; 19:13,16, LXX., and 2Kin 23:24 and by the Babylonians in the case of Nebuchadnezzar.
(strictness), one of the two eunuchs whose plot to assassinate Ahasuerus was discovered by Mordecai.
Es 2:21; 6:2
He was hanged. (B.C. 479.)
(third), probably a Roman, was the amanuensis of Paul in writing the Epistle to the Romans.
(diminutive from Tertius), "a certain orator,"
who was retained by the high priest and Sanhedrin to accuse the apostle Paul at Caesarea before the Roman procurator Antonius Felix. He evidently belonged to the class of professional orators. We may infer that Tertullus was of Roman, or at all events of Italian, origin. (A.D. 55.)
[NEW TESTAMENT; BIBLE]
NEW TESTAMENT -
BIBLE -See 5768
[OLD TESTAMENT; BIBLE]
OLD TESTAMENT -
BIBLE -See 5768
properly the sovereign or governor of the fourth part of a country.
Mt 14:1; Lu 3:1; 9:7; Ac 13:1
The title was, however, often applied to any one who governed a Roman province, of whatever size. The title of king was sometimes assigned to a tetrarch.
Mt 14:9; Mr 6:14,22
one of the twelve apostles.
Mt 10:3; Mr 3:18
From a comparison with the catalogue of St. Luke,
Lu 6:16; Ac 1:13
it seems scarcely possible to doubt that the three names, of Judas, Lebbeus and Thaddeus were borne by one and the same person. [See JUDE]
(badger), son of Nahor by his concubine Reumah.
(daughter). "The children of Thamah" were a family of Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel.
Thank offering,or Peace offering,
the properly eucharistic offering among the Jews, in its theory resembling the meat offering and therefore indicating that the offerer was already reconciled to and in covenant with God. Its ceremonial is described in
... The peace offerings, unlike other sacrifices, were not ordained to be offered in fixed and regular course. The only constantly-recurring peace offering appears to have been that of the two firstling lambs at Pentecost.
The general principle of the peace offering seems to have been that it should be entirely spontaneous, offered as occasion should arise, from the feeling of the sacrificer himself.
On the first institution,
peace offerings are divided into "offerings of thanksgiving" and "vows or freewill offerings;" of which latter class the offering by a Nazarite on the completion of his vow is the most remarkable.
We find accordingly peace offerings offered for the people on a great scale at periods of unusual solemnity or rejoicing. In two cases only —
Jud 20:26; 2Sa 24:26
—peace offerings are mentioned se offered with burnt offerings at a time of national sorrow and fasting.
Terah the father of Abraham.
a corrupt form of Teresh.
1. In this more accurate form the translators of the Authorized Version have given in two passages —
1Ki 10:22; 22:48
—the name elsewhere presented as Tarshish.
2. A Benjamite, one of the family of Bilhan the house of Jediael.
For the explanation of the biblical allusions, two or three points only require notice. The Greek term, like the corresponding English term, denotes the place where dramatic performances are exhibited, and also the scene itself or spectacle which is witnessed there. It occurs in the first or local sense in
The other sense of the term "theatre" occurs in
(Authorized Version No, the multitude of No. populous No), a chief cite of ancient Egypt, long the capital of the upper country, and the seat of the Diospolitan dynasties, that ruled over all Egypt at the era of its highest splendor. It was situated on both sides of the Nile, 400 or 500 miles from its mouth. The sacred name of Thebes was P-amen "the abode of Amon," which the Greeks reproduced in their Diospolis, especially with the addition the Great. No-amon is the name of Thebes in the Hebrew Scriptures.
Jer 46:25; Na 3:8
Ezekiel uses No simply to designate the Egyptian seat of Amon.
[NO-AMON] its origin and early allusions to it. —The origin of the city is lost in antiquity. Niebuhr is of opinion that Thebes was much older than Memphis, and that, "after the centre of Egyptian life was transferred to lower Egypt, Memphis acquired its greatness through the ruin of Thebes." But both cities date from our earliest authentic knowledge of Egyptian history. The first allusion to Thebes in classical literature is the familiar passage of the Iliad (ix. 381-385): "Egyptian Thebes, were are vast treasures laid up in the houses; where are a hundred gates, and from each two hundred men to forth with horses and chariots." In the first century before Christ, Diodorus visited Thebes, and he devotes several sections of his general work to its history and appearance. Though he saw the city when it had sunk to quite secondary importance, he confirms the tradition of its early grandeur —its circuit of 140 stadia, the size of its public edifices, the magnificence of its temples, the number of its monuments, the dimensions of its private houses, some of them four or five stories high —all giving it an air of grandeur and beauty surpassing not only all other cities of Egypt, but of the world. Monuments. —The monuments of Thebes are the most reliable witnesses for the ancient splendor of the city. These are found in almost equal proportions upon both sides of the river. The plan of the city, as indicated by the principal monuments, was nearly quadrangular, measuring two miles from north to south and four from east to west. Its four great landmarks were, Karnak and Luxor upon the eastern or Arabian side, and Qoornah and Medeenet Haboo upon the western or Libyan side. There are indications that each of these temples may have been connected with those facing it upon two sides by grand dromoi, lined with sphinxes and other colossal figures. Upon the western bank there was almost a continuous line of temples and public edifices for a distance of two miles,from Qoonah to Medeenet Haboo; and Wilkinson conjectures that from a point near the latter, perhaps in the line of the colossi, the "Royal street" ran down to the river, which was crossed by a ferry terminating at Luxor, on the eastern side. Behind this long range of temples and palaces are the Libyan hills, which for a distance of five miles are excavated to the depth of several hundred feet for sepulchral chambers. Some of these, in the number and variety of their chambers, the finish of their sculptures, and the beauty and freshness of their frescoes, are among the most remarkable monuments of Egyptian grandeur and skill. The eastern side of the river is distinguished by the remains of Lurer and Karnak, the latter being of itself a city of temples. The approach to Karnak from the south is marked by a series of majestic gateways and towers, which were the appendages of later times to the original structure. The temple properly faces the river, i.e. toward the northwest. The courts land properly connected with this structure occupy a space nearly 1800 feet square, and the buildings represent almost very dynasty of Egypt. Ezekiel proclaims the destruction of Thebes by the arm of Babylon,
and Jeremiah predicted the same overthrow,
The city lies to-day a nest of Arab hovels amid crumbling columns and drifting sands. The Persian invader (Cambyses, B.C. 525) completed the destruction that the Babylonian had begun.
(conspicuous), a place memorable for the death of the brave Abimelech,
was known to Eusebius and Jerome, in whose time it was situated "in the district of Neapolis," 13 Roman miles therefrom, on the road to Scythopolis. There it still is, its name —Tubas —hardly changed.
(friend of God) the person to whom St. Luke inscribes his Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles.
Lu 1:3; Ac 1:1
From the honorable epithet applied to him in
it has been argued with much probability that he was a person in high official position. All that can be conjectured with any degree of safety concerning him comes to this, that he was a Gentile of rank and consideration who came under the influence of St. Luke or under that of St. Paul at Rome, and was converted to the Christian faith.
Thessalo’nians, First Epistle to the,
was written by the apostle Paul at Corinth, a few months after he had founded the church at Thessalonica, at the close of the year A.D. 62 or the beginning of 53. The Epistles to the Thessalonians, then (for the second followed the first after no long interval), are the earliest of St. Paul’s writings —perhaps the earliest written records of Christianity. It is interesting, therefore, to compare the Thessalonian epistles with the later letters, and to note the points of These differences are mainly
1. In the general style of these earlier letters there is greater simplicity and less exuberance of language.
2. The antagonism to St. Paul is not the same. Here the opposition comes from Jews. A period of five years changes the aspect of the controversy. The opponents of St. Paul are then no longer Jews so much as Judaizing Christians.
3. Many of the distinctive doctrines of Christianity were yet not evolved and distinctly enunciated till the needs of the Church drew them out into prominence at a later date. It has often been observed, for instance, that there is in the Epistles to the Thessalonians no mention of the characteristic contrast of "faith and works;" that the word "justification" does not once occur; that the idea of dying with Christ and living with Christ, so frequent in St. Paul’s later writings, is absent in these. In the Epistles to the Thessalonians, the gospel preached is that of the coming of Christ, rather than of the cross of Christ. The occasion of this epistle was as follows: St. Paul had twice attempted to re-visit Thessalonica, and both times had been disappointed. Thus prevented from seeing them in person, he had sent Timothy to inquire and report to him as to their condition.
Timothy returned with more favorable tidings, reporting not only their progress in Christian faith and practice, but also their strong attachment to their old teacher.
The First Epistle to the Thessalonians is the outpouring of the apostle’s gratitude on receiving this welcome news. At the same time there report of Timothy was not unmixed with alloy. There were certain features in the condition of the Thessalonian church which called for St. Paul’s interference and to which he addresses himself in his letter.
1. The very intensity of their Christian faith, dwelling too exclusively on the day of the Lord’s coming, had been attended with evil consequences. On the other hand, a theoretical difficulty had been felt. Certain members of the church had died, and there was great anxiety lest they should be excluded from any share in the glories of the Lord’s advent. ch.
2. The Thessalonians needed consolation and encouragement under persecution. ch.
1Th 2:14; 3:2-4
3. An unhealthy state of feeling with regard to spiritual gifts was manifesting itself. ch.
4. There was the danger of relapsing into their old heathen profligacy. ch.
Yet notwithstanding all these drawbacks, the condition of the Thessalonian church was highly satisfactory, and the most cordial relations existed between St. Paul and his converts there. This honorable distinction it shares with the other great church of Macedonia, that of Philippi. The epistle is rather practical than doctrinal. The external evidence in favor of the genuineness of the First Epistle to the Thessalonians is chiefly negative, but this is important enough. There is no trace that it was ever disputed at any age or in any section of the Church, or even by any individual till the present century. Toward the close of the second century from Irenaeus downward. we find this epistle directly quoted and ascribed to Paul. The evidence derived from the character of the epistle itself is so strong that it may fairly be called irresistible.
Thessalo’nians, Second Epistle to the,
appears to have been written from Corinth not very long after the first, for Silvanus and Timotheus were still with St. Paul.
In the former letter we saw chiefly the outpouring of strong personal affection, occasioned by the renewal of the apostle’s intercourse with the Thessalonians, and the doctrinal and hortatory portions are there subordinate. In the Second Epistle, on the other hand, his leading motive seems to have been the desire of correcting errors in the church of Thessalonica. We notice two points especially which call for his rebuke:— First, it seems that the anxious expectation of the Lord’s advent. Instead of subsiding, had gained ground since the writing of the First Epistle. Second, the apostle had also a personal ground of complaint. His authority was not denied by any, but it was tampered with, and an unauthorized use was made of his name. It will be seen that the teaching of the Second Epistle is corrective of or rather supplemental to that of the first, and therefore presupposes it. This epistle, in the range of subject as well as in style and general character closely resembles the first; and the remarks made on that epistle apply for the most part equally well to this. The structure is somewhat similar the main body of the epistle being divided into two parts in the same way, and each part closing with a prayer. ch.
2Co 2:16,17; 3:16
The epistle ends with a special direction and benediction. ch.
The external evidence in favor of the Second Epistle is somewhat more definite than that which can be brought in favor of the first. The internal character of the epistle too, as in the former case, bears the strongest testimony to its Pauline origin. Its genuineness, in fact, was never questioned until the beginning of the present century.
The original name of this city was Therma; and that part of the Macedonian shore on which it was situated retained through the Roman period the designation of the Thermaic Gulf. Cassander the son of Antipater rebuilt and enlarged Therma, and named it after his wife Thessalonica, the sister of Alexander the Great. The name ever since, under various slight modifications, has been continuous, and the city itself has never ceased to be eminent. Saloniki is still the most important town of European Turkey, next after Constantinople. Strabo in the first century speaks of Thessalonica as the most populous city in Macedonia. Visit of Paul. —St. Paul visited Thessalonica (with Silas and Timothy) during his second missionary journey, and introduced Christianity there. The first scene of the apostle’s work at Thessalonica was the synagogue.
It is stated that the ministrations among the Jews continued for three weeks. ver. 2. Not that we are obliged to limit to this time the whole stay of the apostle at Thessalonica. A flourishing church was certainly formed there; and the epistles show that its elements were more Gentile than Jewish. [For persecution and further history see PAUL] Circumstances which led Paul to Thessalonica. —Three circumstances must here be mentioned which illustrate in an important manner this visit and this journey as well as the two Epistles to the Thessalonians.
1. This was the chief station on the great Roman road called the Via Egnatia, which connected Rome with the whole region to the north of the AEgean Sea.
2. Placed as if was on this great road, and in connection with other important Roman ways. Thessalonica was an invaluable centre for the spread of the gospel. In fact it was nearly if not quite on a level with Corinth and Ephesus in its share of the commerce of the Levant.
3. The circumstance noted in
that here was the synagogue of the Jews in this part of Macedonia, had evidently much to do with the apostle’s plans,and also doubtless with his success. Trade would inevitably bring Jews to Thessalonica; and it is remarkable that they have ever since had a prominent place in the annals of the city. Later ecclesiastical history. —During several centuries this city was the bulwark not simply of the later Greek empire, but of Oriental Christendom, and was largely instrumental in the conversion of the Slavonians and Bulgarians. Thus it received the designation of "the orthodox city;" and its struggles are very prominent in the writings of the Byzantine historians.
(God-given), the name of an insurgent mentioned in Gamaliel’s speech before the Jewish council,
at the time of the arraignment of the apostles. He appeared, according to Luke’s account, at the head of about four hundred men. He was probably one of the insurrectionary chiefs or fanatics by whom the land was overrun in the last year of Herod’s reign. Josephus speaks of a Theudas who played a similar part in the time of Claudius, about A.D. 44; but the Theudas mentioned by St. Luke must be a different person from the one spoken of by Josephus.
Thieves, The two.
The men who under this name appear in the history of the crucifixion were robbers rather than thieves, belonging to the lawless bands by which Palestine was at that time and afterward infested. Against these brigands every Roman procurator had to wage continual war. It was necessary to use an armed police to encounter them.
Of the previous history of the two who suffered on Golgotha we know nothing. They had been tried and condemned, and were waiting their execution before our Lord was accused. It is probable enough, as the death of Barabbas was clearly expected at the same time that they had taken part in his insurrection had expected to die with Jesus Barabbas. They find themselves with one who bore the same name, but who was described in the superscription on his cross as Jesus of Nazareth. They could hardly have failed to hear something of his fame as a prophet, of his triumphal entry as a king; They catch at first the prevailing tone of scorn. But over one of them there came a change. He looked back upon his past life, and saw an infinite evil. He looked to the man dying on the cross beside him, and saw an infinite compassion. There indeed was one unlike all other "kings of the Jews" whom the robber had ever known. Such a one must be all that he had claimed to be. To be forgotten by that king seems to him now the most terrible of all punishments; to take part in the triumph of his return, the most blessed of all hopes. The yearning prayer was answered, not in the letter, but in the spirit.
a town in the allotment of Dan.
only. It is named between Elon and Ekron. The name is the same as that of the residence of Samson’s wife. [See TIMNAH]
TIMNAH -See 9303
[THORNS AND THISTLES]
(a twin), one of the apostles. According to Eusebius, his real name was Judas. This may have been a mere confusion with Thaddeus, who is mentioned in the extract. But it may also be that; Thomas was a surname. Out of this name has grown the tradition that he had a twin-sister, Lydia, or that he was a twin-brother of our Lord; which last, again, would confirm his identification with Judas. Comp.
He is said to have been born at Antioch. In the catalogue of the apostles he is coupled with Matthew in
Mt 10:3; Mr 3:18; Lu 6:15
and with Philip in
All that we know of him is derived from the Gospel of St. John; and this amounts to three traits, which, however, so exactly agree together that, slight as they are they place his character before us with a precision which belongs to no other of the twelve apostles except Peter, John and Judas Iscariot. This character is that of a man slow to believe, seeing all the difficulties of a case, subject to despondency, viewing things on the darker side, yet full of ardent love of his Master. The latter trait was shown in his speech when our Lord determined to face the dangers that awaited him in Judea on his journey to Bethany. Thomas said to his fellow disciples, "Let us also go, that we may die with him."
His unbelief appeared in his question during the Last Supper: "Thomas saith unto him Lord we know not whither thou goest, and how can we: know the way?"
It was the prosaic, incredulous doubt as to moving a step in the unseen future, and yet an eager inquiry as to how this step was to be taken. The first-named trait was seen after the resurrection. He was absent —possibly by accident, perhaps characteristically —from the first assembly when Jesus had appeared. The others told him what they had seen. He broke forth into an exclamation, the terms of which convey to us at once the vehemence of his doubt, and at the same time the vivid picture that his mind retained of his Master’s form as he had last seen him lifeless on the cross.
On the eighth day he was with them st their gathering, perhaps in expectation of a recurrence of the visit of the previous week; and Jesus stood among them. He uttered the same salutation, "Peace be unto you;" and then turning to Thomas, as if this had been the special object of his appearance, uttered the words which convey as strongly the sense of condemnation and tender reproof as those of Thomas had shown the sense of hesitation and doubt. The effect on him was immediate. The conviction produced by the removal of his doubt became deeper and stronger than that of any of the other apostles. The words in which he expressed his belief contain a far higher assertion of his Master’s divine nature than is contained in any other expression used by apostolic lips—"My Lord and my God." The answer of our Lord sums up the moral of the whole narrative: "Because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen me, and yet have-believed."
In the New Testament we hear of Thomas only twice again, once on the Sea of Galilee with the seven disciples, where he is ranked next after Peter,
and again in the assemblage of the apostles after the ascension.
The earlier traditions, as believed in the fourth century, represent him as preaching in Parthia or Persia, and as finally buried at Edessa. The later traditions carry him farther east, His martyrdom whether in Persia or India, is said to have been occasioned by a lance, and is commemorated by the Latin Church on December 21 the Greek Church on October 6, and by the Indians on July 1.
andThistles. There appear to be eighteen or twenty Hebrew words which point to different kinds of prickly or thorny shrubs. These words are variously rendered in the Authorized Version By "thorns," "briers," "thistles," etc. Palestine abounded in a great variety of such plants. ("Travellers call the holy land ‘a land of thorns.’ Giant thistles, growing to the height of a man on horseback, frequently spread over regions once rich and fruitful, as they do on the pampas of South America; and many of the most interesting historic spats and ruins are rendered almost inaccessible by thickets of fiercely-armed buckthorns. Entire fields are covered with the troublesome creeping stems of the spinous ononis, while the bare hillsides are studded with the dangerous capsules of the puliuris and tribulus. Roses of the most prickly kinds abound on the lower slopes of Hermon; while the sub-tropical valleys of Judea are choked up in many places by the thorny lycium." — Biblical Things not generally Known.) Crown of thorns. —The crown which was put in derision upon our Lord’s head before his crucifixion, is by some supposed to have been the Rhamnus, or Spina Christi; but although abundant in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, it cannot be the plant intended, because its thorns are so strong and large that it could not have been woven into a wreath. The large-leaved acanthus (bear’s-foot) is totally unsuited for the purpose. Had the acacia been intended, as some suppose, the phrase would have been ex akanthes. Obviously some small, flexile, thorny shrub is meant; perhaps Cappares spinosae. Hasselquist ("Travels," p. 260) says that the thorn used was the Arabian nabk. "It was very suitable for their purpose, as it has many sharp thorns, which inflict painful wounds; and its flexible, pliant and round branches might easily be plaited in the form of a crown." It also resembles the rich dark crown green of the triumphal ivy-wreath, which would give additional pungency to its ironical purpose.
A station on the Appian Road, along which St. Paul travelled from Puteoli to Rome.
The distances, reckoning southward from Rome are given as follows in the Antonine Itinerary: "to Aricia, 16 miles; to Three Taverns, 17 miles; to Appii Forum, 10 miles;" and, comparing this with what is still observed along the line of road, we have no difficulty in coming to the conclusion that "Three Taverns" was near the modern Cisterna. Just at this point a road came in from Antium on the coast. There is no doubt that "Three Taverns" was a frequent meeting-place of travellers.
Of the two words so rendered is the Authorized Version, one,miphthan,,seems to mean sometimes a projecting beam or corbel.
Eze 9:3; 10:4,18
This word, Asuppe, appears to be inaccurately rendered in
though its real force has perhaps not yet been discovered. The "house of Asuppim," or simply "the Asuppim," is mentioned in
as a part, probably a gate of the enclosure of the "house of Jehovah," apparently at its southwest corner. The allusion in
is undoubtedly to the same place. [GATE]
The Hebrew word so translated applies to any elevated seat occupied by a person in authority, whether a high priest,
or a military chief
The use of a chair in a country where the usual postures were squatting and reclining was at all times regarded as a symbol of dignity.
2Ki 4:10; Pr 9:14
In order to specify a throne in our sense of the term, it was necessary to add to the word the notion of royalty; hence the frequent occurrence of such expressions as "throne of the kingdom."
De 17:18; 1Ki 1:46; 2Ch 7:18
The characteristic feature in the royal throne was its elevation: Solomon’s throne was approached by six steps,
1Ki 10:19; 2Ch 9:18
and Jehovah’s throne is described as "high and lifted up."
The materials and workmanship of Solomon’s throne were costly. It was made of wood inlaid with ivory and then covered with gold except where the ivory showed. It was furnished with arms or "stays." The steps were also lines with pairs of lions. As to the form of chair, we are only informed in
that "the top was round behind." The king sat on his throne on state occasions. At such times he appeared in his royal robes. The throne was the symbol of supreme power and dignity.
Similarly, "to sit upon the throne" implied the exercise of regal power.
De 17:18; 1Ki 16:11
[URIM AND THUMMIM]
is hardly ever heard in Palestine form the middle of April to the middle of September; hence it was selected by Samuel as a striking expression of the divine displeasure toward the Israelites.
Rain in harvest was deemed as extraordinary as snow in summer,
and Jerome states that he had never witnessed it in the latter part of June or in July. Comm. on
In the imaginative philosophy of the Hebrews, thunder was regarded as the voice of Jehovah,
Job 37:2,4,5; 40:9; Ps 18:13; 29:3-9; Isa 30:30,31
who dwelt behind the thunder-cloud.
Thunder was, to the mind of the Jew, the symbol of divine power
etc., and vengeance.
1Sa 2:10; 2Sa 22:14
a city on the Lycus, founded by Seleucus Nicator, lay to the left of the road from Pergamos to Sardis, 27 miles from the latter city, and on the very confines of Mysia and Ionia, so as to be sometimes reckoned within the one and sometimes within the other. Dyeing apparently formed an important part of the industrial activity of Thyatira, as it did of that of Colossae and Laodicea. It is first mentioned in connection with Lydia, "a seller of purple."
One of the Seven Churches of Asia was established here.
The principal deity of the city was Apollo; but there was another superstition, of an extremely curious nature which seems to have been brought thither by some of the corrupted Jews of the dispersed tribes. A fane stood outside the walls, dedicated to Sambatha —the name of the sibyl who is sometimes called Chaldean, sometimes Jewish, sometimes Persian— in the midst of an enclosure designated "the Chaldaeans’ court." This seems to lend an illustration to the obscure passage in
which some interpret of the wife of the bishop. Now there is evidence to show that in Thyatira there was a great amalgamation of races. If the sibyl Sambatha was in reality a Jewess, lending her aid to the amalgamation of different religions, and not discountenanced by the authorities of the Judeo-Christian Church at Thyatira, both the censure and its qualification become easy of explanation. (The present name of the city is ak-Hissar ("white castle"). It has a reputation for the manufacture of scarlet cloth. Its present population is 15,000 to 20,000. There are nine mosques. —ED.)
where the margin has "sweet" (wood). There can be little doubt that the wood here spoken of is that of the Thuya articulata, Desfont the Callitris quadrivalvis of present botanists. It is a cone bearing tree and allied to the pine. This tree was much prized by Greeks and Romans on account of the beauty of its wood for various ornamental purposes. By the Romans the tree was called citrus, the wood citrum. It is a native of Barbary, and grows to the height of 15 to 25 feet.
a city in the time of Christ, on the Sea of Galilee; first mentioned in the New Testament,
Joh 6:1,23; 21:1
and then by Josephus, who states that it was built by Herod Antipas, and was named by him in honor of the emperor Tiberius. Tiberias was the capital of Galilee from the time of its origin until the reign of Herod Agrippa II., who changed the seat of power back again to Sepphoris, where it had been before the founding of the new city. Many of the inhabitants were Greeks and Romans, and foreign customs prevailed there: to such an extent as to give offence to the stricter Jews. It is remarkable that the Gospels give us no information that the Saviour who spent so much of his public life in Galilee, ever visited Tiberias. The place is only mentioned in the New Testament in
History. —Tiberias has an interesting history apart from its strictly biblical associations. It bore a conspicuous part in the wars between the Jews and the Romans. The Sanhedrin, subsequent to the fall of Jerusalem, after a temporary sojourn at Jamnia and Sepphoris, became fixed there about the middle of the second century. Celebrated schools of Jewish learning flourished there through a succession of several centuries. The Mishna was compiled at this place by the great Rabbi Judah Hakkodesh, A.D. 190. The city has been possessed successively by Romans, Persians Arabs and Turks. It contains now, under the Turkish rule, a mixed population of Mohammedans, Jews and Christian, variously estimated at from two to four thousand. Present city. —The ancient name has survived in that of the modern Tubarieh, which occupies the original site. Near Tubarieh, about a mile farther south along the shore, are the celebrated warm baths, which the Roman naturalists reckoned among the greatest known curiosities of the world. Tiberias is described by Dr. Thomson as "a filthy place, fearfully hot in summer." It was nearly destroyed in 1837 by an earthquake, by which 800 persons lost their lives.
Tibe’rias, The Sea of,
[GENNESARET, SEA OF]
(in full, Tiberius Claudius Nero), the second Roman emperor, successor of Augustus, who began to reign A.D. 14 and reigned until A.D. 37. He was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia, and hence a stepson of Augustus. He was born at Rome on the 18th of November, B.C. 45. He became emperor in his fifty-fifth year, after having distinguished himself as a commander in various wars, and having evinced talents of a high order as an orator and an administrator of civil affairs. He even gained the reputation of possessing the sterner virtues of the Roman character, and was regarded as entirely worthy of the imperial honors to which his birth and supposed personal merits at length opened the way. Yet, on being raised to the supreme power, he suddenly became, or showed himself to be a very different man. His subsequent life was one of inactivity, sloth and self-indulgence. He was despotic in his government, cruel and vindictive in his disposition. He died A.D. 37, at the age of 78, after a reign of twenty-three years. Our Saviour was put to death in the reign of Tiberius.
(extension), a city of Hadadezer, king of Zobah,
which in 2Sam 8:8 is called Betah. Its exact Position is unknown.
(intelligent). After Zimri had burnt himself in his palace, there was a division in the northern kingdom, half of the people following Tibni the son of Ginath, and half following Omri.
Omri was the choice of the army Tibni was probably put forward by the people of Tirzah, which was then besieged by Omri and his host. The struggle between the contending factions lasted four years (comp.)
(B.C. 926-922.), when-Tibni died.
(great son) is mentioned only in
(B.C. about 1900.) He is called "king of nations," from which we may conclude that he was a chief over various nomadic tribes who inhabited different portions of Mesopotamia at different seasons of the year, as do the Arabs at the present day.
and again in 2Chr 28:20 the name of this king is given as TIGLATH-PILNESER.) Tiglath-pileser is the second Assyrian king mentioned in Scripture as having come into contact with the Israelites. He attacked Samaria in the reign of Pekah, B.C. 756-736. probably because Pekah withheld his tribute, and having entered his territories, he "took Ijon, and Abel-beth-maachah and Janoah and Kedesh, and Hazer, and Gilead, and Galilee, and all the land of Naphtali, and carried them captive to Assyria."
The date of this invasion cannot be fixed. After his first expedition a close league was formed between Rezin, king of Syria, and Pekah, having for its special object the humiliation of Judah. At first great successes were gained by Pekah and his confederate,
2Ki 15:37; 2Ch 28:6-8
but on their proceeding to attack Jerusalem itself, Ahaz applied to Assyria for assistance, and Tiglath-pileser, consenting to aid him, again appeared at the head of an army in these regions. He first marched, naturally, against Damascus. which he took,
razing it to the ground, and killing Rezin, the Damascene monarch. After this, probably, he proceeded to chastise Pekah, whose country he entered on the northeast, where it bordered upon "Syria of Damascus." Here he overran the whole district to the east of Jordan, carrying into captivity "the Reubenites, the Gadites and the half tribe of Manasseh,"
Before returning into his own land, Tiglath pileser had an interview with Ahaz at Damascus.
This is all that Scripture tells us of Tiglath-pileser. He reigned certainly from B.C. 747 to B.C. 730, and possibly a few years longer, being succeeded by Shalmaneser at least as early as B.C. 785, Tiglath-pileser’s wars do not generally, appear to have been of much importance. No palace or great building can be ascribed to this king. His slabs, which are tolerably numerous show that he must have built or adorned a residence at Calah (Nimrud), where they were found.
is used by the LXX. as the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew Hiddekel, and occurs also in several of the apocryphal books, as in Tobit, ch. 6:1, Judith, ch. 1:6, and Ecclesiasticus, ch. 24:25. The Tigris, like the Euphrates, rises from two principal sources in the Armenian mountains, and flows into the Euphrates. Its length, exclusive of windings, is reckoned at 1146 miles. It receives, along its middle and lower course no fewer than five important tributaries. These are the river of Zakko or eastern Khabour, the Great Zab (Zab Ala), the Lesser Zab (Zab Asfal), the Adhem, and the Diyaleh or ancient Gyndes. All these rivers flow from the high range of Zagros. We find but little mention of the Tigris in Scripture. It appears, indeed, under the name of Hiddekel, among the rivers of Eden,
and is there correctly described as "running eastward to Assyria;" but after this we hear no more of it, if we accept one doubtful allusion in Nahum
until the captivity, when it becomes well known to the prophet Daniel. With him it is "the Great River." The Tigris, in its upper course, anciently ran through Armenia and Assyria.
1. The father of Shallum the husband of the prophetess Huldah.
(B.C. before 632.)
2. The father of Jahaziah.
(assemblage) (properly Tokehath or Tokhath), Tikvah the father of Shallum.
a variation, and probably a corruption, of the name Tiglath-pileser.
1Ch 5:6,26; 2Ch 28:20
(gift), one of the four sons of Shimon, whose family is reckoned in the genealogies of Judah.
the father of the blind man, Bartimaus.
(Heb. toph). In old English tabor was used for any drum. Tabouret and tambourine are diminutives of tabor, and denote the instrument now known as the tambourine. Tabret is a contraction of tabouret. The Hebrew toph is undoubtedly the instrument described by travellers as the duff or diff of the Arabs. It was played principally by women,
Ex 15:20; Jud 11:34; 1Sa 18:6; Ps 68:25
as an accompaniment to the song and dance. The diff of the Arabs is described by Russell as "a hoop (sometimes with pieces of brass fixed in it to make a jingling) over which a piece of parchment is stretched. It is beaten with the fingers, and is the true tympanum of the ancients." In Barbary it is called tar.
1. A concubine of Eliphaz son of Esau, and mother of Amalek
it may be presumed that she was the same as Timna sister of Lotan. Ibid. ver. 22, and
(B.C. after 1800.)
2. A duke or phylarch of Edom in the last list in
Ge 36:40-43; 1Ch 1:51-54
Timnah was probably the name of a place or a district. [See the following article]
1. A place which formed one of the landmarks on the north boundary of the allotment of Judah.
It is probably identical with the Thimnathah of
and that again with the Timnath, or, more accurately, Timnathah, of Samson
and the Thamnatha of the Maccabees. The modern representative of all these various forms of the same name is probably Tibneh, a village about two miles west of Ain Shems (Beth-shemesh). In the later history of the Jews, Timnah must have been a conspicuous place. It was fortified by Bacchides as one of the most important military posts of Judea. 1 Macc. 9:50.
2. A town in the mountain district of Judah.
A distinct place from that just examined.
3. Inaccurately written Timnath in the Authorized Version, the scene of the adventure of Judah with his daughter in-law Tamar.
There is nothing here to indicate its position. It may be identified either with the Timnah in the mountains of Judah No. 23 or with the Timnathath of Samson [No. 1].
TIMNAH -See 9303
the residence of Samson’s wife.
(portion of the sun) the name under which the city and burial-place of Joshua, previously called Timnath-serah is mentioned in
(portion of abundance), the name of the city which was presented to Joshua after the partition of the country,
and in "the border" of which he was buried.
It is specified as "in Mount Ephraim on the north side of Mount Gaash." In
the name is altered to TIMNATH-HERES. The latter form is that adopted by the Jewish writers. Accordingly, they identify the place with Kefar-cheres, which is said by Jewish travellers to be about five miles south of Shechem (Nablus). No place with that name appears on the maps. Another identification has, however been suggested by Dr. Eli Smith. In his journey from Jifna to Mejdel-Yaba, about six miles from the former he discovered the ruins of a considerable town. Opposite the town was a much higher hill, in the north side of which are several excavated sepulchres. The whole bears the name of Tibneh.
Samson’s father-in-law, a native of Timnathah.
one of the seven, commonly called "deacons."
He was probably a Hellenist. (A.D. 34.)
1. A "captain of the Ammonites," 1 Macc. 5:6 who was defeated on several occasions by Judas Maccabaeus, B.C. 164. 1 Macc. 5:6,11,34-44. He was probably a Greek adventurer.
2. In 2 Macc. a leader named Timetheus is mentioned as having taken part in the invasion of Nicanor, B.C. 166. 2 Macc. 8:30; 9:3.
3. The Greek name of Timothy.
Ac 16:1; 17:14
The disciple thus named was the son of one of those mixed marriages which, though condemned by stricter Jewish opinion were yet not uncommon in the later periods of Jewish history. The father’s name is unknown; he was a Greek, i.e. a Gentile, by descent.
The absence of any personal allusion to the father in the Acts or Epistles suggests the inference that he must have died or disappeared during his son’s infancy. The care of the boy thus devolved upon his mother Eunice and her mother Lois.
Under their training his education was emphatically Jewish. "From a child" he learned to "know the Holy Scriptures" daily. The language of the Acts leaves it uncertain whether Lystra or Derbe was the residence of the devout family. The arrival of Paul and Barnabas in Lycaonia, A.D. 44,
brought the message of glad tidings to Timothy and his mother, and they received it with "unfeigned faith."
During the interval of seven years between the apostle’s first and second journeys the boy grew up to manhood. Those who had the deepest insight into character, and spoke with a prophetic utterance, pointed to him,
1Ti 1:18; 4:14
as others had pointed before to Paul and Barnabas,
as specially fit for the missionary work in which the apostle was engaged. Personal feeling led St. Paul to the same conclusion,
and he was solemnly set apart to do the work and possibly to bear the title of evangelist.
1Ti 4:14; 2Ti 1:6; 4:5
A great obstacle, however, presented itself. Timothy, though reckoned as one of the seed of Abraham, had been allowed to grow up to the age of manhood without the sign of circumcision. With a special view to the feelings of the Jews making no sacrifice of principle, the apostle, who had refused to permit the circumcision of Titus, "took and circumcised" Timothy.
Henceforth Timothy was one of his most constant companions. They and Silvanus, and probably Luke also, journeyed to Philippi,
and there the young evangelist was conspicuous at once for his filial devotion and his zeal.
His name does not appear in the account of St. Paul’s work at Thessalonica, and it is possible that he remained some time at Philippi. He appears, however, at Berea, and remains there when Paul and Silas are obliged to leave,
going afterward to join his master at Athens.
From Athens he is sent back to Thessalonica, ibid., as having special gifts for comforting and teaching. He returns from Thessalonica, not to Athens, but to Corinth, and his name appears united with St. Paul’s in the opening words of both the letters written from that city to the Thessalonians,
1Th 1:1; 2Th 1:1
Of the next five years of his life we have no record. When we next meet with him, it is as being sent on in advance when the apostle was contemplating the long journey which was to include Macedonia, Achaia, Jerusalem and Rome.
It is probable that he returned by the same route and met St. Paul according to a previous arrangement,
and was thus with him when the Second Epistle was written to the church of Corinth.
He returns with the apostle to that city, and joins in messages of greeting to the disciples whom he had known personally at Corinth, and who had since found their way to Rome.
He forms one of the company of friends who go with St. Paul to Philippi, and then sail by themselves, waiting for his arrival by a different ship.
The absence of his name from
... leads to the conclusion that he did not share in the perilous voyage to Italy. He must have joined the apostle, however, apparently soon after his arrival at Rome, and was with him when the Epistles to the Philippians, to the Colossians and to Philemon were written.
Phm 1:1; 2:19; Col 1:1
Phil. ver. 1. All the indications of this period point to incessant missionary activity. From the two Epistles addressed to Timothy we are able to put together a few notices as to his later from
that he and his master after the release of the latter from his imprisonment, A.D. 63, revisited proconsular Asia; that the apostle then continued his Journey to Macedonia, while the disciple remained, half reluctantly, even weeping at the separation,
at Ephesus, to check, if possible, the outgrowth of heresy and licentiousness which had sprung up there. The position in which he found himself might well make him anxious. He used to rule presbyters most of whom were older than himself
Leaders of rival sects were there. The name of his beloved teacher was no longer honored as it had been. We cannot wonder that the apostle, knowing these trials should be full of anxiety and fear for his disciple’s steadfastness. In the Second Epistle to him, A.D. 67 or 68, this deep personal feeling utters itself yet more fully. The last recorded words of the apostle express the earnest hope, repented yet more earnestly, that he might see him once again.
We may hazard the conjecture that he reached him in time, and that the last hours of the teacher were soothed by the presence of the disciple whom he loved so truly. Some writers have seen in
an indication that he even shared St. Paul’s imprisonment, and was released from it by the death of Nero. Beyond this all is apocryphal and uncertain. He continued, according to the old traditions, to act as bishop of Ephesus, and died a martyr’s death under Domitian or Nerva. A somewhat startling theory as to the intervening period of his life has found favor with some. If he continued, according to the received tradition, to be bishop of Ephesus, then he, and no other, must have been the "angel" of the church of Ephesus to whom the message of
Timothy, Epistles of Paul to.
The Epistles to Timothy and Titus are called the Pastoral Epistles, because they are principally devoted to directions about the work of the pastor of a church. The First Epistle was probably written from Macedonia, A.D. 65, in the interval between St. Paul’s first and second imprisonments at Rome. The absence of any local reference but that in
suggests Macedonia or some neighboring district. In some MSS. and versions Laodicea is named in the inscription as the place from which it was sent. The Second Epistle appears to have been written A.D. 67 or 68, and in all probability at Rome. The following are the characteristic features of these epistles:— (1) The ever-deepening sense in St. Paul’s heart of the divine mercy of which he was the object, as shown in the insertion of the "mercy" in the salutations of both epistles, and in the "obtained mercy" of
(2) The greater abruptness of the Second Epistle. From first to last there is no plan, no treatment of subjects carefully thought out. All speaks of strong overflowing emotion memories of the past, anxieties about the future. (3) The absence, as compared with St. Paul other epistles, of Old Testament references. This may connect itself with the fact just noticed, that these epistles are not argumentative, possibly also with the request for the "books and parchments" which had been left behind.
(4) The conspicuous position of the "faithful sayings" as taking the place occupied in other epistles by the Old Testament Scriptures. The way in which these are cited as authoritative, the variety of subjects which they cover, suggests the thought that in them we have specimens of the prophecies of the apostolic Church which had most impressed themselves on the mind of the apostle and of the disciples generally.
... shows how deep a reverence he was likely to feel for spiritual utterances. In
we have a distinct reference to them. (5) The tendency of the apostle’s mind to dwell more on the universality of the redemptive work of Christ,
1Ti 2:3-6; 4:10
and his strong desire that all the teaching of his disciples should be "sound." (6) The importance attached by him to the practical details of administration. The gathered experience of a long life had taught him that the life and well being of the Church required these for its safeguards. (7) The recurrence of doxologies,
1Ti 1:17; 6:15,16; 2Ti 4:18
as from one living perpetually in the presence of God, to whom the language of adoration was as his natural speech.
Among the various metals found in the spoils of the Midianites, tin is enumerated.
It was known to the Hebrew metal-workers as an alloy of other metals.
Isa 1:25 Eze 22:18,20
The markets of Tyre were supplied with it by the ships of Tarshish.
It was used for plummets,
and was so plentiful as to furnish the writer of Ecclesiasticus, Ecclus. 47:18, with a figure by which to express the wealth of Solomon. Tin is not found in Palestine. Whence, then. did the ancient Hebrews obtain their supply "Only three countries are known to contain any considerable quantity of it: Spain and Portugal, Cornwall and the adjacent parts of Devonshire, and the islands of Junk, Ceylon and Banca, in the Straits of Malacca." (Kenrick, "Phoenicia," p. 212.) There call be little doubt that the mines of Britain were the chief source of supply to the ancient world, [See TARSHISH] ("Tin ore has lately been found in Midian." —Schaff.)
(ford) is mentioned in
as the limit of Solomon’s empire toward the Euphrates and in
it is said to have been attacked by Menahemi. It was known to the Greeks and Romans under the name of Thapsacus, and was the point where it was usual to cross the Euphrates. Thapsacus has been generally placed at the modern Deir; but the Euphrates expedition proved that there is no ford at Deir, and that the only ford in this part of the course of the Euphrates is at Suriyeh, 45 miles below Balis, and 165 above Deir. This, then, must have been the position of Thapsacus.
(desire), the youngest son of Japheth,
usually identified with the Thracians, as presenting the closest verbal approximation to the name.
one of the three families of scribes residing at Jabez,
the others being the Shimeathites and Sucathites. The passage is hopelessly obscure.
an old English word for headdress. It was an ornamental headdress worn on festive occasions,
and perhaps, as some suppose, also an ornament for the neck worn by both women,
and men, and even on the necks of camels.
(exalted?) king of Ethiopia (Cush), the opponent of Sennacherib.
2Ki 19:9; Isa 37:9
He may be identified with Tarkos or Tarakos, who was the third and last king of the twenty-fifth dynasty, which was of Ethiopians. His accession was probably about B.C. 695. Possibly Tirhakah ruled over Ethiopia before becoming king of Egypt.
(favor), son of Caleb ben-Hezron by his concubine Maachah.
(B.C. about 1451.)
(fear), son of Jehaleleel, of the tribe of Judah.
(B.C. about 1451.)
(always written with the article), the title of the governor of Judea under the Persians, perhaps derived from a Persian root signifying stern, severe, is added as a title after the name of Nehemiah,
Ne 8:9; 10:1
and occurs also in three other places. In the margin of the Authorized Version
Ezr 2:63; Ne 7:65; 10:1
it is rendered "governor."
(delight), youngest of the five daughters of Zelophehad.
Nu 26:33; 27:1; 36:11; Jos 17:3
an ancient Canaanite city, whose king is enumerated among those overthrown in the conquest of the country.
It reappears as a royal city, the residence of Jeroboam and of his successors,
and as the seat of the conspiracy of Menahem ben-Gaddi against the wretched Shallum.
Its reputation for beauty throughout the country must have been widespread. It is in this sense that it is spoken of in the Song of Solomon. Eusebius mentions it in connection with Menahem, and identifies it with a "village of Samaritans in Batanea." Its site is Telluzah, a place in the mountains north of Nablus.
the well-known designation of Elijah.
1Ki 17:1; 21:17,28; 2Ki 1:3,8; 9:36
The name naturally points to a place called Tishbeh, Tishbi, or rather perhaps Tesheb, as the residence of the prophet. Assuming that a town is alluded to as Elijah’s native place, it is not necessary to infer that it was itself in Gilead, as many have imagined. The commentators and lexicographers, with few exceptions, adopt the name "Tishbite" as referring to the place Thisbe in Naphtali which is found in the Septuagint text of Tobit 1:2.
the proportion of property devoted to religious uses from very early times. Instances of the use of tithes are found prior to the appointment of the Levitical tithes under the law. In biblical history the two prominent instances are—
1. Abram presenting the tenth of all his property, or rather of the spoils of his victory, to Melchizedek.
Ge 14:20; Heb 7:2,6
2. Jacob, after his vision at Luz, devoting a tenth of all his property to God in case he should return home in safety
The first enactment of the law in respect of tithe is the declaration that the tenth of all produce, as well as of flocks and cattle belongs to Jehovah and must be offered to him that the tithe was to be paid in kind, or, if redeemed, with an addition of one fifth to its value.
This tenth is ordered to be assigned to the Levites as the reward of their service, and it is ordered further that they are themselves to dedicate to the Lord a tenth of these receipts, which is to be devoted to the maintenance of the high priest.
This legislation is modified or extended in the book of Deuteronomy, i.e. from thirty-eight to forty years later. Commands are given to the people—
1. To bring their tithes, together with their votive and other offerings and first-fruits, to the chosen centre of worship, the metropolis, there to be eaten in festive celebration in company with their children their servants and the Levites.
2. All the produce of the soil was to be tithed every and these tithes with the firstlings of the flock and herd, were to be eaten in the metropolis.
3. But in case of distance, permission is given to convert the produce into money, which is to be taken to the appointed place, and there laid out in the purchase of food for a festal celebration, in which the Levite is, by special command, to be included.
4. Then follows the direction that at the end of three years all the tithe of that year is to be gathered and laid up "within the gates" and that a festival is to be held of which the stranger, the fatherless and the widow together with the Levite, are to partake. Ibid.
5. Lastly it is ordered that after taking the tithe in each third year, "which is the year of tithing," an exculpatory declaration is to be made by every Israelite that he has done his best to fulfill the divine command,
From all this we gather— (1) That one tenth of the whole produce of the soil was to be assigned for the maintenance of the Levites. (2) That out of this the Levites were to dedicate a tenth to God for the use of the high priest. (3) That a tithe, in all probability a second tithe, was to be applied to festival purposes. (4) That in every third year, either this festival tithe or a third tenth was to be eaten in company with the poor and the Levites. (These tithes in early times took the place of our modern taxes, us well as of gifts for the support of religious institutions. —ED.)
Our materials for the biography of this companion of St. Paul must be drawn entirely from the notices of him in the Second Epistle to the Corinthians, the Galatians, and to Titus himself, combined with the Second Epistle to Timothy. He is not mentioned in the Acts at all. Taking the passages in the epistles in the chronological order of the events referred to, we turn first to
We conceive the journey mentioned here to be identical with that (recorded in Acts 15) in which Paul and Barnabas went from Antioch to Jerusalem to the conference which was to decide the question of the necessity of circumcision to the Gentiles. Here we see Titus in close association with Paul and Barnabas at Antioch. He goes with them to Jerusalem. His circumcision was either not insisted on at Jerusalem, or, if demanded, was firmly resisted. He is very emphatically spoken of as a Gentile by which is most probably meant that both his parents were Gentiles. Titus would seem on the occasion of the council to have been specially a representative of the church of the uncircumcision. It is to our purpose to remark that, in the passage cited above, Titus is so mentioned as apparently to imply that he had become personally known to the Galatian Christians. After leaving Galatia.,
and spending a long time at Ephesus,
Ac 19:1; 20:1
the apostle proceeded to Macedonia by way of Troas. Here he expected to meet Titus,
who had been sent on a mission to Corinth. In this hope he was disappointed, but in Macedonia Titus joined him.
The mission to Corinth had reference to the immoralities rebuked in the First Epistle, and to the collection at that time in progress, for the poor Christians of Judea.
Thus we are prepared for what the apostle now proceeds to do after his encouraging conversations with Titus regarding the Corinthian church. He sends him back from Macedonia to Corinth, in company with two other trustworthy Christians, bearing the Second Epistle, and with an earnest request, ibid.
that he would see to the completion of the collection. ch.
A considerable interval now elapses before we come upon the next notices of this disciple. St. Paul’s first imprisonment is concluded, and his last trial is impending. In the interval between the two, he and Titus were together in Crete.
We see Titus remaining in the island when St. Paul left it and receiving there a letter written to him by the apostle. From this letter we gather the following biographical details. In the first place we learn that he was originally converted through St. Paul’s instrumentality.
Next we learn the various particulars of the responsible duties which he had to discharge. In Crete, he is to complete what St. Paul had been obliged to leave unfinished, ch.
and he is to organize the church throughout the island by appointing presbytery in every city. Next he is to control and bridle, ver. 11, the restless and mischievous Judaizers. He is also to look for the arrival in Crete of Artemas and Tychicus, ch.
and then is to hasten to join St. Paul at Nicopolis, where the apostle purposes to pass the winter. Zenas and Apollos are in Crete, or expected there; for Titus is to send them on their journey, and to supply them with whatever they need for it. Whether Titus did join the apostle at Nicopolis we cannot tell; but we naturally connect the mention of this place with what St. Paul wrote, at no great interval of time afterward, in the last of the Pastoral Epistles,
for Dalmatia lay to the north of Nicopolis, at no great distance from it. From the form of the whole sentence, it seems probable that this disciple had been with St. Paul in Rome during his final imprisonment; but this cannot be asserted confidently. The traditional connection of Titus with Crete is much more specific and constant, though here again we cannot be certain of the facts. He said to have been permanent bishop in the island, and to have died there at an advanced age. The modern capital, Candia, appears to claim the honor of being his burial-place. In the fragment by the lawyer Zenas, Titus is called bishop of Gortyna. Lastly, the name of Titus was the watchword of the Cretans when they were invaded by the Venetians.
Titus, Epistle to.
There are no specialties in this epistle which require any very elaborate treatment distinct from the other Pastoral Letters of St. Paul. It was written about the same time and under similar circumstances with the other two i.e., from Ephesus, in the autumn of 67 in the interval between Paul’s two Roman imprisonments.
(The form given in the Revised Version, of the proselyte Justus, at whose house in Corinth Paul preached when driven from the synagogue. He is possibly the same as Titus the companion of Paul.)
the designation of Joha, one of the heroes of David’s army.
It occurs nowhere else, and nothing is known of the place or family which it denotes.
(lowly) a Kohathite Levite, ancestor of Samuel and Heman.
(Adonijah the good), one of the Levites sent by Jehoshaphat through the cities of Judah to teach the law to the people.
(good),The land of, a place in which Jephthah took refuge when expelled from home by his half-brother,
and where he remained, at the head of a band of freebooters, till he was brought back by the sheikhs of Gilead. ver. 5. The narrative implies that the land of Tob was not far distant from Gilead; at the same time, from the nature of the case it must have lain out toward the eastern deserts. It is undoubtedly mentioned again in
as Ishtob, i.e. man of Tob, meaning, according to a common Hebrew idiom, the men of Tob. After a long interval it appears again, in the Maccabaean history, 1 Macc. 5:13, in the names Tobie and Tubieni. 2 Macc. 12:17. No identification of the ancient, district with any modern one has yet been attempted.
(goodness of Jehovah).
1. "The children of Tobiah" were a family who returned with Zerubbabel, but were unable to prove their connection with Israel —
Ezr 2:60; Ne 7:62
(B.C. before 536.)
2. "Tobiah the slave, the Ammonite," played a conspicuous part in the rancorous position made by Sanballat the Moabite and his adherents to the rebuilding of Jerusalem. (B.C. 446.) The two races of Moab and Ammon found in these men fit representatives of that hereditary hatred to the Israelites which began before the entrance into Caanan, and was not extinct when the Hebrews had ceased to exist as a nation. But Tobiah, though a slave,
—unless, this is a title of opprobrium —and an Ammonite, found means to ally himself with a priestly family, and his son Johanan married the daughter of Meshullam the son of Berechiah.
He himself was the son-in-law of Shechaniah the son of Arah,
and these family relations created for him a strong faction among the Jews.
(goodness of Jehovah).
1. One of the Levites sent by Jehoshaphat, to teach the law in the cities of Judah.
2. One of the captivity in the time of Zechariah, in whose presence the prophet ,as commanded to take crowns of silver and gold and put them on the head of Joshua the high priest.
To’bit, Book of,
a book of the Apocryphal which exists at present in Greek, Latin, Syriac and Hebrew texts, but it was probably written originally in Greek. The scene of the book is placed in Assyria, whither Tobit, a Jew, had been carried as a captive by Shalmaneser. It is represented and completed shortly after the fall of Nineveh (B.C. 606), Tob. 14:15, and written, in the main, some time before. Tob. 12:20. But the whole tone of the narrative bespeaks a later age and above all, the doctrine of good and evil spirits is elaborated in a form which belongs to a period considerably posterior to the Babylonian captivity. Asmodeus iii. 8; vi. 14; viii. 3; Raphael xii. 15. It cannot be regarded as a true history. It is a didactic narrative and its point lies in the moral lessons which it conveys, and not in the incidents. In modern times the moral excellence of the book has been rated highly, except in the heat of controversy. Nowhere else is there preserved so complete and beautiful a picture of the domestic life of the Jews after the return. Almost every family relation is touched upon with natural grace and affection. A doctrinal feature of the book is the firm belief in a glorious restoration of the Jewish people. Tob. 14:5; 13:9-18. But the restoration contemplated is national, and not the work of a universal Saviour. In all there is not the slightest trace of the belief in a personal Messiah.
(task), a place mentioned in
only, among the towns of Simeon.
a son of Gomer, of the family of Japheth, and brother of Ashkenaz and Riphath.
His descendants became a people engaged in agriculture, breeding horses and mules to be sold in Tyre.
They were also a military people, well skilled in the use of arms. Togarmah was probably the ancient name of Armenia.
(lowly), an ancestor of Samuel the prophet, perhaps the same as TOAH.
comp. 1Chr 6:34
(erring), king of Hamath on the Orontes, who, after the defeat of his powerful enemy the Syrian king Hadadezer by the army of David, sent his son Joram or Hadoram to congratulate the victory and do him homage with presents of gold and silver and brass.
1. The first-born of Issachar and ancestor of the Tolaiters.
Ge 46:13; Nu 26:23; 1Ch 7:1,2
(B.C. about 1700.)
2. Judge of Israel after Abimelech.
He is described as "the son of Puah the son of Dodo, a man of Issachar." Tola judged Israel for twenty-three years at Shamir in Mount Ephraim, where he died and was buried. (B.C. 1206-1183.)
one of the towns of Simeon,
elsewhere called El-tolad.
the descendants of Tola the son of Issachar.
From the burial of Sarah in the cave of Machpelah,
to the funeral rites prepared for Dorcas,
there is no mention of any sarcophagus, or even coffin, in any Jewish burial. Still less were the rites of the Jews like those of the Pelasgi or Etruscans. They were marked with the same simplicity that characterized all their religious observances. This simplicity of rite led to what may be called the distinguishing characteristic of Jewish sepulchres —the deep loculus —which, so far as is now known, is universal in all purely Jewish rock-cut tombs, but hardly known elsewhere. Its form will be understood by referring to the following diagram, representing the forms of Jewish sepulture. In the apartment marked A there are twelve such loculi about two feet in width by three feet high. On the ground floor these generally open on the level of the door; when in the upper story, as at C, on a ledge or platform, on which the body might be laid to be anointed, and on which the stones might rest which closed the outer end of each loculus. The shallow loculus is shown in chamber B, but was apparently only used when sarcophagi were employed, and therefore, so far as we know, only during the Graeco-Roman period, when foreign customs came to be adopted. The shallow loculus would have been singularly inappropriate and inconvenient where an unembalmed body was laid out to decay, as there would evidently be no means of shutting it off from the rest of the catacomb. The deep loculus, on the other hand, was strictly conformable with Jewish customs, and could easily be closed by a stone fitted to the end and luted into the groove which usually exists there. This fact is especially interesting as it affords a key to much that is otherwise hard to be understood in certain passages in the New Testament; Thus in
Jesus says, "Take away the stone," and (ver. 40) "they took away the stone" without difficulty, apparently. And in ch.
the same expression is used "the stone is taken away." There is one catacomb— that known as the "tomb of the kings" —which is closed by a stone rolled across its entrance; but it is the only one, and the immense amount of contrivance and fitting which it has required is sufficient proof that such an arrangement was not applied to any other of the numerous rock tombs around Jerusalem nor could the traces of it have been obliterated had if anywhere existed. Although, therefore, the Jews were singularly free from the pomps and vanities of funereal magnificence, they were at all stages of their independent existence an eminently burying people. Tombs of the patriarchs. —One of the most striking events in the life of Abraham is the purchase of the field of Ephron the Hittite at Hebron, in which was the cave of Machpelah, in order that he might therein bury Sarah his wife, and that it might be a sepulchre for himself and his children. There he and his immediate descendants were laid 3700 years ago, and there they are believed to rest now, under the great mosque of Hebron; but no one in modern times has seen their remains, or been allowed to enter into the cave where they rest. From the time when Abraham established the burying-place of his family at Hebron till the time when David fixed that of his family in the city which bore his name, the Jewish rulers-had no fixed or favorite place of sepulture. Each was buried on his own property, or where he died, without much caring for either the sanctity or convenience chosen. Tomb of the kings. —Of the twenty-two kings of Judah who reigned at Jerusalem from 1048 to 590 B.C. eleven, or exactly one half, were buried in one hypogeum in the "city of David." Of all these it is merely said that they were buried in "the sepulchres of their fathers" or "of the kings" in the city of David, except of two— Asa and Hezekiah. Two more of these kings—Jehoram and Joash —were buried also in the city of David "but not in the sepulchres of the kings." The passage in
and in Ezek 43:7,9 together with the reiterated assertion of the books of Kings and Chronicles that these sepulchres were situated in the city of David, leaves no doubt that they were on Zion, or the Eastern Hill, and in the immediate proximity of the temple. Up to the present time we have not been able to identify one single sepulchral excavation about Jerusalem can be said with certainty to belong to a period anterior to that of the Maccabees, or more correctly, to have been used for burial before the time of the Romans. The only important hypogeum which is wholly Jewish in its arrangement, and may consequently belong to an earlier or to any epoch, is that known as the tombs of the prophets, in the western flank of the Mount of Olives. It has every appearance of having originally been a natural cavern improved by art, and with an external gallery some 140 feet in extent, into which twenty-seven deep or Jewish loculi open. Graeco-Roman tombs. —Besides the tombs above enumerated, there are around Jerusalem, in the valleys of Hinnom and Jehoshaphat and on the plateau to the north, a number of remarkable rock-cut sepulchres, with more or less architectural decoration, sufficient to enable us to ascertain that they are all of nearly the same age, and to assert with very tolerable confidence that the epoch to which they belong must be between the introduction of Roman influence and the destruction of the city by Titus, A.D. 70. In the village of Siloam there is a monolithic cell of singularly Egyptian aspect which De Saulcy assumes to be a chapel of Solomon’s Egyptian wife. It is probably of very much more modern date, and is more Assyrian than Egyptian in character. The principal remaining architectural sepulchres may be divided into three groups: first, those existing in the valley of Jehoshaphat, and known popularly as the tombs of Zechariah of St. James and of Absalom. Second those known as the tombs of the Judges, and the so-called Jewish tomb about a mile north of the city. Third, that known as the tomb of the kings, about half a mile north of the Damascus Gate. Of the three first-named tombs the most southern is known as that of Zechariah a popular name which there is not even a shadow of tradition to justify. Tombs of the judges. —The hypogeum known as the tombs of the judges is one of the most remarkable of the catacombs around Jerusalem, containing about sixty deep loculi, arranged in three stories; the upper stories with ledges in front, to give convenient access, and to support the stones that close them; the lower flush with the ground; the whole, consequently, so essentially Jewish that it might be of any age if it were not for its distance from the town and its architectural character. Tombs of Herod. —The last of the great groups enumerated above is that known as the tomb of the kings —Kebur es Sulton —or the Royal Caverns, so called because of their magnificence and also because, that name is applied to them by Josephus. They are twice again mentioned under the title of the "monuments of Herod." There seems no reason for doubting that all the architectural tombs of Jerusalem belong to the age of the Romans. Tomb of Helena of Adiabene. —There was one other very famous tomb at Jerusalem, which cannot he passed over in silence, though not one vestige of it exists —the supposed tomb of Helena. We are told that "she with her brother was buried in the pyramids which she had ordered to be constructed at a distance of three stadia from Jerusalem." Joseph. Ant. xx. 4,3. This is confirmed by Pelusanias. viii. 16. The tomb was situated outside the third wall near a gate between the tower Psephinus and the Royal Caverns. B.J. v. 22 and v. 4,2. The people still cling to their ancient cemeteries in the valley of Jehoshaphat with a tenacity singularly characteristic of the east. [BURIAL]
Tongues, Confusion of.
The unity of the human race is most clearly implied, if not positively asserted, in the Mosaic writings. Unity of language is assumed by the sacred historian apparently as a corollary of the unity of race. (This statement is confirmed by philologists.) No explanation is given of the origin of speech, but its exercise is evidently regarded as coeval with the creation of man. The original unity of speech was restored in Noah. Disturbing causes were, however, early at work to dissolve this twofold union of community and speech. The human family endeavored b check the tendency to separation by the establishment of a great central edifice and a city which should serve as the metropolis of the whole world. The project was defeated by the interposition of Jehovah, who determined to "confound their language, so that they might not understand one another’s speech." Contemporaneously with, and perhaps as the result of, this confusion of tongues, the people were scattered abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth, and the memory of the great event was preserved in the name Babel. [BABEL. TOWER OF]
TOWER -See 9352
Inscription of Nebuchadnezzar. —In the Borsippa inscription of Nebuchadnezzar there is an allusion to the confusion of tongues. "We say for the other, that is, this edifice, the house of the Seven Lights of the Earth, the most ancient monument of Borsippa, a former king built it [they reckon forty-two ages], but he did not complete its head. Since a remote time people had abandoned it, without order expressing their words. Since that time the earthquake and the thunder had dispersed its sun-dried clay; the bricks of the casing had been split, and the earth of the interior had been scattered in heaps." It is unnecessary to assume that the judgment inflicted on the builders of Babel amounted to a loss, or even a suspension of articulate speech. The desired object would be equally attained by a miraculous forestallment of those dialectical differences of language which are constantly in process of production. The elements of the one original language may have remained, but so disguised by variations of pronunciation and by the introduction of new combinations as to be practically obliterated. The confusion of tongues and the dispersion of nations are spoken of in the Bible as contemporaneous events. The divergence of the various families into distinct tribes and nations ran parallel with the divergence of speech into dialects and languages, and thus the tenth chapter of Genesis is posterior in historical sequence to the events recorded in the eleventh chapter.
Tongues, Gift of.
I. glotta, or glossa, the word employed throughout the New Testament for the gift now under consideration, is used— (1) for the bodily organ of speech; (2) for a foreign word imported and half-naturalized in Greek; (3) in Hellenistic Greek, for "speech" or "language." The received traditional view, which starts from the third meaning, and sees in the gift of tongues a distinctly linguistic power, is the more correct one. II. The chief passages from which we have to draw our conclusion as to the nature and purpose of the gift in question are— 1.
Ac 2:1-13; 10:46; 19:6
2Co 12:1 ..., 14:1
... III. The promise of a new power coming from the divine Spirit, giving not only comfort and insight into truth, but fresh powers of utterance of some kind, appears once and again in our Lord’s teaching. The disciples are to take no thought what they shall speak, for the spirit of their Father shall speak in them.
Mt 10:19,20; Mr 13:11
The lips of Galilean peasants are to speak freely and boldly before kings. The promise of our Lord to his disciples, "They shall speak with new tongues,"
was fulfilled on the day of Pentecost, when cloven tongues like fire sat upon the disciples, and "every man heard them speak in his own language."
IV. The wonder of the day of Pentecost is, in its broad features, familiar enough to us. What views have men actually taken of a phenomenon so marvellous and exceptional? The prevalent belief of the Church has been that in the Pentecostal gift the disciples received a supernatural knowledge of all such languages as they needed for their work as evangelists. The knowledge was permanent. Widely diffused as this belief has been it must be remembered that it goes beyond the data with which the New Testament supplies us. Such instance of the gift recorded in the Acts connects it not with the work of teaching, but with that of praise and adoration; not with the normal order of men’s lives but with exceptional epochs in them. The speech of St. Peter which follows, like meet other speeches addressed to a Jerusalem audience, was spoken apparently in Aramaic. When St. Paul, who "spake with tongues more than all," was at Lystra, there is no mention made of his using the language of Lycaonia. It is almost implied that he did not understand it.
Not one word in the discussion of spiritual gifts in 1Cor 12-14 implies that the gift was of this nature, or given for this purpose. Nor, it may be added, within the limits assigned the providence of God to the working of the apostolic Church,was such a gift necessary. Aramaic, Greek, Latin, the three languages of the inscription on the cross were media, of intercourse throughout the empire. Some interpreters have seen their way to another solution of the difficulty by changing the character of the miracle. It lay not in any new character bestowed on the speakers, but in the impression produced on the hearers. Words which the Galilean disciples uttered in their own tongue were heard as in their native speech by those who listened. There are, it is believed, weighty reasons against both the earlier and later forms of this hypothesis.
1. It is at variance with the distinct statement of
"They began to speak with other tongues."
2. It at once multiplies the miracle and degrades its character. Not the 120 disciples, but the whole multitude of many thousands, are in this case the subjects of it.
3. It involves an element of falsehood. The miracle, on this view, was wrought to make men believe what was not actually the fact.
4. It is altogether inapplicable to the phenomena of
... Critics of a negative school have, as might be expected, adopted the easier course of rejecting the narrative either altogether or in part. What then, are, the facts actually brought before us? What inferences may be legitimately drawn from them? (a) The utterance of words by the disciples, in other languages than their own Galilean Aramaic, is distinctly asserted. (b) The words spoken appear to have been determined, not by the will of the speakers, but by the Spirit which "gave them utterance." (c) The word used, apoftheggesthai, has in the LXX. a special association with the oracular speech of true or false prophets, and appears to imply a peculiar, perhaps physical, solemn intonation. Comp.
1Ch 25:1; Eze 13:9
(d) The "tongues" were used as an instrument not of teaching, but of praise. (e) Those who spoke them seemed to others to be under the influence of some strong excitement, "full of new wine." (f) Questions as to the mode of operation of a power above the common laws of bodily or mental life lead us to a region where our words should be "wary and few." It must be remembered then, that in all likelihood such words as they then uttered had been heard by the disciples before. The difference was that before the Galilean peasants had stood in that crowd neither heeding nor understanding nor remembering what they heard, still less able to reproduce it; now they had the power of speaking it clearly and freely. The divine work would in this case take the form of a supernatural exaltation of the memory, not of imparting a miraculous knowledge of words never heard before. (g) The gift of tongues, the ecstatic burst of praise, is definitely asserted to be a fulfillment of the prediction of
We are led, therefore, to look for that which answers to the gift of tongues in the other element of prophecy which is included in the Old Testament use of the word; and this is found in the ecstatic praise, the burst of sang.
1Sa 10:5-13; 19:20-24; 1Ch 25:3
(h) The other instances in the Acts offer essentially the same phenomena. By implication in ch.
by express statement in ch.
Ac 10:47; 11:15,17; 19:6
it belongs to special critical epochs. V. The First Epistle to the Corinthians supplies fuller data. The spiritual gifts are classified and compared arranged, apparently, according to their worth. The facts which may be gathered are briefly these:
1. The phenomena of the gift of tongues were not confined to one church or section of a church.
2. The comparison of gifts, in both the lists given by St. Paul —
—places that of tongues and the interpretation of tongues lowest in the scale.
3. The main characteristic of the "tongue" is that it is unintelligible. The man "speaks mysteries," prays, blesses, gives thanks, in the tongue,
but no one understands him.
4. The peculiar nature of the gift leads the apostle into what at first appears a contradiction. "Tongues are for a sign," not to believers, but to those who do not believe; yet the effect on unbelievers is not that of attracting, but of repelling. They involve of necessity a disturbance of the equilibrium between the understanding and the feeling. Therefore it is that, for those who believe already, prophecy is the greater gift.
5. The "tongues," however, must be regarded as real languages. The "divers kinds of tongues."
the "tongues of men,"
point to differences of some kind and it is easier to conceive of these as differences of language than as belonging to utterances all equally mild and inarticulate.
6. Connected with the "tongues" there was the corresponding power of interpretation. VI.
1. Traces of the gift are found in the Epistles to the Romans, the Galatians, the Ephesians. From the Pastoral Epistles, from those of St. Peter and St. John, they are altogether absent, and this is in itself significant.
2. It is probable, however, that the disappearance of the "tongues" was gradual. There must have been a time when "tongues" were still heard, though less frequently and with less striking results. For the most part, however, the pierce which they had filled in the worship of the Church was supplied by the "hymns and spiritual songs" of the succeeding age, after this, within the Church we lose nearly all traces of them. The gift of the day of Pentecost belonged to a critical epoch, not to the continuous life of the Church. It implied a disturbance of the equilibrium of man’s normal state but it was not the instrument for building up the Church.
one of the gems used in the high priest’s breastplate,
Ex 28:17; 39:10; Eze 28:13
one of the foundations also of the New Jerusalem, in St. John’s description of the city.
The topaz of the ancient Greeks and Romans is generally allowed to be our chrysolite, while their chrysolite is our topaz. Chrysolite is a silicate of magnesia and iron; it is so son as to lose its polish unless carefully used. It varies in color from a pale-green to a bottle-green. It is supposed that its name was derived from Topazos, an island in the Red Sea where these stones were procured.
has been identified with Tufileh on a wady of the same name running north of Bozra toward the southeast corner of the Dead Sea.
and onceTo’phet (place of burning), was in the southeast extremity of the "valley of the son of Hinnom,"
which is "by the entry of the east gate."
The locality of Hinnom is to have been elsewhere. [HINNOM] It seems also to have been part of the king’s gardens, and watered by Siloam, perhaps a little to the south of the present Birket el-Hamra. The name Tophet occurs only in the Old Testament.
2Ki 23:10; Isa 30:33; Jer 7:31,32; 19:6,11,12,13,14
The New does not refer to it, nor the Apocrypha. Tophet has been variously translated. The most natural meaning seems that suggested by the occurrence of the word in two consecutive verses, in one of which it is a tabret and in the other Tophet.
The Hebrew words are nearly identical; and Tophet war probably the king’s "music-grove" or garden, denoting originally nothing evil or hateful. Certainly there is no proof that it took its name from the beaten to drown the cries of the burning victims that passed through the fire to Molech. Afterward it was defiled by idols and polluted by the sacrifices of Baal and the fires of Molech. Then it became the place of abomination, the very gate or pit of hell. The pious kings defiled it and threw down its altars and high places, pouring into it all the filth of the city, till it became the "abhorrence" of Jerusalem.
occurs only in the margin of
By a few commentators it has been conjectured that the word was originally the same with ARUMAH in ver. 41.
(Heb. tsab). The tsab occurs only in
as the name of some unclean animal. The Hebrew word may be identified with the kindred Arabic dhab, "a large kind of lizard," which appears to be the Psommosaurus scincus of Cuvier.
king of Hamath.
Watch-towers or fortified posts in frontier or exposed situations are mentioned in Scripture, as the tower of Edar, etc.,
Ge 35:21; Isa 21:5,8,11; Mic 4:8
etc.; the tower of Lebanon.
Besides these military structures, we read in Scripture of towers built in vineyards as an almost necessary appendage to them.
1Sa 5:2; Mt 22:33; Mr 12:1
Such towers are still in use in Palestine in vineyards, especially near Hebron, and are used as lodges for the keepers of the vineyards.
the title ascribed in our version to the magistrate at Ephesus who appeased the mob in the theatre at the time of the tumult excited by Demetrius and his fellow craftsmen.
The original service of this class of men was to record the laws and decrees of the state, and to read them in public.
(a rugged region),
is in all probability the Greek equivalent for the Aramaic Argob, one of the five Roman provinces into which the country northeast of the Jordan was divided in New Testament times. [ARGOB]
(1) In the only passage—
—in which this word occurs in the English of the Old Testament italics show no corresponding word in Hebrew. In the New Testament we meet with the word three times —
Ac 10:10 11:6; 22:17
The ekstasis (i.e. trance) is the state in which a man has passed out of the usual order of his life, beyond the usual limits of consciousness and volition, being rapt in causes of this state are to be traced commonly to strong religious impressions. Whatever explanation may be given of it, it is true of many, if not of most, of those who have left the stamp of their own character on the religious history of mankind, that they have been liable to pass at times into this abnormal state. The union of intense feeling, strong volition, long-continued thought (the conditions of all wide and lasting influence, aided in many cases by the withdrawal from the lower life of the support which is needed to maintain a healthy equilibrium, appears to have been more than the "earthen vessel" will bear. The words which speak of "an ecstasy of adoration" are often literally true. As in other things, so also here, the phenomena are common to higher and lower, to true and false systems. We may not point to trances and ecstasies as proofs of a true revelation but still less may we think of them as at all inconsistent with it. Thus though we have not the word, we have the thing in the "deep sleep" the "horror of great darkness," that fell on Abraham.
Balaam, as if overcome by the constraining power of a Spirit mightier than his own, "sees the vision of God, falling, but with opened eyes."
Saul, in like manner, when the wild chant of the prophets stirred the old depths of feeling, himself also "prophesied" and "fell down" —most, if not all, of his kingly clothing being thrown off in the ecstasy of the moment —"all that day and all that night."
Something there was in Jeremiah that made men say of him that he was as one that" is mad and maketh himself a prophet."
In Ezekiel the phenomena appear in more wonderful and awful forms.
As other elements and forms of the prophetic work were revived in "the apostles and prophets" of the New Testament, so also was this. Though different in form, it belongs to the same class of phenomena as the gift of tongues, and is connected with "visions and revelations of the Lord" In some cases, indeed, it is the chosen channel for such revelations.
Ac 10:11; 22:17-21
Wisely for the most part did the apostle draw a veil over these more mysterious experiences.
(The event in the earthly life of Christ which marks the culminating point in his public ministry, and stands midway between the temptation in the wilderness and the agony in Gethsemane,
Mt 17:1-13; Mr 9:2-13; Lu 9:28-36
Place. Though tradition locates the transfiguration on Mount Tabor there is little to confirm this view and modern critics favor Mount Hermon, the highest mountain-top in Gaulanitis, or one of the spurs of the Anti-Lebanus. Time. —The transfiguration probably took place at night, because it could then be seen to better advantage than in daylight, and Jesus usually went to mountains to spend there the night in prayer.
Mt 14:23,24; Lu 6:12; 21:37
The apostles were asleep, and are described its having kept themselves awake through the act of transfiguration.
The actors and witnesses. —Christ was the central figure, the subject of transfiguration. Moses and Elijah appeared from the heavenly world, as the representatives of the Old Testament, the one of the law the other of prophecy, to do homage to him who was the fulfillment of both. Mr. Ellicott says, "The close of the ministry of each was not after the ‘common death of all men.’ No man knew of the sepulchre of Moses,
and Elijah had passed away in the chariot and horses of fire.
Both were associated in men’s minds with the glory of the kingdom of the Christ. The Jerusalem Targum on
... connects the coming of Moses with that of the Messiah. Another Jewish tradition predicts his appearance with that of Elijah." Moses the law giver and Elijah the chief of the prophets both appear talking with Christ the source of the gospel, to show that they are all one and agree in one. St. Luke,
adds the subject of their communing: "They spake of his decease which he should accomplish at Jerusalem." Among the apostles the three favorite disciples, Peter, James and John were the sole witnesses of the scene— "the sons of thunder and the man of rock." The event itself. —The transfiguration or transformation, or, as the Germans call it, the glorification, consisted in a visible manifestation of the inner glory of Christ’s person, accompanied by an audible voice from heaven. It was the revelation and anticipation of his future state of glory, which was concealed under the veil of his humanity in the state of humiliation. The cloud which overshadowed the witnesses was bright or light-like, luminous, of the same kind as the cloud at the ascension. Significance of the miracle. —
1. It served as a solemn inauguration of the history of the passion and final consummation of Christ’s work on earth.
2. It confirmed the faith of the three favorite disciples, and prepared them for the great trial which was approaching, by showing them the real glory and power of Jesus.
3. It was a witness that the spirits of the lawgiver and the prophet accepted the sufferings and the death which had shaken the faith of the disciples as the necessary conditions of the messianic kingdom. —Ellicott. As envoys from the eternal Majesty, audibly affirmed that it was the will the Father that with his own precious blood he should make atonement for sin. They impressed a new seal upon the ancient, eternal truth that the partition wall which sin had raised could he broken down by no other means than by the power of his sufferings; that he as the good Shepherd could only ransom his sheep with the price of his own life.-Krummacher.
4. It furnishes also to us all a striking proof of the unity of the Old and New Testaments, for personal immortality, and the mysterious intercommunion of the visible and invisible worlds. Both meet in Jesus Christ; he is the connecting link between the Old and New Testaments, between heaven and earth, between the kingdom of grace and the kingdom of glory. It is very significant that at the end of the scene the disciples saw no man save Jesus alive. Moses and Elijah, the law and the promise, types and shadows, pass away; the gospel, the fulfillment, the substance Christ remains—the only one who can relieve the misery of earth and glorify our nature, Christ all in all. (chiefly from Smith’s larger Bib. Dic.—ED.)
The kings of Judah had keepers of their treasures both in city and country
and the places where these magazines were laid up were called treasure-cities. and the buildings treasure-houses. Pharaoh compelled the Hebrews to build him treasure-cities.
—McClintock and Strong. [PITHOM]
Mr 12:41; Lu 21:1
a name given by the rabbins to thirteen chests in the temple, called trumpets from their shape. They stood in the court of the women. It would seem probable that this court was sometimes itself called "the treasury" because it contained these repositories.
Information on the subject of trials under the Jewish law will be found in the articles on JUDGES and SANHEDRIN, and also in JESUS CHRIST.
SANHEDRIN -See 8736
JESUS -See 7398
The chief biblical facts connected with the payment of tribute have been already given under TAXES. The tribute (money) mentioned in
was the half shekel (worth from 25 to 27 cents) applied to defray the general expenses of the temple. After the destruction of the temple this was sequestrated by Vespasian and his successors and transferred to the temple of the Capitoline Jupiter. This "tribute" of
must not be confounded with the tribute paid to the Roman emperor.
The temple rate, though resting on an ancient precedent—
—was as above a fixed annual tribute of comparatively late origin.
TRIBUTE -See 9361
the city from which St. Paul first sailed, in consequence of a divine intimation, to carry the gospel from Asia to Europe.
It is mentioned on other occasions.
Ac 20:5,6; 2Co 2:12,13; 2Ti 4:13
Its full name was Alexandria Troas (Liv. xxxv. 42), and sometimes it was called simply Alexandria sometimes simply Troas. It was first built by Antigonus under the name of Antigonea Troas, and peopled with the inhabitants of some neighboring cities. Afterward it was embellished by Lysimachus, and named Alexandria Troas. Its situation was on the coast of Mysia, opposite the southeast extremity of the island of Tenedos. Under the Romans it was one of the most important towns of the province of Asia. In the time of St. Paul it was a colonia with the Jus Italicum. The modern name is Eski-Stamboul, with considerable ruins. We can still trace the harbor in a basin about 400 feet long and 200 broad.
is the rocky extremity of the ridge of Mycale, exactly opposite Samos.
A little to the east of the extreme point there is an anchorage, which is still called St. Paul’s port. [SAMOS]
These words are employed to represent the Hebrew word gedud, which has invariably the sense of an irregular force, gathered with the object of marauding and plunder.
(nutritious). Both Trophimus and Tychicus accompanied Paul from Macedonia as far as Asia, but Tychicus seems to have remained there, while Trophimus proceeded with the apostle to Jerusalem. (A.D. 54.) There he was the innocent cause of the tumult in which St. Paul was apprehended.
From this passage we learn two new facts, viz. that Trophimus was a Gentile, and that he was a native of Trophimus was probably one brethren who, with Titus, conveyed the second Epistle to the Corinthians.
Trumpets, Feast of,
Nu 29:1; Le 23:24
the feast of the new moon, which fell on the first of Tisri. It differed from the ordinary festivals of the new moon in several important particulars. It was one of the seven days of holy convocation. Instead of the mere blowing of the trumpets of the temple at the time of the offering of the sacrifices, it was "a day of blowing of trumpets." In addition to the daily sacrifices and the eleven victims offered on the first of every month, there were offered a young bullock, a ram and seven lambs of the first year, with the accustomed meat offerings, and a kid for a sin offering.
The regular monthly offering was thus repeated, with the exception of the young bullock. It has been conjectured that
... one of the songs of Asaph, was composed expressly for the Feast of Trumpets. The psalm is used in the service for the day by the modern Jews. Various meanings have been assigned to the Feast of Trumpets; but there seems to be no sufficient reason to call in question the common opinion of Jews and Christians, that if was the festival of the New Year’s day of the civil year, the first of Tisri, the month which commenced the sabbatical year and the year of jubilee.
andTrypho’sa (luxurious), two Christian women at Rome, enumerated in the conclusion of St. Paul’s letter.
(A.D. 55.) They may have been sisters, but it is more likely that they were fellow deaconesses. We know nothing more of these two sister workers of the apostolic time.
A usurper of the Syrian throne. His proper name was Diodotus, and the surname Tryphon was given to him or adopted by him after his secession to power. He was a native of Cariana. 1 Macc. 11:39, 12:39-50, etc. "Tryphon, by treason and successive wars, gained supreme power, killed Antiochus and assumed the throne. "The coins bear his head as Antiochus and Trypho."
is reckoned with Javan and Meshech among the sons of Japheth.
Ge 10:2; 1Ch 1:5
The three are again associated in the enumeration of the sources of the wealth of Tyre.
Tubal and Javan,
Meshech and Tubal,
Eze 32:26; 38:2,3; 39:1
are nations of the north.
Eze 38:15; 39:2
Josephus identified the descendants of Tubal with the Iberians, that is, the inhabitants of a tract of country between the Caspian and Euxine Seas, which nearly corresponded to the modern Georgia.
the son of Lamech the Cainite by his wife Zillah,
(B.C. about 3000.) He is called "a furbisher of every cutting instrument of copper and iron."
occurs only once, via. in the Apocrypha. Ecclus. 24:16. It is the Pistacia terebinthus, terebinth tree, common in Palestine and the East. The terebinth occasionally grows to a large size. It belongs to the natural order Anacurdiaceas, the plants of which order generally contain resinous secretions.
Turtur auritus (Heb. tor). The name is phonetic, evidently derived from the plaintive cooing of the bird. It is one of the smaller members of the group of birds which ornithologists usually call pigeons. The turtle-dove occurs first in Scripture in
In the Levitical law a pair of turtle-doves or of young pigeons are constantly prescribed as a substitute for those who were too poor to provide a lamb or a kid. The offering of two young pigeons must have been one easily within the reach of the poorest. The admission of a pair of turtle-doves was perhaps a yet further concession to extreme poverty, for they were extremely numerous, and their young might easily be found and captured by those who did not possess pigeons. In the valley of the Jordan, an allied species, the palm-dove (so named because it builds its nest in the palm tree), or Egyptian turtle— Turtur aegyptiacus, Temm.—is by no means uncommon. It is not improbable that the palm-dove may in some measure have supplied the sacrifice in the wilderness, for it is found in amazing numbers wherever the palm tree occurs, whether wild or cultivated. From its habit of pairing for life, and its fidelity to its mate, the turtle-dove was a symbol of purity and an appropriate offering. The regular migration of the turtle-dove and its return in the spring are alluded to in
and Song 2:11,12 It is from its plaintive note doubtless that David in
pouring forth his lament to God, compares himself to a turtle-dove.
This term is used in the Revised Version of
for CASTOR AND POLLUX, which see.
POLLUX -See 8478
(fateful) andTroph’imus (nutritious), companions of St. Paul on some of his journeys, are mentioned as natives of Asia.
Ac 20:4; 21:29; 2Ti 4:20
(A.D. 54-64.) There is much probability in the conjecture that Tychicus and Trophimus were the two brethren who were associated with Titus.
in conducting the business of the collection for the poor Christians in Judea.
(sovereign), the name of a man in whose school or place of audience Paul taught the gospel for two years, during his sojourn at Ephesus. See
(A.D. 52,53.) The presumption is that Tyrannus himself was a Greek, and a public teacher of philosophy or rhetoric.
(a rock), a celebrated commercial city of Phoenicia, on the coast of the Mediterranean. Its Hebrew name, Tzor, signifies a rock; which well agrees with the site of Sur, the modern town, on a rocky peninsula, formerly an island. There is no doubt that, previous to the siege of the city by Alexander the Great, Tyre was situated on an island; but, according to the tradition of the inhabitants, there was a city on the mainland before there was a city on the island; and the tradition receives some color from the name of Palaetyrus, or Old Tyre, which was borne in Greek times by a city on the continent, thirty stadia to the south. Notices in the Bible. —In the Bible Tyre is named for the first time in the of Joshua, ch.
where it is adverted to as a fortified city (in the Authorized Version "the strong city") in reference to the boundaries of the tribe of Asher, But the first passages in the Hebrew historical writings, or in ancient history generally, which actual glimpses of the actual condition of Tyre are in the book of Samuel,
in connection with Hiram king of Tyre sending cedar wood and workmen to David, for building him a palace; and subsequently in the book of Kings, in connection with the building of Solomon’s temple. It is evident that under Solomon there was a close alliance between the Hebrews and the Tyrians. Hiram supplied Solomon with cedar wood, precious metals and workmen, and gave him sailors for the voyage to Ophir and India, while on the other hand Solomon gave Hiram supplies of corn and oil, ceded to him some cities, and permitted him to make use of some havens on the Red Sea.
1Ki 9:11-14, 26-28; 10:22
These friendly relations survived for a time the disastrous secession of the ten tribes, and a century later Ahab married a daughter of Ethbaal king of the Sidonians,
who, according to Menander, was daughter of Ithobal king of Tyre. When mercantile cupidity induced the Tyrians and the neighboring Phoenicians to buy Hebrew captives from their enemies, and to sell them as slaves to the Greeks and Edomites, there commenced denunciations, and at first threats of retaliation.
Joe 3:4-8; Am 1:9,10
When Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, had taken the city of Samaria, had conquered the kingdom of Israel, and carried its inhabitants into captivity, he laid siege to Tyre, which, however, successfully resisted his arms. It is in reference to this siege that the prophecy against Tyre in Isaiah,
... was uttered. After the siege of Tyre by Shalmaneser (which must have taken place not long after 721 B.C.). Tyre remained a powerful state, with its own kings,
Jer 25:22; 27:3; Eze 28:2-12
remarkable for its wealth, with territory on the mainland, and protected by strong fortifications.
Eze 26:4,6,8,10,12; 27:11; 28:5; Zec 9:3
Our knowledge of its condition thenceforward until the siege by Nebuchadnezzar depends entirely on various notices of it by the Hebrew prophets; but some of these notices are singularly full, and especially the twenty-seventh chapter of Ezekiel furnishes us, on some points, with details such as have scarcely come down to us respecting any one city of antiquity excepting Rome and Athens. Siege by Nebuchadnezzar. —In the midst of great prosperity and wealth, which was the natural result of extensive trade,
Nebuchadnezzar, at the head of an army of the Chaldees, invaded Judea and captured Jerusalem. As Tyre was so near to Jerusalem, and as the conquerors were a fierce and formidable race,
It would naturally he supposed that this event would have excited alarm and terror amongst the Tyrians. Instead of this, we may infer from Ezekiel’s statement,
that their predominant feeling was one of exultation. At first sight this appears strange and almost inconceivable; but it is rendered intelligible by some previous events in Jewish history. Only 34 years before the destruction of Jerusalem commenced the celebrated reformation of Josiah, B.C. 622. This momentous religious revolution,
2Ki 22:1 ..., 23:1
... fully explains the exultation and malevolence of the Tyrians. In that reformation Josiah had heaped insults on the gods who were the objects of Tyrian veneration and love. Indeed, he seemed to have endeavored to exterminate their religion.
These acts must have been regarded by the Tyrians as a series of sacrilegious and abominable outrages; and we can scarcely doubt that the death in battle of Josiah at Megiddo and the subsequent destruction of the city and temple of Jerusalem, were hailed by them with triumph and retribution in human affairs. This joy, as instances of divine retribution in human affairs. This joy, however, must soon have given way to other feelings, when Nebuchadnezzar invaded Phoenicia and laid siege to Tyre. That siege lasted thirteen years, and it is still a disputed point whether Tyre was actually taken by Nebuchadnezzar on this occasion. However this may be, it is probable that, on some terms or other, Tyre submitted to the Chaldees. The rule of Nebuchadnezzar over Tyre, though real, may have been light, and in the nature of an alliance. Attack by the Persians; Capture by Alexander. —During the Persian domination the Tyrians were subject in name to the Persian king and may have given him tribute. With the rest of Phoenicia they had submitted to the Persians without striking a blow. Toward the close of the following century, B.C. 332, Tyre was assailed for the third time by a great conqueror. At that time Tyre was situated on an island nearly half a mile from the mainland; it was completely surrounded by prodigious walls, the loftiest portion of which on the side fronting the mainland reached a height of not less than 150 feet; and notwithstanding the persevering efforts of Alexander, he could not have succeeded in his attempt if the harbor of Tyre to the north had not been blockaded by the Cyprians and that to the south by the Phoenicians, thus affording an opportunity to Alexander for uniting the Island to the mainland by an; enormous artificial mole. (The materials for this he obtained from the remains of old Tyre scraping the very dust from her rocks into the sea, as prophesied by Ezekiel,
more than 250 years before.) The immediate results of the capture by Alexander were most disastrous to Tyre, as its brave defenders were put to death; and in accordance with the barbarous policy of ancient times, 30,000 of its inhabitants, including slaves, free females and free children, were sold as slaves. It gradually, how ever, recovered its prosperity through the immigration of fresh settlers, though its trade is said to have suffered by the vicinity and rivalry of Alexandria. Under the Macedonian successors of Alexander it shared the fortunes of the Seleucidae. Under the Romans, at first it enjoyed a kind of freedom. Subsequently, however, on the arrival of Augustus in the East, he is said to have deprived both Tyre and Sidon of their liberties for seditious conduct. Still the prosperity of Tyre in the time of Augustus was undeniably great. Strabo gives an account of it at that period, speaks of the great wealth which it derived from the dyes of the celebrated Tyrian purple which, as is well known were extracted from shell-fish found on the coast, belonging to a species of the genus Murex. Tyre in the time of Christ and since. —When visited by Christ,
Mt 15:21; Mr 7:24
Tyre was perhaps more populous than Jerusalem, and if so, it was undoubtedly the largest city which the saviour is known to have visited. At the time of the crusades it was still a flourishing; city, when if surrendered to the Christians on the 27th of June 1144. It continued more than a century and a half in the hands of Christians, but was deserted by its inhabitants in A.D. 1291 upon the conquest of Acre (Ptolemais) by the sultan of Egypt and Damascus. This was the turning-point in the history of Tyre, which has never recovered from the blow. Its present condition is a fulfillment of Ezekiel’s prophecy
It contains, according to Volney, 50 or 60 poor families, who live in part by fishing; and is, as Bruce describes it, "rock whereon fishers dry their nets."
This form is employed in the Authorized Version of the books of Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea (Joel has "Tyre"), Amos and Zechariah, as follows:
Jer 25:22; 27:3; 47:4; Eze 26:2,3,4,7,15; 27:2,3,8,32;
28:2,12; 29:18; Ho 9:13; Am 1:9,10; Zec 9:2,3