Selected from numerous WRITINGS, PAMPHLETS AND BOOKS




Compiled from notes of C. E. PROSSER P.O. BOX 989 LOS GATOS, CALIF.





A book, Horae Apocalypticae, was written by E.B. Elliott.  Chronology list drawn up by Elliott’s friend, C. Bowen based upon a much larger treatise of Chronology by Henry Fynes Clinton Vol. 4 Horae Apocalyticae Page 236 Published 1851 by Seeleys London England.


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   1 Creation of Adam                to the birth of Seth        130 years Ge 5:3       "Adam lived 130 years and begat a son, ... and called his name Seth."

 130 Seth born                       to the birth of Enos        105 years Ge 5:6       "Seth lived 105 years, and begat Enos."

 235 Enos born                       to the birth of Cainan       90 years Ge 5:9       "Enos lived 90 years, and begat Cainan."

 325 Cainan born                     to the birth of Mahalaleel   70 years Ge 5:12      "Cainan lived 70 years, and begat Mahalaleel."

 395 Mahalaleel born                 to the birth of Jared        65 years Ge 5:15      "Mahalaleel lived 65 years, and begat Jared."

 460 Jared born                      to the birth of Enoch       162 years Ge 5:18      "Jared lived 162 years, and begat Enoch."

 622 Enoch born                      to the birth of Methusela    65 years Ge 5:21      "Enoch lived 65 years, and begat Methuselah."

 687 Methuselah born                 to the birth of Lamech      187 years Ge 5:25      "Methuselah lived 187 years, and begat Lamech."

 874 Lamech born                     to the birth of Noah        182 years Ge 5:28,29   "Lamech lived 182 years, and begat a son, and he  called his name Noah."

1056 Noah born                       to the Flood                600 years Ge 7:6       "Noah was 600 years old when the flood of waters was upon the earth."

1656 The Flood                       to the birth of Arphaxad      2 years Ge 11:10     "Shem begat Arphaxad 2 years after the Flood."

1658 Arphaxad born                   to the birth of Salah        35 years Ge 11:12     "Arphaxad lived 35 years, and begat Salah."

1693 Salah born                      to the birth of Eber         30 years Ge 11:14     "Salah lived 30 years, and begat Eber."

1723 Eber born                       to the birth of Peleg        34 years Ge 11:16     "Eber lived 34 years, and begat Peleg."

1757 Peleg born                      to the birth of Reu          30 years Ge 11:18     "Peleg lived 30 years, and begat Reu."

1787 Reu born                        to the birth of Serug        32 years Ge 11:20     "Reu lived 32 years, and begat Serug."

1819 Serug born                      to the birth of Nahor        30 years Ge 11:22     "Serug lived 30 years, and begat Nahor."

1849 Nahor born                      to the birth of Terah        29 years Ge 11:24     "Nahor lived 29 years, and begat Terah."

1878 Terah born                      to his death                205 years Ge 11:32     "The days of Terah were 205 years:and Terah died." (Ge 12:1) "Now the Lord," etc.

2083 The Covenant made with Abram    to the giving of the Law    430 years Ga 3:17      "The Covenant ... the Law, which was 430 years after, cannot disannul."

2513 The Giving of the Law           to the return of the Spies    1 years Nu 10:11     (Compare Ex 19:1)

2514 Promise to Caleb on return of Spies to division of the Land  45 years Jos 14:10    "These 45 years, ever since the Lord spake this word unto Moses."

2559 The division of the Land        to Samuel the Prophet       450 years Ac 13:20     "After that, he gave unto them Judges, about the space of 450 years, until Samuel."

3009 Saul anointed                   to the death of Saul         40 years Ac 13:21     "Afterward ... God gave unto them Saul ... by the space of 40 years."

3049 David began to reign            to his death                 40 years 1Ki 2:11     "The days that David reigned over all Israel were 40 years."

3089 Solomon began to reign          to his death                 40 years 2Ch 9:30     "Solomon reigned in Jerusalem over all Israel 40 years."

3129 Rehoboam began to reign         to his death                 17 years 2Ch 12:13    "He reigned 17 years in Jerusalem."

3146 Abijah began to reign           to his death                  3 years 2Ch 13:2     "He reigned 3 years in Jerusalem."

3149 Asa began to reign              to his death                 41 years 2Ch 16:13    "As a ... died in the 41st year of his reign."

3190 Jehoshaphat began to reign      to his death                 25 years 2Ch 20:31    "He reigned 25 years in Jerusalem."

3215 Jehoram began to reign          to his death                  8 years 2Ch 21:20    "He reigned in Jerusalem 8 years."

3223 Ahaziah began to reign          to his death                  1 years 2Ch 22:2     "He reigned 1 year in Jerusalem."

3224 Athaliah’s usurpation           to her death                  6 years 2Ch 22:12    "He (Joash) was with them hid in the house of God 6 years:and Athaliah reigned."

3230 Joash began to reign            to his death                 40 years 2Ch 24:1     "He reigned 40 years in Jerusalem."

3270 Amaziah began to reign          to his death                 29 years 2Ch 25:1     "He reigned 29 years in Jerusalem."

3299 Uzziah began to reign           to his death                 52 years 2Ch 26:3     "He reigned 52 years in Jerusalem."

3351 Jotham began to reign           to his death                 16 years 2Ch 27:1     "He reigned 16 years in Jerusalem."

3367 Ahaz began to reign             to his death                 16 years 2Ch 28:1     "He reigned 16 years in Jerusalem."

3383 Hezekiah began to reign         to his death                 29 years 2Ch 29:1     "He reigned 29 years in Jerusalem."

3412 Manasseh began to reign         to his death                 55 years 2Ch 33:1     "He reigned 55 years in Jerusalem."

3467 Amon began to reign             to his death                  2 years 2Ch 33:21    "(Amon) reigned 2 years in Jerusalem."

3469 Josiah began to reign           to his death                 31 years 2Ch 34:1     "He reigned in Jerusalem 31 years."

3500 Jehoahaz began to reign         to his deposition             0 years 2Ch 36:2     "He reigned 3 months in Jerusalem."

3500 Jehoiakim began to reign        to his death                 11 years 2Ch 36:5     "He reigned 11 years in Jerusalem."

3511 Jehoiachim began to reign       to his deposition             0 years 2Ch 36:9     "He reigned 3 months and 10 days in Jerusalem."

3511 Zedekiah began to reign         to the Captivity             11 years 2Ch 36:11    "(Zedekiah) reigned 11 years in Jerusalem."

3522 The Captivity                   to the proclamation of Cyrus 70 years Jer 25:11    "These nations shall serve the king of Babylon 70 years." (See 2Ch 36:22)

3592 The Decree of Cyrus             to the birth of Christ      536 years According to the commonly received Chronology

4128 The Christian Æra               to the present year        1851 years According to the commonly received Chronology


5979 The present year A.D. 1851                                 5979 years since the Creation of Man



This chart brings the end of 6000 years to the year 1872 A.D.


THE SECOND ADVENT from SYSTEMS OF CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY, by H. B. Smith. Published 1890 from his lectures of 1857 A.D., Page 608.




1. Christ’s personal advent precedes the Millennium.


2. The resurrection of the saints occurs at this advent.


3. The saints are to reign with him while mankind is still in the body, subject to disease and death.


4. This dispensation is to continue 1000 years in which Jew and Gentile are to be converted.


(a) The Millennium is not an expansion of the present, but a new dispensation. (b) It will not be introduced by present agencies; all will wax worse and worse; the Gospel will not convert the world. (d) There are two resurrections. (f) Then the world is to be refitted and forever inhabited.


NEW TESTAMENT COMMENTARY, Vol 2, Page 228.  1858.  PAROUSIA, by Dr. Olshausen, Germany ..................The word————(Parousia, presence) is the ordinary expression for the second coming of the Lord. (Mt 24:27, 37, 39; 1Th 2:19; 3:13; 4:15; 5:23; 2Th 2:1; Jas 5:7, 8)  With the classic authors—————-commonly signifies presence; it has the same meaning sometimes in the New Testament, in the writings of Paul (2Co 10:10; Php 1:26, 2:12; 2Th 2:9); in other cases it is used in the sense of advent, and once (2Pe 1:16) it denotes the incarnation of the Redeemer, as applied to his first coming. But it generally designates the second coming in glory, synonymously with—————, appearing (1Ti 6:14, 2Ti 4:1, 8.) The same expression is also employed in the passage, 2 Tim. etc...


Now turn to Young’s Literal Translation of the Bible, published 1862, and read Mt 24:3, "What is the sign of the PRESENCE, and of the full end of the age?" Mt 24:27, 36, 39 all presence. Young translates Parousia all through the New Testament PRESENCE not COMING.


Now turn to the book, Prophetic Numbers, published in 1880, page 459. Here is the glorious consummation of the divine plan for the recovery and reconstruction of the world. Now is the time for the restoration of all tihngs that God has spoken by the mouth of His Holy prophets of ancient times and that to which Christ referred in saying to His apostles: "Verily I say to you, that in the restoration, when the Son of Man shall sit on his glorious throne, you also who have followed me, shall sit on the twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel." Mt 19:28.


Paradise is now restored. The New Jerusalem far surpassing in splendor the beautiful cities destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar and Titus, is foundede.


The Kingdom of heaven is established upon the earth, in which are Abraham, Israel and Jacob, the apostles, martyrs, saints and prophets, with Daniel to whom the angel said, "But go thou thy way till the end be; for thou shalt rest and stand in thy lot at the end of the days." Da 12:13.


Inquiry into the scriptural import of the word sheol —Hades-Tartarus and Gehenna. By Walter Balfour. Printed in 1824, Charlestown, by Geo. Davidson. Same views as ours.

















We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye "do" well that ye take heed as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn and the day star arise in your hearts." 2Pe 1:19




Almont, Mich.


Published by the author




The following diagram will illustrate the plan of the ages:

Dear Mr. Prosser,


There are innumerable articles which appeared before 1860 teaching conditional immortality, the destruction of the wicked, and in opposition to the trinity. The publications of Joseph Marsh, Benjamin Wilson, Thomas Wilson, Thomas Newman, John Thomas, and others held to these doctrines beginning in the 1840’s.


In the Advent Harbinger and Bible Advocate, published by Joseph Marsh, Rochester, N.Y., Vol. 3, No. 3, Page 18, is a letter from a midwestern minister, A. N. Seymour telling of a trial held in the First Baptist Church of Parma, Mich., in which Jacob, Jane and David Demarest and others were being tried because of their belief in conditional immortality.


Jacob Demarest in defending his faith "rose and expressed his faith on the following points: The state of the dead, No immortality, only through Christ, and that not till the resurrection of the dead, The destruction of the wicked, The time of rewards, The Inheritance of the Saints, The Establishment of the Kingdom."


David Demarest in outlining his faith, listed the doctrines to which he held, including;


"1. I believe in one, true, infinite and all wise God. Joh 17:3; 1Co 8:6.


5. I believe that all men are mortal; that none can obtain immortality, but such as seek for it by patient continuance in well-doing; that life and immortality will be given at the Resurrection not before.


7. I believe that all the wicked will be judged at the Judgment Day, and punished in the lake of fire which is the Second Death, and not life in misery; there the unquenchable fire will burn the chaff up, and the proud and wicked will be burned up, root and branch, and be as though they had not been."


These statements of faith are repeated in various forms in these publications by organized churches and by individuals in articles.




Harold Doan

Page 12


The first twenty-five pages of this paper are extracts from the book DAY DAWN by J. H. Paton of Almont, Michigan, published in the year 1880, revised 1882. (See photo of cover page.) These 25 pages represent extracts from some 70 pages from the DAY DAWN.




The object of writing this book is to spread the knowledge of what the writer believes to be important truth. We do not presume that it is above criticism, either as to matter or style. We are not infallible; we expect to learn more truth and unlearn error, as we still wait and watch; and wisdom will continue to increase when we are gone. Our aim, as to manner, has been to be understood, and we hope that the importance of the themes will cover all literary defects. We know of no other book that presents just the same view of God’s plan, but we are indebted to both men and books, as the agencies by which the Lord has given us these things, and we rejoice to give all due credit to the agent, whoever or whatever it may have been. As we have received from the Lord, so we give to others...


We call attention to the charts in the book as illustrations of the subjects presented.


AUTHOR J. H. Paton


Note: See chart of the ages reproduced on cover page, and Cross & Crown.


DAY DAWN (Page 5)

God’s plan covers a succession of ages, and includes both revelation and salvation.


(Page 6) By way of explaining the chart of the ages (reproduced).


There are three worlds, which include all that is revealed of the past, present and future of mankind. They follow each other, as first, second and third, and are called three distinct "heavens and earth." 2Pe 3. The first ended at the flood, the second ends at the second coming of Christ, and introduction of the day of the Lord, and the third never ends. (The Greek word kosmos means order, or state of things, when it is not applied, as it often is, to mankind).


These worlds are sub-divided into ages. (The Greek word aion, though sometimes translated world, is properly translated age—a limited period of time). The world before the flood seems to have been but one age. The second world has three ages: One Man, or Patriarchal, Jewish and Gospel. The first ended at the death of Jacob, and the national organization of Israel. The second ended at the death of Christ. The third ends with the second order. In the third order, or world, there are "ages to come" (Eph 2:7); how many is not known, but the first one is the millennium, or thousand year’s reign. Re 20.


(Page 7) These worlds and ages, being an outline of the plan, are like a key to unlock the Bible, and make much plain that is otherwise obscure. Without the outline, or "bird’s-eye view," men are liable to apply a statement of the word in one age, when it belongs in another, and by not "rightly dividing the word" fail to receive the mind of the Spirit...


(Page 8) There is no scriptural evidence that those who lived before the death of Christ, were all enlightened concerning the only way of salvation. Failing to see the Plan of the Ages, which secures the light to all "in due Season." TIME drives men to infer that somehow, by His Spirit or otherwise, all men have been enlightened.


(Page 17) The age preceding the marriage of the Lamb, are preparatory steps of the plan, for the development of Christ and His bride, and the Salvation of the world. "Ye are not of the World" does not begin till then.


(Page 20) As none but Adam and Eve entered the earthly life until after their marriage; so none, but Christ and the Church, can enter the heavenly life, until after the marriage of the Lamb. This agrees with the positive Bible teaching. Not even the saints enter upon their reward and glory—the eternal life—un-...


(Page 21) ...til "the ages to come." Mr 10:30. "Christ the first-fruits, afterward they that are Christ’s at His presence." (Greek parousia) 1Co 15:23. When here, Jesus said none had ascended, Joh 3:13. When He had ascended, Peter filled with the Spirit of truth, said, "David is not ascended into the heavens." Ac 2:29-34. Of all the ancient worthies Paul said "they without us shall not be made perfect." Heb 11:40...


Another illustration of the plan, but with additional particulars, is found in the history of Abraham, Isaac and Rebekah. Perhaps no two types, prophecies or parables are given in the Bible to teach precisely the same idea. Each will have some feature peculiar to itself. The Fatherhood of God, the Spirit’s work in calling the Church, and the coming of Christ to meet them on the way, are illustrated in the allegory.


Abraham, "the Father of many nations," as his name indicates, and also the "Father of the faithful," (Ge 17:4 and Ro 4:11) represents God, the Father of all, and the "Father of the faithful" in the highest sense. "We trust in the living God, who is the Savior of all men, specially of those who believe." 1Ti 4:10.


Abraham had an only begotten son—Isaac—by his wife Sarah; and Jesus is "the only begotten Son" of God. Joh 3:16. Both were miraculously produced. Ge 18:9-14 and Mt 1:20. Isaac, the promised seed, is a type of Christ. Ga 3:16. This is usually admitted, and is a New Testament key to the application. Abraham offered his son Isaac, a typical sacrifice, and on the journey to Mount Moriah, he was three days under the...


(Page 22) ...dominion of death. Ge 22:4. So God gave His Son Jesus up to death, and He was three days under its power. Abraham saw the resurrection power, and received Isaac from the dead "in figure." Heb 11:19. Jesus rose the third day in fact. Here again are the natural and spiritual in their order, and death as the line between them.


(Page 25) The Bible reveals a system of truth, progressive in character and adapted to the capacity and necessity of mankind through various ages of development. From the lower upward, is the order of growth, —First the natural; afterward the spiritual." "Milk for babes, and strong meat for them that are of full age," illustrates the progression and adaptation. "The path of the just is as a shining light that shineth more and more unto the perfect day." Pr 4:18.


(Page 35) The gospel age is emphatically the dispensation of the Spirit. Since Pentecost, it has not been, as before, confined to the few, but has been the guest and guide of the Church. The light shines grandly compared with all preceding ages. Very few seem to realize the contrast in our favor. It is often said, "Oh if we had only lived in their day." But the food that was stored during the Jewish age, has been distributed during this. The oil that was poured into the lamps during that age, is burning and giving light during this. As our light is greater than theirs, so are our responsibilities, and our privileges. They were servants, but Divine sonship is a gospel privilege. In that age God was revealed as a Law-giver and Judge, but is now revealed as a Father. They had the spirit of bondage and fear, but now He has given the spirit of adoption. Ro 8:15. The Spirit of Truth has been leading the Church for nearly nineteen centuries, hence the great increase of light on the prophecies and the general plan, especially since 17998 when the Papal dominion was broken. What was seen as an "acorn," has now become...


(Page 37) The Bible begins with the creation, and the entrance of sin and death, and ends with the new creation, —a clean universe where sin and death shall be no more. Re 21:4. God’s word is a progressive science, and deserves our highest attention. How important the development and coming of Christ, —the Seed! How great our calling and hope as Christians! What a glorious destiny God has arranged for the world!


(Page 46) Paul says of the two classes of builders on the same Foundation, that some build with "gold, silver and precious stones" and others with "hay, wood, and stubble." 1Co 3:11, 15. They are both in the same temple or house of God. The difference is in their works. Both are saved, but their reward is not the same. The evil works are burned, and so the builder suffers loss, but he himself is saved, so as by fire. Here are both unity and variety. This seems to agree with the words of Jesus about some in the coming day of wrath being "counted worthy to escape all these things which shall come to pass, and to stand before the Son of man." Lk 21:  . It suggests not only a difference in position, but also a difference in the time.


(Page 47) ...of placing. The first ready are, as "first fruits," taken first, and others are left to ripen by the judgments and are saved afterward.


The two classes are contrasted as a "little flock," and a "great multitude." The former as "kings and priests" will sit with Christ in His throne and rule. Re 2:26, 27; 3:21, 5:10. But the latter class are to occupy a place "before the throne" and serve day and night in His temple. Re 7:9-15. They all have white robes, and the great multitude have palms of victory, but only those who rule are said to be crowned. Re 4:4. We may be sure that the image is correct.


As all are called to run for the prize, and only the "faithful," the "overcomers" are said to be crowned, there is great significance in the warning, "Hold that fast which thou hast, that no man take thy crown." Re 3:11. A man may lose his crown, and yet lose neither life nor sonship.

(Page 51)




—All who can see that Papal system is a counterfeit of the true system, may find in it illustration of several points of interest. The Pope claims to be a in the place of Christ. He has also "the clergy" or priesthood to reign with him. Then the mass—"the laity" — ...


(Page 52) which are a great multitude," are the servants. [The distinctions—"the clergy" and "the laity" —are doubtless Papal.] But all together make the Papal Church. Here is unity and variety, as in the true church. Then each has a special thousand years’ reign. The counterfeit marriage, or complete union of Church and State, which exalted the Church to power with the "the kinds of the earth," and gave her a seat in Rome took place about AD 538. And it was about AD 1538, when a great check was put upon her, by the Holy League, formed in Europe to sustain the Reformation. So the millennial or thousand years’ reign of the saints begins when the true Church is united to the true King of earth. Zec 14:9. The union, or marriage, in either case, involves an exaltation to power.

(Page 59)




—The number seven is made the type of completeness in many things to which it is applied, good or bad, whether it be "the seven Spirits of God;" or "the seven Devils." Re 4:5; Lu 8:2. The word is used in the Bible upwards of five hundred times. The whole sabbatical system, developed in the "Jubilee Cycles," is based upon the number seven. The same is true of the "Times of the Gentiles." To appreciate these, both chapters must be carefully read. The forty years between the two endings, —or from the spring of 1875 to the spring of 1915, making a transition period from two ages here, exactly parallel to the forty years transition between the two ages at the "first advent," cannot be of chance. While there is no positive statement in the Bible that the seventh thousand years from Adam, will be the world’s great Sabbath, the harmony of the ending of those above mentioned, with the ending of the six thousand years, makes it easier to believe the idea than to reject it. And the more it is considered in the light of what follows, the evidence becomes stronger.


The week of seven days, is evidently the basis of the week of weeks, week of years, and the week of seven thousand years. The "creation week" (as it is commonly called, though the statement in Genesis shows that the creation took place "in the beginning" and that it was followed by the six days of formation, or development," and was not necessarily made up of seven ordinary, or twenty-four-hour days. The ordinary week may represent seven long periods of time backward, as well as forward. One writer—W. I. Mann, Braddock, Pa. —has advanced an ingenious and plausible theory, that the seven thousand...


(Page 60) ...years from the creation of Adam, is the seventh day of the creation week, that therefore the whole week is a period of forty-nine thousand years, reaching to "The Great, Grand Jubilee" when death itself is to be destroyed. This, of course, is not in harmony with the mathematical calculations (?) of the Philosophers. But they differ only "a few hundred millions of years" from each other.


(Page 77) There is a prophetic evidence that a change of dispensation is now taking place; that the gospel age is ending, and the millennium dawning. There is a gradual change from the one to the other, as illustrated by the day dawn. The end of night is the beginning of day; so the end of one age is the beginning of another.


This principle is seen in the change of the seasons, and in nearly all God’s works. The succession of kingdoms is by the same rule. Babylon existed as a kingdom before it was universal, and conquered its way. It was not fully recognized until it had done this. So of each of the others. Medo-Persia conquered Babylon, Grecia conquered Medo-Persia, and Rome conquered Grecia. The change from one to the other was gradual. The same is true of the kingdom of God. It is set up before the destruction of Rome, or "in the days of these kings," (Da 2:44) —and it conquers Rome and so becomes universal.


The same law was manifest in the gradual change from the Jewish to the gospel age, and that, as will be shown, was a pattern of the change here. The first ray of the gospel in fulfillment was the birth of our Savior, but it was a period of seventy years from that event to the complete overthrow of the Jewish nation and the destruction of Jerusalem. That period was the transition between the two dispensations. The gospel dispensation is the period of the sufferings of Christ—Head and body—introduced by the first advent and the personal suf-


(Page 78) ferings of Jesus, the Head. The millennium is the period of the glory that should follow, the glory of Christ, the same Head and body that suffered. "If we suffer we shall also reign with Him." 2Ti 2:12. The time to the sufferings of Christ, and to the glory that should follow, is revealed by the Spirit of Christ in the prophets. 1Pe 1:11. The glorious reign begins with the thousand years, or the millennium (Re 20) at the second advent, the marriage of the Lamb, and the binding of Satan. So, Peter’s statement is equivalent to saying that the time is revealed to both advents.


(Page 82) The "time of the end" is a period during which the events named were to take place in order, and not a moment, as some suppose. The multiplicity of events, their succession, and the increase of knowledge, prove that it is a period. That period, it will be shown, began in AD 1798, and will continue to AD 1914, giving a space of 116 years for the fulfillment of the events named. The key to this position is the "time, times and a half," given in answer to the angel’s question. Verse 7. But this could not be properly applied until 1798, and thus, though written in the book of Daniel, it was not understood in the Savior’s day.


(Page 83) The "falling away" of which Paul speaks, —(2Th 2:3) consisted in the church becoming corrupt and therefore seeking favor with the world and its governments, but it was not complete until the Church had become apostate, and succeeded in ruling the nations. The first Christian emperor of Rome was Constantine, who reigned during the fourth century, but the Papacy itself, (through its Popes), did not become head of Rome, and take its seat in Rome, the capital of the empire, until about AD 538. That was the setting up of the "abomination that maketh desolate." Da 12:11.


To set up is not to create, but to put in power, as when God sets up His own kingdom. The abomination existed before, but became supreme about 538. And the three divisions of Italy, overturned by the Papacy, viz: Lombardy, Romania and Ravenna, are represented by the tiara, or three-crowned hat worn by the Pope. The Goths were not fully subdued until some time after, therefore some claim that the Papacy was not set up until its sway was complete. But God’s kingdom is to be set up in the days of its enemies and then conquer them. Da 2:44. So it was with the Papacy. From 538 until 1798, the Papacy had dominion of the world as represented by Rome. During those 1260 years, though others claimed to be the rulers of the empire, they never held Rose as their seat of government; and the people of Rome and Italy recognized the supremacy of the Papacy. The union of the Church and State, and the supremacy of the Church are expressed by the symbol of the woman sitting on the ten-horned beast. Re 17. The beast is also a symbol of human government—(Da 7); and as the


(Page 84) Church united to the man is called the "Man of Sin," so the Church united to the beast is called the beast. Re 18. The beast proper is the Roman Empire, the seven head are seven mountains (successive forms of government), and the ten horns are ten divisions. In the seventeenth chapter the relation of the woman to the beast is brought to view, and her character described: "Upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH." Re 18:5.


This is not a description of the character of Catholics, but of that system, under which the Catholics themselves have been cruelly oppressed. Here is an abomination, and that she is the one that maketh desolate is clear by the next verse: "And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and of the martyrs of Jesus." It is needless to recall the terrible persecutions by the Papal power during the days of its supremacy.


The present object is to locate the beginning of "the time of the end", and, by showing that it has come, justify the search for the truth, which Jesus said no man knew in His day. The period called "a time, times and a half a time" in Daniel, is reduced to "forty and two months" (Re 13:5), and reduced further to "a thousand two hundred and three score days", —(1260 days). Re 12:6. These are all applied to the duration of that wicket dominion. This reduction counts twelve months in a time or year, and thirty days in a month. This is a Bible method of counting. The waters of the flood prevailed five months, (Ge 7:11 and 8:4), and the period is called "an hundred and fifty days." Ge 7:24. In symbolic prophecy a day stands for a year, hence the period of 1260 days means as many years. This rule is given in Eze 4:4-6. All admit that the "seventy weeks" of Daniel 9 were fulfilled in four hundred and ninety years, (70 x 7 = 490), and the "time, times and a half" were fulfilled on the same principle, and therefore reached from 538 to 1798. The Papal Church took her seat in the former year, and her dominion was taken away by the French Revolution in the latter year. She was partially restored in 1800, but never to her former dominion. The legal power to destroy


(Page 85) men’s lives for their faith, she has never had since then, and her partial dominion has been consumed by the progress of light, "the spirit of His mouth," since then. Da 7:26 and 2Th 2:8.


(Page 86) The reason for fixing upon 1914 as the end of "the time of the end," will be given in the chapter on "The Times of the Gentiles." Let it be noted that we are now in the "the time of the end." The application of "the abomination that maketh desolate," not only shows us where that period began, but also gives us a date, after which, and in this time the resurrection of Daniel is due. In connection with what Daniel was told which has been considered, a period of 1335 years is given, reach from the setting up of the abomination to the "end" of something. And a blessing is pronounced upon him "that waiteth and cometh" to that end. Da 12:12. "But go thy way (Daniel) till the end for thou shalt rest, and stand in thy lot at the end of the days." Here Daniel’s resurrection is brought to view in contrast with his resting; and with Daniel, comes the order to which he belongs, —(prophets, Re 11:18), "Every man in his own order."


(Page 87) From 538 where the abomination was set up, 1335 years reach to the year 1873, or if prolonged to its utmost to 1874. It is three o’clock, in law, till it is four and 1335 till it is 1336. There are cases mentioned in the Bible where time was prolonged a large fraction of a year. Compare 2Sa 5:4, 5 and 1Ch 29:27.


Evidence will be given that the end or harvest of the gospel age began in 1874. "The harvest is the end of the age." —Mt 13:39. The harvest, or reaping the earth, (Re 14:14-16), seems to include not only the gathering together of the saints unto Christ, that fear His name, small and great," and the disposition of the tares or corrupting element by fire or judgments. Mt 13:30; Re 11:18. Then the statement to Daniel may read thus: "Go thy way till the harvest;" and where the 1335 days (years) end, "the time of the harvest" begins.


(Page 92) The writer claims that the period is revealed, during which Christ comes, the living generation is judged, the dead in Christ are raised, the living changed without sleeping though they die, the nations overwhelmed in a time of trouble, the Jews restored, and the whole Church of Christ delivered from Babylon, and forty years and commenced in 1874, and will reach to 1914. This period is the time to dispose of the Church and the nations as now existing, and is in that sense the harvest. It is the time of exaltation of both Jewish and gospel churches to their position for millennial work, and hence is the day dawn. The light shining on God’s plan of the ages is in harmony with this claim as to the time. The magnitude of the themes, and the interests involved for both the church and the world are a sufficient apology for being interested in these things.


(Page 93) There is evidence that the six thousand years from the creation of Adam, ended in the autumn of 1873.


(Page 96) This subject of chronology is important, not only because it is in itself a direct argument which locates us, but because it is the key to several others. Three are two or three lines of prophecy that show our position definitely on the stream of time that are not in any way connected with or dependent on this chronology. Among them, is the one referred to in the preceding chapter, —"The days of Da 12th," —which deals exclusively with facts and dates within the limit of the gospel age some of which come within the range of this generation. The harmony between several time arguments, some of which are an others of which are not dependent on the chronology, is an evidence in favor of both the arguments and the chronology.


Suppose you have an iron safe to open, and a bunch of keys from which to select, and you find that the only key which will open the safe, will also open its several drawers, you will at once decide that you have the right key. Here, the safe is the day of the Lord, and the several drawers are the time arguments marking important points in that day. There are a great many chronologies of more or less merit, like the bunch of keys, but there is only one of the many on which there can be developed a harmonious ending of the prophetic periods, and that is Bowen’s Chronology. This stands in the estimate of many writers, simply on a par with several others, but Bishop Usher’s is endorsed by the greatest number, and is the one found in the margin of our common reference Bibles. Bowen’s has one peculiarity, however, which commends it; it is the only one that claims to be simple a Bible chronology. There are confessed difficulties and apparent breaks which other writers seek to overcome by reference to Josephus, but Bowen gives every year mentioned in the Bible, in the line between Adam and Cyrus, and adds no more. It must stand or fall on its own merits. If the Lord has given a chronology, when it is due


(Page 97) to be understood, the Spirit will enable men to find it in the Bible.


Bowen claims that the time is revealed from Adam to the first year of Cyrus, BC 536, and no further. The Lord helps men only when they cannot help themselves; reveals only what cannot be discovered by the use of the natural powers. This time, from Adam to Cyrus, is called the prehistoric period, in which events were recorded mainly by pictures or hieroglyphics, and dates could not be expressed. With the rise of the Persian power, a system of writing was introduced, and since then the combination of History and Astronomy enables men to reckon time accurately. It is just as easy for Astronomers to reckon backward as forwards, and to tell when eclipses have been [as well] as when they will be. That they can do the latter is well known, and this should give confidence as to the former.


"Ptolemy’s Canon," a system of Astronomical calculations, compiled by a famous Greek Astronomer, Ptolemy Claudius, who flourished between AD 125 and AD 1‘60, fixes upon BC 536 as the first year of Cyrus. This is usually accepted as correct, except by a few writers who seem anxious, or find it necessary, to modify history to fit their prophetic theories. Usher is therefore right as far back as Cyrus, and he give BC 536 as the date of the his first year. But further back than that, no chronology is safe but what can be found in the Bible. The Hebrew text is accepted because from it our common Bible is translated, which God in His Providence has made the basis of the principal Christian work and source of light, and recognized the two Testaments as His "Two Witnesses." Re 11.


The following is a statement of the six thousand years from Adam, according to Bowen’s Chronology:


 From Adam to the end of the flood———————————-1656 years


 From the flood to the covenant————————————— 427 years


 From the covenant to the law—————————————— 430 years


 In the wilderness———————————————————-  40 years


 To the division of the land——————————————-   6 years


 To Samuel, the prophet————————————————— 450 years


 From Samuel to David——————————————————  40 years


 (Page 98)


 Under the kings of Judah———————————————— 473 years


 The desolation of Jerusalem——————————————-  70 years


 From Cyrus to Christian era——————————————- 536 years


 To the end of Bible years, in 1873———————————1872 years


                          Total—————————————6000 years


 This is reckoned on Jewish or Bible time. The Jewish nation had two years, —civil and ecclesiastical. The civil year begins in the Autumn, and the other in the Spring, but as the latter was not established until after leaving Egypt, this chronology is reckoned by the civil time. The Jewish year corresponding to our year 1872, therefore reached to the Autumn of 1873. It will be observed that this chronology is not affected at all whether the common era is or is not properly dated. Whether Christ was born two, four, or five years before the common era, does not change the length of time from Adam to 1873, any more than a point (.) at one place or another on a line (_______) changes the length of that line. The time would be the same length if Christ had never been born.


 If any one will trace the chronology as it is presented, referring to chapter and verse, he will be better able to appreciate its strength, and that of all the arguments based upon it. It may seem dry to some, but attention will make it interest, and its importance will justify all the effort made to understand it.


 Each period will be presented in its order, from Adam to Cyrus. From Adam to the day the flood was dried up, was 1656 years. Ge 5: and Ge 8:13. "This is the book of the generation of Adam." Ge 5:1.


 From Adam to the birth of Seth (Ge 5:3) ———————————— 130 years


 From birth of Seth to birth of Enos (Ge 5:6) —————————- 105 years


 From birth of Enos to birth of Cainan (Ge 5:9) ————————-  90 years


 From birth of Cainan to birth of Mahalaleel (Ge 5:12) —————  70 years


 From birth of Mahalaleel to birth of Jared (Ge 5:15) —————-  65 years


 From birth of Jared to birth of Enoch (Ge 5:18) ———————— 162 years


 From birth of Enoch to birth of Methuselah (Ge 5:21) —————-  65 years


 From birth of Methuselah to birth of Lamech (Ge 5:25) ————— 187 years


 From birth of Lamech to birth of Noah (Ge 5:28, 29) —————— 182 years


 From birth of Noah to the day the waters were dried (Ge 8:13) — 600 years


                                        Total————————————1656 years


 (Page 99) In this line is no break, as it is reckoned from birth to birth, and therefore no attention is paid to the other portions of the lives of the men named. It is also stated to the day.


 There is a difficulty here, for from Adam to the birth of Methuselah is 687 years, to which, if the length of his life—969 years (Ge 5:27) —be added, it gives 1656 years. But he did not go into the ark; the flood lasted quite a large portion of a year, and yet it takes Noah’s 600 to complete the 1656.  This is an example of the shortening of a period a fraction of a year; and this could be done without affecting the chronology, as the time of Methuselah’s death is not needed in the line. Methuselah had entered on the flood year, and it was included in the statement of his age, but in the line of chronology, Noah’s age at the end of the flood is stated to a day. This method of shortening or prolonging is not uncommon in the Bible, but it is believed that fractions balance each other in the Lord’s mode of stating the time. "Zedekiah reigned eleven years in Jerusalem." Jer 52:1.


 But the sixth and seventh verses show that in the fourth month of his eleventh year the city was broken up. The years are accepted as stated in the direct line.


 From the flood to the death of Terah, Abraham’s father, was 427 years. Ge 11:10-32.


 From the flood to birth of Arphaxad (Ge 11:10) ———————-  2 years


 From birth of Arphaxad to birth of Salah (Ge 11:12) ————— 35 years


 From birth of Salah to birth of Eber (Ge 11:14) ——————— 30 years


 From birth of Eber to birth of Peleg (Ge 11:16) ——————— 34 years


 From birth of Peleg to birth of Reu (Ge 11:18) ———————- 30 years


 From birth of Reu to birth of Serug (Ge 11:20) ———————- 32 years


 From birth of Serug to birth of Nahor (Ge 11:22) ——————- 30 years


 From birth of Nahor to birth of Terah (Ge 11:24) ——————- 29 years


                                      Total————————————427 years


 Pass over the time of the birth of Terah’s sons for the present, because there is a direct line without it. Up to the time of Terah’s death, there is scarcely room for a difference of opinion. From the covenant with Abraham to the law, was 430 years. Ga 3:16, 17. The covenant was made at the death of Terah, and included the promise of the land. Ac 7:4,5.


 (Page 100) "And the Lord appeared unto Abram, and said: Unto thy seed will I give this land." Ge 12:7. This covenant made with Abram, was repeated afterward, "with an oath unto Isaac, and confirmed to Jacob." Ps 105:9-11. Its being thus repeated at later periods, cannot, as some think, move the date of the covenant with Abram, and that is the fact of which Paul gives us the date in Ga 3:16,17: Because Isaac was a type, and the promises are all typical, this covenant is said to have been "confirmed of God in Christ." Thus the end of the 427 years of the preceding period, and the beginning of this 430 years are at the same point, —Terah’s death, —and there is no break in the chronology. There are what have appeared breaks, and insurmountable difficulties, but it looks plain as here stated, and we proceed with confidence.*




 *Some have found a supposed discrepancy of sixty years, based on the statement in Ge 11:26 compared with that in Ge 12:4. The former states that Terah had three sons after he was seventy years old and mentions Abram first, from which it is falsely inferred that Abram was born when Terah was seventy, and therefore he must have been seventy-five years old as stated in the latter verse sixty years before his father died. See Ge 11:32. But whoever will read the whole passage will see that Abram was seventy-five and the covenant was made at Terah’s death, and they will not need to make the above false inference which is not in harmony with either the account in Genesis or Stephen’s statement in Ac 7:4.


 The 430 began with the covenant, and reached to the law, as Paul has stated. The Passover was the first feature of the law, and was instituted on the night the children of Israel left Egypt. "Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years, and it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, even the self same day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the Lord went out  from the land of Egypt." Ex 12:41. The context shows that the Passover was instituted at that time. Thus there is an unbroken line from the creation of Adam to the exodus from Egypt. The above passage does not say the children of Israel sojourned in Egypt four hundred and thirty years, but the sojourning of that people, who dwelt in Egypt, lasted that length of time. The sojourning began in the person of Abraham, from the time of the promised, and continued in the others who dwelt in tabernacles, having no continuing place. Heb 11:9. As Levi, one of the tribes, paid tithes in Abraham, being yet in the loins of his father, (Heb 7:9, 10) so all the tribes sojourned in Abraham. This has caused some to


 (Page 101) stumble; but let the Lord speak in a dark way, and then be His own interpreter..


 From the exodus they were forty years in the wilderness, and from the crossing of the Jordan to the division of the land was six years. There is a fraction over, but the Lord calls the day of temptation "forty years," and we accept it, believing that He will make the fractions balance. Heb 3:8, 9. It was forty-five years, to a day, from the sending of the spies to the division of the land. Caleb, one of the good spies, said: "Forty years old was I when Moses the servant of the Lord, sent me from Kadesh-Barnea to espy out the land. ** And now the Lord hath kept me alive, and He said, these forty and five years, ** and I am this day four score and five years old." Jos 14:7-10. "And Joshua blessed him and gave unto Caleb Hebron for an inheritance." Verse 13.


 Why in this and other cases, is it stated so pointedly if not to give ending and starting points? It was a year and a fraction from leaving Egypt to the sending of the spies. They left Egypt on the fifteenth day of the first month. Nu 33:3. (Rameses or Goshen was the best land in Egypt. Ge 47:11). On the twentieth day of the second month in the second year, they journeyed from Sinai toward Paran. Nu 10:11, 12. From Kadesh-Barnea, in the wilderness of Paran, the spies were sent. Nu 13:3-26, 32:8.


 The forty-six years from leaving Egypt to the division of the land is confirmed by another fact. A system of sabbaths began at the end of the forty years, which required the land to rest during the seventh year. Le 25:3-4. From entering the land, the enemies had to be conquered before the land could be divided. Peace being restored, and the division made, the land could rest during the seventh year according to the law. (See "Jubilee Cycles.")


 The next period to be considered is from the division of the land to Samuel the prophet, which this chronology makes four hundred and fifty years. This is the most difficult point to establish clearly in the whole chronology, and on which, perhaps, there is the greatest difference of opinion. It is usually known as the period of the judges. This period as given in the


 (Page 102) book of Judges and the first book of Samuel, is made up of nineteen small periods which sum up four hundred and fifty years:


 Israel served the king of Mesopotamia (Jud 3:8) ————————  8 years


 The land rested (Jud 3:11) ——————————————————- 40 years


 They served Moab (Jud 3:14) —————————————————— 18 years


 The land rested (Jud 3:30) ——————————————————- 80 years


 Jabin oppressed them (Jud 4:3) ————————————————- 20 years


 The land rested (Jud 5:31) ——————————————————- 40 years


 They served Midian (Jud 6:1) —————————————————-  7 years


 The country was quiet (Jud 8:28) ———————————————- 40 years


 Abimelech reigned over them (Jud 9:22) ————————————-  3 years


 Tota judged Israel (Jud 10:1,2) ———————————————— 23 years


 Jair judged Israel (Jud 10:3) ————————————————— 22 years


 Philistines oppressed them (Jud 10:7,8) ———————————— 18 years


 Jephthah judged Israel (Jud 12:7) ———————————————  6 years


 Ibzan judged Israel (Jud 12:9) ————————————————-  7 years


 Elon judged Israel (Jud 12:11) ————————————————- 10 years


 Abdon judged Israel (Jud 12:14) ————————————————  8 years


 Given over to Philistines (Jud 13:1) —————————————- 40 years


 Samson judged Israel (Jud 16:31) ———————————————- 20 years


 Eli was their last judge (1Sa 4:18) —————————————— 40 years


                                     Total—————————————-450 years


 The rule of the judges did not cover all this space of time, but they were scattered over most of it, hence Paul could truly say they had judges "about the space of four hundred and fifty years," after He had "divided their land to them by lot." Ac 13:19,20.*




 *With all due respect for the scholarship of those who have given us the "Revised Version," I would suggest that their transposition of this passage flatly contradicts the facts recorded in the Old Testament. They make the period of the judges begin after the 450 years, while the Bible shows that the 450 was the period of the judges. And this is the statement of the common version.


 This seems clear and straight, but as the chronology stands in the Old Testament, there are difficulties. Between the division of the land and the first eight years there is a break, covered by the statement of Jud 2:7, which is indefinite. Then we learn from Jud 15:20, that Samson’s twenty


 (Page 103) years lapped on the forty years of the Philistines, both of which had been counted. But we accept Paul’s statement as given to unravel the difficulty. The space was four hundred and fifty years between the division of the land and Samuel, and they had judges about all that time.


 It is worthy of attention that where there is obscurity in the Old Testament, the Spirit in the apostle comes to our aid, as in this period of the judges and the four hundred and thirty already considered. If this space is more than four hundred and fifty years, then the seventh thousand years began sooner than is claimed. Bishop Usher makes it only three hundred and fifty years, but admitting that Paul made an indefinite statement, as some claim, he could not reasonably call three hundred and fifty years "about four hundred and fifty." Paul certainly brings us nearer the great day than does Bishop Usher. Besides this discrepancy of Usher, he shortens the reign of the kings of Judah six years, and begins the seventy years’ captivity, or more properly the "desolation of Jerusalem," during which the land was to enjoy her sabbaths, eighteen years sooner than the city was made desolate. He reckons it from the fourth year of Jehoiakim, instead of the eleventh year of Jedekiah, who was the last king on David’s throne. 2Ch 36:11 to the end of the chapter.


 Thus, in all, Usher puts off the end of the sixth thousand years, one hundred and twenty-four years, or until AD 1997. But weak or strong, let the Bible chronology stand as it is. This is the weakest point; but comparing scripture with scripture, it is strong enough to convince us that the Lord intended to give a connected chronology. The facts of our own day seem to prove that Bowen’s is what it claims to be, a Bible chronology.


 Saul’s period of forty years is included with that of the kings of Judah, making in all the period of five hundred and thirteen years.*




 *Samuel judged Israel contemporary with Eli and Saul, and during the interval between the death of Eli and the crowning of Saul, but God has seen fit not to reckon Samuel’s life as a part of the chronology. The two spaces of 450 years and 40 years reach from the division of the land to David. They had judges "about" all the first space, and Saul reigned in the second space. It is not necessary to prove just how long Saul reigned.




 (Page 104) In this there is no more difficulty.


 Saul’s "space," Ac 13:22 ———————————————————-40 years


 David’s reign, 1Ch 29:27 ———————————————————-40 years


 Solomon’s reign, 2Ch 9:30 ———————————————————40 years


 Rehoboam’s reign, 2Ch 12:13 ——————————————————17 years


 Abijah’s reign, 2Ch 13:2 ———————————————————- 3 years


 Asa’s reign, 2Ch 16:13 ————————————————————-41 years


 Johoshaphat’s reign, 2Ch 20:32 ————————————————-25 years


 Jehoram’s reign, 2Ch 21:5 ——————————————————— 8 years


 Ahaziah’s reign, 2Ch 22:2 ——————————————————— 1 year


 Athalia’s reign, 2Ch 22:12——————————————————— 6 years


 Joash’s reign, 2Ch 24:1————————————————————-40 years


 Amaziah’s reign, 2Ch 25:1———————————————————-29 years


 Ussiah’s reign, 2Ch 26:3————————————————————52 years


 Jotham’s reign, 2Ch 27:1————————————————————16 years


 Ahas’ reign, 2Ch 28:1—————————————————————-16 years


 Hezekiah’s reign, 2Ch 29:1———————————————————29 years


 Manasseh’s reign, 2Ch 33:1———————————————————55 years


 Amon’s reign, 2Ch 33:21————————————————————- 2 years


 Josiah’s reign, 2Ch 34:1————————————————————31 years


 Jehoiakim’s reign, 2Ch 36:5——————————————————-11 years


 Zedekiah’s reign, 2Ch 36:11——————————————————-11 years


                                Total————————————————513 years


 This reaches to the desolation of Jerusalem, or the beginning of the seventy years of "captivity," as it is usually called.*




 *The seventy years do not mark the captivity of the people, but the desolation of Jerusalem. They begin at the eleventh year of the reign of Zedekiah, and not eighteen years sooner, as Bishop Usher claims. (See 2Ch 36:11-21, Jeremiah L; 3, and Eze 21:25-17.) Usher shortens the time eighteen years, by confounding the time when the people began to go into captivity, with the time the process was complete when the seventy years began.




 Adding this seventy years reaches BC 536 or to "the reign of the kingdom of Persia," or "the first year of Cyrus." 2Ch 36:20-22. This time is fixed by Astronomy. Here begins the historic period, in which Usher, Bowen and all other noted writers, are agreed. Adding five hundred and thirty-six, reaches to the Christian era. Then adding eighteen hundred and seventy-two years, reaches the end of the six thousand years from the creation of Adam, reckoned by Jewish


 (Page 105) civil time, in the autumn of 1873, Roman time. On the strength of this chronology, it is claimed that the day of the Lord has begun. "The day of the Lord is a day of trouble," and judging from the condition of the nations at present, and the ominous outlook, no one can look upon the facts and not be impressed with the idea that the claim may, at least be correct.





(Page 106) In this chapter the reason will be given for fixing upon AD 1914, as the limit of Gentile dominion, and as the point from which God’s kingdom will be supreme upon the earth. Jesus said, "Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled." Lu 21:24. It will be shown that the period referred to is "seven times" or 2520 years, reaching from BC 606 to AD 1914. This is called "the times of the Gentiles," because it is the duration of Gentile dominion, from the time they conquered Jerusalem, until the kingdom of God shall have subdued the, and become universal. The Gentile governments mentioned in the Bible, on this prophetic line, are four, —Babylon, Medo-Persia, Grecia and Rome. These are symbolized in the second chapter of Daniel, as a great and mighty man, with a head of gold, breast and arms of silver, belly and sides of brass, legs of iron, and feet of iron and clay. This is human government as it appeared to Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. But mark its depreciation from gold to clay; this shows the downward career of human rule. In the seventh chapter of Daniel, the prophet records his vision of human governments from the standpoint of God’s suffering people, and he saw them as four great and terrible wild beasts, —the lion, the bear, the leopard, and a fourth one too terrible for Daniel to name. This was the Roman Empire. The first three, each in turn, had been universal and conquered by its succes-


(Page 107) sor. Rome had become master of the world before Christ came; under it He was put to death, and the sufferings of His Church, and of Jerusalem its type, have been continued. Rome, in both Pagan and Papal forms, has been the cruel persecutor of both Jews and Christians. John, in the Isle of Patmos, saw this fourth beast which Daniel could not name, and he described and named it the Devil. Re 12:3-9. As the names of the others indicated their character, so of this. Because the Roman Empire is called the Devil, does not prove that there is no real Devil, any more than the fact that Babylon was called a lion proves that there is no real lion. The reverse is true in each case, for the real is the best basis for a symbol.


The period of 2520 years is the length of Daniel’s great image, or the duration of the reign of the four beasts. The chronology is used in this, as in some other Bible arguments. This is however the least of any dependent on that portion of it based on the Bible itself. The seventy years during which Jerusalem was made desolate, "until the land had enjoyed her sabbaths," is the only portion of the chronology taken from the Bible, needed here. The first year of Cyrus, where the seventy years’ desolation ended, is fixed at BC 536 by Astronomy. Adding the 70 to the 536, gives the date where the desolation began—BC 606. This reaches back to the eleventh year of Zedekiah’s reign, who was the last king on David’s throne. 2Ch 36:11-23.


Usher and others make a mistake of eighteen years here, by confounding the captivity with the desolation of Jerusalem. God had a kingdom on earth, a type of the kingdom was gradually subdued by Babylon, but until it was wholly subdued, the throne cast the point of its complete victory, it is first recognized in the prophetic line, and called the "head of gold."


Nebuchadnezzar had the dream referred to, and Daniel, God’s prophet, gave the interpretation. "Thou, O king, art a king of kings; for the God of heaven hath given thee a kingdom, power, strength and glory, and wheresoever the children


(Page 108) of men dwell, ** He hath made thee ruler over them all. Thou art this head of gold." Da 2:37, 38. This proves that Babylon was not recognized as head of gold until it was universal. This is the date of the beginning of Gentile rule, BC 606. Some have supposed that "the times of the Gentiles" did not begin until the later destruction of Jerusalem, under Titus AD 70. They have laid stress on the fact that Jerusalem was rebuilt by the decree of Cyrus and others. But though partially restored the kingdom of Israel has never been an independent government since BC 606. It has always been tributary to the Gentile powers, and thus ruled over (or "trodden down") by them.


They understood this in the days of our Savior. Though they had a nominal ruler, he was subordinate to Caesar. "We have no king but Caesar," expressed their subjection; and though they were anxious to put Jesus to death, and were counted guilty of His blood, yet He had to be tried at a Roman tribunal, crucified by Roman soldiers on a Roman cross, and they had to beg His dead body from the Roman governor.


The prophet Ezekiel refers to Zedekiah as the "profane, wicked prince of Israel," cast down because of iniquity, and adds: "Thus saith the Lord God; Remove the diadem, take off the crown; ** I will overturn, overturn, overturn it; [the kingdom] and it shall be no more until He come whose right it is, and I will give it Him." Eze 21:25-27. This refers to Christ; and to this agree the words of Mic 4:8, "And Thou, Oh Tower of the flock, the stronghold of the daughter of Zion, unto thee shall it come, even the first dominion." Christ is the Tower of the flock, to which all other kings pointed.


That it was not to be fulfilled, or the kingdom given to Christ, at His first coming, the New Testament clearly shows. Instead of gathering Israel then, as was expected because foretold by many prophets as connected with the kingdom, Christ left their house desolate, (Matt. 23) and spoke of Himself as going into a far country "to receive for Himself a kingdom, and to return." Lu 19:12. In answer to the question of the disciples, as to when the kingdom of Israel would be restored, He did not seek to correct them, as if they had made


(Page 109) a mistake, but said, "It is not for you to know the times and the seasons." Ac 1:6-8.


Simeon shows the object of the gospel is to take out from among the Gentile a people for Christ’s name, and James says: "To this agree the words of the prophet; ** After this, I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down." Acts 15: 14-17. The two things are not the same, but they agree, one being a consequence of the other. This is the restoration of Israel and it is to be followed by blessings on the nations. Christ promised the twelve that they should sit on thrones, during the regeneration, and judge (rule) the twelve tribes of Israel. Mt 19:28. The kingdoms of this world (Jewish and Gentile) become the Lord’s during the sounding of the seventh trumpet. Rev. 11: 15-18. These combined, certainly show that God did not intend to give the kingdoms to Christ until the end of the gospel age.


Having the date of the suspension of God’s kingdom, (BC 606) and the length of time (2520 years,) during which Gentile powers are to rule over Jerusalem, it is easy to determine where that period will end, viz: AD 1914; because 606 full years before the beginning of the common era, and 1914 full years after it began, make a total of 2520 years. But is this 2520 a Bible number, given to mark the duration of the Gentile rule over Jerusalem? There are reasons for believing that it is.


The expression of Jesus, "Until the times of the Gentile be fulfilled," (Lu 21:24) suggests two thoughts; first, the period must have a limit, or it could never be fulfilled; second, it must have been foretold. "The Lord God will do nothing, but He revealeth his secret unto His servants, the prophets."  Am 3:7. And what he reveals to His prophets, is intended for His people, in due time. What man of himself cannot discover, the Spirit of God uncovers.


The revelation of the time is not on the surface, nor in such positive statements that every person must see and acknowledge it. Had it been so revealed, it would have been known before it was due, and that is not God’s order. But now it seems clearly revealed by comparing scripture with scripture. Combination and harmony make the strongest evidence. In


(Page 110) the twenty-sixth chapter of Leviticus, the Lord promises all manner of temporal blessings to His people Israel, on condition of their obedience to His commands. But He threatens the most terrible temporal curses if they disobey. "Ye shall sow your face against you, and ye shall be slain before your enemies; they that hate you shall rule over you, and ye shall flee when none pursueth you. And if ye will not yet for all this harken unto me, then I will punish you seven times more for your sins." Le 26:16-18. This expression "seven times" is repeated in three other places (see Le 26:21, 24, 28) in reference to their chastisement under the power of their enemies. The circumstances forbid the idea that it means seven times repeated, or more severe. That would have been impossible. It refers to a period during which their enemies, the Gentile, would reign over them. This is the basis of the expression of the Savior, "The Times of the Gentiles."


There can be no doubt that it was introduced at BC 606, where the desolation of Jerusalem was accomplished, when that event is seen connected with the threatening in this chapter. "And I will make your cities waste, and bring your sanctuaries into desolation, and I will not smell the savor of your sweet odors. And I will bring the land unto desolation, and your enemies that dwell therein shall be astonished at it. ** Then shall the land enjoy her sabbaths, as long as it lieth desolate, and ye be in your enemies’ land; even then shall the land rest, and enjoy her sabbaths." Verses 31-34). Compare with 2Ch 36:17-23. This confirms the application as to the date of the beginning of the period under consideration, and shows that it is to last seven times.


In prophetic language a "time" means a year, and a Bible year is composed of 360 days, and seven times would be 360 x 7, or 2520 days. It has also been shown that in symbolic prophecy, a day means a common year, hence this period of Gentile rule over Jerusalem is 2520 years. And from BC 606, where the period began, until the end of AD 1914, is 2520 years. This Bible argument is a strong evidence in favor of the year-day idea. Had it been fulfilled in ordinary time, it


(Page 111) would have lasted only seven years, but Jerusalem was desolate for seventy years. And though they were then partially restored, yet Jerusalem has never since been free from the dominion of her enemies. At this time—AD 18882—there remain only thirty-three years of the time to run, reckoning it on the year-day principle; and the present indications as to the restoration of Israel, so long under the dominion of their enemies, is strong evidence of the correctness of both the theory and the application. Some of the arguments based on the chronology are built also on the year-day theory, and some are reckoned in ordinary time; and yet the most harmony exists between them. This confirms both the chronology and the year-day theory.


There are many prophetic students who accept the year-day idea as scriptural, and also apply it tot he duration of the papal dominion, who are not willing to allow its application to the times of the Gentiles. But if, as they admit, "a time, times and a half," that is, three and a half times, have been fulfilled as 1260 years, they should admit that seven times means 2520 years. It is a simple proportion; 3-1/2 is to 7 as 1260 is to 2520. Here is at least one prophetic period that cannot end as long as Jerusalem is under the dominion of her enemies.


The Gentiles will not hold Jerusalem with unlimited sway until AD 1914. The principle of gradual change is true here as in all the past. Each succeeding kingdom had an existence in the days of the preceding one and conquered its way to universal dominion, and the kingdom of God, though higher in its character, is no exception to the rule of gradual success. The fourth kingdom as symbolized by the fourth beast of Daniel seventh, is divided at a certain stage, represented by the ten toes on the image of Daniel, and when speaking of these ten kingdoms, it is added: "And in the days of these kings the God of heaven shall set up a kingdom ** and it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand forever." Da 2:44. These ten represent the Gentile power in their day, just as the head of gold represented it in his day, and when the kingdom of God is set up in its "stone" form, the Gentile governments must begin to be consumed. They will


(Page 112) not, however, lose all their power until AD 1914, or until the kingdom of God is universal. Then Jerusalem, freed from her long bondage, will become "a praise in all the earth."





(Page 129) There is evidence that an age of restitution began with the Jewish year in the Spring of 1875. As the times of the restitution are to bring great blessings to mankind, it is interesting to know when they began, and how the work is to be introduced; and there can be no vital objection to searching for the time, in whatever sense our Father has been pleased to make it known. He has a time for everything, and does everything in its time.


The "Jubilee Cycles," as an argument, is based on the number seven, as used in the system of sabbaths given in the Bible; is reckoned by the "Bible Chronology;" and is independent of the "year-day theory." Many Bible students believe that all the prophetic "days" measure time in any way for the Church, but are for Israel only. They agree, however, that the "seventy-weeks" of Da 9:24 were fulfilled as weeks of years, instead of days. Why should this be an exception to the rule in symbolic prophecy? But even granting that it is, as they claim, still there is a Bible measure that spans the gospel age, and gives light for the Church on the time whoever will read will find such a measure (reckoned on common time by a Bible chronology with Jewish years, and involving the interests also of the Jewish people) in the application of the Jubilee Cycles. Let it once be understood that the second coming of Christ, as well as the first coming, is a work


(Page 130) of order and covers as many years; (See "Coming of Christ") and that He comes now to introduce "the times of the restitution" (Ac 3:21) or millennial age, as He then came to introduce the gospel age, and a beautiful harmony will be seen between this Jubilee measurement and others base don the same chronology. From the actual beginning of His ministry to the Jews in the Spring of AD 30, until the complete disposition of that nation and the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70 was a period of forty years. So between the Spring of 1875, where the Jubilee Cycles point, and the end of the year 1914, where Gentile Times end, is also a period day of wrath on Israel. That forty years was a harvest, which included a day of wrath on Israel. This forty years is a harvest, which includes a day of wrath on the nominal church. The two periods are thus similar, but they are also contrasted in that while Israel fell during that and the Church rose, during this, Israel rises and the Church falls.  It will be understood that the nominal Church is meant, for the spiritual house of God cannot fall. Such a harmony of periods cannot be produced by any other chronology. Surely it cannot be of chance.


There are good reasons for the position that the ministry of Christ in the flesh began at the Passover in the Spring of AD 30. Joh 2:13. History shows that He was crucified in the Spring of AD 33. This was in the middle of the seventieth week of Da 9:24-27, making the time from His Baptism, and anointing, where the sixty-nine weeks were fulfilled, (verse 26; and Mr 1:15) to His death, three years and six months. As He was crucified in the Spring of AD 33 at the time of the Passover, (Luke 22) He must have been baptized in the Autumn of AD 29, and as the law required His introduction into office at the age of thirty (Num. 4) He must have been born in the Autumn of BC 2, and not in BC 4 or 5, as many claim. This view is confirmed by the historical fact that Tiberias Caesar began to reign at the death of Augustus Caesar in AD 14, taken in connection with the New Testament statement that John the Baptist began his ministry "in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberias Caesar" (Lu 3:1,2) which must have been AD 29. John was six months older than Jesus (Luke


(Page 131) Lk 1:26-36 and when John began his ministry, at thirty also, as the law required, "Jesus began to be about thirty years of age." Lu 3:23. Thirty years back from the Autumn of AD 29 reach the Autumn of BC 2, and three years and six months forward from the same point reach the Spring of AD 33. These facts have an important bearing on the harmony of these subjects.


But though Jesus was anointed and introduced at the age of thirty in the Autumn of AD 29, He did but little openly until the Passover in the following Spring. In reply to His mother’s suggestion about the wine at the wedding in Cana, He said, "Woman, what have I to do with thee? Mine hour is not yet come. Joh 2:4. What He did at that time was an exception—as a drop before the shower, —and for some reason He waited till the Passover, as the context shows, before He openly began His work. Would it be strange if He waited till that time because He was making a pattern for what occurs at the second coming? (See "Two Dispensations.")


The proof that "the times of the restitution" began in the Spring of 1875, will also prove that in some sense Christ was due to be present at that date, or rather long enough before it to prepare for the work then due. Allow as much latitude in the use of language in reference to His coming now as all then to introduce the gospel age, and comes now to introduce the restitution age, (Ac 3:21) but He was present in a preparatory stage of work from His birth, or thirty years before. There are reasons for believing that the same thing is true here. Let no one be alarmed at the idea of the invisible presence of Christ until the questions, "How present?" and "Where present?" are answered in the chapter on "The Coming of Christ."


The jubilee argument is based on the system of sabbaths, a part of the law, which is a "shadow of good things to come." They point to the great jubilee, or restitution age, and can only be complete, or fulfilled, in that to which they point. The method of counting the sabbaths is also a part of the law; and it is by the application of that methods of counting that the Spring of 1875 is shown to be the beginning of the great jubilee. Christ did not fulfill all the law at the first advent, but only began the fulfillment; just as He began the fulfillment of the prophecies. He fulfilled only what introduces the age of glory. "With desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer; for I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God." Lu 22:15,16.


The sacrifice of the Lamb, the eating of the flesh and the sprinkling of the blood of the Lord our Passover cover the whole gospel age, but the deliverance of the Church out of bondage is in the dawn of the Millennial age. The Jews stumbled by seeing only the letter of the law, and not seeing that to which it pointed; and we are warned, lest we fall after the same example of unbelief. Heb 4:2.


The number seven is prominent in this system of sabbaths. There are seven Sabbaths, including this great one, and the number seven is the basis of reckoning. There were six kinds in the law: the seventh day, (Ex 31:15); the seventh week, (De 16:9); and the fiftieth day, or day of Pentecost. Le 23:15. The last is reached by a multiple of seven, or week of weeks, Pentecost being a day added. They also kept a Sabbath peculiar to the seventh month, (Le 23:23-32) then the seventh year, (Le 25:4) and the fiftieth year, or jubilee. Le 25:10. This, too, is reached by a multiple of seven, or week or years, the jubilee being an added year. This was the typical restitution. "In the year of jubilee ye shall return every man to his possession." Le 25:13. Thus Moses, by the law


(Page 132) teaches what other prophets teach in plain words, —"the restitution of all things."


The system of sabbaths is one continuous round of cycles, and based on a system of multiples. As the greatest day cycle was formed by multiplying the seventh day into itself, and the greatest year cycle was formed by multiplying the seventh year into itself, it appears that the greatest of all the sabbaths should be reached by multiplying the fiftieth year into itself. "There remaineth a Sabbath." Heb 4:9, margin.) This seems like carrying out the same method of counting, —and the


(Page 133) method itself is a part of the law. Fifty times fifty makes two thousand and five hundred, and from the last jubilee kept under the law, that number of years includes the year 1875. This jubilee is a long one, and as we want to find its beginning we deduct one year, which brings to the beginning of 1875. But when did the last one under the law occur? First find out when they began to count. Some have reckoned from their leaving Egypt, but without any authority. The Lord said, "When ye shall come into the land which I give you, then shall the land keep a Sabbath unto the Lord," and then gave them the rule for counting. Le 25:2. Here is a definite starting point. Their coming into the land was at the end of the forty years in the wilderness. How long were they in the land? This is important, for they have kept no jubilee since the captivity, and doubtless because they have been in the great cycle that reaches to the great Sabbath, though they knew it not. From entering their land to the desolation of Jerusalem, as shown by the chronology, is as follows:


 To the division of the land————————————————————-  6 years


 Under the judges——————————————————————————450 years


 Under the kings——————————————————————————-513 years


                                           Total——————————-969 years


 After entering the land, their enemies had to be conquered, but God enabled them to do this, and have the land divided, that it might have rest in the seventh year according to the land, they could have kept only nineteen jubilee. They had one each fiftieth year, and nineteen fifties make nine hundred and fifty years. So from the end of their last jubilee


 Until the desolation, was————————————————————— 19 years


 The desolation lasted——————————————————————— 70 years


 From desolation to Christian era, —————————————————536 years


 To the beginning of 1875, —————————————————————1874 years


                                          Total——————————-2499 years


 Then from the last jubilee under the law until 1875 is fifty


 (Page 134) times fifty, minus one. From entering the land to the beginning of 1875 is three thousand four hundred and forty-nine years, thus:


 Nineteen full jubilee cycles———————————————————- 950 years


 From last jubilee to 1875—————————————————————2499 years


                                          Total——————————-3449 years


 This part of the argument is based on the law. The year 1875 would have been the jubilee year if they had continued to observe it throughout the long period., It may be noticed in passing, that the year was observed as a jubilee year according to a certain Catholic custom. This of course has no weight in these calculations.


 In addition to the legal argument as above, there is another drawn from prophecy, which brings to the same conclusion. This coincidence is of value, and shows that the "Law and the Prophets," of which Jesus spoke connectedly, are one in spirit. The key to the prophetic part of this argument is the seventy years during which Jerusalem was desolate.


 It is worthy of notice that though for nine hundred and fifty years they observed the form of the law, the Lord did not count the land as having enjoyed her sabbaths; and made it desolation; ** then shall the land enjoy her sabbaths, as long as it lieth desolate, and yet be in your enemies’ land; as it lieth desolate it shall rest; because it did not rest Jeremiah prophesied of this: "And this whole land shall be a desolation and an astonishment; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years." Jer 25:11. So the Lord, by the mouth of Jeremiah, the prophet," [and Moses too, as above] "until the land had enjoyed her sabbaths, for as long as she lay desolate she kept Sabbath to fulfill three score and ten years." 2Ch 34:21. Thus it is evident the seventy years is the key to the number of sabbaths or cycles. Now, it is a most remarkable fact, (and strange indeed, unless God arranged it for this purpose, that


 (Page 135) from the time they entered the land, until the beginning of 1875, there have been just seventy jubilee cycles, as they have actually occurred. Prophecy speaks of things as they are to be rather than as they should be.


 While they were in the land and observed the form, they kept nineteen jubilees. Taking the nineteen from the seventy leaves fifty-one; and nineteen jubilee cycles, with the jubilee year added while they kept it, with fifty-one jubilee cycles without an added year since they have not even tried to keep it, covers the full period of three thousand four hundred and forty-nine years between their entering the land and the beginning of 1875:


    Nineteen fifties make——————————————-950 years


    Fifty-one forty-nines make————————————2499 years


                           Total——————————-3449 years


 It is easier to believe that God arranged these things to give light to the truth seeker in due time, than to believe they just happen so. We are not living in a chance world, under the chance government of a chance God; and the more it is reverently studied, faith becomes strong that the Bible is not a chance book. Why should there be such a harmonious ending of different periods in such perfect keeping with the signs of the times, indicating that a great change is due here, if it is not true? And, be it observed, this harmony cannot be produced on the strength of any other chronology. Let any one try it, if they think another will do just as well. Some who accept this argument in its substance, make six years of difference, on the supposition that "When ye come into the land" (Le 25:2) means "When the land is divided unto you." This seems plausible and the readers may have the benefit of both views. This would make 1881 the first year of the new age instead of 1875. This difference in one sense may be trivial, for those who accept the latter date must soon occupy virtually the same position concerning the invisible presence of Christ as those who accept the position taken in this chapter. The strongest point perhaps in the new position is that it seems as


 (Page 136) if they could not sow their fields, etc., during the six years while they were conquering their enemies. With our position this might be regarded as a necessary exception to the rule. It seems as if the wording, "When ye come into the land" favors our view. They surely had come into it when they crossed the Jordan and had brought the ark there. It seems to be against the new position that the captivity of Israel began in the nineteenth year before the complete desolation of Jerusalem. See San. 1:1. Zedekiah reigned eleven years and Jehoiakim eleven years. 2Ch 36:5-11. So Jehoiakim’s third would be the nineteenth as noted. Now it seems more reasonable that their last jubilee was kept in the complete desolation, than six years later, as it must have been kept if the later starting point here, it is only thirty-four years to 1914, or the end of this day of wrath. If this be true, the wonderful harmony came by chance, and this is not reasonable.


 Some would like it better if there were visible manifestations or a sudden restitution to mark the beginning of the new age. Thee is no reason to believe that the restitution under the law was all accomplished at once, or at the beginning of the age, that is enough. If the demonstrations were such as to convince everybody, how could either Christ or His day come on anybody as a thief? And without the time, it would come in that manner even on the watchers. The want of open manifestations makes time a necessity, and God has given it. The signs of the times are valuable aids, in the search for truth on this great subject. But they are not enough in themselves. "Why!" says an objector, "such, or similar things—wars and money panics, —have happened before, how then can you count on these things?" And this objection must have force with those who reject the time. But having the "times," it is much easier to


 (Page 137) read correctly the "signs of the times," as it is easier to tell what a book contains when the book is in hand.


 These facts and evidences are presented with the assurance that they will have a sanctifying influence on all who are able to receive them. "Sanctify them through thy truth, thy word is truth." Joh 17:17.





(Page 147) There are good reasons for believing that the second advent, like the first, has three stages, and that the first was arranged as a pattern of the second. The three dates which are parallel to the time of the birth, baptism and death of Christ are 1844, 1874 and 1878. The reason for fixing on 1844 is given in "The Twenty Three Hundred Days;" for 1874 in the "Times and Seasons;" and for 1878 in "The Two Dispensations." The latter names being in some respects a combination of the others, strengthens them by a wonderful system of parallels. It is hoped that the reader will make himself familiar with these evidences before either accepting or rejecting the position.


It is believed that the first step of the second advent was


(Page 148) leaving that condition which is represented by the "most holy" or the "third heaven" in the earthly or typical tabernacle’ and that therefore since 1844 Christ has been in the condition represented by the second "holy," or middle apartment. This is as near to earthly conditions, which are represented by the court or first apartment, as we may expect Christ in person to come, and, as in the type, the second as well as the third condition is invisible to the natural eye. This second or middle heaven also corresponds to the "air," which is mid-heaven in the physical world. The reason those who expected Him in 1844 were disappointed is obvious. They were looking for open physical demonstrations, often mistaking earthly imagery for the reality.


For the parallel movements at the birth of Christ and 1844; the thirty years tarrying between His birth and baptism, and its parallel between 1844 and 1874, reaching to the harvest in either case; and the three and a half years from His baptism to His death, with its parallel between 1874 and the Spring of 1878; see the "Two Dispensations" and the "Ten Virgins."





(Page 150) —The Greek word translated coming is "parousia" and means presence. Were it always translated presence it would shed light on this subject. See Mt 24:37-39 in the "Emphatic Diaglott": "For as the days of Noah, thus will be the presence of the Son of Man. For as in those days, those before the deluge, they were eating and drinking, marrying, and pledging in marriage, till t he day that Noah entered the ark, and understood not till the deluge came, and swept them all away; thus will be the presence of the Son of man." Not to the flood, nor to the consequent destruction is the presence of the Son of man." Here instead of one word—"parousia," a phrase is used—"in the days," showing clearly that the presence covers a period of time. And if He were seen in those days, and the ordinary view were correct, the people could not possibly go on eating, drinking and marrying [all innocent in themselves, only when carried to excess] and still know not. Accept the idea of the invisible presence and these statements are full of light.


With this view, Mt 24:45-51 is striking. The two servants—two classes of teachers—are engaged in opposite kinds of work. The "good servant" affirms, and the "evil servant" opposes, and smites. The negative of a question shows the affirmative. Here the negative is: "My Lord delayeth His coming;" hence the affirmative must be, "My Lord no longer delays." If He has not come in any sense, of course He delays; and it would not be the work of an "evil servant" to state the truth. On which side of this question is the reader? The writer is on the affirmative. Observation and experience have shown that the smiting, cutting off spirit, is always the negative of this question; and this is as it was in the days of Christ in the flesh. The casting out of the synagogue came from those who denied His presence. Now, as then, those who accept it are kindly anxious to spread the truth.


(Page 151) Peter says that scoffers shall come "in the last of the days"—[harvest] —saying: "Where is the promise of His presence?  2Pe 3:4. The point he says they will make is just what is now urged against these things by those who would walk by sight, viz: "There is no sign of change: all things continue as they were; when Christ comes there will be such a wreck of matter that everybody will know it." Reader, will you scoff at this because it appeals to faith instead of sight? The consciousness of being right enables one to endure the scoffing with patience. This scoffing never comes from the non-professing world nor infidels—they, like one of old, "care for none of these things." The greatest opposition to any advanced truth has always come from the nominal Church.


The order of work in the harvest, by the angel reapers, under the direction of Christ—the Lord of angels, and of the harvest too, —is in keeping with their invisible presence. "An in the time of harvest, I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind t hem in bundles to burn them: but gather the wheat into my barn." Mt 13:30. No careful reader can fail to see order when there is a first, and something more to follow. When the wheat is gathered, one is taken and the other left. Lu 17:34-37. If the angels or Christ were seen at the first work and the popular view were correct, it is not conceivable that even good men and women would continue at the ordinary work in field and mill, as the context here shows.


It is often asked, "If the tares are gathered first, how can they be left when the wheat is gathered into the barn?" Observe, the tares are gathered into bundles, to be burned, but the wheat is then gathered into the barn before the burning of the tares takes place. There seems to be no difficulty. The pattern dispensation aids even here. The chief priests and t he rulers of the people, representing the various sects of the Jewish Church, were all against His presence before He left their house desolate, and they showed it not only before but after. The kings, rulers and people of Israel were gathered together against the Lord and His anointed. Ac 4:26, 27. However much these sects differed with each other, against the presence


(Page 152) of Christ they were all agreed. This gathering was before their sentence of desolation was pronounced, but the gathering of the wheat out of the Jewish field into the gospel barn went on afterward, and it was all done before the final burning up of those bundles and the whole Jewish system at the destruction of Jerusalem. This was a pattern of what Jesus says will be done in the harvest of the gospel age. During the proclamation of the presence of Christ before 1878, all the sects looking for Christ and others so far as they were exercised about the matter, however much they differed from each other, were gathered together against the presence. There is evidence that between now and 1914—the parallel point to the destruction of Jerusalem (See "Times of the Gentiles")—the nominal churches will be destroyed, and yet, that between now and the complete overthrow, all the wheat will be gathered into the garner of the Lord.





(Page 176) A very clear, strong and beautiful definite time argument is based upon these two dispensations. They are equal in length and parallel in many feathers. The chronology is the basis of this argument, as of the "Jubilee Cycles" and the "Times of the Gentiles." This, like the jubilee argument, is not built on the year-day theory, but on ordinary Jewish time, —the year ending in April of our common year. This, so far as time is concerned, bears directly on the history of the Jewish nation. But though indirectly, yet clearly, there is in it the measure of the gospel age, because the period of the suspension of Israel is for the development of the Church taken out from among the Gentiles. Ro 11:25.


(Page 178) See first the naked and independent facts of this argument, so far as relates to the time of Jewish restoration, as if it had no bearing on anything else. From the death of Jacob, where the history of Israel as a nation began, until the Spring of 1878, was a period of three thousand six hundred and ninety years.*




*The children of Israel were never till then called the "tribes of Israel." Ge 49:28. This was when they had received the dying blessing of their father Jacob. The scepter—a symbol of nationality—is first mentioned in this connection. Ge 49:10. Some date their nationality from the giving of the law, but that was but an important incident in their history after leaving Egypt. They became a nation in Egypt. De 26:5.




 From Jacob’s death to the Exodus—————————————————— 198 years


 In the wilderness——————————————————————————  40 years


 To the division of the land————————————————————-   6 years


 Under the judges——————————————————————————- 450 years


 Desolation of Jerusalem——————————————————————-  70 years


 To Christian era—————————————————————————— 536 years


 To beginning of 1878————————————————————————1877 years


                               Total————————————————-3690 years


 This long period is divided by the death of Christ, in the Spring of AD 33, into two equal periods of eighteen hundred and forty-five years. This is seen by subtraction.






                                       Remainder————————————-  33


 These two equal periods are the measure of two distinct phases of the national career of Israel. During the first half they were the only recognized people of God, and though often chastised, they had His continual favor. Jesus came to them, as "His own, but His own received Him not;" and it was their rejection of Him that put an end to their favor. Since their house was left desolate, or during the second half, they have had no legal favor in Palestine until 1878.


 This division of their history into two equal parts, one of favor and the other without favor must be of God and not of


 (Page 179) chance. That it was foretold can be proved. The only point in the chronology of this argument that requires notice now is the period of one hundred and ninety-eight years, from the death of Jacob to the coming out of Egypt. It will be observed that this number does not appear in the direct line of chronology, but is the last part of the four hundred and thirty years, from the covenant to the coming out of Egypt. The date of Jacob’s death is found by a short line of chronology that seem s to have been made for the purpose of showing the date of their national organization which is so essential to this argument. Why else should the time be given from the covenant to the death of Jacob, on a side-line of chronology that goes no further?


 Abraham was seventy-five years old at this father’s death, and his leaving of Haran, where it has been shown the covenant was made. Ge 12:4.


 From covenant to birth of Isaac (Ge 21:5)——————————- 25 years


 Isaac’s age when Jacob was born (Ge 25:26) —————————- 60 years


 Jacob’s age at his death (Ge 47:28) —————————————147 years


                 Total from covenant to Jacob’s death———————232 years




 From covenant to Exodus—————————————————————-430 years


 From covenant to Jacob’s death—————————————————— 232 years


                    Remainder, or from Jacob’s death to Exodus——-198 years




 So from Jacob’s death to death of Christ—————————————1845 years


 And from death of Christ to Spring of 1878————————————1845 years


 Their history has been divided into two equal parts, the death of  Christ being turning point, and they have now, since 1878, had legal favor. Note these facts. The prophecy of their being cast out of their own land into a land they knew not, where the Lord would show them no favor, is found until Christ left their house desolate. The following verses declare their restoration "from all the lands whither He had driven them:"


 (Page 180) "But first I will recompense their iniquity and their sin double." Verse 18. Double means two equal parts; and the above shows the two equal parts were to be complete before the restoration to favor should begin. This agrees with the facts...


 A third witness—Zec 9:9-12 —makes it sure that the rejection of the people by the Savior, was the turning point in their history, and the beginning of the second half. It is the prophecy of His riding into Jerusalem at the end of his ministry. They were then subject to the Roman power, but "prisoners of hope," that is, they were expecting deliverance. He—the Stronghold of the daughter of Zion," (Mic 4:8) —offered Himself as their King but was rejected, and therefore they were left desolate. Both the offer and the consequence of the rejecting it are foretold. "Turn you to the stronghold, ye prisoners of hope: even today do I declare that I will render double unto thee." Verse 12. In this place the Hebrew word rendered double, is more literally the "second part."


 (Page 182) In view of these facts there must be a sense in which the dispensations lap, and another sense in which they do not. With the former in view the Jewish dispensation reach to AD 70, and the gospel dispensation, which in either case began at the cross, reaches to AD 1914. But in the sense marked by the prophetic outline in this chapter, the Jewish dispensation ended at the cross, and the gospel dispensation ended in AD 1878.*




 *The thirty-seven years in either case may be considered as an extension of favor showing the long-suffering of God. Then He saved the "remnant" out of the rejected house. Ro 9:27-29; 11:1-5. Now He will gather all the wheat, or save His people out of Babylon ere she falls to rise no more. Re 18:4, 21.




 This latter view of the case is beautifully illustrated


 (Page 183) by the two cherubim overshadowing the mercy-seat. They do not lap. This is an important point, for every jot and tittle of the law must be fulfilled. If these lapped, it would represent the lap of the dispensations. But as they only touch each other, there must be a sense in which the two


 dispensations do the same. The two cherubim are a beautiful type of the Jewish and gospel Churches, and of the two equal periods of eighteen hundred and forty-five years. They were made with wings extending from wall to wall, and meeting in the middle at the mercy-seat. I Kings 6:27. They looked inward toward the mercy-seat. $Ex 25:20.





(Page 204) These days of Da 8:14 represent years, as in other prophetic numbers. The application of this number was the basis of the 1843-4 movement. The writer will not vouch for the absolute accuracy of that application, though he believes it was substantially correct. The movement based upon it was, and that too without their knowing it an exact parallel to the movement at the birth of Christ. There were other arguments, partially developed, used with it, but this was fundamental.


The key to this argument is the "seventy weeks" of Da 9:24. That the angel gave this for a key seems too clear to be denied. Daniel had the vision of the three beasts, and the time was associated with it. Da 8:1-4. He sought for the meaning and the angel came to explain. To this angel, in the form of a man, came the instruction, "Gabriel, make this man to understand the vision." Verses 15, 16. At that vision he showed the three beasts to be the governments of Medo-Persia, Grecia and Rome. He explained all but the time. That part remained shut up for a time and none understood it. Verses 26, 27. Daniel was not satisfied; so he prayed for light until the angel returned. Da 9:21. He said, "Oh Daniel, I am now come to give thee skill and understanding. *** for thou art greatly beloved: therefore understand this matter, and consider the vision." Verses 22, 23. God makes known His counsels to His beloved. The angel directed Daniel’s mind back to the vision which, all but the time, he had explained. At this


(Page 205) visit he deals with the time only. This shows that what follows is the key to the understanding of the twenty-three hundred days. "Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people, and upon thy holy city," for the accomplishment of things specified. Verse 24.


Daniel’s people are the Jews, and his holy city was Jerusalem, while God dwelt in it. Aside from its being the typical dwelling place of God, it was no more holy than any other place. The seventy weeks determined on the Jews and Jerusalem were the first part of the period mentioned in the vision, and reach to or about the time of the cross. That the things mentioned in reference to making an end of sin, making reconciliation for iniquity, etc., were fulfilled by the Savior at the first advent, the New Testament clearly teaches, and the Church of Christ has always believed.


The modern attempt to make the seventy weeks reach to the destruction of Jerusalem seems weak. According to the promise of the Spirit, prophecy should be understood by a leading part of the Church of Christ, when it is fulfilled. On this principle the modern notion is an innovation. The time here is the basis of the first advent. The best evidence that Jesus was the Messiah lies in the fact that he came at the time appointed, and did the work foretold. The time which was the basis of His first coming is also the key to the time of His second coming. Some have attempted to make several distinct periods of these weeks. There are seven, sixty-two and one. Versus 25, 27. These make the seventy, and to make out that they are different periods, without relation to each other, seems desperate.


From the going forth [i.e. from the execution] of the commandment to restore and build Jerusalem unto Messiah the Prince" are sixty-nine weeks, or four hundred and eighty-three years. This reached to the baptism of Jesus. Messiah means anointed, and Jesus was anointed with the Holy Spirit at His baptism and the entrance of His ministry. This is confirmed by the first proclamation of Jesus, "The time is fulfilled; the kingdom of heaven is at hand; repent, and believe the good news." Mr 1:15. Only one week of the seventy remained to be fulfilled after the baptism of Jesus. If Christ’s ministry


(Page 206) was, as some suppose, seven years long, then the seventy weeks ended exactly at the cross, or in AD 33. This was the premise of the 1843-4 movement, and the problem was a simple one; so simple that it had mighty power. Seventy weeks equal 490 years, reckoning a day for a year; 2300 minus 490 equals 1810, and 33 plus 1810 equals 1843. That showed that there were two parts to the long period; the first, or 490 years, measuring the last part of the Jewish dispensation, and ending in AD 33; the second, or 1810 years, reaching from the cross to 1843. In the movement, they were carried forward to 1844 by certain types of the law.





(Page 264) The subject of Restitution, or Restoration, is very important, and one of which "all the holy prophets" have spoken. "The times of the restitution of all things," is a period beginning with the return of Christ, (Ac 3:20, 21) and therefore covers the age, or ages, to come. Some have looked for a limited or partial restitution, reading the above as "all things spoken of, or promised." But an appeal to the prophets, and to the law, with its typical jubilee, or restitution, gives the strongest reasons for its universality. And our Lord Himself, the greatest of all prophets, confirms this: "Elias truly shall first come and restore all things." Mt 17:11. [See "Elijah and Elisha."]


Because it says "things," in these passages, some have supposed it could not include persons; as if mankind were not among the things lost, and in need of restoration, or recovery. Webster says a thing is, "Whatever exists, or is conceived to exist, as a separate being, whether animate or inanimate." Whatever may be the modern custom of some, the Bible uses this term in reference to persons, both human and Divine. Lu 1:35 speaks of Jesus as "that holy thing which shall be born." This separation of "the children of the wicked one," from "the children of the kingdom,’ is to "gather the work of Christ, in the next dispensation, is to "gather out his kingdom all things that offend." Mt 13:41. The work of Christ, in the next dispensation, is to "gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven and which are on earth." Eph 1:10. The success of Christ, in all "the


(Page 265) ages to come," is that "every knee should bow, of things in heaven, earth and under the earth." Php 2:10. He is "to reconcile all things unto Himself," both in earth and heaven. Col 1:20. This includes "reconciling the world," "not imputing their trespasses." 2Co 5:18, 19. Paul includes "all things" as subjected to Christ, except God, so the Father Himself is, in Bible language, called a thing, or He would not be an exception to the subjection of all things. 1Co 15:25-28. In view of these scriptures, who can doubt that "the restitution of all things," (Ac 3:21) and to "restore all things," (Mt 17:11) have special reference to mankind?


The terms restitution, and restore—especially the latter—are used, in the Bible, in reference to property lost or stolen, when recovered; (Ex. 22; Job 20:18) and also in the recovery from death, as when Elisha restored the widow’s son. 2Ki 8:1-5. Then it may mean the restoring of something to a person, or the restoring of the person himself, to life, or favor with God or man. There are many that think the terms restitution and restore can only be applied to what has been lost, neither more nor less. When writing the former edition of this book, this was the idea of the writer, but further consideration has convinced him that he was mistaken. The passage in Ex 23:1-4, gives a law touching this. "If a man shall steal an ox, or a sheep, and kill it, or sell it; he shall restore five oxen for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep." If the animal be found in his hand alive, "he shall restore double." Zacchaeus recognized this principle when he said to Jesus, "If I have taken anything, from any man by false accusation, I restore him fourfold." Lu 19:3. A thief "shall restore sevenfold." Pr 6:31.





(Page 312) This first head, or form of government, was Consular. This lasted only a few years. The second was Imperial, or the rule of the Caesars, which continued from about BC 27 until AD 476. For a considerable time the empire had been over-run by the Gothic barbarians, and at the above date one of the chiefs declared himself king of Rome, and occupied one of the chiefs declared himself king of Rome, and occupied the palace of the Caesars. The third head, then, was that of the Gothic kings, which continued until about AD 538. The fourth head of Rome was the Papacy, covering a space of 1260 years, and reaching to AD 1798. Others, during that period, claimed to be the rulers of Rome, but they did not establish a government in the city of Rome—the seat of the beast. Papacy, in that phase of its power, was the forty-two months’ breast, Re 13:5. In 1798 the Papal organization was abrogated, and the Roman Republic declared. This was the fifth gated, and the Roman Republic declared. This was the fifth head, and lasted only about two years. In AD 1800 the Papal organization was restored, under the direction of Bonaparte. The restored Papacy was the sixth head, and sustained by the Napoleonic dynasty with its two horns, it continued until AD 1870. The present is the seventh, and therefore the last. The prophecy declares of the seventh, that "when he cometh, he must continue a short space." Verse 10. It has continued a short space, and all are aware that the people of Europe are about ready to throw off not only the religious restraints of Rome but also the restraints of monarchial governments. Rome, as the fourth beast, represents the world, and the world is about ripe for revolution. The beast that came up far enough, at the French Revolution, to shake his mane, so to speak, is alarming the world. Not a crowned head but well may tremble at the outlook, and many crowned head but well may tremble at the outlook, and many of them do. Even in republican America, "men’s hearts are failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth; for the powers of heavens shall be shaken." Lu 21:26. Presidents do not seem to be any more secure than Czars or Kings.


Note:  The 3rd edition of Day Dawn was also revised in 1890 by J. H. Paton and contained 399 pages. The quotations in these notes are from the 1882 edition and page numbers are not the same in all three editions.





From book of 321 pages by Sir Isaac Newton, published in 1733, London, "Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John."


(Pages 129, 130, 131) "This prophecy, like all the rest of Daniel’s, consists of two parts, an introductory Prophecy and an explanation thereof; the whole I thus translate and interpret."


"Seventy weeks are cut out upon thy people, and upon thy holy city, to finish transgression, and to make an end of sins, to expiate iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, to consummate the Vision and the Prophet, and to anoint the most Holy.


"Know also and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to cause to return and to build Jerusalem, unto the Anointed the Prince, shall be seven weeks.


"Yet threescore and two weeks shall it return, and the street be built and the wall; but in troublesome times: and after the threescore and two weeks, the Anointed shall be cut off, and it shall not be his; but the people of a Prince to come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary: and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and unto the end of the war, desolations are determined.


"Yet shall be confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in half a week he shall cause the sacrifice and oblation to cease: and upon a wing of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that which is determined be poured upon the desolate."


"Seventy weeks are cut out upon thy people, and upon thy holy city, to finish transgression, etc. Here, by putting a week for seven years, are reckoned 490 years from the time that the dispersed Jews should be re-incorporated into a people and a holy city, until the death and resurrection of Christ; whereby transgression should be finished, and sins ended, iniquity be expiated, and everlasting righteousness brought in, and this Vision be accomplished, and the Prophet consummated, that Prophet whom the Jews expected; and whereby the most Holy should be anointed, he who is therefore in the next words called the Anointed, that is the Messiah, or the Christ. For by joining the accomplishment of the vision with the expiation of sins, the 490 years are ended with the death of Christ. Now the dispersed Jews became a people and city when they first returned into a polity or body politick; and this was in the seventh year of Artaxerxes Longimanus, when Ezra returned with a body of Jews from captivity, and revived the Jewish worship; and by the King’s commission created Magistrates in all the land, to judge and govern the people according to the laws of God and the King, Ezr 7:25. There were but two returns from captivity, Zerubbabel’s and Ezra’s; in Zerubbabel’s they had only commission to build the Temple, in Ezra’s they first became a polity or city by a government of their own. Now the years of this Artaxerxes began about two or three months after the summer solstice, and his seventh year fell in with the third year of the eightieth Olympiad; and the latter part thereof, wherein Ezra went up to Jerusalem, was in the year of the Julian Period 4257. Count the time from thence to the death of Christ, and you will find it just 490 years. If you count in Judaic years commencing in autumn, and date the reckoning from the first autumn after Ezra’s coming to Jerusalem, when he put the King’s decree in execution; the death of Christ will fall on the year of the Julian Period 4747, Anon Domino 34; and the weeks will be Judaic weeks, ending with sabbatical years; and this I take to be the truth: but if you had rather place the death of Christ in the year before, as is com-


(Page 132) monly done, you make take the year of Ezra’s journey into the reckoning."


(Page 136)   Yet shall he confirm the covenant with many for one week. He kept it, not withstanding his death, till the rejection of the Jews, and calling of Cornelius and the Gentiles in the seventh year after his passion."


The student should also check page 162, 163, 164, 165 re: date and day of crucifixion.


Letters to Locke "Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of the Scriptures regarding two passages on the Trinity."




Sir Isaac Newton born 1642.




"The Apocalypse of John is written in the same style and language with the prophecies of Daniel, and hath the same relation to that of all of them which they have to one another, so that all of them together make one complete prophecy."




Sir Isaac Newton further "advanced the system of historical interpretation."




(Page 124)   Religion opinion of Milton Lock and Newton. Re: baptism says Newton, "When Christian fathers speak of baptism of little children, mean young persons capable of instructions.


(Page 160)   Sir Isaac Newton for doctrines of Eusebius and Arius lays down fourteen arguments in Latin with supporting scripture to show that the son is neither co-eternal with or equal to the Father. Gives seven reasons against the Trinity.


The Bible student interested in Bible chronology should refer to: The CHRONOLOGY of Ancient Kingdoms, amended by Sir Isaac Newton, published London in 1728.





When Melanchthon sent his revised Commentary on Daniel to his friend Veit at Nurnberg, in 1543, he asked Osiander to furnish something more definite on the prophetic time periods of Daniel. IN response, Osiander published in Latin and German (in 1544 and 1545 respectively) his Conjecture de Ultimis Temporis, ac de Fine Mundi (Conjectures Concerning the Last Times and the End Of the World). This was translated into English by George Joye, and published in 1548-three years after the German edition. It was dedicated by Osiander to his patron, Prince Albrecht of Prussia, expressing joy that one of the ten horns (kingdoms) should hate the "Babylonian whore". And he said, "May God also arouse the other horns against that mentioned beast, and make a speedy end of it." Osiander understood Antichrist to be an ecclesiastical system, not an individual, to continue on until shortly before the end of the world.


In this work Osiander mentions Cardinal Cusa (1452), by whom he was influenced and from whom he evidently borrowed the essence of the idea as well as the title. In the dedication to Albrecht, Osiander prays that what he has written may arouse Christendom to the dangers of wicked Babylonian Rome, spoken of in Daniel and the Apocalypse. He contends that though no one knows the day or hour of Christ’s coming we may know the age and time, as the husbandman may detect the approach of summer.




In chapters 1 and 2 Osiander cites and supports the 6,000 year expectation held both by the Jews in the Talmud and by certain Christian writers. In fact, Osiander built his time expectation upon the analogy of the six days of creation week, and the 6,000 years of toil, to be followed by the eternal rest in the seventh thousand years. Osiander had a curious "angelic year", containing as many common years as our common year has days. He also followed Cusa’s concept of the years of Christ’s life as being typical of so many jubilee periods of fifty years.




In chapter 4 Osiander declares that in the prophecies of Da 7, Re 13, Re 17, 2Th 2, Roma is pictured as twice obtaining world power-once as a nation, and then under the rule of the Papacy. The national dominion ceased at the sack of Rome by Alaric about 412 (410). Adding the 1260 years, the destruction of popery would, he thought, come in 1672, the end of the world following soon thereafter.




The papal contention-of Antichrist’s reign being for three and a half literal years that were yet future-had caused them to look ahead for a fictitious Antichrist, and overlook the real Antichrist at Rome, who had already exerted his influence for centuries. According to Re 13, Satan had given the glory of empire to the Papacy, the pope ruling over the secular and Spiritual powers by means of a lie-the pretended Donation of Constantine. Therefore, all who believe that the Papacy is of God, in reality worship the devil. In order to preserve its power, it must forbid the preaching of God’s Word. The lamblike power of Re 13 is a group, which has the appearance of pious Christian teachers, but in reality these teachers are preaching not the Word of God but pagan philosophy from Aristotle, and they induce people to worship the pope. The speaking image refers to canon law ...





                                Da 8:44      Da 12:7           Da 12:11   Da 12:12


 AUTHOR                  YEAR   2300 YEARS   70 WEEKS          1260       1290            1335


 "Jerome"                   420                490 yrs           3.5 Yrs

 "Theodoret"                457                490 yrs           3.5 Yrs

 "V. Bede"                  735                475 Solar yrs                Literal        To 2nd Advent

 "Nahawendi"                900   2300 yrs                       Yrs.       To 1358

 "Seadie"                   942   2300 yrs     "430 "                       1290 yrs        1335 yrs

 "Hokohes"                 1000   2300 yrs     475 Solar yrs                1290 yrs

 "Thomas"                  1274   Literal      Wk of years       3.5 yrs    3.5 yrs

 "Pierri"                  1298   Yrs to 2000  Wk of years       1260 yrs

 "Ubertine"                1305   Yrs to 2000  1260 yrs          Yrs.       To 1358

 "Cotton, James"           1639   Yr day       490 wk of years   395-1655

 "Hoit, Eph."              1644   Literal      490 wk of yrs     3.5 cent   360-1650        360-1695

 "Parker, Thos"            1646   367-1517     490 wk of years   600-1059   570-1859        Yrs

 "Small, Sam"              1697   Yrs to 1716

 "Burmst, Wm."             1724   555-1745     490 yrs           455-1715   455-1745        455-179

 "Imri"                    1756   538-1794                       Yrs        Yrs             Yrs

 "Bellemy, James"          1758   490 yrs

 "Gatchell, Sam"           1781   Yrs          490 yrs                                     Yrs

 "Petri, J. Ph."           1763   453-1847     453-37            587-1847   557-1847       557-1892

 "Wood, Hans"              1787   420-1880     420-70            620-1880   590-1880

 "Bicheno, Jas."           1794   481-1819                       529-1789   529-1819       529-1864

 "Whitaker, E.W."          1795

 "Bacon, John"             1799   334-1966?                      606-1866   606-1896       606-1941

 "Faraham, B."             1800   481-1819                       529-1789   529-1819       526-1864

 "King, Edw."              1808   538-1762                       538-1798

 "Hales, Wm.D.D."          1803   420-1880     420-70            620-1880   70-1880        70-1405

 "Nott, E."                1804   434-1867                       535-1795

 "Faber, C.S."             1806      -1866                       606-1866

 "King, John"              1808   434-1867                       534-1794

 "Scott, Thos."            1806

 "Christian Obs"           1810   457-1843                       583-1843

 "Christian Obs"           1810   459-1843     457-33

 "Clarke, Adams"           1810   434-1966

 "Davis, Wm. C."           1811   453-1847     453-37            587-1847   587-1877       587-1922

 "Smith, E."               1811   481-1819                       606-1866

 "Cunningham, Wm"          1813   457-1843     457-33            533-1792   533-1822       533-1867

 "Frere, J. H."            1813   553-1847                       533-1793   533-1822       533-1867

 "Mattland, Capt"          1814   515-                           533-1792   533-1822       533-1867

 "Christian Obs"           1818   457-1844     457-33

 "Roberts, P."             1818   553-1847

 "Mason, Arch DD"          1820   457-1843     457-33            533-1792   533-1822       533-1867

 "Bayford, Ino"            1820   481-1819                       529-1789   529-           539

 "C.C. Jewish Ex"          1820   457-1843     457-33            504-1798

 "Girdlestone, Wm"         1820   630-1890                       630-1920   630-1965

 "Fry, John"               1822   457-1844     457-33            533-1793   533-1823       533-1868

 "Brown, John Aquilla  "   1823   457-1844                       564-1844   622-1872       622-1917

 "Way, Lewis"                     508-1792                       531-1791   531-1821       531-1866

 "Wolff, Jos."             1822   453-1847

 "Park, Jr.R., MD"         1826   453-1847                       606-1866

 "Robertson"               1826   453-1847     453-37            587-1847   587-1877       587-1922

 "Wilson, L.L."            1828   453-1847     453-37            587-1847   587-1877       587-1922

 "T.B. (Jewish)"           1828   453-1847

 "Dialocues"               1828   457-1843

 "Cooper, Edw."            1825   457-1843     457-33            533-1792   533-1822       533-1867

 "Wood, Lt. GN"            1829   457-1831     457-33            533-1793   533-1823       533-1867

 "Nicole, A."              1829   453-1847

 "Irving, Ed."             1826   453-1847                       533-1792   533-1823       533-1867

 "White"                   1828   457-1833     457-3 3           554-1814   554-1844

 "Anastius"                1828   533-1792                       533-1822   533-1867

 "Homan, P.H."             1829   457-1833     457-33

 "Vaughan, Ed."            1828   537-1797

 "Keyworth, Th."           1828   457-1833     457-33            606-1866   +30            +43

 "Addis, Alfred"           1829   457-         457-              553-1814   553-1843       553-

 "Hooper, J."              1829   453-1837     453-37            533-1792   533-1823       533-1868

 "Williams, P."            1829   457-1833     457-33            533-193    533-1823       533-1867

 "Hoare, Ed. N."           1830   457-1833     457-33            533-1793

 "Digby, Wm."              1831   457-1833     457-33            533-1793

 "McCorkle"                1830   453-1837     453-37            587-1747

 "Campbell, Elx"           1830   453-1837     453-37            606-1866

 "Millen."                 1830   453-1837     453-37            606-1866   1826           533-1866

 "Livermore, H."           1824   457-1833     457-33            587-1844

 "Gaussen, L."             1829   457-1833     457-33            539-1789   +30            +45

 "Richter, J.N."           1834   587-1847

 "J.G.O. Jowis"            1831   454-1814                       554-1844

 "Keith, Alex"             1832   533-1793                       533-1873   533-1867

 "Morning Watch"           1830   533-1793                       533-1822   533-1867

 "Christian Herald"        1832   457-1833     457-33            533-1793

 "Anderson, Wm."           1830

 "Brooks, G.W."            1831   533-1793

 "Inv. Of Phil."           1831   456-1834     456-34            533-1793   533-1823       533-1867

 "Watch of Night."         1833

 "Habersham, N."           1834   457-1833     457-33            533-1793   533-1823       533-1867

 "D. Rozas J.M."           1834   454-1833     454-33

 "Scott, Rbt."             1834      -1833        -33            606-1866   660-1950       660-1955

 "Burnwell, A.H."          1835   453-1837     453-37            533-1793

 "Kelber, L.N."            1835

 "Heintzpeter, H."

 "McCreger, David"         1833

 "Wheeler, Charles"        1833   457-1833     457-33

 "Scott, James"

 "Junkin, George"          1836   533-1793

 "Holmes, William"         1836   606-1866

 "Wilson, Daniel"          1836   453-1837     453-37

 "Bickersteth, E."         1836   457-1834     457-34

 "Miller, William"         1836   457-1833     457-33            533-1792   533-1822       533-1868

 "Crandall A.L."           1841   538-1798                       508-1794   508-1843

 "Free Baptist Convention" 1841   457-1833     457-33

 "Shirmell, R.C."          1842   453-1837     453-37            553-1793   533-1823       533-1868

 "Shannon, J."             1842   457-1833     457-33

 "Birks, Th. R."           1843   457-1833     457-33            534-1794

 "Robinson, J."            1843   457-1832     457-32

 "Cumming, J."             1843   532-1792                       532-1822   532-1867

 "Elliott, Edward B."      1844   606-1866                       606-1846   606-1941

 "Prophetic Herald"        1845   533-1793                       533-1823   533-1867

 "Hinton, Isaac"           1842   457-1833     457-33            533-1793   533-1823       533-1867

 "Miller, William"         1831   457-1833     457-33            538-1798   508-1798       508-1843

 "Paton, J.H."             1882   457-1833     457-33            538-1798   538-1874

 "John Collom"             1880   457-1833     457-33

 "Barbour, Nelson H."      1871   454-1846     454-36            539-1799   539-1829       539-1874

 "Russell, Charles T."            454-1846     454-36            539-1799   539-1829       539-1874

 "Smith, Uriah"                   457-1833     457-33            538-1798   508-1798       508-1844





     DATE           NAME                               PLACE                   INTERPRETATION

 1. 37-100C         Flavius, Josephus                  Palestine-Rome          Four empires = Babylon,

                                                                               Medo-Persia,  Greece,


 2. 1st C           Palestine                                                  Fourth Empire Rome

 3. 50-130C         Akiba Ben Joseph                   Palestine               Four Empires And Yr-Day

 4. 8th-9thC.       Benjamin Ben Moses                 Persia                  1290 and 2300= year-days


 5. 8th or 9th C    Pirke de Rabbi Eliezer             Palestine, Syria        Four Empires and


                                                                               stone or Asia Minor

 6. 882-942         *Saadia ben Joseph                 Gaon of Sura,           Babylonia Four empires:

                                                                               490, 1290, 1335, 2300

                                                                               (:2= 1150)= year-days

 7. 10th C          Solomon ben Jeroham+               Jerusalem               1290 and 1335 = yr-days

 8. 10th C          Sahl ben Mazliah Hakohen           Palestine               1290, 2300 = year-days

 9. 10th C          *Jephet ibn Ali (Halevi)+          Palestine               Four empires: Iron and

                                                                               clay = Romans and Arabs;

                                                                               Stone = Messiah: Little

                                                                               Horn = Mohammodanism;

                                                                               2300 evening-mornings

                                                                               (2)= 1150 year-days; 70

                                                                               weeks = 490 years

 10. 1040-1105     *Rashi (Solomon Isaac)              France                  Four empires;

                                                                               3-1/2 times,

                                                                               70 weeks, 1290, 1335,

                                                                               2300 = year-days

 11. 1065-1136      Abraham ber Hiyya Hanasi           Spain                   1290, 1335 = year-days

 12. 1092-1167      *Abraham ibn Ezra+ (?)             Spain                   Four kingdoms:

                                                                               70 weeks = 490 years

 13. 14th C         Tobiah ben Eliezer                 Bulgaria-Palestine      1335 = year-days

 14. 13th C         Isaac ben Judah Halevi             France                  1290, 1335 = year-days

 15. 1310-1380 C    Haxyih Galipapa                    Spain                   All fulfillments

                                                                               historically past

 16. 1135-1204      Maimonides (Moses ben Maimon)      Spain & Egypt           Rome = fourth monarchy

 17. 1195-1270 C    Nahmanides (Moses ben Nahman)      Spain                   70 weeks, 1290, 1335,

                                                                               2300= year-days

 18. 1260-1340 C    Bahya ben Asher                    Spain                   1290, 1335, 2300

                                                                               (2)= year-days

 19. 1288-1344      *Gersonides (Levi ben Gershon)     France                  Four Kingdoms: 1290,

                                                                               1335 = year-days

 20. 1310-1335      Menahen ben Aaron ben Zerah        Spain                   1290, 1335 = year-days

 21. 1361-1444      Simon ben Zemah Duran              Spain and Algeria       1290, 2300 = year-days

 22. 1437-1503      *Don Isaac ben Judah Abravanel     Portugal and Spain      Four empires: Little

                                                                               Horn = Papacy; 1290,

                                                                               1335, 70 weeks,

                                                                               2300 = year-days

 23. 15th-16th C    Abraham Saba                       Spain                   Four kingdoms

 24. 1460-1530 C    Abraham Halevi ben Eliezer         Spain & Palestine       1290, 1335,

                                                                               2300 = year-days

 25. 1494-1539      *Joseph ben David ibn Yahya        Italy                   Four empires:

                                                                               2300 = year-days

 26. 1512-1585 C    Naphtali Herz ben Jacob Elhanan    Turkey and Poland       1335 = year-days

 27. 1527-1585 C    Mordecai ben Judah Dato            Italy                   Four empires:

                                                                               1335 = year-days

 28. 1550 C         Daniel ben Perahiah                                        1335 = year-days

 29. 16th C         Naphtali Herz ben Jacob Elhanan    Germany                 1335 = year-days

 30. 1604-1657      Manasseh ben Israel                Holland                 Four kingdoms:

                                                                               illustrated by



 *Names with asterisk (*) held both year-day principle and Rome as fourth of four prophetic world powers    +Indicates Karaites

The following quotes are from "The Prophetic Numbers of Daniel and the Revelation", published in Chicago in 1880.


  ** * * * *





Showing the Dates at which the several Seals, Trumpets, and Plagues, begin and end


       SEALS            TRUMPETS       PLAGUES


 1. A.D. 33-66            1. A.D. 337-364     1. A.D. 1555-1579

    The White Horse.      On the Land.        On the Land.


 2. A.D. 66-138           2. A.D. 364-475     2. A.D. 1579-1718

    The Red Horse.        On the Sea.         On the Sea


 3. A.D. 138-180          3. A.D. 476-534     3. A.D. 1718-1776

    The Black Horse       On the Rivers.      On the Rivers.


 4. A.D. 180-250          4. A.D. 534-573     4. A.D. 1776-1815

    The Pale Horse        On the Sun.         On the Sun.


 5. A.D. 250-313          5. A.D. 554-1076    5. A.D. 1796-1874

    Souls under the       Rise of the         On the Beast.

    altar.                Beast. The

                          Saracen Woe.


 6. A.D. 313-337          6. A.D. 1076-1555   6. A.D. 1874-1883

    Great Earthquake      The Turkish Woe.    On the Euphrates.


 7. A.D. 337-1555         7. A.D. 1555-1923   7. A.D. 1893-1923

    Prospective of        Protestant Woe.     Armageddon.  The

    the Seven Trumpets.   Prospective         The consummation

                          of the Seven        of that determined

                          Trumpets.           upon.



 (Page 17) In Daniel’s interpretation of Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, we have, as it were, a photograph of the mind of the Omniscient in relation to the then future of this world, showing the successive rise and fall of the several great earth-powers, which systems of human government, in which might makes right, the strong oppress the weak, and despots, tyrants and fanatics fill the world with


 (Page 18) woe, and drench the earth with human blood. But the dark picture is relieved by the fact that the despotism becomes less and less severe, as is indicated by the lighter metals succeeding the heavier, until the dawn of the righteous reign of the Prince of Peace, whose "yoke is easy", and whose "burden is light".




 "The head of the compound image which Nebuchadnezzar saw was of gold, and Daniel declared that this head of gold represented "the first kingdom, or that of the Babylonians", of which Nebuchadnezzar was the monarch..."


 (Page 19)



 In the interpretation of the dream of Nebuchadnezzar, the prophet declared that after the first king (or kingdom) should arise another kingdom (Da 2:32, 39), which was represented by the breast and arms of the image, which were


 (Page 20) of silver.  Here is a prophetic declaration believed to refer to the Medo-Persian kingdom, which lasted two hundred and five years, from the capture of Babylon by Cyrus (B.C. 536) to the battle of Arbela (B.C. 331)...


 (Page 21)



 The third division of the conpoint image which Nebuchadzezzar saw (Da 2:32, 39) was the "belly and thighs of brass", explained with great historical minuteness, as denoting the Macedo-Grecian kingdom of Alexander and his successors. The Greeks usually wore brazen armor, whence Homer calls them the "brazen-corslet Grecians".  In the first vision of Daniel the same kingdom is represented by the third beast-a leapard with two pair of wings and four


 (Page 22) heads-the wings aptly denoting the rapidity of the conquests of Alexander; and the four heads the four kingdoms, Macedon, Thrace, Syria and Egypt, into which the empire of Alexander was divided among his generals...


 (Page 23)



 The fourth division of the image which Nebuchadnezzar saw, and which Daniel declared to represent the fourth kingdom, was "the legs of iron, and the feet part of iron and part of clay". Da 2:33. This is believed to denote the Roman dominion,  which reached its full reign about the time of the conquests of Macedon, Greece and Carthage, when the republic, under consular government, was the strongest, as represented by the "legs of iron". Rome, the "Mistress of Nations", the "Mother of Empires", was the great-


 (Page 24) est monarchy the world has ever known. It continued in the full tide of prosperity until the conquest of Egypt, (B.C. 30),  after which it gradualy declined under the monarchy; ...


 (Page 27)



 ...This wonderful prophecy, which was characterized by Sir Isaac Newton as "the foundation of the Christian religion", indicates the time of our Lord’s baptism in Jordan, His crucifixion on Calvary, and the transference of the Gospel to the Gentiles. To Daniel it was revealed by the Angel Gabriel, about the year B.C. 538, sixty-eight years after the prophet’s deportation from Judea, and two years before Cyrus issued a decree for the return of the captives from Babylon, and the rebuilding of the temple in Jerusalem.


 The seventy weeks signify seventy weeks of years, or 70 X 7 = 490 years. And it is said that the period should commence with "the going


 (Page 28) forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem"...


 (Page 30) ...It will be seen also that the period of the seventy weeks, or 490 years, if commenced with Cyrus’ decree, in the year 536, would end in B.C. 46, and if begun with that of Darius in 519 it would terminate in B.C. 29, and hence, that the date of neither of these decrees can be the commencement of the seventy weeks, or 490 years, referred to by Daniel, because from neither of these points would 490 years reach to the time of "Messiah the Prince".


 (Page 30) The third decree was issued by Artaxerxes Longmanus, in the seventh year of his reign, which, according to the canon of Ptolemy, and the computations of Usher, Hales, and other chronologists, was in the year B.C. 457...


 (Page 35) ...Now it must be borne in mind that in the case of Nehemiah there was no commandment or decree made "according to the law of the Medes and Persians", which required a written document signed by the king (Da 8), but that Artaxerxes merely allowed his cup-bearer to go to Judah to build the city, the place of his fathers’ sepulchres, providing him only with the means of going there in safety and of procuring such timber as he would need for the work he wished to do; that this was because the complete restoration of Jerusalem had been already authorized and commanded by the decree of Cyrus, B.C. 536, the decree of Darius, B.C. 519, and that of Artaxerxes, B.C. 457, and that as the great


 (Page 36) commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem went forth in its entireness in the year 457, this date must be the commencement of the seventy weeks of years of Da 9:24-27.


 And now, having disclosed this important landmark, let us see if we can find at the termination of the period events corresponding with the predictions.


 "Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince, shall be seven weeks, and three score and two weeks." These sixty-nine weeks, or 483 years, begun at B.C. 457, will end in A.D. 26, which, doubtless, was the very year in which "Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized of John in Jordan...


 (Page 37) ...The time of our Lord’s ministry, continuing from His baptism in A.D. 26 to His crucifixion in A.D. 30, was about three and a half years. "And He shall confirm the covenant with many for one week", or seven years, which begun, as above stated, at the baptism in A.D. 26, extends to the end of the time determined upon, or alloted to Daniel’s people, the Jews-A.D. 33, thus: 70 X 7 = 490-457 = 33.


 (Page 337)




 ...The Great Pyramid of Egypt has of late received much attention from learned men, and some of the conclusions arrived at are:


 (a) That this remarkable structure was built about the year B.C. 2170, by Philitis, Melchizedec, Job, or some other chosen man, under the direct inspiration and superintendence of the Great Architect of the Universe, to be, among other things, a symbolical prophecy relating to the commencement, progress and termination of the Christian dispensation;


 (b) That in the external and internal construction of the Great Pyramid are


 (page 338) evidences of wisdom and knowledge of the heavens and earth surpassing that of the scientists of the present day; and


 (c) That its mysterious passages, chambers and galleries allude to the different eras of the world’s history.


 "The feature of chief interest to us is the Grand Gallery, which Prof. Smyth and his co-laborers hold to be a prophetic record of the Christian era commencing with the birth of Jesus Christ, and ending with His return a second time to take his believing ones out of the world; which thereafter passes through ‘the great tribulation’, and then emerges into the grand millenial glory, of which the King’s Chamber is held


 (Page 338)   to be a type... At once the great question springs up, How long is the Christian era to be? And, with all the ‘ifs’ properly certified, the Grand Gallery of the Great Pyramid answers: Eighteen hundred and eighty-one years; for that is the number of pyramid inches, as measured along its ascending floor." —Christian Advocate, June 27, 1878.


 Thus it seems that the starry heavens, the rocky Pyramid, and "the sure word of prophecy" concur in designating the immediate future as the commencement of a period of terrible calamities to the inhabitants of the earth., etc., etc.


 (Page 390)




 when, by whom, and in what versions of the Scriptures, the chronological errors were introduced, has long been a sub-


 (Page 391)   ject of investigation with the learned; and a variety of evidence, of a highly interesting character, has at length been adduced, proving that, while the Septuagint has remained essentially unchanged, the chronology of the Hebrew text has been perverted at different times by the Jews, that the prophecies concerning the advent of the Savior might not appear to be fulfilled, and that the reality of the Christian Messiah might thereby be disproved." —Wilson’s Outline of History, p. 622.


 (Page 392)   ...But what is this mysterious number that has been so long hid from view, but is now raised to the light of day? Why, it is a Jubilee of Jubilees! Or a grand cycle of 49 x 49 years! At the final ending of which the sanctuary is to be cleaned, and the remnant of the whole world, that has so long been led captive by the Dragon, Beast and False prophet, shall return to the kingdom and service of the Prince of Peace, the King of Kings and Lord of Lords.


 (Page 394)   ...Isa 19:19,20, referring to the close of the present age states that "In that day there shall be an altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to the Lord. And it shall be for a witness unto the Lord of hosts, in the land of Egypt." This doubtless alludes to the Great Pyramid of Gizeh. So without much intruding upon the domain of the learned Pyramidologists, we will enter its mysterious recesses in search of our seventh guide, bearing in mind that when time is indicated an inch signifies a year, and in astronomical measurements an inch represents a mile., etc., etc.




 (Page 463)




 Showing the Pages on which coincidental measurements are made, with the several Prophetic numbers


 1. Da 7:25 "A time and times and the dividing of time." -    159, 188


 2. Da 8:14 "Two thousand and four hundred days." ————402-7, 435-8


 3. Da 9:24 "Seventy weeks."———————————————36-8, 363-5, 375


 4. Da 12:7 "A time, times and a half." —————————441-5


 5. Da 12:11 "A thousand two hundred and ninety days." —-321-2, 413,

      430-5, 442-5, 446


 6. Da 12 "The thousand three hundred and five and

      thirty days" ——-302-3, 310, 421-3


 7. 2Ch 36:10 A year——————————————————-452-6


 8. Eze 21:25 A "day"——————————————————-452-6


 9. Re 9:5, 10 "Five months" ——————————————-124


 10. Re 9:15 "An hour, and a day, and a month, and

                                             a year" —————131


 11. Re 11:2 "Forty-two months" —————————————320, 414, 415


 12. Re 11:3 "A thousand two hundred and sixty days." ——192, 239-9


 13. Re 11:9, 11 "Three days and a half" ————————-189-192


 14. Re 12:1 "A woman clothed with the sun" ———————57, 365-375,



 15. Re 12:6 "A thousand two hundred and sixty days" ——-192, 236-9


 16. Re 12:14 "A time, and times, and a half a time" ——-441


 17. Re 13:5 "Forty-two months"—————————————-192, 219,

      236-241, 249, 274-5, 277-281, 291-2, 298, 383-8, 447-451


 18. Re 13:18 "Six hundred and sixty-six" ————————151-4, 173-4


 19. The Great Pyramid’s Grand Gallery————————————-337, 410, 423-4,



 20. The Great Pyramid’s Queen Chamber————————————310-413


 21. The Planetary Perihelia—————————————————-336, 418, 420




 Thus ends notes from "The Prophetic Numbers of Daniel and the Revelation," written in 1880.





Let us now review many writers’ view on Hell, Death, and Immortality, starting with WILLIAM TYNDALE (1484-1536), English Bible translator and martyr.


In Britain William Tyndale, translator of the Bible into English, came to the defense of the revived teaching of conditional immortality. This, as well as other teachings, brought him into direct conflict with the papal champion, Sir. Thomas More, likewise of England. In 1529 More had strongly objected to the "pestilential sect" represented by Tyndale and Luther, because they held that "all souls lie and sleep till doomsday." In 1530 Tyndale responded vigorously, declaring:


"And ye, in putting them [the departed souls] in heaven, hell, and purgatory,  destroy the arguments wherewith Christ and Paul prove the resurrection... And again, if the souls be in heaven, tell me why they be not in as good case as the angels be? And then what cause is there of the resurrection?" —William Tyndale, An Answer to Sir Thomas More’s Dialogue (Parker’s 1850 reprint), bk. 4, ch. 4, pp. 180,181.


Tyndale went to the heart of the issue in point out the papacy’s draft upon the teachings of "heathen philosophers" in seeking to establish its contention of innate immortality.




"The true faith putteth [setteth forth] the resurrection, which we be warned to look for every hour. The heathen philosophers, denying that, did put [set forth] that the souls did ever lie. And the pope joineth the spiritual doctrine of Christ and the fleshly doctrine of philosophers together; things so contrary that they cannot agree, no more than the Spirit and the flesh do in a Christian man. And because the fleshly-minded pope consenteth unto heathen doctrine, therefore he corrupteth the Scripture to stablish it." —Ibid., p. 180.


In yet another section of the same treatise, dealing with the "invocation of saints," Tyndale uses the same reasoning, pointing out that the doctrine of departed saints being in heaven had not yet been introduced in Christ’s day.


"And when he [More] proveth that the saints be in heaven in glory, with Christ already, saying’If God be their God, they be in heaven for he is not the God of the dead;’ there he sealeth away Christ’s argument, wherewith he proveth the resurrection: that Abraham and all saints should rise again, and not that their souls were in heaven; which doctrine was not yet in the world. And with that doctrine he taketh away the resurrection quite, and maketh Christ’s argument of none effect." Ibid., p. 118.


Tyndale presses his contention still further by showing the conflict of papal teaching with St. Paul, as he says in slightly sarcastic vein:


  ‘Nay, Paul, thou art unlearned; go to Master More, and learn a new way. We be not most miserable, though we rise not again; for our souls go to heaven as soon as we be dead, and are there in as great joy as Christ that is risen again. And I marvel that Paul had not comforted the Thessalonians with that doctrine, if he had wist it, that the souls of their dead had been in joy; as he did with the resurrection, that their dead should rise again. If the souls be in heaven, in as great glory as the angels, after your doctrine, shew me what cause should be of the resurrection?" —Ibid.




JOHN FIRTH (1503-33). Associate of Tyndale and fellow martyr.


A Disputacyon of Purgatorie—-divided into three Books, c. 1530.


An Answer to John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester.


"Notwithstanding, let me grant it him that some are already in hell and some in heaven, which thing he shall never be able to prove by the Scriptures, yea, and which plainly destroy the resurrection, and taketh away the arguments wherewith Christ and Paul do prove that we shall rise; ... and as touching this point where they rest, I dare be bold to say that they are in the hand of God." An Answer to John Fisher.




GEORGE WISHART (1500-1546), Greek scholar, friend of Latimer, tutor of John Knox, and martyr.


Wishart was charged with attacking auricular confession, transubstantiation, extreme unction, holy water, invocation of saints (who couldn’t hear their supplications anyway), and purgatory. Charge "XVI" was for promulgating the doctrine of the sleep of the soul.


"Charge ‘XVI’:Thou false heretic has preached openly saying, that the soul of man shall sleep to the latter day of judgment and shall not obtain life immortal until that day." Blackburne, Historical View, p. 21.






In his Institutes of Ecclesiastical History, chancellor of the University of Gottingen, Johann L. Von Mosheim, records that the "General Baptists" were spread in large numbers over many of the provinces of England (Murdock tr., bk. IV, cent. XVI, sec. 2I, pt. 2, ch. 2I, par. 23). As one article of faith they held "that the soul, between death and the resurrection at the last day, has neither pleasure nor pain, but is in a state of insensibility." —Ibid.


On the other hand, Calvin, deeply disturbed over the spread of this teaching in different lands, in 1534 wrote a militant tract, Psychopannychia (Soul Sleep). It was issued to refute the teaching that the soul dies or sleeps," and stated that this concept had "already drawn thousands" into its acceptance.


Dr. Joseph Priestley, after observing that many of the early reformers held to "soul-sleep," declared:


  "Had it not been for the authority of Calvin, who wrote expressly against it [soul sleep], the doctrine of an intermediate conscious state would, in all probability, have been as effectually exploded as the doctrine of purgatory itself." Corruptions of Christianity, in Works (1818), vol. 5, p. 229.


R.O. [Richard (or Robert) Overton], scholar, soldier, and pamphleteer.


Man’s Mortality, 1643.


Title page reads:


"A Treatise wherein ‘T is proved, both theologically and Philosophically, That as whole man sinned, so whole man died; contrary to that common distinction of Soul and Body: And that the present going of the Soul into heaven or hell, is a mere Fiction: And that at the Resurrection is the beginning of our immortality; and then actual Condemnation and Salvation, and not before."




SAMUEL RICHARDSON (FL. 1633-1658), pastor, First Particular Baptist Church, of London.


A Discourse on the Torments of Hell: the Foundations and Pillars thereof discovered, searched, shaken, and removed. With infallible Proofs that there is not to be a Punishment after this Life, for any to endure that shall never end, 1658.


JOHN MILTON (1608-1674), "Greatest of the Sacred Poets;" Latin Secretary to Cromwell.


Treatise of Christian Doctrine, vol. 1, ch. 13.


(Taught totally unconscious sleep of man in death until coming of Christ and resurrection.)


"Inasmuch then as the whole man is uniformly said to consist of body, and soul (whatever may be the distinct provinces assigned to these division), I will show, that in death, first, the whole man, and secondly, each component part, suffers privation of life. ... The grave is the common guardian of all till the day of judgment." —Chapter 13.


GEORGE WITHER (1588-1667), "The Christian Poet;" English translation of Nemesius, [early] Bishop of Emesa, 1636.


(Contends for conditional immortality; soul is asleep in death.)


JOHN JACKSON (1686-1763), rector of Rossington.


A Dissertation on Matter and Spirit, 1735.


A Belief of a Future State, 1745.


A Clear Distinction Between True and False Religion, 1750.


(Doctrine of eternal torment confuted and condemned.)


JOHN CANNE (1590-1667), printer of R. Overton’s work; pastor, Broadmead Baptist Church, Bristol.


Reference Bible, 1682.


(Held essentially the same as R. Overton.)




ARCHBISHOP JOHN TILLOTSON (1630-1694), of Canterbury.


Works, 1683.


"I do not find that the doctrine of the immortality of the soul is anywhere expressly delivered in Scripture, but taken for granted." Works, 1717 ed., vol. 1, page 749.




DR. ISAAC BARROW (1630-1677), professor of Greek, Cambridge University.


Duration of Future Punishment, in Works.


(Maintained eternal life is conditional; held to final destruction of wicked.)




Eighteenth Century


DR. WILLIAM COWARD (1657-1725), practicing physician, London.


A survey of the Search After Souls.


Second Thoughts Concerning the Human Soul, demonstrating the Notion of Human Soul, as believed to be a spiritual and Immortal Substance, united to a Human Body, to be plain Heathenish Invention, and not Consonant to the Principles of Philosophy, Reason or Religion, 1702.


Further Thoughts Concerning the Human Soul, 1703.


HENRY LAYTON (1670-1706), Anglican, author of twelve books on conditionalism.


Arguments and Replies, in a dispute concerning the nature of the Soul, 1703.


A Search After Souls, 1706.


(Contends that during life, we live and move in Christ; and when we die we rest and sleep in Him, in expectation of being raised at His second coming.)


JOSEPH NICOL SCOTT, M.D. (1703-1769), minister, assisting his father, Thomas Scott.


Sermons Preached in Defense of All Religion, 1743.


(Maintains—vol. 2, sermons 17, 18—that life is for the righteous only, with destruction for the wicked.)


DR. JOSEPH PRIESTLEY (1733-1804), Unitarian, scientist, and philosopher.


Disquisitions Relating to Matter and Sprit," in Works, vol. 3


The History of Opinion Concerning the State of the Dead.


(The "state of the soul in death" is one of utter insensibility, as much dead as the body itself while it continues in the state of death.)




BISHOP EDMUND LAW (1703-1787), master of St. Peter’s College, archdeacon of Staffordshire, Bishop of Carlisle.


Considerations on the Theory of Religion, 1749.


The State of the Dead, 1765 (Appendix to the foregoing).


(Challenged doctrine of conscious intermediate state; held death to be a sleep, a negation of all life, thought, or action—a state of rest, silence, oblivion.)




PETER PECARD (C. 1718-1797), master of Magdalen College, Cambridge, dean of Peterborough.


Observations on the Doctrine of an Intermediate State, Between Death and the Resurrection, 1756.


(Immortality not innate, but a gift through Christ.)




ARCHDEACON FRANCIS BLACKBURNE (1705-1787), of Cleveland; rector of Richmond.


A Short Historical View of the Controversy Concerning the Intermediate State, 1765.


(Most complete history of the topic in 18th century.)




BISHOP WILLIAM WARBURTON (1698-1779), of Gloucester, theological controversialist.


Divine Legation of Moses, 1738-41.


(Styled militant believers in everlasting torment as the "unmerciful doctors.")




SAMUEL BOURN (1714-1796), dissenter, Rivington, Lancashire.


Christian Doctrine of Future Punishment, 1759.


(Stresses "total destruction, or annihilation or ceasing to exist" for the incorrigibly wicked.)




DR. WILLIAM WHISTON (1667-1752), Baptist theologian, professor of mathematics, Cambridge University.


The Eternity of Hell-torments Considered, 1740.


(Denied doctrine of eternal torment; held wicked to be totally destroyed.)




DR. JOHN TOTTIE (fl. 1772), canon of Christ Church, Oxford; archdeacon of Worcester.


Sermon Preached Before University of Oxford, 1775.


(Opposed doctrine of natural immortality of soul.)




PROF. HENRY DODWELL (1641-1711), classical scholar, professor at Oxford (the "learned Dodwell".)


Letter Concerning the Immortality of the Soul, 1703.


An Epistolary Discourse, Proving From the Scriptures and the First Fathers, That the Soul is a Principle Naturally Mortal; but Immortalized Actually by the Pleasure of God, 1706.




Nineteenth Century




Sermons, 1805.


(The soul of man dies with the body, and is restored to life at the resurrection and second advent.)




DR. WILLIAM THOMSON (1819-1890), archbishop of York.


The Thought of Death (Bampton Lecture), 1862.


"Life to the godless must be the beginning of destruction since nothing but God and that which please Him can permanently exists."




DR. EDWARD WHITE (1819-1887), Congregationalist, pastor of St. Paul’s Chapel; chairman of the Congregational Union. For over forty years was leading advocate of conditional immortality.


Life in Christ, 1856.


That Unknown Country (Symposium).


Immortality, a Clerical Symposium.


In 1883 he declared:


I steadfastly maintain, after forty years of study of the matter, that it is the notion of the infliction of a torment in body and soul that shall be absolutely endless, which alone gives a foot of standing ground to Ingersoll in America, or Bradlaugh in England. I believe more firmly than ever that it is a doctrine as contrary to every line of the Bible as it is contrary to every moral instinct of humanity." —Introduction to J. H. Pellingell’s The Unspeakable Gift (1884), p. 22.


In the following year he added:


"The Old Testament is consistent throughout with the belief of the eternal life of the servants of God, and of the eternal destruction of the wicked. And it is consistent, when taken in its simple sense with no other belief...


"The Gospels and Epistles with equal pertinacity adhere almost uniformly to language respecting the doom of the unsaved which taken in its simple sense, teaches, as does the Old Testament, that they shall die, perish, be destroyed, not see life, but suffer destruction, everlasting destruction, ‘destruction’ says Christ, ‘of body and soul in Gehenna’."— Homiletic Monthly (England), March, 1885.




DR. JOHN THOMAS (1805-1871), editor, Apostolic Advocate; founder of Christadelphians.


(Final extinction of wicked; immortality a gift through Christ.)




H. H. DOBNEY (1809-1883), Baptist pastor, Maidstone, England.


Notes of Lectures on Future Punishment, 1844.




ARCHBISHOP RICHARD WHATELY (1787-1863), of Dublin; Oxford professor and principal.


A View of the Scriptural Revelations Concerning a Future State.


(The wicked are never spoken of as being kept alive, but as forfeiting life. Taught of their final destruction.)




DEAN HENRY ALFORD (1810-1871), of Centerbury, Biblical scholar.


Greek New Testament.


(Eternal fixity and duration belong only to those who are in accordance with God.)




JAMES PANTON HAM, Congregationalist minister, Bristol.


Life and Death; or, The Theology of the Bible in Relation to Human Mortality, 1849.




CHARLES F. HUDSON (1821-1867), Congregationalist minister and Greek scholar.


Debt and Grace as Related to the Doctrine of a Future Life, 1857.


Christ Our Life. The Scriptural Argument for Immortality Through Christ Alone, 1860.




DR. ROBERT W. DALE (1829-1895), Congregationalist pastor, Carr’s Lane Church, Birmingham; editor, The Congregationalist; chairman, Congregational Union of England and Wales; and president of the First International Council of Congregational Churches in 1891. He announced his acceptance of conditionalism in a paper before the Congregational Union of 1874.


"Eternal life, as I believe, is the inheritance of those who are in Christ. Those who are not in Him will die the Second Death from which there will be no resurrection...


"I am not conscious that they [the positions of Conditionalism] have at all impaired the authority in my teaching of any of the great central doctrines of the Christian faith. The doctrine of the Trinity remains untouched; and the doctrine of the incarnation and the doctrine of the atonement in its evangelical sense, and the doctrine of justification by faith, and the doctrine of judgment by works, and the doctrine of regeneration have received, I believe, from the conclusions a new and more intense illustration." —Recorded in Freer’s Edward White, His Life and Work (1902), pp. 354, 355.




DEAN FREDERICK W. FARRAR (1831-1903), canon of Westminster Abbey, dean of Canterbury.


Eternal Hope, 1877.


Faith and Mercy.


Mercy and Judgment, 1881.


(Denounced dogma of endless, conscious suffering; could not find one single text in all Scripture that, when fairly interpreted, teaches the common views about endless torment.)




HERMANN OLSHAUSEN (1796-1839), professor of theology at Konigsberg.


Biblical Commentary on the New Testament, vol. 4, 1860.


"The doctrine of the immortality of the soul and the name are alike unknown in the entire Bible." —Biblical Commentary on the New Testament (1860), vol. 4, p. 381.




CANON HENRY CONSTABLE (died 1894), prebendary of Cork, Ireland.


Hades: or the Intermediate State of Man.


Restitution of All Things.


The Duration and Nature of Future Punishment.


(The immortality of the soul, and the name, are alike unknown in the entire Bible.)




WILLIAM E. GLADSTONE (1809-1898), British prime minister and theologian.


Studies Subsidiary to the Works of Bishop Butler, 1896 ed.


In a searching criticism of Bishop Butler’s Analogy and its defense of innate immortality, Gladstone contended:


"[It is only] from the time of Origin that we are to regard the idea of natural, as opposed to that of Christian, immortality as beginning to gain a firm foothold in the Christian Church." Studies Subsidiary to the Works of Bishop Butler (1896 ed.), p. 184.


"The doctrine of natural, as distinguished from Christian, immortality had not been subjected to the severer tests of wide publicity and resolute controversy, but had crept into the Church, by a back door as it were; by a silent though effective process; and was in course of obtaining a title by tacit prescription." —Ibid., p. 195.


"Another consideration of the highest importance is that the natural immortality of the soul is a doctrine wholly unknown to the Holy Scriptures, and standing on no higher plane that that of an ingeniously sustained, but gravely and formidably contested, philosophical opinion." Ibid., p. 197.


"The character of the Almighty is rendered liable to charges which cannot be repelled so long as the idea remains that there may by His ordinance be such a thing as never-ending, punishment, but that it will have been sufficiently vindicated at the bar of human judgment, so soon as it has been established and allowed that punishment, whatever else it may be, cannot be never-ending." —Ibid., p. 241.




JOSEPH PARKER (1830-1902), Congregationalist, pastor, the City Temple, London.


People’s Bible, vol. 1, on Genesis.


"Glorious to me is this idea (so like all we know of the Divine goodness of asking man whether he will accept life and be like God, or whether he will choose death and darkness forever. God does not say to man, ‘I will make you immortal and indestructible whether you will or not; life forever you shall.’ No; he makes him capable of living; he constitutes him with a view to immortality; he urges, beseeches, implores him to work out this grand purpose, assuring him, with infinite pathos, that he has no pleasure in the death of the sinner, but would rather that he should LIVE. A doctrine this which in my view simplifies and glorifies human history as related in the Bible. Life and death are not set before any beast; but life and death are distinctly set before man—he can live, he was meant to live, he is besought to live; the whole scheme of Providence and redemption is arranged to help him to live—why, then will ye die?" The People’s Bible, vol. 1, p. 126."


Discussing the ultimate banishment of sin from the universe Parker adds:


"By destroying evil I do not mean locking it up by itself in a moral prison, which shall be enlarged through ages and generations until it shall become the abode of countless millions of rebels, but its utter, final, everlasting extinction, so that at last the universe shall be ‘without spot or wrinkle, or any such thing’ —the pure home of a pure creation." —Ibid, p. 160.


Commenting on the "Destruction of Sodom," Parker denies that "in giving life God has put it absolutely out of his own power to reclaim or withdraw it." He comments on the implications:


"Having once given you life you are as immortal as he himself is, and you can defy him to interfere with his own work! The doctrine seems to me to involve a palpable absurdity, and hardly to escape the charge of blasphemy. Throughout the whole Bible, God has reserved to himself the right to take back whatever he has given, because all his gifts have been offered upon conditions about which there can be no mistake." —Ibid., p. 222.


"In this case [of Sodom] we have an instance of utter and everlasting destruction. We see here what is meant by "everlasting punishment," for we are told in the New Testament that "Sodom suffered the vengeance of eternal fire," that is of fire, which made an utter end of its existence and perfectly accomplished the purpose of God. The "fire" was "eternal," yet Sodom is not literally burning still; the smoke of its torment, being the smoke of an eternal fire, ascended up for ever and ever, yet no smoke now rises from the plain, —"eternal fire" does not involve the element of what we call "time": it means thorough, absolute, complete, final: that which is done or given once for all." Ibid., p. 223.




BISHOP JOHN J. S. PEROWNE (1823-1904), Hebrew scholar, Anglican bishop of Worcester.


Hulsean Lectures on Immortality, 1868.


"The immortality of the soul is neither argued nor affirmed in the Old Testament." Hulsean Lectures on Immortality, p. 31.


"The immortality of the soul is a phantom which eludes your eager grasp." Ibid.




SIR GEORGE G. STOKES (1820-1903), professor of mathematics, Cambridge; president of Royal Society; M.P.


That Unknown Country (A symposium), 1899.


Immortality, a Clerical Symposium.


"It was natural that, after the forfeiture of immortality through transgression, man should seek to satisfy his craving for immortality by imagining that he had something immortal in his nature. It is, then, to revelation that we must look, if we are to find out something about man’s condition in the intermediate state." That Unknown Country, p. 829.


"Man’s whole being was forfeited by the Fall, and the future life is not his birthright, but depends on a supernatural dispensation of grace. To look to man’s bodily frame for indications of immortality, to look even to his lofty mental powers—lofty, indeed, but sadly misused—is to seek the living among the dead. Man must look not into himself, but out of himself for assurance of immortality." Immortality, a Clerical Symposium, p. 123.




DR. W. A. BROWN (1865-1943), of Union Seminary, New York.


The Christian Hope, 1912.


(From Israel came the doctrine of the resurrection, and of the advent; from Greece, the doctrine of natural immortality.)




DR. J. AGAR BEET (1840-1924), Wesleyan professor.


Last Things.


Preface to The Immortality of the Soul: A Protest, 5th ed. 1902.


"The following pages are ... a protest against a doctrine which, during long centuries, has been almost universally accepted as divine truth taught in the Bible, but which seems to me altogether alien to it in both phrase and thought, and derived only from Greek Philosophy. Until recent times, this alien doctrine has been comparatively harmless. But, as I have here shown, it is now producing most serious results...


"It will of course be said, of this as of some other doctrines, that, if not explicitly taught in the Bible, it is implied and assumed there ... They who claim for their teaching the authority of God must prove that it comes from Him. Such proof in this case, I have never seen." The Immortality of the Soul, (5th ed., 1902) Preface.




DR. R. F. WEYMOUTH (1822-1902) headmaster of Mill Hill High School, translator of New Testament in Modern Speech.


"My mind fails to conceive a grosser misrepresentation of language that when five or six of the strongest words which the Greek tongue possesses, signifying to destroy or destruction, are explained to mean ‘maintaining an everlasting but wretched existence.’ To translate black as white is nothing to this." Cited by Edward White in Life in Christ (1878), p. 365.


New Testament in Modern Speech, note on 1Co 15:18:


"By ‘perish’ the Apostle here apparently means ‘pass out of existence’."*


On Heb 9:28:


"The use in the New Testament of such words as ‘death,’ ‘destruction,’ ‘fire,’ ‘perish,’ to describe Future Retribution, point to the likelihood of fearful anguish, followed by extinction of being, as the doom which awaits those who by persistent rejection of the Savior prove themselves utterly, and therefore irremediably, bad."*




*Notes by Earnest Hampden-Cook, editor and reviser of third edition of New Testament in Modern Speech, by Richard Francis Weymouth.


On Re 14:11:


"There is nothing in this verse that necessarily implies and eternity of suffering. In a similar way the word ‘punishment’ or ‘correction’ in Mt 25:46 gives in itself no indication of time."


On Re 20:10:


"The Lake of Fire implying awful pain and complete, irremediable ruin and destruction."*




*Notes by Earnest Hampden-Cook; editor and reviser of third edition of the New Testament in Modern Speech, by Richard Francis Weymouth.




DR. LYMAN ABBOTT (1835-1922); Congregationalist pastor, and editor, Christian Union and The Outlook.


That Unknown Country (Symposium), 1889.


"Outside of the walls of Jerusalem, in the valley of Gehenna, was kept perpetually burning a fire, on which the offal of the city was thrown to be destroyed. This is the hell fire of the New Testament. Christ warns his auditors that persistence in sin will make them offal to be cast out from the holy city, to be destroyed. The worm that dieth not was the worm devouring the carcasses, and is equally clearly a symbol not of torture but of destruction." —That Unknown Country, p. 72.


"The notion that the final punishment of sin is continuance in sin and suffering is also based in part on, what seems to me, a false philosophy as to man. This philosophy is that man is by nature immortal. The conviction has grown in me, that according to the teaching both of science and Scripture, , man is by nature an animal and like all other animals mortal; that immortality belongs only to the spiritual life; and that spiritual life is possible only in communion and contact with God; that, in short, immortality was not conferred upon the race in creation whether it would or no, but is conferred in redemption, upon all those of the race who choose life and immortality through Jesus Christ our Lord." Ibid.




DR. EDWARD BEECHER (1803-1895), Congregationalist theologian; president, Illinois College.


Doctrine of Scriptural Retribution.


"It [the Bible] does not recognize, nay, it expressly denies the natural and inherent immortality of the soul. It assures us that God only hath immortality. (1Ti 6:16). By this we understand that He has immortality in the highest sense—that is, inherent immortality. All existence besides Himself He created, and He upholds. Men are not, as Plato taught, self-existent, eternal beings, immortal in their very nature ... There is no inherent immortality of the soul as such. What God created He sustains in being, and can annihilate at will." Doctrine of Scriptural Retribution, p. 28.






from Theodosia Ernest, or "The Heroine of Faith," by R. B. Davidson, Philadelphia, 1866.


(Page 40) "Yes, my child, it is universally conceded that the Jewish proselyte baptism was immersion. I do not know that this has ever been denied by any writer on either side of this controversy. It is distinctly stated to have been immersion by Dr. Lightfoot, Dr. Adam Clarke, Prof. Stuart, and others who have espoused our cause.


"How then do you get rid of the difficulty? If, as Mr. Barnes says, "John applied an old ordinance to a new purpose," and that old ordinance was immersion, it is absolutely certain that John immersed. There is not room for even the shadow of a doubt."


(Page 53) Did you not say you had McKnight on the Epistles in the house?"


"Yes; and uncle Jones, who you know is one of the Elders in our church, says it is one of the best, if not the very best of commentaries."


"Well, let us see what he says. How will we find the place?"


"Take a concordance," suggested Edwin, "and look at every place where the word baptize occurs."


"That is a first-rate idea. Well, here is the first place. Ro 6:4. Buried with Christ by baptism. In the note he says: ‘Christ’s baptism was not the baptism of repentance, for he never committed any sin. But he submitted to be baptized—that is, to be buried under the water by John, and to be raised out again—as an emblem of his future death and resurrection. In like manner, the baptism of believers is emblematic of their own death, burial and resurrection; perhaps, also, it is a commemoration of Christ’s baptism.


(Page 54) "Stop, Mr. Percy, are you sure you are not reading falsely?"


"Yes, I am perfectly certain. Here is the book, you can see for yourself."


"No; but I thought you must be playing some trick on me. Any rate, McKnight must have been a Baptist. No one who believed in, and practiced sprinkling, could have written in that way."


"Perhaps he was a Baptist. Let us look at the title page and preface, and see who and what he was. It appears from this, that James McKnight, D.D., was born September 17, 1721. Licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Irwine of the Scotch Presbyterian church. Ordained at Maybole in 1753. Chosen Moderator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian church in 1769, which position he held for more than twenty years. This brief history of his life, prefixed to the first volume of his Notes, informs us further, that he spent near thirty years of his life in preparing those Notes, and that the whole manuscript was written over and over, by his own hand, no less than five times. They were therefore the deliberate and carefully expressed opinions of a most eminent and very learned Presbyterian Doctor of Divinity, and presiding officer of the Presbyterian church in the country where he lived. Of course he cannot be suspected of any bias toward the obscure and despised sect called the Baptists.


(Page 60) "I cannot answer for all," said Mr. Courtney; "I can for some. I have here a transcript of some of the writings of Mr. John Wesley, who was the founder of the Methodists, the most numerous of the Pedobatist sects in this country. He says, in his notes on Ro 6:4 —’The allusion is to the ancient manner of baptizing, by immersion.’ And he relates in his journal, vol. 3, page 20, ‘that Mary Welch, aged eleven days, was baptized according to the custom of the first church, and the rule of the church of England, by immersion.’


"On page 24 of the same volume, he says—’I was asked to baptize a child of Mr. Parker’s, second bailiff of Savannah; but Mrs. Parker told me, neither Mr. P. Nor I will consent to its being dipped. I answered, if you certify that the child is weakly, it will suffice (the Rubric says) to pour water on it. She replied nay, the child is not weak, but I am resolved it shall not be dipped. This argument I could not confute, so I went home, and the child was baptized by another.’"


(Page 61) "Martin Luther, the great reformer and founder of the Lutheran Church, evidently entertained the same opinion with the other noted Pedobaptists as we have been speaking of. After speaking of baptism as a symbol of death and resurrection, he says, ‘On this account I could wish that such as are to be baptized, should be completely immersed into the water, according to the meaning of the word and the signification of the ordinance, as also, without doubt, it was instituted by Christ.’ Yet Luther is the father of a sprinkling church—"


(Page 153)  "No, Professor, there is one place you seem to have overlooked, which is exceedingly significant; that is Romans, 6th chapter, where we are said to be buried with Christ in our baptism.  Here the allusion is most evidently not to any attending circumstance, but to the act itself. We are buried in the water like one who is dead, and raised out of it again like one resurrected. So, we are to consider ourselves as having died to sin, and as having been brought to life again by Christ; but not to the same life of sin which we led before, but to ‘newness of life’ —or a new life—a life of holiness and obedience. That the allusion here is to the act of immersion is so evident that none but the most determined and unreasonable cavilers pretend to deny it. I do not know of any single commentator, whose opinions are entitled to any respect, who has ventured to differ in regard to this point from Luther, and Calvin, and Dodridge, and McKnight, and Chalmers—who all agree that the allusion is to the ancient form of baptism by immersion, or as McKnight expresses it, to the ordinance in which Christ submitted to be baptized—that is, to be buried under the water, and taken out again by John," etc. (See notes on this place.)


(Page 163)  "Then we are ready to proceed with the case. The first witness I will call is the celebrated ecclesiastical historian, John Lawrence Mosheim, Chancellor of the University of Gottingen. He was, of course, no Baptist, or he could not have held such a position.  His history was originally written in Latin, but has been translated into English by Dr. McLaine, of England, and Dr. Murdock, in America. This learned and reliable historian says: ‘The sacrament of baptism was administered, in this (the first) century, without the public assemblies, in places appointed and prepared for that purpose, and was performed by an immersion of the whole body in the baptismal font.’


"Of the second century, he says: ‘The persons that were to be baptized, after they had repeated the creed, confessed


(Page 163) and renounced their sins, and particularly the devil and his pompous allurements, were immersed under water, and received into Christ’s kingdom.’ No sprink-


(Page 164) ling, and no infants, you see, thus far. They were such as could profess their faith, and they were ‘immersed under the water.’ McLaine’s Mosheim, vol. P. 46-69.


"As a witness of somewhat similar character, I will not introduce the Pedobaptist Neander, whose ‘Church History’ and his ‘Planting and Training of the Christian Church,’ have given his name a world-wide celebrity.


"This eminent and reliable historian, in a letter to Mr. Judd, says, expressly, ‘The practice of immersion was beyond doubt prevalent in the whole church. The only exception was made with the sick—hence called baptisma clinicorum.’


(Page 165) "‘We cannot resist the conclusion,’ he says, ‘that this mode of baptism was the first departure from the teaching and example of the Apostles on this subject.’ If it was a departure from their teachings, it was the earliest—for baptism by immersion, unquestionably, was very early the common mode of baptism.’


"Again, page 396, he says: ‘In the Primitive Church, immediately subsequent to the age of the Apostles, this [immersion] was undeniably the common mode of baptism. (The utmost that can be said of sprinkling in that early period is, that it was in case of necessity, permitted as an exception to a general rule.) This fact is so well established that it were needless to adduce authorities in proof of it. *** It is a great mistake to suppose that baptism by immersion was discontinued when infant baptism became generally prevalent. The practice of immersion continued even to the thirteenth or fourteenth century. Indeed it has never been formally abandoned, but is still the mode of administering infant baptism in the Greek Church, and in several of the Eastern Churches.’


"Here, also is another Pedobaptist historian, Dr. Philip Schaff, Professor in a Pedobaptist Theological Seminary at Mercersburg, Pennsylvania. In his ‘History of the Apostolic Church,’ page 568, he says: ‘Immersion, and no sprinkling, was unquestionably the original normal form [of baptism]. This is shown by the very meaning of the Greek words Baptizo Baptisma, and Baptismos—used to designate the rite. Then again, by the analogy of the baptism of John, which was performed in the Jordan ["en"], Mt 3:6, compare with Mt 3:16; also eis ton Jordanan [into the Jordan], Mr 1:9; furthermore, by the New Testament comparisons of baptism with the passage through the Red Sea, 1Co 10:2; with the flood, 1Pe 2:21;


(Page 166) with a bath, Eph 5:36; Ti 3:5; with a burial and resurrection, Ro 6:4, Col 2:12, and finally, by the general usage of Ecclesiastical antiquity, which was always immersion, as it is to this day in the Oriental, and also in the Graeco Russian Churches, pouring and sprinkling being substituted only in cases of urgent necessity, such as sickness and approaching death.’


(Page 167) "I might say, "replied the schoolmaster, "that I make it on the authority of your own most eminent and most reliable historians. I have it over the signatures of Roman Catholic, Episcopalian, Lutheran, Dutch Reformed, and Presbyterian writers, who, while they have been in full connection with those very establishments, all of which have (when they could) been the most virulent and cruel persecutors of the Baptists, and some of which are even now subjecting our


(Page 167) brethren in Europe to fines and imprisonment, and confiscation of property, because they will not conform to the corrupt and corrupting substituted by Popish authority for the ordinances of Christ—have nevertheless openly; plainly, and repeatedly declared, as historians, that the apostolic churches were, in their membership, ordinances, organization, and government, such as the Baptist churches are now. I say, I might give this authority; but I will refer you to the same source from which they, as historians, derived their information. I say the Christian Fathers, for the first three centuries, were Baptists, because these Fathers say so themselves.


"Justin Martyr, who is counted among the earliest of the Fathers, writing to the Emperor, and giving him an account of the churches in his day, about one hundred and fifty years after Christ, says: ‘I shall now lay before you the manner of dedicating ourselves to God.


(Page 168)  through Christ upon our conversion; for, should I omit this, I might not seem to deal sincerely in this account of our religion. As many as are persuaded and believe that those things which are taught by us are true, and do promise to live according to them, are directed, first, to pray, and ask God, with fasting, the forgiveness of their sins. And we also pray and fast together with them. Then we bring them to a place where there is water, and they are regenerated in the same way that we are regenerated, for they are washed in the name of t he Father,’ etc.


Tertullian, who lived somewhat later says: ‘When we are ready to enter into the water (and even before), we make our protestations before the minister and in the church, that we renounce the devil and all his pomps and vanities—afterward, we are plunged in the water.’


"And again, ‘Those who are desirous to dip themselves wholly in this water, must prepare themselves for it by fasting, by watching, by prayer, and by sincere repentance for sin.’


"But it is needless to multiply authorities. It is the united testimony of all the Fathers who speak of the subject at all, that baptism was in these early ages performed only by immersion, except of necessity in the near prospect of death. And those who, under such circumstances, received pouring as a substitute, were never said to have been baptized, but to have been poured upon as a substitute for baptism."


(Page 171) "Here is what Martin Luther says about it himself. No Protestant will doubt that he is a competent witness. ‘The word baptize is a Greek word. It may be rendered immersion, as when we plunge something in water that it may be entirely covered with water—as though that custom is now abolished among the generality (for even children are not entirely immersed, but only have a little water poured on them, nevertheless they ought to be completely immersed, and immediately drawn out, for the etymology of the word requires it.’


"Here also is what John Calvin, the very father and founder of the Presbyterian denomination says: ‘From these words (Joh 3:23), it may be inferred that baptism was administered by John and Christ by plunging the whole body under the water. Here we perceive how baptism was administered among the ancients, for they immersed the whole body in water.


"Here also is Dr. Whitby, a very learned and eminent divine of the Church of England: ‘Immersion,’ says he, ‘was religiously observed by all Christians for THIRTEEN CENTURIES, and was approved by the Church of England. And ‘he con-


(Page 171) tinues, ‘since the change of it into sprinkling was made without any allowance from the AUTHOR of the institution, or any license from any Council of the Church [of England,] being that which the Romanist still urgeth to justify his refusal of the cup to the laity; it wee to be wished that this custom [immersion] might be again of general use.’


"This musty looking old volume is ‘The History of the Bible by Thomas Stackhouse, Vicar of Beenham, in England,’ a celebrated Episcopal clergyman. He says: ‘We nowhere read in Scripture of any one’s being baptized but by immersion—and several authors have proved, from the acts of councils and ancient


(Page 172) rituals, that this manner of immersion continued as much as possible to be used for thirteen hundred years after Christ.’


"The celebrated Prelate, Bishop Taylor, of the English Church, vice-chancellor of the University of Dublin, says in his famous work called ‘Ductor Dubitantium:’ ‘The custom of the Ancient Churches was not sprinkling, but immersion, in pursuance of the meaning of the word baptize in the commandment, and the example of our blessed Savior.’


(Page 173) "...They wrote out the result of their investigations and published the work at Breda, in 1819. In this volume, prepared by these two learned members of the Dutch Reformed Church, Dr. Ypeig and Dr. J. J. Durmont, the authors, after tracing up the history of the Baptists, make use of the following remarkable language:


  "‘We have not seen that the Baptists, who were formerly called Anabaptists, and, in later times, Mennonites, wee the original Waldenses, and who have long in the history of the Church, received the honor of that origin. ON THIS ACCOUNT, THE BAPTIST MAY BE CONSIDERED AS THE ONLY CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY WHICH HAS STOOD SINCE THE DAYS OF THE APOSTLES, AND AS A CHRISTIAN SOCIETY WHICH HAS PRESERVED PURE THE DOCTRINE OF THE GOSPEL THROUGH ALL AGES. The perfectly correct external and internal economy of the Baptist denomination tends to confirm the truth, disputed by the Romanish Church, that the Reformation brought about in the sixteenth century was in the highest degree necessary, and at the same time GOES TO REFUTE THE ERRONEOUS NOTION OF THE CATHOLICS THAT THEIR COMMUNION IS THE MOST ANCIENT.’


(Page 170) "If you consult the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, the British Encyclopedia, and the Encyclopedia Americana, article Baptism, you will find a complete history of the whole subject, the truthfulness of which you will feel no disposition to question. You will thee learn that in England the Westminster Assembly of Divines had a warm discussion whether immersion or sprinkling should be adopted. But by the earnest efforts of Dr. Lightfoot, who had great interest in the Assembly, sprinkling was adopted by a majority of one. The vote stood—twenty-four for immersion, and twenty-five for sprinkling. This was 1643 years after Christ. The next year an Act of Parliament was passed, requiring the parents of all children born in the realm to have them sprinkled; and in 1648, some four years afterward, and Ecclesiastical Council held at Cambridge, Massachusetts, adopted sprinkling in the place of immersion; and in May of the same year, the Legislature of that State passed a law making it a penal offense for any one to say that infant sprinkling was not good and valid baptism."




Thus ends the quotes on Baptism by R. B. Davidson’s book written in 1866.





by Uriah Smith, published in 1865. Rev. 1, 2, 3 Chapters apply seven churches to seven periods of time from Christ to the Philadelphia period to 1844 after that Laodicea.




For account of darkening of the sun, May 19th, 1780, see Pages 110, 111, 112, 113, etc. The two witnesses of Re 11:6 ar Old Testament and New Testament, page 190.




The 1260 days or years of Rev. 12 from 538 to 1798, Page 202 and 203.




BABYLON is PAPACY, see Page 269.




MOTHER and DAUGHTER, Page 272.




Bible students should check Vol. 1 and 2 of THE APOCALYPSE; a series of Lectures in the Revelation of Jesus Christ by J. A. Seiss, D. D., published 1880 in Philadelphia, for thoughts on Rev. Chapters 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13.







Notes worth recording in HISTORY OF THE CHURCH OF CHRIST by Joseph Milner, Vol. 1, published in 1835. It deals with the first century to the eleventh century and should be referred to for history and writings of such men as Justin Martyr, Marcus Anronanus, Origen and Cyprian, Polycarp, The Arian Controversy, Julian, Augestines Confessions, Jerome, etc.




Now let us turn to a book published in Chico, California in 1875, by Rev. J. M. Woogman, D.D., called GOD IN NATURE AND REVELATION.


  "The Period of Christ’s Baptism was the period of Christ’s anointing, or being set apart. This was AD 27, the completion of 69 of the 70 weeks of 483 years from the decree of Artaxerxes to rebuild Jerusalem."




Some gems from the writings of Epistle of CLEMENT.


"For the Lord himself, being asked by a certain person, When His Kingdom would come? Answered, When two shall be one, and that which is without as that which is within: Neither Male nor Female Verse 1, Chapter 5.




Gems from the Epistle of BARNABAS,  the companion of Paul.


Chapter 13:22. The spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has appointed me; he has sent me to preach glad tidings to the lowly; to heal the broken in heart; to preach remission to the captives, and sight unto the blind; to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord, and the DAY OF RESTITUTION: to comfort all that mourn.


Chapter 13: 4,5. "Consider, my children, what that signifies, He finished them in six days. The meaning of it is this: That in 6000 years the Lord God will bring all things to an end. For with Him one days is a thousand years, etc..


Verse 9: "The eighth day that is, THE BEGINNING OF THE OTHER WORLD.’




Of believing in God the best definition I have found is in Verses 1,2 and 3, Command 1, or the 11th book of Hermas:


"First of all believe that there is ONE GOD who created and framed all things of nothing into a being."


"He comprehends all things and is only immense, not to be comprehended by any."


"Who can neither be defined by any words nor conceived by the MIND."









(Page 14)


6. Adventist Bodies


SOURCE: CRB, 1936, Vol. 2, part 1, pp. 3-6.


[Page 3] General Statement. What is know as the "Advent movement" originated with William Miller, who was born at Pittsfield, Mass., February 15, 1782, and died in Low Hampton, NY, December 20, 1849. He bore a good reputation as a farmer and citizen, served as a captain in the War of 1812, and was a diligent student and a great reader, although he had only a common-school education. For some years he was an avowed deist, but, as he said, "found no spiritual rest" until, in 1816, he was converted and united with the Baptists. After his conversion, as objections to the authenticity and inspiration of the Scriptures were pressed upon him in the same way that he had formerly pressed them upon others, he determined to devote himself to a careful study of the Bible, laying aside commentaries and using the marginal references and Cruden’s Concordance as his only helps. As a result of this study he became satisfied that the Bible is its own interpreter, and that it is "a system of revealed truths, so clearly and simply


(Page 15) given that the ‘wayfaring man, though a fool, need not err therein.’"


At that time very little was heard from pulpit or press respecting the second coming of Christ, the general impression being that it must be preceded by the conversion of the world and the millennium, a long period of universal holiness and peace. As Mr. Miller studied the prophetic portions of the Bible, he became convinced that the doctrine of the world’s conversion was unscriptural; that not only the parable of the wheat and the tares, as explained by Christ in Matthew 13: 24-30, 36-43, but many other passages, teach the coexistence of Christianity and anti-Christianity while the gospel age lasts. As the period of a thousand years, during which Satan is bound, mentioned in Revelation 20, and from which the conception of the millennium is derived, lies between the first resurrection (Rev. 20: 4-6), which he understood to include all of the redeemed, and that of "the rest of the dead" (Re 20:5), his conclusion was that the coming of Christ in person, power, and glory must be pre-millennial. He believed that at this coming there would be a resurrection of all the dead in Christ, who, together with all the redeemed then alive, would be "caught up to meet the Lord in the air," that the wicked would then be judged and the present heavens and earth dissolved by fire, to be followed by the regeneration as the inheritance of the redeemed, involving the glorious, immortal, and personal reign of Christ and all His saints.


As to the time when the Advent might be expected, Mr. Miller’s conclusion was as follows:


" examining the prophecies *** I found that only four universal monarchies are predicted in the Bible to precede the setting up of God’s everlasting kingdom, that three of those had passed away—Babylon, Medo-Persia, and Grecia—and that the fourth, Rome, had already passed into its last state *** And finding all the signs of the times, and the present condition of the world, to compare harmoniously with the prophetic description of the last days. I was compelled to believe that the world had about reached the limits of the period allotted for its continuance."


(Page 15) Moreover, as a result of his study of prophetic chronology, he believed not only that the Advent was at hand, but that its date might be fixed with some definiteness. Taking the more or less generally accepted view that the "days" of prophecy, symbolize years, he was led to the conclusion that the 2,300 days referred to in Daniel 8, 13, 14, the beginning of which he dated from the commandment to restore Jerusalem, given in 457 BC (Da 9:25), and the 1,335 days of the same prophet (12:12), which he took to constitute the latter part of the 2,300 days, would end coincidentally in or about the year 1843. The cleansing (p. 4) of the sanctuary, which was to take place at the close of the 1,200 days (Da 8:14), he understood to mean the cleansing of the earth at the second coming of Christ, which as a result of his computations, he confidently expected would occur some time between March 21, 1843, and March 21, 1844, the period corresponding to the Jewish year.


The public labors of Mr. Miller, according to the best evidence to be observed, dates from the autumn of 1831, when he accepted an invitation to go to Dresden, NY to speak on the subject of the Lord’s return. He gave several addresses with the result that many persons were "hopefully converted." Other invitations quickly followed, and thus began a work which in a few years, though not without opposition, spread far and wide, ministers and members of various evangelical denominations uniting in the expectation of the speedy,


(Page 16) personal, and premillennial coming of Christ. The first general gathering of those interested in this subject was held in Boston in October 1840. The call for this gathering simply invited Christians of all denominations to come together to compare views and to confer as to the best means of promulgating this important truth. The Advent Movement was further assisted by the appearance of a number of papers, such as The Midnight Cry, The Signs of the Times, and The Trumpet of Alarm, emphasizing these views.


As the time approached when the coming of Christ was expected there was widespread interest and elaborate preparation. When the Lord did not come in the spring of 1844, Mr. Miller published to the world his mistake. However, in the summer of 1844, Samuel Sheffield Snow, George Storrs, and several other prominent leaders, began to preach that the second advent of Christ would occur on October 22, 1844, which was the date that year of the Jewish Day of Atonement. Great numbers of the Adventist eagerly accepted this view. Mr. Miller and Joshua V. Himes held aloof from any public advocacy of this theory. But Mr. Miller did write a letter which appeared in the Advent Herald under date of October 16, 1844, in which he expressed his faith in this October date for the coming of Christ and announced that if this prediction too should fail, he should suffer twice as much disappointment as he had experienced before. The passing of this date without the occurrence of the expected event was a source of great disappointment to Mr. Miller, as well as to those who had so strongly advocated it, and their followers. Mr. Miller did not, however, to the end of his life, change his views with regard to the premillennial character of the advent itself, or his belief that "the day of the Lord is near, even at the door."


In its beginning, the Adventist movement was wholly within the existing churches and there was not attempt to establish a separate denomination. Mr. Miller himself during the greater part of his work was a Baptist licentiate. In June, 1843, however the Maine Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church passed resolutions condemning the movement, and from that time considerable opposition was manifested. In some cases Adventists were forced to leave the churches of which they were members; in others they withdrew voluntarily,


(Page 16) basing their actions, in part, on the command to "come out of Babylon" (Re 18:4), including under the term "Babylon" not only the Roman Catholic Church, but the Protestant churches. Mr. Miller and other leaders earnestly deprecated this interpretation, yet it influenced some to leave the old communions.


The Adventists who, for either of the causes mentioned, withdrew from the existing churches generally formed organizations of their own, although in some places they omitted any formal organization, considering either that the time was too short or that organization was sinful. No definite move was made, however, toward the general organization of the adherents of the Adventist doctrines until 1845. In that year, according to an estimate made by Mr. Miller, there were Advent congregations in ‘nearly a thousand places, numbering *** some fifty thousand believers." A conference was called at Albany, NY in April 1845, for the purpose of defining their position, and was largely attended, Mr. Miller being present. A declaration of principles was adopted, embodying the views of Mr. Miller respecting the personal and premillennial character of the second advent of Christ, the resurrection of the dead, and the renewal of the earth as the abode of the


(Page 17) redeemed, together with cognate points of doctrine, which have been summarized as follows:


1. The present heavens and earth are to be dissolved by fire, and new heavens and a new earth are to be created whose dominion is to be given to


"the people of the saints of the Most High."


2. There are but two Advents of the Savior, both of which are personal and visible. The first includes the period of His life from His birth to the Ascension; the second begin with His descent from heaven at the sounding of the last trump.


3. The second coming is indicated to be near at hand, even at the doors, and this truth should be preached to saints that they may rejoice, knowing that their redemption draws nigh; and to sinners, that they may be warned to flee from the wrath to come.


4. The condition of salvation is repentance toward God and faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. Those who have repentance and faith will live soberly and righteously and godly in this world, looking for the Lord’s appearing.


5. There will be a resurrection of the bodies of all the dead, both of the just and the unjust. Those who are Christ’s will be raised at His coming; the rest of the dead, not until a thousand years later.


6. The only millennium taught as the Word of God is the thousand years intervening between the first resurrection and that of the rest of the dead.


7. There is no difference under the gospel dispensation between Jew and Gentile, but God will render to every man according to his deeds. The only restoration of Israel is in the restoration of the saints to the regenerated earth.


8. There is no promise of this world’s conversion. The children of the kingdom and of the wicked one will continue together until the end of the world.


9. Departed saints do not enter their inheritance at death, that inheritance being reserved in heaven ready to be revealed at the second coming, when they will be equal to the angels, being the children of God and of the resurrection.


(Page 17) but in soul and spirit they enter the paradise of God, to await in rest and comfort the final blessedness of the everlasting kingdom.


The somewhat loosely organized body formed at the general conference of Adventists held at Albany, NY in April, 1845 continued for a decade to include practically all the Adventists except those who held to the observance of the seventh, rather than the first day of the week as the Sabbath. In 1855 the discussions, in which Jonathan Cummings had so prominent a part, resulted in the withdrawal of some members and the subsequent organization of the Advent Christian Church. The Adventists who continued their adherence to the original body were for the most part those who believed in the doctrine of the conscious state of the dead and the eternal sufferings of the wicked, claiming on these points to be in accord with the personal views of Mr. Miller. They, however, felt the need of closer association, and in 1858, organized at Boston, Mass., of the American Millennial Association, mainly for the propose of publishing magazines in support of their belief and growth on a basis of fellowship. Some time later the members of this society adopted the term "Evangelical Adventists" as a denominational name, with a view of distinguishing themselves from other bodies with which they differed on doctrinal points.


For some years the association published a periodical bearing at different periods the names, Signs of the Times, Advent Herald, and Messiah’s Herald...






(Page 657) 1079. Millerites —Adherents in All Denominations in America.


Source: [Josiah Litch], "The Rise and Progress of Adventism" The Advent Shield and Review, 1 (May, 1844), p. 90.


We have no means of ascertaining the number of ministers, and others, who have embraced the Advent faith. We only know that there are several hundred congregations, and a still larger number of ministers, who have publicly


(Page 658) professed the faith, besides many who still remain in the churches of the land. Those who have espoused this cause have honestly believed in the coming of the Lord "about AD 1843." And, as honest men, they have kept to theorize work of sounding the alarm. All peculiarities of creed or policy have been lost sight of, in the absorbing inquiry concerning the coming of the heavenly Bridegroom. Those who have engaged in this enterprise are from all the various Methodist Protestant, Primitive Methodist, Wesleyan Methodist, Close Communion Baptist, and Open Communion Baptist, Calvanistic and Armenian Baptists, Presbyterians, Old and New School Congregationalists, Old and New School Lutheran, Dutch Reformed, Etc. Etc.




1080. Millerites, Claimed Fulfillment of  Re 14:6,7.


Source: [Josiah Litch], "The Rise and Progress of Adventism" The Advent Shield and Review, 1 (May, 1844), 86, 87.


[P. 86] We look upon the proclamation which has been made, as being the cry of the angel who proclaimed, "the hour of [p. 87] his judgment is come." Re 14:6-7). It is a sound which is to reach all nations; it is the proclamation of "the everlasting gospel," or "this gospel of the kingdom."


(Page 658) In one shape or other, this cry has gone abroad through the earth wherever human beings are found, and we have had opportunity to hear of the fact.




1081. Millerites —Disappointment (October, 1844) Aftermath of


Source: Joshua V. Himes, "Provision for the Destitute," The Midnight Cry,  7 (Oct. 31,1844), p. 140.


As many of our brethren and sisters have disposed of their substance, and given alms, agreeable to Lu 12:33, in the confident expectation of the speedy coming of the Lord, I wish to have immediate provision made for the comfort and wants of all such persons, and families, by the advent brethren.




1082. Millerites —Disappointment (October, 1844) —Mistake Admitted.


Source: Editorial, "the Present and the Past," The Midnight Cry, 7 Oct. 31, 1844), 140.


We have been mistaken in a belief to which we thought ourselves conducted by the word and Sprit, and Providence of God. But the Word stands sure, however we may err: and the promise is true: "If any man will do his will, he shall know of the doctrine whether it be of God." The Lord will lead his obedient children. We have an unwavering trust that He will cause our disappointment and trial to work together for our good. We shall humbly watch the providences of God, and we know he will vindicate his truth and faithfulness. Let him be honored, though we may be humbled.




1083. Millerites, Doctrines of, Briefly Summarized.


Source: "Boston Second Advent Conference," in The Signs of the Times,  3 (June 1, 1842), p. 69.


We therefore recommend that ... all persons who reject the doctrines of temporal millennium and the restoration of the Jews to Palestine [see No. 1073n] either before or after the Second Advent of Christ and the first resurrection to be the next great events of prophetic history, be invited to enroll their names as member[s] of this conference [the 12th Second Advent Conference’ of the Millerites].




(Page 661)


1086. Millerites —Prophetic Date (1844) Held Correct, Event in Error.


Source: Joseph Marsh, Editorial, Voice of Truth, Nov. 7, 1844, quoted in The Advent Review, 1 (August, 1850), 7.


Since the tenth day of the seventh month has passed, and we are disappointed in not seeing our Lord, it seems necessary to define our position again. This we most cheerfully do. But first please indulge us a few moments, in expressing our great disappointment in not seeing our Lord at the time expected. We did believe that he would come at that time; and now, though we sorrow on account of our disappointment, yet we rejoice that we have acted according to our faith. We have had, and still have, a conscience void of offense.





And now we turn to the various views as expressed in Questions on Doctrine:"




(Page 310) ...(the digest that follows is based upon complete documentary evidence appearing in the four-volume set The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers, by I. E. Froom.)


1. EARLY CHURCH STRESSED SEVENTY WEEKS OF YEARS —Early churchmen expounded the 70 weeks of Daniel 9 as weeks of years, or 490 years. These included Tertulian, Clement of Alexandria, Julius Africanus, Eusebius Pamphili, Athanasius, Cyril of Jerusalem, Theodoret, Polychronius, Isidore of Pelusium, Theodosius, Miletenus, Andronicus, and Prosper of Aquitaine. And this position has long been the general view among both Catholics and Protestants.


2. YEAR-DAY PRINCIPLE APPLIED BY MEDIEVAL JEWS TO ALL SYMBOLIC TIME PERIODS —Medieval Jewish scholars were the first to apply the year-day principle to the day periods of Daniel—the 1290, 1335, and 2300-as year-days, leading to the "far-off days," at the "time of the end." Beginning with ninth-century Nahawendi, and then tenth-century Rashi, Jeroham, and Hakohen, we come to eleventh-century Rashi, who regarded the 2300 as full years. Then we find four twelfth century and two thirteenth-century scholars, including Nahmanides, teaching the same. And three fourteenth-century rabbis, Avravanel in the fifteenth century, and others in the sixteenth century, paralleling the Protestant Reformation, provide a total of twenty-one Jewish expositors, spread over Palestine, Persia, Syria, Babylon, France, Spain, Algeria, Portugal, Italy, Turkey, Poland and Germany.


3. MEDIEVAL CATHOLIC SCHOLARS PARALLEL JEWISH YEAR-DAY RECKONING —Beginning in 1190, with the (Page 311) renowned Joachim of Floris, of Calabria, Italy, the year-day principle was first applied to the 1260 days as the years of the symbolic woman, or church in the wilderness. And in the thirteenth century Joachimite scholars in Italy, Spain, France, and Germany similarly applied the year-day principle to the 1260, 1290, 1335, and 2300 days. For example, about 1292 Arnold of Villanova said that the 2300 days stand for 2300 years, counting the period from the time of Daniel to the Second Advent. Here is his express statement: "When he says, ‘two thousand three hundred days’ it must be said that by days he understands years...In that vision by days he understands years."


Better known to most church historians is the illustrious Nicholas Krebs of Cusa, Roman Catholic cardinal, scholar, philosopher, and theologian, who in 1452 declared that the 2300 year-day is began in the time of Persia. His Conjecture concerning the Las Days (1452) declares that the 2300 year-days extend from Persia to the consuming of sin at the Second Advent, possibly between 1700 and 1750.


4. CORRECT TERMINI OF SEVENTY WEEKS ESTABLISHED —In the German Reformation Johann Funck (1564) first correctly placed the seventy weeks (490 years) as reckoned from the seventh year of Artaxerxes, from 457 BC to AD 34. In this he was soon followed by other Protestant scholars in various lands, such as Cappel in France, and Bullinger in Switzerland. Scores of interpreters have since held the Artaxerxes-decree date (457 BC) as the beginning of the seventy weeks of years. The list soon included Colonial American scholars as well. (A large group held the


(Page 312) same view in the early nineteenth century—in Britain, on the Continent, and in North America. And since then, such expositors as Doderlein, Franc, Geier, Pusey, Auberlen, Blackstone, Taylor, and Boutflower have concurred, as well as Roman Catholics such as Lempkin.)


5. TILLINGHAST INCLUDES SEVENTY WEEKS WITHIN 2300 —In the century after the Protestant Reformation, many Protestant to British barrister Edward King in 1798, declared the number 2300 involved the same number of years. John Tillinghast (died 1655) ended them at the second advent and the 100-year reign of the saints. Tillinghast was the first to assert the 70 weeks of years to be a lesser epoch within the larger period of the 2300 years.  He did not begin them together. But he declared the 70 weeks to belong within the 2300 years.


2300 YEARS EMBRACES ALL LESSER PERIODS —Heinrich Horch of Germany declared that the 2300 years is the master, over-all period, and includes all lesser time periods. Thomas Beverley, of Britain, believed it led to the second advent, the end of the world, the resurrection, the breaking of antichrist, and the millennium. Brilliant scholars in Britain and Germany—such as Lowth, Whiston, Bishop Newton, Fletcher, Horch, and Giblehr—looked for the church’s deliverance, the destruction of antichrist, the establishment of Christ’s kingdom to follow upon the close of this period.


Some Colonial and early national American writers—such as Congregational theologian Cotton Mather,


(Page 313)  Governor William Burnet, Episcopalian rector Richard Clarke, Postmaster General Samuel Osgood, and Harvard librarian James Winthrop—believed that the period would end with the fall of spiritual Babylon, the "rest that remains," the kingdom of God, the world’s "midnight," the smiting of the nations, the millenlnium, or the end of the world.


PETRI—2300 YEARS BEGIN JOINTLY WITH SEVENTY WEEKS —Johann P. Petri (died 1792), Reformed pastor of Seckbach, Germany, in 1768 introduced the final step in the proegressive and logical series of seven principles leading to the inevitable conclusion and climax—that the 490 years (70 weeks of years) are the first part of the 2300 years. Soon men on both sides of the Atlantic, in Africa, even in India and other countries, began to set forth their convictions in similar vein.


Scores In Early Nineteenth Century Fix On 1843, 1844 Or 1847


In the first third of the nineteenth century a tremendous revival of study took place concerning the prophecies pertaining to the approaching end of the age. A number of European scholars in Britain, on the Continent, and even in India—from John A. Brown in 1810, to Birks in 1843—published their convictions that the 2300 years would end about 1843, their convictions that the 2300 years would end about 1843, 1844 or 1847. These three dates represent essentially the same reckoning, with the death of Christ in the midst, or at the end.


(Page 314) of the seventieth week of years, with the 2300 counted from the same starting point as the 70 weeks. The differences are mere matters of computation or of placing Christ’s birth in 1 or 4 BC.


In North America a paralleling group of scholars holding high posts in various denominations—all prior to William Miller—from William C. Davis (1810) on, likewise looked to 1843,


(Page 314) 1844 or 1847 as destined to introduce some great event or period—the advent, the judgment scene, or the millennial reign of the saints, or the effusion of the Spirit preceding Christ’s coming. These included Dr. Joshua L. Wilson, moderator of the Presbyterian General Assembly; Protestant Episcopal Bishop John P. K. Hensaw; Alexander Campbell, founder of the Disciples Church; several college presidents and professors, judges, congressmen, physicians, pastors of outstanding churches, and editors of several religious journals.


It is the impressive historical background, and scholarly non-Seventh-day Adventist precedent, revealed in the record. We consequently feel that our position—that the 2300 year-days of Da 8:14 extend from 457 BC to AD 1844—has ample precedent.





Let us now take a look at the ABRAHAMIC COVENANT, in the book "Christian Baptism—Its Subjects and Mode," by S. M. Merrill, D.D. and published by Hitchcock & Walden in 1876.


(Page 41) ...God’s method of saving sinners is the same in all ages. He never adopted but the one plan of redemption, and he will never exchange that for another. Through all the changes of the outward structure of the Church, and the modifications of external ceremonials that have marked the passing of the progressive development moved steadily onward to its culmination in the coming and official work of the Messiah, "the seed of the woman" and


(Page 42) the "seed of Abraham." This plan was darkly shadowed to Adam, to Enoch, and to Noah, and more clearly intimated to Abraham. With this patriarch, God established in visible form his covenant, which was to be the charter of the Church to the end of time, and in which he honored his servant by constituting him the father of many nations, and making him the repository of promises to be fulfilled only through the Messiah and under his spiritual dominion. This covenant was therefore distinguished as the "covenant of Promise." It contained a variety of stipulations, which were not all revealed at once, but were declared to Abraham from time to time, perhaps as his faith was able to receive and appreciate the unfolding of the divine purpose. These revelations, which entered into the covenant with Abraham, extended through a series of years, so that we must collate a number of passages in order to gain a comprehensive view of its far-reaching provisions. I therefore present the following:


(Page 43) "Now the Lord said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father’s house, unto a land that I will show thee; and I will make thee a great nation, and I will bless thee and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing; and I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee; and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed." (Ge 12:1-3)


"And the Lord said unto Abram, after that Lot was separated from him: Lift up now thine eyes, and look from the place where thou art, northward and southward, and eastward and westward; for all the land which thou seest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed forever. And I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth; so that if a man can number the dust of the earth, then shall thy seed also be numbered." (Ge 13:14-16)


I would also refer to the fifteenth chapter of Genesis, without reading it here. It contains a reiteration of the promise of a numerous seed, an account of Abram’s justification, together with a specific declaration respecting the Egyptian bondage and deliverance. We next come to the fuller revelation and more formal establishment of this covenant, in the seventeenth


(Page 44) chapter of Genesis: (Ge 17)


"And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the Lord appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am the Almighty God; walk before me, and be thou perfect. And I will make my covenant between me and thee, and will multiply thee exceedingly. And Abram fell on his face; and God talked with him, saying, As for me, behold, my covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be a father of many nations. Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram; but thy name shall be Abraham; for a father of many nations have I made thee. And I will make thee exceeding fruitful, and I will make nations of thee; and Kings shall come out of thee. And I will establish my covenant between me and thee, and thy seed after thee, in their generations, for an everlasting covenant, to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee. And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee. And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land wherein thou art a stranger, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be their God. And God said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep my covenant therefore, thou and thy seed after thee, in their generations.


(Page 45) "This is my covenant, which ye shall keep between me and you, and thy seed after thee. Every man-child among you shall be circumcised. And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of the covenant betwixt me and you. And he that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every manchild in your generations, he that is born in the house, or bought with money of any stranger, which is not of thy see. He that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with the money, must needs be circumcised; and my covenant shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant. And the uncircumcised man-child, whose flesh of his foreskin is not circumcised, that soul shall be cut off from his people; he hath broken my covenant." (Ge 17:1-14)


Then, after the trial of Abraham’s faith, as recorded in the twenty-second chapter, we find this same covenant renewed, in the following words:


"And the angel of the Lord called unto Abraham out of heaven the second time, and said, By myself have I sworn, saith the Lord, for because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son,


(Page 46) thine only son; that in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea-shore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies; and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice." (Ge 22:15-18)


This same covenant was renewed with Isaac, Ge 26:3-4; and also with Jacob, Ge 28:10-15.


There are three points to which we must direct our attention, in order to understand the provisions of this covenant, and to see its bearing on the subject before us, namely:


1) Its oneness, ad distinguished from all other covenants,


2) Its twofold character, or its literal and spiritual import, as related to the literal and spiritual seed of Abraham,


3) The perpetuity and development of its spiritual part under the Gospel dispensation.


The first point is, God made but one covenant with Abraham. That one covenant contained several promises, as any covenant may contain numerous stipulations, but each promise was not a distinct covenant. If the several distinct promise are to be taken as


(Page 47) so many covenants, then were there several distinct covenants made with Abraham which have no sign or token, and which were never ratified in covenant form. The Scriptures speak familiarly of the covenant with Abraham, as distinct from all other covenants; but they never speak in the plural, as if there were more than one; nor do they specify one so as to imply that there were others. True, the sacred writers have spoken, in a few instances, of "the covenants," and of "the two covenants;" but this language has reference to the covenant made with Moses, in connection with that with Abraham. They never speak of two covenants with Abraham.


That the covenant with Abraham and that made with Moses are not the same, is evident from several considerations:


1. They were instituted at different times. This fact would not of itself prove the point at hand, since the same covenant was established at one time with Abraham, was renewed and confirmed to him at different times, and was subsequently renewed and established with Isaac and Jacob; yet we find the difference in the dates of the two covenants mentioned by the apostle Paul, as something of importance when he was showing the difference between the covenant with Abraham and the ceremonial law; so that the difference in dates in connection with other facts, proves a real difference in the identity of the covenants. One was given four hundred and thirty years before the other; hence they are not identical. If the covenant with Moses were the same that had been previously made with Abraham the date of its establishment with Moses would not have been the date of its origin; but the Scriptures speak of the Mosaic covenant, not as the renewal of another covenant dating back to the days of Abraham, but as having its origin in the day when God took the children of Israel by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt. (See Jer 31:32, and Heb 8:9)


2. These covenants are distinguished by different names. That with Moses is called "the law," while that with Abraham is denominated "the promise." This is particularly the case in the Epistle to the Galatians, where the different in the nature of the two (Page 49) covenants is discussed, and the apostle uses this distinction in justification of his course in offering the "blessing of Abraham" to the Gentiles, through Jesus Christ. In explaining "the promise," so as to apply to Gentiles, who by accepting the Gospel are constituted "the seed of Abraham," he anticipated the objection the Jew might make, to the effect that this extension of privilege under the Abrahamic covenant would array the law in antagonism with the promise, since the law, or the covenant with Moses, belonged only to the Jews; and in recognition of this objection, and for the purpose of answering it, he asked, "Is the law against the promis?" He showed that it was not, and that it could not restrict the promise from reaching out beyond the limits of the law, even unto all the seed.


3. The Mosaic covenant was peculiar to the Jewish nation, while the Abrahamic covenant was designed for "all nations" —for "all the kindreds of the earth." The precepts, promises, and particularly the ritualistic services of the Mosaic covenant, look to the distinct nationality of the Israelites; but the (Page 50) wording of the Abrahamic covenant shows its adaptation to all the families of the earth. It was clearly intended to include the Gentiles in its provisions, and to bring all nations upon an equality as respects their rights to the blessings of the Messiah and the privileges of the Church. Hence, in speaking of its full development in the form of the Gospel institution, the apostle says, "Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles."


4. That the Mosaic and Abrahamic covenants are not identical, is seen in the fact that one was "added" to the other, for a limited time and a definite purpose. The apostle, having shown that the law, which is the covenant with Moses, could not give life—could not pardon, justify or save the sinner—anticipated the objection that would naturally arise, and himself asked the question, "Wherefore, then, , serveth the law?" If it could not justify, of what use was it? Why was it given? He answers, "It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made. (Page 51) and was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator." (Ga 3:19) The "promise" was made to Abraham, in the "everlasting covenant," that in his "seed" was Christ’ and the covenant could not be fulfilled, and must not be repealed, until Christ came, and all the nations received the blessing of Abraham through him. Hence, its fulfillment and development belong to the Gospel period. But before Christ came the Israelites were strongly inclined to wickedness, especially to idolatry and unbelief; and in order to restrain their evil passions, and to prepare them for the advent of the Messiah, the promised seed, "the law," with its burdensome rites, was "added" to the Abrahamic covenant with its "promise," as the most effectual means of promoting piety and the fear of the Lord among a people so refractory.


5. The Mosaic covenant was blended with one part of the Abrahamic covenant; that is to say, that the literal part of the covenant with Abraham was taken up into the Mosaic, so that all that related to the literal seed of (Page 52) Abraham, and the temporal promises, and the inheritance in the literal Canaan, was embraced in the covenant with Moses, and fulfilled in the establishment of Israel in the land of promise. Thus there was in fact a real union of these covenants, without antagonism, in the dispensation of the law; showing that the law did not disannul the promise, nor displace, nor repeal, any part of the covenant with Abraham.


The Mosaic covenant was abolished, and the Abrahamic covenant established, by the coming of the Messiah. This is clear from many Scriptures. The law was added for a limited time, and must needs expire, by limitation, with the appearance of Christ, the promised seed. "The law was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come, to whom the promise was made." The Abrahamic covenant existed for four hundred and thirty years without the law, and the addition of the law made no change in the covenant, and had no effect upon it except to fulfill its temporal aspects, so that when the work for which the law was added was done, and the time for its expiration arrived, it (Page 53) gave way for the maturity of the promised, and the development of the covenant in its spiritual part, without affecting the integrity of the covenant in the least. It can not, therefore, be that the covenants with Moses and Abraham were the same, or that the expiration of the law, by limitation, could repeal invalidate, or disannul the promise, which looked forward to Christ, "the promised seed," and the dispensation of spiritual blessings through him to "all nations." The fact that the Mosaic covenant expired, by limitation, at the death of Christ, requires no proof; but how the death of Christ could operate to repeal or supersede the Abrahamic covenant, with reference to its spiritual aspects, is something which the opposers of infant baptism have never been able to show, although they have spent much labor in the attempt. Paul taught plainly that Christ did not repeal or supersede this covenant, but that he confirmed it. "Now I say that Jesus Christ was a minister of circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promise made unto the fathers, and that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy," etc. (Ro 15:8,9.)


(Page 54) The "promise made unto the fathers," in which the Gentiles were interested, and which Jesus Christ as the minister of circumcision, confirmed, was the promise of blessing in the seed of Abraham for all nations. This part of the covenant existed only in promise, although it was a covenant promise, ratified by the sign of circumcision, until Christ came, when the fleshly part of the covenant, being fulfilled, passed away, and the spiritual part came forward in full development, in the form of the Gospel Church, including all the spiritual seed of Abraham, and bestowing upon them the appointed token, which is not circumcision, but baptism. This spiritual covenant is now confirmed of God in Christ, and as the institution of the law could not disannul the promise, so neither could the expiration of the law invalidate any of the covenanted rights of the spiritual seed, The Abrahamic covenant, therefore, stands forth "the everlasting covenant," the covenant of grace, the charter of the Church of Jesus Christ, down to the end of time. The old anti-Pedobaptist notion was, that the covenant of Abraham was (Page 55) so blended with that of Moses as to be one with it, and therefore that it was confined to the literal descendants of Abraham, and limited to temporal promises, and passed away with the law of ceremonies and the ushering in of the kingdom of Christ. The incorrectness of this view is now apparent. It is utterly insufficient to account for the terms of the covenant, or the language of the New Testament writers respecting it. It involves absurdities and contradictions that brand it as error, while the proofs abound that this covenant was spiritual as well as temporal; that is was distinct from the covenant of Moses, and grandly survives the abrogation of the old dispensation, bearing to all nations the covenanted mercies of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. It has always been felt, if the Abrahamic covenant is spiritual, and remains in force under the Gospel as the charter of the Church of Jesus Christ, that, inasmuch as infants were included in that covenant, and received the token of recognition (Page 56) as the heirs of promise, by the express command of God, they still have the right to the same recognition by the appointed token, under the dispensation of the kingdom of God. And this is a proposition which no learning can invalidate, and nothing better than quibbling can avoid. If the Abrahamic covenant is in force today, as it surely is, unless it can be shown to have been repealed, there is no power on earth to disprove the right of our infant offspring to recognition in the Church by Christian baptism.


We must now look more directly at the twofold character of this covenant, and particularly at its spiritual aspects. The position has been assumed that God made no covenant with Abraham in the proper sense, but only promised him two covenants, one of which was fully developed, signed, sealed, and delivered at Mt. Sinai, and the other at Mt. Zion. This, however, does not quite accord with the truth. The covenant was made, signed, sealed, and delivered, so to speak, in Abraham’s day, when he received the sign of circumcision as the token of the covenant between God and himself. That (Page 5I7) one covenant, so formally delivered and established, contained two classes of promises, and these promises were afterward confirmed and developed into distinct covenants—not to supersede the Abrahamic, but in pursuance of it, as the means of carrying out its stipulations with reference to the literal and spiritual seed and the temporal and spiritual blessings. All the forms the Church of God afterward assumed, under Moses and under Christ, were in the direct line of the fulfillment of the covenant with Abraham. The covenant at Sinai was "added;" but its development fulfilled the temporal part of the covenant, which had been given four hundred and thirty years before.


The apostle Paul illustrated this twofold idea of the covenant by the history of Abraham’s family, in the "allegory," found in Ga 4:22-26: "For it is written that Abraham had two sons, the one by a bondmaid, the other by a free woman. But he who was of the bondwoman was born after the flesh; but he of the free woman was by promise. Which things are an allegory: for these are the two covenants; the one from (Page 58) the Mount Sinai, which gendereth to bondage, which is Agar. For this Agar is Mount Sinai in Arabia, and answereth to Jerusalem which now is, and is in bondage with her children. But Jerusalem which is above is free, which is the mother of us all." The word "covenants" here means testaments, as in the margin. In this allegory the bondwoman and her son are the types of the Mosaic covenant, which took up into its constitution the temporal promises to Abraham; for it is a covenant that proceeds from Sinai, which anwswereth to Jerusalem, which afterward became the metropolis of t he nation organized under the covenant of Sinai. In other words, the bondwoman represents the Church under the law, while her son, born after the flesh, represents the literal descendants of Abraham, who constituted the membership of the Church during the period of its bondage to the law of ceremonies. In like manner, the free woman and her son ware types of the spiritual part of the covenant, or of the Church under the Gospel, which proceeded from Jerusalem, as the law did from Sinai. Jerusalem which is above is (Page 59) the spiritual Zion, the Church of God under the Gospel, of which the free woman, Sarah, was the type, whose membership are "children of promise," not literal descendants of Abraham, but his spiritual seed, typified by Isaac, the child of promise, born to Abraham by special dispensation of God. The apostle applies this illustration to the covenants of Moses and Abraham by saying, "Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are children of promise." And again, "So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free."


A careful consideration of the blessings promised in the covenant with Abraham, will show the correctness of the view taken of the oneness of that covenant, with its two branches, the temporal and the spiritual.


1. The first item in the covenant is, "I will bless thee, and make thy name great, and thou shalt be a blessing," etc. This implied worldly propriety and usefulness, together with personal acceptance with God and a high state of spiritual enjoyment. In both respects, it was fulfilled in the experience of the patriarch.


2. (Page 60) The covenant secured to Abraham a numerous progeny, of whom Messiah should be born; and also a spiritual seed as numerous as the stars of heaven. He was made the "father of many nations." This was literally true, but its proper application is to the spiritual relationship. Thus Paul understood it, as the following shows: "And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had yet been uncircumcised: that he might be the father of all them that believe, though they be not circumcised; that righteousness might be imputed unto them also: and the father of circumcision to them who are not of the circumcision only, but who also walk in the steps of the faith of our father Abraham, which he had being yet uncircumcised. For the promise that he should be the heir of the world, was not Abraham, or to his seed, through the law, but through the righteousness of faith. For if they which are of the law be heirs, faith is made void, and the promise made of none effect: because the law worketh wrath; for where no law is, there is no transgression. Therefore it is of faith.


(Page 61) that it might be by grace; to the end the promise might be sure to all the seed; not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham; who is the father of us all, as it is written, I have made thee a father of many nations, before him whom he believed." Etc. (Ro 4:11-17) "Know ye, therefore, that they which are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham." There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female; for ye are all one in Christ Jesus. And if ye be Christ’s, then are ye Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise." (Gal 3:6-29) these passages fix the sense of the promise that Abraham should be the father of many nations, and show that it looked forward to Gospel times, and contemplated a spiritual seed.


3. The covenant secured to his descendants the land of Canaan for an inheritance and possession. This promise was fulfilled after the bondage in Egypt and the sojourn in the wilderness; but even this promise of the literal Canaan though belonging to the (Page 62) temporal part of the covenant had within it a high spiritual import. The inheritance in Canaan was a type and pledge of the inheritance in heaven. The author of the Epistle to the Hebrews so interpreted it. When he would impress the reader with the danger of apostasy, he pointed to the example of their fathers, who failed through unbelief of entering into the rest of Canaan, and thereby urged fidelity, less they should fail of the heavenly rest. Of the ancient worthies, including Abraham, we have this record: "these all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having seen them afar off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and confess that they were pilgrims and strangers on the earth. For they that say such things declare plainly that they seek a country. And, truly, if they had been mindful of that country from whence they came out, they might have had opportunity to have returned. But now they desire a better country, that is, an heavenly: wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God: for he hath prepared for them a city." (Heb 11:13-16) And if any (Page 63) doubt that Abraham understood the promise of the covenant to include the heavenly country, I refer them to the words of this chapter a few verses above the ones read: "By faith he sojourned in the land of promise, as in a string country, dwelling in tabernacles with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same promise: for he looked for a city which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God." (Heb 11:9, 10) Abraham himself, it will be seen regarded the  promises  of the "better country," in which God had prepared for him a city with foundations.


This covenant contained the promise of the redemption of the world through our Lord Jesus Christ. "And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed." That "seed" was Christ. Through him the blessing of Abraham comes on the Gentiles. To the fulfillment of this promise, which was the crowning glory of all God’s revelations, the entire covenant constantly looked. This was its grand design, and its every part was arranged with reference to this result. The blessing "blessing" to the nations through (Page 64) Christ was primarily the gift of the Holy Spirit. "Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit; for the promise is unto you, and to your children, and to all that are afar off, even as many as the Lord our God shall call." The apostles everywhere appealed to the covenant with Abraham as authority for offering spiritual blessings to the people. Surely then, that covenant was the Gospel covenant. Strange that any should deny it! Paul says: "Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us, that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ, that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith." To "receive the promise of the Spirit" is to receive the Spirit promised in the Abrahamic covenant. This is the "blessing of Abraham" —the blessing promised him, and through his seed, to all nations—the very blessing that comes on the Gentiles through faith in Jesus Christ. "And the Scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen through faith, (Page 65) preaching before the Gospel unto Abraham, saying, In thee shall all nations be blessed. So then they which be of faith are blessed with faithful Abraham." When the nations receive the Gospel and its blessings, they are blessed with faithful Abraham. They receive the Holy Spirit promised, which is the fullness of blessing. Thus all nations are blessed through the preaching of the Gospel, because the Gospel brings to every soul this promise of the Spirit through faith. The reception of the Gospel, with its gift of the Spirit, constitutes believing Gentiles the children of Abraham, and heirs according to the promise. It is therefore as clear as the light that the covenant with Abraham is the Gospel covenant.


We now see that the repeal or abrogation of the Mosaic covenant, or its passing away by expiration of the time for which it was made, did not touch the integrity and binding force of the Abrahamic covenant. This is an important point; for opposers of infant baptism make their strongest argument on the passing away of the "old covenant" and the establishment of "the new covenant." They quote with great confidence the prophecy (Page 66) of Jeremiah, and the quotation and application of that prophecy in the Epistle to the Hebrews, as if the abrogation of the "old covenant" repealed all the rights conferred on the little children in the Abrahamic covenant. The radical error of anti-pedobaptists on this point is in confounding the "old covenant" which waxed old," with the Abrahamic covenant, which never did "wax old." The covenant which "waxed old" was that with Moses, not that with Abraham. Jeremiah says: "Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah: not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers, in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they brake, although I was an husband unto them, saith the Lord: but this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the Lord, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people." (Jer 31:31-33) The covenant with Abraham was not the (Page 67) one that was made in the day that God took the Israelites by the hand to lead them out of Egypt; nor was its promise of a spiritual seed and spiritual blessings made any part of the covenant that "waxed old" and vanished away. On the contrary, every marked feature of the "new covenant" corresponds with that which was spiritual in the Abrahamic covenant, which, as we have seen so plainly, was the Gospel covenant. That which is spiritual never "waxes old," although it antedates the fleshly covenant four hundred and thirty years. It is as new today as it was the night when Abraham first lifted his eyes to the stars of heaven to be impressed with the countless multitude of his spiritual seed.


We have now seen that the covenant with Abraham, which embraced the little children, and required their dedication to God and the bestowment upon them of the token of the covenant, was one in fact, while it branched out into two parts, the literal and the spiritual; that it contemplated a literal and a spiritual seed; that it contained promises of temporal and spiritual blessings; that it was adopted to the condition and wants of Jews (Page 68) and Gentiles; that neither the institution nor the dissolution of the ceremonial law, under the covenant with Moses, affected its integrity as a covenant; and that, in its full development, under the promised seed, it belongs to the Gospel dispensation, and is, therefore, the charter of the Church of Jesus Christ through all the ages. Who then, with these points before him, that entertains high regard for the Word of God, and respects rigid adherence to right rules of interpretation, can doubt that the covenant Christians are under today is the one that God made with Abraham, when he made him the Father of all that believe? That was emphatically the covenant of redemption, "the everlasting covenant," the only covenant containing the promise of salvation through the Messiah. In its literal aspects, it related to the Jews, and has been fulfilled. Its literal part was the foundation of the Mosaic economy. This part of it was temporary, and blended with the covenant of Sinai, and passed away with the dispensation that constituted its full development. But the spiritual part, which was the basis, the life, the soul, of the covenant, (Page 69) the Gospel in embryo, remains unimpaired. As the temporal part was taken up into the Mosaic economy, and fulfilled, so this is unfolded and fulfilled in the Gospel economy.


Here we have firm footing; but the stubbornness of the opposition renders it important to guard the subject. When we affirm that the Abrahamic covenant is the Gospel covenant, we do not mean that the Gospel, in all its fullness of light and privilege, belonged to Abraham and his descendants. Not by any means. Nor do we mean that any of the civil rights and privileges that pertained to the literal aspect of the covenant pass over to the Church of the spiritual seed. This has all been settled. But we do mean that the spiritual part of that same covenant had direct reference to the Gospel day, and that all the promises of spiritual blessings belong to all the spiritual seed of Abraham. That spiritual seed consists of all God’s covenanted people—of all that are Christ’s—who constitute the Church, or body of Christ. "And if ye be Christ’s, then are ye Abraham’s seed, and heirs according to the promise." Then are infants included, or excluded?