The Great Pyramid Witness

and the Biblical Plan of Salvation

Isa 19:19, 20

Morton Edgar Author of "Mythology and the Bible" "The Great Pyramid and the Bible," "Faithís Foundations," Prayer and the Bible," "Great Pyramid Passages," etc.

" room for doubt that the same divine inspirer of the prophets and apostles inspired this ĎWitnessí also"-Charles T. Russell


2 1/2 d (5 cents) per copy 2/- (50 cents) per dozen Morton Edgar,

224 West Regent Street, Glasgow, Scotland

The Great Pyramid Witness

Being a defense of Brother Russellís interpretation of Isa 19:19, 20, and a Reply to the charges made against the inspired testimony of the Lordís Stone Witness, the Great Pyramid, in the 15th November 1928 issue of the "Watch Tower.

BROTHER RUSSELL first drew the attention of nearly all of us to the message of the Great Pyramid, as he firmly believed that this building is the "Altar " and "Pillar " spoken of by the prophet Isaiah, and which, according to the prophet, was destined to be for a "Sign" and for a "Witness" to the Lord of hosts in "that day"-Isa 19:19, 20; Ac 7:31.

This belief of Brother Russell is presented in the third volume of "Studies in the Scriptures," first issued in 1891, and still published by the Society which he founded. Brother Russell died on 31st October, 1916; and only one month before he died he wrote a new preface to his third volume, in which he reiterated his implicit faith in the Pyramidís Divine origin and inspired message to mankind. But, strange though it is, entirely contrary views are now being presented by the "Society." Every proof advanced by the writer of Vol. III, "Studies" in support of his claim is denied in the most absolute way, without the least attempt to temper the denial, especially in an article in the Societyís periodical "The Watch Tower," issued 15th November, 1928. In consequence many readers of Brother Russellís writings are disturbed, and queries are constantly being addressed to us, and we are asked to express our opinion.

To remind ourselves what Brother Russell thought of the Great Pyramid and its testimony we shall quote a few sentences from his third volume:ó

"It should be remembered that, aside from the Great Pyramid here referred to, there are others, some of stone and some of brick; but all of them are mere attempts to copy it, and are in every way inferior, in size, accuracy, and internal arrangement. And it has also been demonstrated that, unlike the Great Pyramid, they contain no symbolic features, but were evidently designed and used as sepulchres for the royal families of Egypt.

"The Great Pyramid, however, proves to be a storehouse of important truth, scientific, historic, and prophetic, and its testimony is found to be in perfect accord with the Bible, expressing the prominent features of its truths in beautiful and fitting symbols. It is by no means an addition to the written revelation: that revelation is complete and perfect, and needs no addition.

"But it is a strong corroborative witness to Godís plan and few students can carefully examine it, marking the harmony of its testimony with that of the written Word, without feeling impressed that its construction was planned and directed by the same divine wisdom, and that it is the pillar of witness referred to by the prophet in the above quotation"-Isa 19:19, 20.

"This ancient structure being repeatedly referred to in the Scriptures, we cannot doubt that, if questioned, this ĎWitnessí of the Lord in the land of Egypt will bear such testimony as will honor Jehovah, and fully correspond with His written Word. We thus introduce this ĎWitnessí because the inspiration of its testimony will doubtless be as much disputed as that of the Scriptures, by the prince of darkness, the god of this world, and those whom he blinds to the truth."

Answers to Opposition

In the 10th paragraph of the opposing "Watch Tower" article, special emphasis is laid on the Lordís command to the nation of Israel, who were bound under the law, not to make likenesses of anything in heaven-Ex 20:4.

As the "plan of salvation" is a heavenly plan, so, this article informs us, God would not have "contradicted" his own law by making a "likeness" of this plan in stone-that is, in the Great Pyramid. Hence, the Lord could not have designed the Great Pyramid. This reasoning is regarded as tending greatly to support the main theme of the article, namely, that the Pyramid was designed by the devil.

To refute this unscriptural claim we need only to direct attention to the construction of the Tabernacle and the Temple, both made in the likenesses of "patterns" designed by God, and both depicting features of the Lordís plan of salvation-Ex 25:9; Heb 8:5; 9:23, 24; 1Ch 28:11-19.

The sole reason why God forbade his people to make "likenesses" is stated in Ex 20:5, namely, "Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them." And this applied not only to things in heaven, but also to likenesses of anything on earth or in the sea.

Now, when God commanded Moses, and afterwards David, in their construction of the Tabernacle and Temple to make cherubims, flowers, pomegranates, oxen, all likenesses of things in heaven and earth, was he deliberately contradicting his own law"-See Ex 25:18-40; 26:1; 28:33; 2Ch 3:3-17; 4:1-15. If we made the mistake of supposing so it would be because we neglected to divide aright the Word of truth-2Ti 2:15-19.

We have direct Scriptural authority for depicting things pertaining to the Lordís plan of salvation on charts and on diagrams. This authority is given us in Hab 2:1,2. On the strength of this Scripture, Brother Russell drew his chart of the ages, given in Vol. I, "Studies," which has been a great blessing to very many of the Lordís people in enabling them to grasp the teaching of the Bible.

The passage and chamber system of the Lordís stone Witness in Egypt, however, is a more convincing way of depicting these things, for it shows the plan of God in action-the Descending Passage represents the downward course of mankind to death, the Ascending Passages the upward ways to life, and the open "Well-Shaft" (by which alone access can be gained to the upper passages from the Descending Passage) symbolizes the ransom-sacrifice of Jesus Christ, faith in which alone can enable us to escape death and attain to life.

The Pyramid and the Plan of the Ages

The Pyramidís method of portraying the plan of the ages is also chronological, for the measurements of the passage-ways show the durations of the various Ages, and the many times or seasons into which the Lordís plan is divided. The Great Pyramid is the method that the Lord Himself adopted to make His grand plan of the ages "plain upon tables" of stone, that we who read it may run for the prize of the high calling in Christ Jesus. It is very evident that no one need apologize for teaching that the Lordís "glad tiding of great joy, which shall be to all people," was outlined by Him in symbols and measures of the Great Pyramid, centuries before He sent His angel to the shepherds in the field of Bethlehem-Lu 2:8-14.

At the beginning of the 12th paragraph in the "Watch Tower" article is the following quotation:ó"The Great Pyramid of Gizeh is strong corroborative proof of Godís plan as set forth in His Word." These words are the expression of Brother Russellís conviction; but the article goes on to deny this expression of faith, stating that Godís Word needs no corroborative proof. The fact still remains, however, that God has had, and continues to have His witnesses; and all of them, be they animate or inanimate, must of necessity corroborate some part at least of His Word.

Many things were written in the law of Moses, in the prophets, and in the psalms concerning Jesus Christ, and when in due time He, the "faithful witness," came and fulfilled the things spoken, He was Himself a "corroborative witness" to the truth of Jehovahís Word-Lu 24:25-27, 44-48.

Ever since John Taylor, whose work is cited by Brother Russell, first drew attention to the sacred nature of the Great Pyramid, the presentation of the monumentís testimony has been resolutely opposed. Probably this is to be expected, although it is worthy of note that the opposers are often singular for their spirit of bitterness, and even animosity. The attacks against the inspiration of the testimony of the Lordís stone Witness and those who believe in this testimony is much on a par with those that have been waged against the Lordís written Word and all who have faith in it.

Nevertheless, it is true that the Great Pyramid has already proved to be a Sign and Witness, testifying to the truth of the Biblical plan of salvation; and none of the specious arguments directed against this fact can move those who, like Brother Russell, understand it-See what Brother Russell says in the last four lines of Vol. II, "Studies." We realize that our heavenly Father does nothing unnecessarily, and He must therefore have had good reason in thus providing the added testimony of the Altar and Pillar in Egypt.

If we accepted the references to the Word of God in the 119th Psalm (Ps 119) in a literal way, it would seem that the five books of Moses, known as the "Pentateuch," with the addition of the book of Job, were alone sufficient for the child of God, even though other writings of the Scriptures were added subsequently. We are aware that the Psalmistís words were, in the fuller sense, prophetic, and intended by God to include all later inspired utterances. Just so, and the Great Pyramid is also prophetic, as has been abundantly demonstrated.

Erected twenty years before Abraham was born, and over five hundred years before the giving of the law through Moses, this "Miracle in Stone" foretold all the details of the Lordís plan of salvation and plan of the ages. The Lord there wrote His purposes by means of symbols and measures, to show that all His works were known to Him from the beginning (Ac 15:18); and we, His children, are enabled to read these signs and symbols by the enlightenment of the Holy Spirit. For the language of the Spirit is the language of symbols, without which much of the Word of God cannot be comprehended-Joh 6:48-63.

The Testimony of the Pyramid

In a sense it is the testimony of the Pyramid that is corroborated by the Bible and the facts of history, for it is now seen to contain the outline of these things. Events pertaining to Godís plan do not "happen" by chance, but all was fore-arranged; and the testimony of the Pyramid is witness to this truth. Thus our faith and confidence in the Lord is increased.

And it is not that God requires a corroboration of His Word, but that He foreknew we would; and He has therefore graciously granted it, telling us where to look for it-Isa 19:19, 20. He foreknew that there would be many who would profess to interpret His Word and teach that His "plan" was thus and so. And He foreknew that Spiritism, Christian Science, Evolution, all of which deny the necessity for the ransom-sacrifice of His dear Son Jesus Christ, would increase and deceive many.

He therefore designed and caused to be built a stone Sign and Witness to Himself, which, like the words of the visions of Daniel, was "sealed up" until the "time of the end." Then, in the time of the end when its testimony was necessary to confirm the interpretation of His written Word by His wise and faithful servant (whom He also foreknew and foretold-Mt 24:45-47), this stone "Witness" would yield its secret. That is why we are now able to decipher the hidden message contained in the Great Pyramid. This message proves the absolute necessity for the ransom-sacrifice of Jesus Christ.

There are many systems of chronology, even many purporting to be based upon the Word of God. But there is only the one system that agrees with the time-measurements of the Pyramid, and that is the Bible one drawn to our attention by Brother Russell in his "Studies in the Scriptures." He was alone in his presentation of this chronology, and the Scriptural time-features based upon it; for all other commentators have reasoned that they should not accept this Bible chronology.

But Brother Russell, perceiving that every link in this chronological chain is directly based upon Bible statements, judged that it must be right; and that his judgment was correct is proved by the accurate time-measurements in the Lordís stone Witness. And these measurements in the Pyramid are in themselves proved accurate by the exact "scientific" features. The word scientific has been applied to those features which reveal that the Designer of the building knew of the precise number of days in the year, the year on which history is based. He also knew the exact dimensions of the earth on which mankind has his being, and acts out his foreknown history and appointed times-Ac 17:26. There is nothing hid from Him with whom we have to do.

The proportionate features in the stone Witness prove that it is all the one grand design, harmonious within itself, harmonious with the earth on which it stands, harmonious with the history of man on earth, and harmonious with the Word of God which tells of the fall of man and his ultimate redemption through the Son of God. And if any can bring himself to imagine that all this is the product of the "father of lies," Satan, he has our compassion. For we also were in darkness until God in mercy heard our cry, which came from our heart in all sincerity, and delivered us from the power of darkness and translated us into the Kingdom of His dear Son. Then, our eyes of understanding being enlightened, we saw that it was by Him, the Son of God, that all things in heaven and earth, visible and invisible, were made and that by Him all things consist-Joh 1:3; Col 1:13-17.

The heavenly Father does not abandon His children who earnestly desire to cling close to His Word of truth by which they were begotten, and by which, also, they are nourished and sanctified-Jas 1:18; 1Pe 1:22, 23; Joh 17:14-17; Eph 5:26. The added witness of the Pyramidís testimony strengthens our confidence that we have indeed the correct interpretation of the Word.

That God does not withhold corroborative evidence when necessary is conclusively proved in the Scriptures. The apostles and disciples might have known from the Scriptures alone that their beloved Master must have risen from the dead the third day after His crucifixion, but the writer of Acts declares that "He showed Himself alive after his passion by many infallible proofs"-Ac 1:1-3. Many infallible proofs were granted to them, that their faith might be unquestioning; and the same Lord now, in his lovingkindness, grants to us the infallible testimony of his stone Witness in addition to His infallible Word, that we may have full assurance of faith.

We read that God, after He made definite promise to Abraham, "confirmed it by an oath." But, it might be objected, a promise from the great Jehovah is all that is necessary, and there was no need for Him to confirm it by an oath. But God thought otherwise; and the writer of Hebrews explains that it was because He was willing "more abundantly" to show to us, the "heirs of promise," the "immutability of His counsel" that He thus bound Himself to fulfil His promise-"That by two immutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have strong consolation, who have fled for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us"-Heb 6:13-20.

After the flood, God established a covenant with Noah and his sons, and with all flesh. To confirm the truth of this covenant He granted a "token" or sign, which we can still see-Ge 9:8-17. Was this token or sign necessary when He had already made His covenant with Noah? It is not for us to question it; for God delights to call forth the faith and love of all His people, and therefore grants us still further corroborative proofs of the truth of His word. With Him it is such a little thing; but with us it means so much.

It is said in this opposing "Watch Tower" article that "Nowhere is it written in Godís Word that a structure of stone, or any other object, is to be a guide for the child of God."

But the Word of God is replete with types and illustrations based upon every kind of object. The symbols and signs of the book of Revelation, and the parables of our Lord, served a double purpose, namely, to hide the teaching of the Word from the contentious and unbelieving, and to guide the meek into a full understanding of Godís plan-Mt 13:10-17, 34-36, 51-53; Ps 25:9; Isa 61:1. The Great Pyramid is in reality a parable, not understood by unbelievers and mockers, but clearly read and appreciated by the Lordís little ones.

It is also implied that an altar cannot be used for a witness, but only for sacrifice. However, no matter how the words of the prophet Isaiah (19:19, 20) are interpreted, he says that this "Altar" is a "Pillar ," and that it is intended to be for a "Sign" and for a "Witness" to the Lord of hosts in the land of Egypt.

It is evident that this is a peculiar kind of an altar, and not the usual kind for sacrificial purposes. The Great Pyramid, complete with its topstone (for it had a topstone, as had all the other pyramids, some of which are now in museums), represents the Christ complete, head and body. And as our Lord quoted Psalm 118:22, "The stone which the builders refused is become the head stone of the corner. This is the Lordís doing; it is marvellous in our eyes," and applied it to Himself, He there showed that He understood that He must first be rejected by the rulers of the people (whom he addressed as "you builders"), but that afterwards his heavenly Father would raise Him from the dead and make Him head over all. He knew, in other words, that it would be after His sacrifice was accomplished that He would be exalted to become the "head stone of the corner"-Mt 21:42-44; Ac 4:10-12.

So with the body-members of Christ, the "living-stones" built up in line with their heavenly head-stone, each must first be rejected and go into their sacrificial death, spoken of in the Scriptures as being "planted together in the likeness of His death," that they may share with Him in His resurrection-Ro 6:3-5. "That I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, being made conformable unto his death; if by any means I might attain unto the resurrection of the dead"-Php 3:10-11. These words of the apostle Paul are echoed in the heart of every one of the followers of Christ; and when resurrected these "living-stones" become part of Jehovahís great Spiritual Pyramid, of which the stone Pyramid in Egypt is a figure. Therefore the Great Pyramid is, in a sense, a pre-arranged memorial-altar of the "better sacrifices" of Jesus Christ and his under priesthood-1Pe 2:5, 9.

The Lordís Plan of Salvation

As the Great Pyramid in Egypt contains the Lordís plan of salvation, so the exalted Spiritual Pyramid will be the ever-living embodiment of this plan. Within the Christ, head and body, likened to "stones" built together, all knowledge will reside that will help the world to escape sin and its results, and attain to life everlasting. The Christ is in the same way the spiritual fulfillment of the temple; but there are important illustrations in the Pyramid not found in the temple, as there are in the temple not found in the Pyramid. Both are required, and both are used by the Holy Spirit to teach the Lordís people.

A more Scriptural figure for making plain the "vision" of the plan of God than that of the Pyramid cannot be found; and for this reason Brother Russell used it in his vol. I of "Studies." Only those blinded by the adversary can fail to see this beautiful illustration of the one-ness of the Christ, and of the absolute pre-eminence of our Lord as represented by the topstone.

None can take the place of the risen Jesus Christ; neither can he occupy a less exalted place. So with the head corner stone of the Pyramid, it is obvious that none of the other stones can take its place, and it itself cannot be built into a lower position. And as the topstone points upward, so Christ Jesus ever gives the glory to God over all as the Author of Salvation.

While in course of construction the topstone of the Pyramid would stand as a model of the completed building, but because of its unique shape its purpose would be misunderstood by the uninstructed, or "disobedient," workmen. By these it would be refused and rejected, for they would find no place for it. But to those who knew its ultimate purpose the headstone would indeed be precious, and their belief in it would one day be vindicated when it was demonstrated that this hitherto "disallowed" stone was the only one that could crown the whole building.

Thus we read: "Wherefore also it is contained in the Scriptures, Behold I lay in Zion [a symbol of the spiritual Zion, the Christ] a chief corner stone, elect, precious: and he that believeth on Him shall not be confounded. Unto you therefore which believe he is precious: but unto them which be disobedient, the stone which the builders disallowed [refused, rejected], the same is made the head of the corner, and a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence, even to them which stumble at the word, being disobedient: whereunto also they were appointed"-1Pe 2:4-8.

The apostle, by inspiration, saw that the Old testament Scriptures which he quotes, one in the Psalms (Ps 118:22) and the other in Isaiah (8:14, 15; 28:16), were referring to the one stone, and that this stone represented Jesus Christ. To those who are obedient this stone is precious, and the Scripture in Isa 28:16 is applicable to them, To the disobedient, on the other hand, the stone is a stumbling-block and rock of offence, because they cannot understand its purpose; and to this disobedient class the other Scriptures apply, and were so applied by our Lord Himself, and by Peter-Mt 21:42-44; Ac 4:11. As is obvious, it is only in the headstone of the Pyramid that these texts can find fulfillment, for no single stone in the temple could give any apparent reasonable excuse to the "builders" to be offended at it, and reject it.

Common architecture furnishes no pre-eminent corner or corner-stone, and to regard any one stone in such a building as the "chief" is a mere conventionalism without reality in fact. The Bible does not so refer to our Lord, for His pre-eminence is real. There can be no head corner stone without the Pyramid; that edifice alone has such a head, a corner stone uniquely and indisputably the chief. It is the stone that stands toward heaven for every other stone in the building, a heavenly "foundation" toward which all the others are attracted. To its dominant angles the whole monument must conform, that all the building may be "fitly framed together." In this highly exalted topstone the entire Pyramid has its bond of perfectness, its shelter, and its crown. About such imagery there should be no question amongst those who claim Jesus Christ as their Head and Master. In all the richness of the Scriptures there is not a more expressive and significant symbol of the Christ, head and body, than the Pyramid. This is the Lordís doing; it is marvelous in our eyes!

As for an altar being used for a "witness," and not for sacrifice, see Jos 22:26, 27, 34-"Let us now prepare to build us an altar, not for burnt offering, nor for sacrifice: but that it may be a witness between us and you, and our generations after us...and the children of Reuben and the children of Gad called the altar Ed: for it shall be a witness between us that the Lord is God."

The golden altar in the tabernacle and temple was not used for sacrifices, but for another purpose: "And thou shalt make an altar to burn incense upon....Ye shall offer no strange incense thereon, nor burnt sacrifice, nor meat offering"-Ex 30:1-10.

While the "altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt" was to be for a Sign and Witness, yet the prophet Isaiah goes on to say: "And the Lord shall be known in Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know the Lord in that day, and shall do sacrifice and oblation: yea, they shall vow a vow unto the Lord, and perform it"-Isa 19:21.

This prophecy seems to be in recognition of actual animal sacrifices that were offered when the Great Pyramid, the Altar-Pillar of which he speaks, was being erected, and when it was completed. For there was a temple attached to the Pyramid on the east base, the foundations of which can be traced, and in this was an altar for animal sacrifices. The law of Moses did not originate sacrifices of animals for it was an old patriarchal custom connected with the worship of God, instances of which began right from the time of Abel. This is supported by the historical account of the Shepherd Kings, the master-builder of the Pyramid, whose chief, named Philitis, is said to have "fed his flocks" near the Pyramid while it was being erected.

When the world (Egyptians) realize the importance of the Lordís Altar-Pillar in the land of Egypt, and see how it is serving as a sign and witness to Him, they are represented as offering sacrifices to the Lord. But it will not then be the sacrifices of animals, but the sacrifices of praise and thanksgiving when they understand all that the Lord has done for them. The Psalmist declares: "O Lord, open thou my lips; and my mouth shall show forth thy praise. For thou desirest not sacrifice; else would I give it; thou delightest not in burnt offering. The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit: a broken and a contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not despise"-Ps 27:6; 51:15-17; Php 4:18; Heb 13:15, 16.

That the "Pillar" spoken of in Isa 19:19 cannot be taken to symbolise a pillar in the temple is proved by the distinctive Hebrew word from which it is translated. A reference to a Concordance will show the student that this word means a Pillar of Witness, a Memorial Monument-See Ge 28:18; 35:20; Ex 24:4. But for the pillars in the temple, and tabernacle, a different Hebrew word is used, as denoting pillars for supporting the structure-See Ex 26:32; 1Ki 7:6.

More Answers to Opposition

In this "Watch Tower" article it is said that God would not use "stone" to be a witness. Here again it is wrong, for see Jos 24:26, 27, óJoshua set up a "great stone" as a witness, because said he, "it hath heard all the words of the Lord which he spake unto us: it shall therefore be a witness unto you, lest ye deny your God."

It was near the sanctuary (tabernacle) of the Lord that this great stone witness was "set up." But as the sanctuary and its priesthood and the "Pentateuch" and book of Job were all in use then, what need was there for Joshua to set up this great stone witness? And then explain to the people that he had done so "lest ye deny your God." This demonstrates the "manifold wisdom" of God, and the "divers manners" in which he speaks to His people.

Note, too, that Joshua said that this great stone witness had "heard" all the words of the Lord, and that therefore it was a fit "witness"! Well, Brother Russell claimed nothing less for the great stone witness in Egypt, that it too had "heard" all the words of the Lord which He spake pertaining to His plan of salvation. And it has not been so "dead" but that it has been able to repeat to us, now, those things that it heard, by means of its language of symbols and measures, lest we should deny our God.

Moses was given "two tables of testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God"-Ex 31:18.

Joshua was commanded by God to set up twelve stones from the bed of the Jordan, and said: "These stones shall be for a memorial unto the children of Israel for ever"-Jos 4:1-7.

Jacob used a stone to sleep on, and afterwards set it up as a pillar of witness-Ge 28:10-21.

When Jacob and Laban had set up a stone as a pillar, and also built up a "heap" of stones, Laban said to Jacob: "Behold this heap, and behold this pillar, which I have cast up between me and thee; this heap be witness, and this pillar be witness"-Ge 31:44-52.

When the Philistines were subdued before Israel, "Samuel took a stone and set it between Mizpeh and Shen, and called the name of it Ebenezer, saying, Hitherto hath the Lord helped us"-1Sa 7:12, 13. Ebenezer means "stone of help."

We see from these and other examples that it was the common practice for the Lordís people to set up stones, and heaps of stones, to serve as witnesses and memorials. It would therefore be strange indeed if God, the great Creator and Originator of all things, should not Himself have a stone witness and memorial. And if we were not quite certain, on the strenth of the Word of God, that the Great Pyramid is His Witness, we would be justified in looking for such a Witness of stone.

Also we recall how Jesus, when the scribes and Pharisees complained to Him about His followers, answered: "If these should hold their peace, the stones would immediately cry out"!-Lu 19:40. Evidently stones are not so "dead" as they seem! And if John the Baptist was justified in saying to erring Israel: "God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham" (Lu 3:8), so Brother Russell was much more justified in saying that God was not only able to raise up to Himself a "speaking" Witness with the stone of Egypt, but that He did do so in the Great Pyramid.

Regarding the need of this added Pyramid Witness, to strengthen our faith at this time, Brother Russell says: "We see that this store-house of knowledge [the Great Pyramid], like the major part of the Bible store, was kept purposely sealed until its testimony should be needed and appreciated. Does this imply that its great Architect knew that a time would come when its testimony would be necessary? In other words, that a time would come when Godís written Word would be lightly esteemed, and even His very existence questioned? When human philosophy, under the name of science, would be lauded, and every proposition subjected to its tests? Has God decided to prove Himself and His wisdom by those very tests? So it would appear. This structure will yet confound the wisdom of the wise as a ĎWitnessí for the Lord of hosts, Ďin that day,í which is already begun."

Job 38:1-7 is quoted in the "Tower" article, but Brother Russell gives the true explanation in Vol. III, "Studies," page 318. It is well known that the Lord, while primarily speaking of the earth, is also speaking of the structure of a pyramid. The reference to "socket-foundations" particularly identifies the Great Pyramid of Gizeh, for only in this Pyramid are there socket-foundations "made to sink" into the rock-verse 6, marginal reading. The Hebrew word translated "foundations" or "sockets" in the 6th verse is a distinctive word, used when speaking of the "sockets" of the tabernacle-See chapters 26 to 40 of Exodus. It is a different word from that translated "foundations" in the 4th verse. As all students of Godís Word are aware, this coupling together of the earth and the Great Pyramid by the Lord, when addressing Job, is full of significance. It is recognized that the dimensions and weight of the Pyramid agree, proportionately, with the dimensions and weight of the earth; and there are numerous other connections of a similar scientific nature.

We see in the 20th paragraph of this opposition "Watch Tower" article that the unique geographical situation of the Lordís stone Witness in Egypt is referred to. The "ingenious method of drawing lines" there so contemptuously spoken of is not the invention of man; but these lines, drawn on the map of Egypt, are strictly according to the physical features of the land. As God is the Creator of heaven and earth, it is obvious that it was He who arranged the configuration of the land of Egypt, the country in which he intended to set up his stone Sign and Witness.

It is because of the distinctive shape of the land of Egypt, hemmed in by the desert, and cultivated only where the waters of the Nile can reach, that it is possible for the peculiar conditions mentioned by Isaiah (19:19) to be fulfilled. By these physical facts the Great Pyramid, standing where it does, fulfils the requirements of the prophetís description, by being built at the very border of the land, while at the same time in the very midst of it.

It is at the border, because it stands right at the edge of the desert, and at the edge of the fertile land, óprecisely on the border-line, which is a physical border-line defined by physical geography, and not an imaginative political border-line arranged by man. Thus we see the wisdom of the Lord, for this border is perpetual, and cannot be overlooked or ignored; whereas the border between Egypt and the Sudan is merely a convenient arrangement of governments, and may be abolished at will.

The Lordís Stone Witness

Also, the Lordís stone Witness is in the "midst" of the land of Egypt, because it stands right at the natural junction between lower and upper Egypt. And neither is this an arrangement of man, but of Him who created the earth. For this point of juncture is clearly defined and cannot be mistaken. From here, where the Pyramid stands, lower Egypt spreads out northward in a delta, like a fan, watered by the various branches of the Nile; whereas upper Egypt is a narrow strip of cultivated land following the course of the Nile southward.

The Great Pyramid, standing thus in the midst of Egypt, can be seen clearly from many miles around, and none passing from lower to upper Egypt, or from upper to lower Egypt, can fail to see it.

The physical features of the land of Egypt, also, demonstrated that the stone Witness stands in the geometrical midst, the exact center recognized by land-surveyors. It was, indeed, a surveyor (Mitchell of the United States of America Coast Survey Department) who discovered this remarkable geometrical center of lower Egypt. Noticing that the sea coast-line of Egypt is a quarter circle, Mitchell sought for the center of this circle and found it marked by the Great Pyramid.

These physical features of the land of Egypt, on which the drawn lines are based, are beyond the power of man to gainsay. And no child of the Lord, to whom He has granted the spirit of power, and of love, and of a sound mind, could desire to deny this beautiful fulfillment of the words of God, spoken by the mouth of his prophet Isaiah-Isa 19:19, 20.

Then there is the other line, which connects the Lordís stone Witness with the city of Bethlehem, the foretold place of our Lordís birth. This also is convincing, and appealed to Brother Russell when he was informed about it. In his acknowledgement he replied: "Your application of the angle of the passages in the Great Pyramid is a new thought, and as it points out so exactly the city of Bethlehem, we regard it with favor, and are inclined to accept it as a proper application and further verification of the testimony of the Pyramid.ó-Yours in the love and service of our Redeemer and King, C.T. Russell."

The "angle" to which Brother Russell referred is shown by the straight line running directly between the Pyramid and Bethlehem. For this line "descends," geographically, from Bethlehem south-westward to the Pyramid, at the same angle exactly as the Entrance Passage in the Pyramid descends into the rock. The significance of this "angular" connection is seen when it is remembered that our Lord, when a child, was carried "down" into Egypt from Bethlehem; and that the Pyramid, which marks the "midst" of Egypt, is the symbol of our Lord-Mt 2:1-15.

Also, the actual distance between the Pyramid and Bethlehem, when reckoned in Pyramid units of measure (the Pyramid cubit), agrees with the exact period of 2138 years between the building of the Pyramid and the birth of our Lord in Bethlehem. And by another connected measurement this distance also agrees with the further period of 1915 years between the birth of Jesus who was born as "King of the Jews" and the end of "Gentile Times" in 1914 A.D., when he took up his great power and began to reign.

These "coincidences" of place and time cannot be "chance" coincidences. The geographical positions of the Pyramid and of Bethlehem are exactly fixed to yield the "angular" connection and the precise necessary distance between. And these yield the time-measurements that agree with the three prominent dates, 2140 B.C. for the building of the Pyramid, 2 B.D. for the birth of our Lord in Bethlehem, and 1914 A.D. for the beginning of the reign of our Lord over all the earth, of which Egypt is a symbol.

Unless the Lord Himself had connected these things, all in perfect agreement with his Word of Truth, such harmony could not have been possible; and that which "God hath joined together, let not man put asunder"!

We cannot but feel sorry for those who, having once understood and accepted these facts, have now turned their backs on them, and, even worse, pretend that such harmony and foreknowledge, such power and wisdom, is of the Evil One! May the Lord open their eyes in time to see their position of danger.

The keynote of this "Watch Tower" article is in paragraph 14, in which we are told that if any claim that the Great Pyramid was designed by God, then the burden of proof rests with them, etc., óand this in face of the many proofs accumulated and published by patient Bible students for the past two generations, and which are still investigated and accepted by all who love the truth. It is not without significance that none of the features that prove the Divine Authorship of the design of the Pyramid is touched upon in the article. This is because the recital of any of these numerous features demonstrates its reasonableness and harmony with Scriptural truth.

In the 14th paragraph the statement is made that "nowhere in the Word of God is the Pyramid of Gizeh either directly or indirectly mentioned."

The first thing that must strike anyone, when they gaze upon this pronouncement, is its absolute direct denial to other paragraphs, as for instance-"This ancient structure being thus repeatedly referred to in the Scriptures"; and "Jehovah will show himself a great Savior; and He has already prepared the Great Pyramid as part of His instrumentality for convincing the world of his wisdom, foreknowledge, and grace"; "The testimony of this peculiar and remarkable witness will give to mankind fresh ground for faith and love and zeal." These, and other expressions like them, appear in Vol. III of "Studies in the Scriptures," specially recommended to seekers after truth on page 351 of the same issue of the "Watch Tower" in which paragraph 14 occurs! It also conveniently ignores the comments in the latest (1928) edition of "The Harp of God, " page 192, par. 317, where, after quoting 1Pe 2:5-7, it says:ó"That other members of the body, then must be built up into Christ to conform to that chief cornerstone, which is illustrated by the Great Pyramid in Egypt. See Isa 19:19."

As for the "burden" of proof, this is undoubtedly upon those devotees who claim Satan as the designer and master-builder of the Pyramid. They have taken this burden upon themselves, to teach the children of the heavenly Father that Satan not only knew the secrets of the Scriptural plan of salvation, and all the time-prophecies and general times and seasons connected with this plan, but that he, the "prince of darkness," possessed the wisdom and foreknowledge necessary to incorporate them in a stone building, and hide them there for four thousand years.

But they will never prove it, for the Scriptures manifest that the Almighty God alone possessed the knowledge now found to have been built into this Miracle in stone.

When Jesus Christ prayed to His Father, He said: "I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes. Even so, Father: for so it seemed good in thy sight"-Mt 11:25, 26. We can think of the Evil One as being "wise and prudent" in the sense that our Lord here meant, but not as one to whom the heavenly Father would permit His secrets to be known.

The apostle Paul says: "We speak the wisdom of God in a mystery [secret], even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory: which none of the princes of this world knew: for had they known it they would not have crucified the Lord of glory"-1Co 2:7, 8. The "Well-Shaft" in the Pyramid symbolizes the death and resurrection of our Lord, the only avenue to life on any plane for the fallen race. For the First Ascending Passage (the Law Age of Israel) is rendered impassable by the "Granite Plug" (the perfect Law of god, which no imperfect man can pass), and therefore the Well-Shaft is the only open way of access to the upper parts of the Pyramid. Satan, who is called "the prince of this world, " could not therefore have originated the symbol of the Well-Shaft, not knowing the secret of Christ crucified-1Co 1:23.

The prophet Daniel sought to understand those things which God had communicated to him, but the angel answered: "Go thy way, Daniel: for the words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end. Many shall be purified, and made white, and tried; but the wicked shall do wickedly: and none of the wicked shall understand"-Da 12:4, 9, 10. Thus Satan never understood Godís plan, and cannot understand even now.

Prominent among the things contained in the book of Daniel are the prophetic periods, reaching from Danielís time to the first advent of the Messiah, and right through the Gospel Age to the second advent. All of these "days" of Daniel are indicated accurately by the time-measurements in the Pyramid. As "that wicked one" could not have known what was contained in the sealed book of Daniel, he could not have put the corresponding time-measurements in the Pyramid. Still less could Satan have known these things that God intended to communicate to his prophet sixteen hundred years after the Pyramid was built. To claim otherwise is to make void the Word of God.

Truth in the Pyramid

The claim that Satan "would put some truth" into the Pyramid in order to deceive the Lordís people is contrary to the Scriptures. Truth can never deceive the Lordís people; and the "father of lies" could not put "truth" into the Pyramid, for, Jesus tells us, "there is no truth in him"-Joh 8:44.

We are told in this article that we should not accept the Pyramidís testimony, because this building is used by others to support their wrong theories. It is obvious that this same objection could apply also to the Bible. But the child of God does not reject the Bible on this account; and neither will he, nor does he, reject the testimony of the Lordís stone Witness, though others may misuse and miscall it.

When Jesus Christ said to his disciples, "It is not for you to know the times or the seasons which the Father hath put in his own power" (Ac 1:7), we thereby know that the Father did not reveal them to, or permit them to come to the knowledge of, His great adversary, the father of lies and murderer of the human race. And when Jesus was asked by His disciples, "Tell us, when shall these things be? And what shall be the sign of thy presence, and of the end of the age?" He answered: "Of that day and that hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father"-Mt 24:3, 36-39; Mr 13:32. None of the angels knew, and neither did our Lord Himself. How then could Satan have known, as claimed in this article?

For if Satan designed the Pyramid (so that it "may be called Satanís Bible, and not Godís stone witness"-see par. 37 in the article), then he must have known, and foreknown, all of the prominent dates connected with Godís Plan of the Ages, for they are all indicated in it by the time-measurements. This is declared in Vol. VII of "Studies in the Scriptures," page 60. (This 7th volume of "Studies" is printed in eight languages, and is specially recommended to all seekers after truth in the same issue of the "Watch Tower" in which the article repudiating the testimony of the Pyramid appears.) A long list of prominent dates covering the whole period of the plan of God, from the fall of Adam to the restoration of the Dominion to mankind, is presented on page 60 of the seventh volume. All of these are there said to be authentic Scriptural dates, and all of them are claimed to be accurately foreshown in the time-measurements of the Great Pyramid. We are now "instructed" to believe that they were all put in the Pyramid by the "father of lies"!

To say that Satan set up the Great Pyramid in Egypt is not according to the Scriptures; for the prophet of the Lord declares that it was the "Mighty God, the Lord of hosts... which hast set signs and wonders in the land of Egypt, even unto this day"-Jer 32:17-20. It is evident that Satan had nothing to do with it.

A sentence in paragraph 34 of the article reads: "The great God of justice and love would not erect a structure which would result in the oppression of slaves and the great loss of life."

We can imagine we are listening to the words of "higher critics"! Among other objections the higher critics say: "If the Bible God is a God of love and justice, as you claim, he would not have destroyed the poor helpless world in the flood." "A God of justice and love would not have commanded King Saul to slay the Amalekites, as the Bible declares: ĎNow go smite Amalek and utterly destroy all that they have, and spare them not; but slay both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep, camel and assí"-1Sa 15:3.

In another sentence in the 34th paragraph we read: "If that work was done by human hands or human power, then it must have been done by men who were slaves." Then it continues: "That being true, without a doubt many of them died from exhaustion or from being cruelly driven to the task." We are informed that God would never think of employing slaves to do any of his work but that as Satan is the great oppressor it follows, logically, that the Great Pyramid was built by the devil!

We refuse to be carried away by this kind of logic. It is false reasoning, because contrary to Scriptures and outside the facts of history. The records of history declare that the invading "Shepherd Kings," the master-builders of the Pyramid, who easily subdued the Egyptians by their power "without a battle," immediately closed the idolatrous temples of the land and stopped idolatrous worship. The common people therefore were liberated from the bondage of their idols and priesthood; and this "reformation" must have proved a real blessing. The deposed priesthood, of course, did not welcome this interference with their liberties, and that is why the priesthood of subsequent dynasties, according to the account of Herodotus, calumniated the memory of the powerful but peaceful Shepherd Kings, just as the "Watch Tower" article does.

By enlisting the people to erect the Great Pyramid the Shepherd Kings enriched the land, even as the erecting of the Temple in Jerusalem enriched Palestine. And the people were not cruelly driven to the task, but, on the contrary, they were relieved every three months according to the historical records. This was the method adopted by Solomon in the building of the Temple-1Ki 5:13-18.

The nation of Israel was developed in slavery in that very land wherein Godís stone Witness stands-Ex 1:11-14. This oppression of Israel by the Egyptians occurred about five centuries after the building of the Pyramid. Moses could not understand why the Lord had brought his people under bondage to cruel taskmasters; and he cried: "Lord, wherefore hast thou so evil entreated this people?"-Ex 5:22, 23. But God had foretold this affliction when making his promise to Abraham, and had arranged for it as part of his plan to develop his chosen nation and weld it together.-Ge 15:13, 14.

Thus we see that our heavenly Father, our God of love, wisdom, justice, and power, does many strange acts to bring honor to His Name-Ex 9:35; Heb 9:17. His instructed children can see by faith the entire plan of salvation complete. But worldly minds cannot understand, and are apt to judge the Almighty from their narrow viewpoint-Isa 55:8, 9. The time is coming, however, when the eyes of the people will be opened, when all evil systems and organizations that have stood between them and the truth are swept away.

It is not necessary to suppose that the actual builders of the Pyramid knew the true purpose of it; for neither did Moses nor David know of the inner meaning of their structures. It was not until the advent of Jesus Christ that God granted this insight. Therefore He did not speak to Moses about the purpose of the Great Pyramid, for this knowledge was not then necessary or due.

The same applies to Jesus and the apostles: it was not necessary for them to know about the detailed measurements and symbolisms of the Pyramid, although they understood the importance of the headstone, from which they drew valuable lessons-Mt 21:42-45; Ac 4:10-12.

While the detailed teaching of the Pyramid could not be understood in times past, nevertheless it was revealed to David, and later to Isaiah, that this building held a message. For the account of the construction of this, the chief of the ancient "Seven Wonders," was handed down through the centuries. We have seen that David spoke of a head corner stone, which at first was rejected by the builders. Then he adds: "This is the day which the Lord hath made; we will rejoice and be glad in it. Save now, I beseech thee, O Lord: O Lord, I beseech thee, send now prosperity. Blessed be he that cometh in the name of the Lord"-Ps 118:22-26.

When Jesus rode into Jerusalem as King, in fulfilment of the prophecy of Zechariah (Zec 9:9; Mt 21:4-9), the multitude cried, "Hosanna to the son of David: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord; Hosanna in the highest." They thought the Lord now would send the long promised prosperity.

But Jesus knew He must first be rejected by the rulers, before he could be exalted and send prosperity-Lu 24:19-27, 44-48. Therefore, when confronting the rulers a little later, he addressed to them these other words of the Psalmist: "The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner"-Mt 21:42-44. And then, knowing that he was about to be rejected and slain, he wept over Jerusalem, saying: "Behold, your house is felt unto you desolate. For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord"-Mt 23:37-39. This time, please God, is now at the door, when they will recognise Him whom they rejected, and realise that He is the greater Son of David, who comes in the name of Jehovah with restitution, blessings, and prosperity-Ac 3:20, 21.

It is objected that the prophet Isaiah cannot refer to a Sign and Witness of stone in the literal land of Egypt, because, just previous to this reference to the altar and pillar, he says, "In that day shall five cities in the land of Egypt speak the language of Canaan, and swear to the Lord of hosts; one shall be called the city of destruction"-The city of the sun-Isa 19:18. It is contended that there are no such cities in Egypt to-day.

We note, however, that in the same chapter the prophet says: "In that day shall there be a highway out of Egypt to Assyria, and the Assyrian shall come into Egypt, and the Egyptian into Assyria, and the Egyptians shall serve with the Assyrians. In that day shall Israel be a third with Egypt and with Assyria, even a blessing in the midst of the land; whom the Lord of hosts shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inheritance"-Isa 19:23-25.

When the Lord regathers his people Israel from the lands of their captivity, including the grave, Israel will be his inheritance. So also will Egypt be called his people, and Assyria the work of his hands-See also Eze 16:53-63. The Psalmist declares: "Among the gods there is none like unto thee, O Lord; neither are there any works like unto thy works. All nations whom thou hast made shall come and worship before thee, O Lord; and shall glorify thy name. For thou art great, and doest wondrous things: thou art God alone"-Ps 86:8-10. The Lord also speaks of the time when He will "bring again the captivity" of the nations of Moab, Amon, Elam, Sodom, and Samaria-Am 9:14, 15; Jer 48:47; 49:6, 39.

These, and many other Scriptures, show that God is the God of all nations, and that all owe their existence to Him alone-Ac 17:24-26. And, however God may have used the various nations in an illustrative or symbolical way, in connection with the forthtelling of details of his plan of the ages, and for the instruction of his special chosen people, both fleshly and spiritual, these nations still have their identity, and will be restored to their former estates when Christ reigns over all the earth as King, as Jehovah declared, "Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession"-Ps 2:8.

When the Lord, then, is King over all the earth, and Israel is the third with Egypt and Assyria and a blessing in the midst of the land, the prophecy of the five cities will be fulfilled. In the meantime the prophecy of the "highway" is fulfilled in the railway; and this is a remarkable fulfilment of an age-long prophecy that always seemed impossible. But the great World War that broke out suddenly in 1914 (one of the prominent dates indicated by the Lordís stone Witness, and deciphered there many years previously by careful students of the Word), made this seemingly impossible fulfillment come to pass.

The Altar and Witness

Then we have the Great Pyramid in the land of Egypt, which fulfils most convincingly the prophecy of the altar and pillar, and which, as the Lord intended it should, is witnessing to the Lordís people and the world. "For what if some did not believe? Shall their unbelief make the faith of God without effect?"-Ro 3:3. We are glad to know that nothing can stop this witnessing, for it is the Lordís doing and not manís. As Brother Russell exclaims, with conviction and joy in which we share, "Lo, the very stones of this Great Pyramid of Testimony are crying out in no uncertain tones. Every inch of this massive structure is eloquently proclaiming the wisdom and power and grace of our God."

"Such testimony would be peculiar and striking indeed, even if there were no Scriptures found to bear on the subjects examined; but when the Scriptures had already clearly and positively declared to us these same circumstances and dates, before the Pyramidís testimony was heard, its wonderful agreement with and corroboration of the same become doubly significant and striking. Now, when the worldly-wise are repudiating Godís Word as Ďobsoleteí and Ďunscientific,í to have this stone ĎWitnessí speak, and corroborate the testimony of the Bible, is truly astounding.

To hear its testimony as to manís fall at the very time that the worldly-wise are claiming that man never was perfect, never was in Godís image, and consequently never fell from it, is remarkable. To hear its testimony that none could enter the Gospel high-calling to the divine nature, or the state of human justification and life through the Law Covenant passage-way [the First Ascending Passage, which symbolizes the Law Age], at a time when so many are preaching that the Law of Moses [manís own efforts] is the only way to life, is certainly gratifying. Surely in the Great Pyramid Ďthe invisible things [plans] of God from the creation of the world are clearly seen; being understood by the things that are madeí-Ro 1:20

"Some may scoff at the testimony of this stone ĎWitness,í" continues Brother Russell, "as they also scoff at Godís written Word; but to their scoffs we answer: Account for this peculiar fitness of things, or else venture to prophesy of the future, and see how your prophesies will result. Prove to us that it requires no inspiration to foretell future events. Show us a sample of worldly wisdom. ĎProduce your cause, saith the Lord; bring forth your strong reason, saith the King of Jacob. Let them bring them forth and show us what will happen; let them show the former things, what they be, that we may consider them and know the latter end of them; or declare to us things to come. Show the things that are to come hereafter, that we may know that ye are godí (mighty ones)-Isa 41:21-23."

While the Lord, the Creator of heaven and earth, thus challenges the worldly-wise to prove that they are able to foretell future history, shall we nevertheless contend that Satan, the father of lies, could do so? This is what the "Watch Tower" article contends for, claiming that Satan foreknew every prominent event and date in mankindís history pertaining to the outworking of Godís plan or the ages, including those of the advents of our Lord and the mystery of Christ. The children of God are even challenged to prove their Scriptural claim that their heavenly Father is the only one who could have fore-arranged these things which He hid from ages and generations, and therefore the only one who could have foreshown them in the Great Pyramid, where they are now clearly to be read.

Paragraph 39 of the "Tower" article says: "It has always been Satanís purpose to exalt himself and to push Jehovah out of sight." The obvious reply to this somewhat crude expression is that, no matter how much Satan may have "purposed" to exalt himself, he never did and never can "push Jehovah out of sight," neither in a literal nor in a spiritual sense. On the contrary, the Scriptures declare of Jehovah, "Verily thou art a God that hidest thyself, O God of Israel, the Savior" -Isa 45:15. Satan has no volition in the matter, neither being able to "push" God out of the sight of those who have the seeing faith nor to reveal God to the unbelieving- Lu 10:21, 22. Of Moses we read that, "by faith he forsook Egypt, not fearing the wrath of the king: for he endured, as seeing him who is invisible"- Heb 11:27. Faith can see right through "dead stone"! But Satan, the god of this world, is permitted to "blind the minds" of them which believe not, "lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them"-2Co 4:1-6. This is not Satanís arrangement, but Godís purpose, as explained by Jesus Christ-Mr 4:10-12; Ro 11:8-10.

Other Pyramid Expositors

We are not to make the mistake of supposing that the Pleiades were in line with the Ascending Passages at the time when the Pyramid was built. In quoting from the well-known work of the Rev. Joseph Seiss, Brother Russell presents the correct understanding-See page 327 of Vol. III, "Studies." On later consideration Professor C. Piazzi Smyth agreed that, not 2170 B.C., but 2140 B.C. was the date of the erection of the Pyramid. On the Autumnal Equinox of the year 2140 B.C. Alpha Draconis, the "North Star" of that epoch, shone directly down the Descending Passage, while the Pleiades were exactly on the meridian of the Pyramid. The ascending Passages pointed to this meridian, but not to the Pleiades. Instead, the "scored lines" drawn on the walls of the Descending Passage, which by an exact time-measurement mark the date 2140 B.C., pointed directly upward to the Pleiades at this particular date, 2140 B.C.-See Vol. II. "Great Pyramid Passages," Section 31.

The words of Isaiah, "Woe to them that go down to Egypt for help" (Isa 31:1) are in this "Watch Tower" article applied literally, as apparently a warning to any who think of going to the Lordís stone Witness in Egypt for the purpose of finding in what way this Altar-Pillar testifies to the Lord of hosts. But the prophet goes on to say: "And stay on horses, and trust in chariots, because they are many; and in horsemen, because they are very strong; but they look not unto the Holy One of Israel, neither seek the Lord."

Brother Russell explains the whole passage in his Pyramid chapter, page 316. The "horses" and "horsemen" are wrong doctrines and false leaders, and the "chariots" are worldly organizations. These all claim to be doctrines and leaders and organizations of the Lord, but God warns us against putting our trust in them, because they are of "Egypt," the world.

In his volumes of "Studies in the Scriptures" Brother Russell teaches very clearly how to distinguish between the Kingdom of God and the "power of darkness." He shows how the many evil systems of this "present evil world" all combine to make up the kingdom of the "prince of darkness," deceiving many into thinking that their particular "system" or "organization" is free from his, Satanís, influence. There is only the one safe course for the children of God, namely, to be clear of all systems or sects or organizations whatsoever, and be joined individually to Christ as members in particular of His body-1Co 12:12-27.

"We hope and labor," said Brother Russell, "that the good work of reforming and protesting against error may go on and on until each individual Christian will rest his faith (not in a denomination, large or small) but personally and individually in the Redeemer, and be united to Christ Jesus, the Head, as a member of his body-the only true Church...Such a splitting up of creeds and systems has been necessary to set free the Lordís Ďsheep,í to prepare a cleansed sanctuary class truly united to Christ."

"Standing thus free, untrammeled by human creeds and bondages, but personally united to Christ each will find in the others Ďmembers of the body of Christ,í and affinity, fellowship, and love will unite them in the only Ďunioní that is not injurious-union in Christ, to whom, as livingí branchesí in the Vine, each is personally united." Each one of these followers of Jesus Christ can claim God as his Father; and it is He, and not any "organization," who "hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of his dear Son"-Ro 8:14-17; Col 1:12-14.

Brother Russell impressed upon us from the Word of God, and desired us to comprehend clearly, that the Kingdom of Godís dear Son is an invisible Kingdom, not seen of men. We are "citizens" of this heavenly Kingdom and "ambassadors for Christ," and to us this is real; but to others it is not so, as the apostle John declares: "The world knoweth us not, because it knew him not"-1Jo 3:1. Our Lordís reply to the woman of Samaria proves conclusively that there is now no visible place where His followers can render acceptable service and worship to their heavenly Father-Joh 4:19-24.

The woman said: "Our fathers worshipped in this mountain [Gerizim]; and ye say, that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship." Jesus answered: "Woman, believe me, the hour cometh, when ye shall neither in this mountain, nor yet in Jerusalem, worship the Father...the true worshippers shall worship the father in spirit and in truth: for the Father seeketh such to worship him. God is a Spirit; and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth." We who are begotten of the Spirit are children of the heavenly Father. We are not the "children" of any visible organization.

The word "organization" does not occur in the Bible, and its use is apt to mislead. The Scriptural word is "kingdom"; and our Lord distinctly said that "the kingdom of God cometh not with observation"-with outward show-Lu 17:20. Therefore, there is no "visible organization of God on earth," as is claimed by some to their undoing.

How often Brother Russell warned us against this very thing, and how foolish we shall be if we do not heed his warning. We shall indeed be foolish if we claim that "only through our system or organization will the heavenly Father accept praise and service"; for this would make it appear necessary for every spirit-begotten child of God to "bow the knee" to the few who have constituted themselves heads of the organization. The apostle shows that it is only the carnal, fleshly mind that is deceived by such unscriptural claims-1Co 3:1-6, 18-23.

We must never forget the example of the apostate church, the "mystery of iniquity" of which Satan is the instigator (2Th 2:7-9), and which deceived the whole world to such an extent that at last the most arrogant of all the popes, Boniface VIII, felt called upon to issue his famous (or infamous!) "bull," Unam Sanctum, which contained the preposterous claim: "We declare, determine, and decree, that it is absolutely necessary to salvation, that every human being should be subject to the Roman pontiff"!

History shows that this marked the first beginnings of the downfall of the "Holy Roman Empire." When the peak of arrogance is reached, then begins the decline, which ends in utter destruction. This is the law of the Lord, "for whosoever exalteth himself shall be abased; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted"-Lu 14:11. And while we read in the worldís news that "The Pope has again become a temporal sovereign" (the "solemn treaty" between the Vatican and the Italian government, which makes the Pope once more a king in his own right, was signed on 11th February, 1929), we know that this is only preparatory to the final destruction-Re 17:11-18; 18:21.

To apply Isaiahís words (Isa 31:1) in a literal way is evidently not Scriptural, for then God would not have sent His angel to appear to Joseph in a dream, to warn him about Herodís intentions-Mt 2:13-15. When Joseph took the child Jesus and his mother by night and departed into Egypt, according to Godís instructions, he went there for help, to escape the woe that Herod brought upon Bethlehem-Mt 2:16.

Therefore when the prophet Isaiah, in another of his prophecies, directs the attention of the Lordís children to an Altar and a Pillar in the land of Egypt, and tells us, by the spirit of inspiration, that this Altar-Pillar is to be for a Sign and for a Witness to the Lord of hosts, we do well, if we are wise, to pay heed to His words. As is to be expected, Satan and his deluded followers will do all in their power to divert attention from this Sign and Witness, as Brother Russell forewarned us. The Lordís people are not interested in the sphinx, for they know it is but a "dumb idol"-Ro 8:9. But as for the Great Pyramid it is different, for they have "heard" its stones "crying out in no uncertain tones."

"Firmly incased in this solid rocky structure," concludes Brother Russell, "beyond the power of natureís storms or of the ruthless hand of the destroyer, the outline drawings of Godís great plan have stood for four thousand years, prepared to give their testimony at the time appointed, in corroboration of the similarly revealed, but for ages hidden, testimony of the sure Word of Prophecy." "men may sneer, but they cannot laugh down this mighty structure, nor scoff out of it the angles, proportions, measures, nature references and sacred correspondences which its Maker gave it. Here they are in all their speaking significance, stubborn and invincible beyond all power to suppress them."

Pyramid Measurements

We recommend a careful study of the chapter on the Pyramid by Brother Russell, comparing the explanation given there with the Scriptures cited. Such study as this is time well spent, for it gives all who desire truth a clear grasp of the Scriptural plan of salvation as it is in Christ Jesus. We must draw attention to the fact, however, that the measurements of the passage-ways require now to be amended, for when Brother Russell wrote his chapter on the Pyramid at the end of Vol. III, "Studies in the Scriptures" nearly forty years ago, the true measures of some parts, especially of the Descending Passage and "Pit," were not known. Professor C. Piazzi Smyth never went down the lower reach of the Descending Passage, and Professor Petrie did not measure it carefully, as he himself confesses.

After we visited the Pyramid in 1909 and 1912, when we measured every part carefully, we published the correct measurements in Vol. II of "Great Pyramid Passages" in 1913; and Brother Russell acknowledged the necessary amendments to his figures by specially recommending this volume to all "Watch Tower" readers, just as he had previously, in 1910, recommended Vol. I of "Great Pyramid Passages: in the "Watch Tower." Also in the Watch Tower Societyís other periodical, "The Golden Age," these two volumes of "Great Pyramid Passages" are specially recommended to all careful students of Godís Word; and the article on the Pyramid in the 21st May, 1924, issue makes use of our corrected measurements, and time-measurements, and many of the diagrams (this article on the Pyramid was so much appreciated that it had to be reprinted, in the 21st December, 1924, issue of "The Golden Age").

All such works on the testimony of the Lordís stone Witness, corroborative of the Scriptural plan of salvation, are most helpful to the Lordís people. For we know that at this time, as never before, people are on the one hand turning to Spiritism, and on the other hand to Evolution, and both of these snares of the adversary are utterly refuted in the teaching of the Lordís stone Witness. Neither should we allow ourselves to be turned aside from this grand truth that we have received, even though it is inevitable that we shall be misunderstood, and have to suffer; for let us remember the words of Isa 57:2, and Ro 10:15.

Our Lord gave us comfort when he said: "Blessed are ye, when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from their company, and shall reproach you, and cast out your name as evil, for the Son of manís sake. Rejoice ye in that day, and leap for joy: for, behold, your reward is great in heaven: for in like manner did their fathers to the prophets"-Lu 6:27-38. "Remember the word that I said unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord. If they have persecuted me, they will persecute you: if they have kept my saying, they will keep yours also, ... But this cometh to pass, that the word might be fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated me without a cause"-Joh 15:17-37; Mt 10:24-25. "Hear the word of the Lord, ye that tremble at his word; your brethren that hated you, that cast you out for my nameís sake, said, Let the Lord be glorified: but he shall appear to your joy, and they shall be ashamed"-Isa 66:5.

NOTE.-The two volumes, "Great Pyramid Passage," which were specially recommended by Brother Russell to all his readers in the "Watch Tower," and recommended also in all editions of Vol. VII of "Studies in the Scriptures," as well as in other issues of the "Watch Tower" and "Golden Age" at various times, are still in print and still procurable. Address enquiries to Morton Edgar, 224 West Regent Street, Glasgow, Scotland.